Dar¿ana (philosophy) Philosophy is generally considered to be merely speculative. But this is not true in Indian philosophy. In India philosophy is speculative but it has both the theoretical and practical aspects. Philosophy in India has been named, Dar¿ana, which means ‘vision’, ‘insight’, ‘intuition’, etc and thus the word itself signifies its different nature. The etymological meaning of the word philosophy is ‘love of learning’. It signifies a natural and necessary urge in human being to know themeselves and the world in which they live and move and have their beings. The Indian systems of philosophy developed and the idea that philosophical speculations were the spontaneous braincreations of our mystic sages and ÎÀis. It is a well known fact that the origin of dar¿ana in India is almost forgotten we do not possess any chronological account as to when the great Rishis

and Yogis began to dream of philosophy. In the absense of such a record we can only depend upon hypothesis helped by anum¡na of ¿eÀavat, meaning inferring the cause from the effect. Thus we know that the earliest form of systmetized thoghts is represented by the sutras of the different philosophical systems. This itself presupposes a stage when there was no systamatization of these thoughts, which is quite evident from the study of the pre-upanisadic literature and the UpaniÀads. In these we do not see any systematic arrangements of the ideas and the views represented later on by different schools of thought. It appears that the thoughts contained in these were the common property of the intellectual community of the country. Perhaps, there was no need of systematization at that time. But later on, due to intellectual degeneration or some other inevitable causes, ideas were assimilated in certain cases by different schools and formed the backgrounds of distict lines of thinking in subsequent

As time went on such lines of thinking multiplied in number and began to develop each its own individual character. Because it doesnot get universal acceptance. Ësthika is one who believes in the other world. Indian Philosophy.ages. On the basis of this explanation even Jainism and Budhism in some of its aspect could be considered as N¡sthika system. an autonomous system developd practically un-affected by external influences . This. An old popular tradition would takes the 4 . Classification of Dar¿ana A long established and widely accepted tradition clasified Dar¿anas into Ësthika and N¡sthika.The UpaniÀads are regarded as the fountain head of all system s of Indian Philosophy. it is impossible to write a history of the origin and development of philosophy. But the history of the origin and development of Indian Philosophy can be traced in the vedas. and N¡sthika is one who does not believe in the other world.

of the Veda. P£rva-m¢m¡Æsa. This tradition has been widely accepted for a long time. Uthara-m¢m¡Æsa (ved¡nta) are deserved as Ësthika Dar¿anas.1 5 . the S¡´ Jaina and Budha systems are considered as N¡sthika Dar¿anas.’ If this should be accepted Jaimines P£rva M¢m¡Æs¡ and Kapilas S¡´khya. and the word N¡sthika is one who doesn't believe in it. The terms orthodox and heterdox happened to be used as the English equivalent of Ësthika and N¡sthika.word Ësthika in the sense of ‘one who believes in God. A post Budhistic and pre-christian tradition fixed the meaning of the Ësthika as one who believes in the infalliblity and the supreme authority.Vai¿eÀika. which are usually included in the Ësthika list ought to be dropped from that list. the Ny¡ya. The Carv¡ka. According to this classification. as they do not recognise Ì¿vara.

Their view was all human civilization. these stages may clearly be seen in the doctrine of the souls as given in the saÆhit¡s. including the Indian people grew up by a process of evolution. but revealed in different periods of time of seers or sages called ÎÀis. which comprise the SaÆhit¡s and Br¡hma¸as. The Br¡hma¸as called the doctrine of soul and its destiny profounded in the Ëra¸yakas has existed in Indian from the beginning of time.Origin and development of Ny¡ya-á¡stra The Br¡hma¸¡s maintain that their religion is eternal It is based on scriptures which are said to eternal. They tried to place the Br¡hma¸ic religion one of firm basic unshaken by the influence of time. 6 . Br¡hma¸as and UpaniÀads. So the conception of soul like evrything else has under-gone stages of development in the course of ages. It does not however find favour with modern scholars. These scriptures are called Vedas.

Ëtmavidya is consists certain dogmatic asertions about nature of soul.C. It was developed into philosophy called dar¿ana. ËnviÀiki delt infact with two subjects namely soul and hetu theory of reasons. The distinciton between Ëtmavidya and ËnviÀiki lay in this that. This bifurcation of ËnviÀiki into.Ëtmavidya (the science of soul) The UpaniÀads which dealt with the soul and its destiny constituted a very important branch of study called Ëtmavidya. Ëtmavidya was at a later stage called ËnviÀiki (the science of enquiry). (the science of soul). Adhy¡tmavidya (the divine science). which is the foundation of all other sciences. when 7 . philosophy and logic commenced about 550 B. ËnviÀiki while comprising the entire functions of Ëtmavidya was infact different from it and from the UpaniÀad. ËnviÀiki contained reasons suporting those assertions. It dealt largley with the theory of reasons was developed in to logic.

Later ËnviÀiki the theory of reason developed to logic. Punarvasu Ëtreya. Dar¿ana literally signifies seeing. hetu vidya (the science of reasoning) and it was also called Tarkavidya (the art of debate) it dealt the rules for carrying on disputations in learned assemblies. ËnviÀiki in its philosophical aspect called dar¿ana. Medh¡tithi Gautama. (Circa 550 B.C. The ËnviÀiki is also called the Ny¡ya-¿¡stra ( the science of true reasoning) It is said that the C¡rv¡ka. and it is known by various names. the ËnviÀiki. the credit of founding.). it is infact the science which enable us to see our soul. in its 8 . like hetu ¿¡stra. are considered to be the early teachers of ËnviÀiki in its developd form of philosophy and logic. The teachers mentioned above delt with some particular topics of ËnviÀiki.Medh¡tithi Gouthama expounded the logical side of ËnviÀiki. Datt¡treya etc. the founder of ËnviÀiki. Kapila.

' The Ny¡ya¿¡stra is therefore the science of right or true reasoning. 9 . or Tarka vidya. It has been previously observed that Ny¡ya was one of the various names by which the ËnviÀiki was designated in its logical aspect. In the first stage logic was generally designated as ËnviÀiki. The word Ny¡ya popularly signifies' right or justice. Technically the word Ny¡ya signifies a syllogism (as speech of five parts) and the ËnviÀiki was called Ny¡ya-¿¡stra. Hetu¿¡stra. A village named Gouthama sth¡na mentioned as the place his birth and a fare is held every year in that village. but in the second stage as we find in the Ny¡ya-Bh¡Àya widely known as Ny¡ya-¿¡stra. It is situated in Midhila at a distance of 28 miles north east of modern Darbh¡´ga. Thre are different vertions of the story about Medh¡tithi Gouthama seems to have belonged to him and his samily.special sense of science is to a sage named Gothama or Gouthama.

no doubt. The term Ny¡ya in the sense of logic does'nt appear to have been before the first cnetury. Ny¡ya as an examination of objects by evidences.when the Ny¡ya-s£tra was composed.D. it is presumed that the word Ny¡ya as an equivalent for logic came into use about the composition of that saÆhit¡.The term Ny¡ya and inference for the sake of others in which a syllogism is specially employed.D.V¡tsy¡yana defines. contains for the first time and exposition of the doctrine of syllogism under the name of Sth¡pana (demonstration). The word became very popular about the second century A. In view of this technical meaning we may interprete Ny¡ya-¿¡stra as the scienc of syllogism or the science of inferene for the sake of others that is the sciene of demonstration. Vi¿wan¡dha explains Ny¡ya svar£pa as the essential form of syllogism which consits of its five parts. The Caraka SaÆhit¡ is so far as we know.A. V¡tsy¡yana 10 .

uses the expression of 'Parama-Ny¡ya' for the conclusion which combines all the five parts of syllogism.The first systematic work on Ny¡ya á¡stra The first regular work on the Ny¡ya-á¡stra is the Ny¡ya s£tra or "aphorisms on true reasonings". Ny¡ya S£tra .The technical terms of Ny¡ya-á¡stra as used in the Caraka SaÆhit¡. Perhaps the Ny¡ya-¿¡stra. reputation. and conclusion. It is divided into five books each containing two chapters called '¡hnik¡s'. In the Ëdi Parva of Mah¡bh¡rata we find that the hermitage of K¡¿yapa was filled with sages who knew the true meaning of demonstration. as it exist at present is not entirely the work of one person. reasonably inferred that the sages who delt with them in the hermitage of K¡¿yapa were the early exponents of that á¡stra. The history of Indian logic indicates that nothing is definitely known about the early teachers of Ny¡ya-¿¡stra. but has been enlarged by interpolations from time to 11 .

) In the early commentaries of Ny¡ya s£tra the auther of the s£tra is distinctly named as AkÀap¡da. Anyamatapar¢kÀa (the examination of the doctrine of other systems). Premeya (the objects of knowledge). may be grouped under the following heads. Udyodakara in his Ny¡ya-v¡rttika affirms that it was AkÀap¡da the most excellent of sages that spokes ot the Ny¡ya-¿¡stra in a systematic way. V¡tsy¡yana in the Ny¡ya Bh¡Àya says that the Ny¡ya Philosophy manifested itself before AkÀap¡da the foremost eloquent. it Is said that Gouthama was so deeply absorbed in philosphical contemplation that one day during his walks he fell un-wittingly into a well.time. out 12 . V¡da (a discussion). Ny¡ya-ko¿a mentions two legends two account for the name AkÀap¡da as applied according it to Goutama. AkÀap¡da the author of Ny¡ya-s£tra (150 A. Avayava (syllogism). while.D. Pram¡¸a (means of knoledge). The principle subjects treated in the Ny¡ya-s£tra.

13 . Definition consists in setting for that character of a category. which differentiates it from other categories. God therefore mereficullly provided him with a second pair of eyes in his feet. Enunciation is mere mentions of the categories by name. Book first of the Ny¡ya-s£tra deals with enunciation and definition of sixteen categories and remaining four books are concern with a critical examination of the categories. This is a ridiculous story manufactued merely to explain the word aksapada as composed "AkÀa" (eye) and "p¡da " (feet).of which he was rescued with great difficulty. Examination is the settlement of by reasoning of the question whether the different of certain category is really applicable to it. to protect the sage from further mishaps. definition (lakÀa¸a) and examination (par¢kÀa). The Ny¡ya-s£tra treats of its categories through the process of enunciation (Udde¿a).

The arrangement categories in the Ny¡ya-S£tra. That the case is valid is further shown by an analysis of it into five parts called Avayava or members of Syllogism. The case is then shown to rest on Sidh¡nta. Having carried on Tarka. a familiar instance d¤À¶¡nta. confutation against all contrary suppositions the disputent affirms his case with Nir¸aya. pram¡¸a which signifies the means of knowledge. not being satisfies. cetainity. with this process by demonstration. Second is premeya. a wrangling and 14 . he will have to enter upon v¡da. the disputat in pursuance of his prayojana (purpose) cites a parallel case called. which refer to the objects of knowledge. or discussion which will jalpa. having rouse a conflicting judgement about the case. advanced and antithesis. tenets which are accpted by both the parties. which is not open to such a doubt. If his respondent. The Ny¡ya-s£tra treats of sixteen categories which are called pad¡rth¡s namely. The third category saÆ¿aya.

2 1. inference. viz. Chala quibble and J¡ti analogies the exposure of which will bring about his Nigraha st¡na of defeat. unnamable and non erratic. and which is determinate. failing to establish his antithesis he will employe hetv¡bh¡sa or fallacies of reasons. Perception is that knowledge which arises from the contact of a sense with its object. and is of three kinds. 15 ..vita¸·a. Perception. well known word (verbal testimony) is the instructive assertion of a reliable person. and word (verbal testimony) these are the means of right knowledge. Comparison is the knowledge of thing through its similarity to another thing previously. a priori. Inference is knowledge which is preceded by perception. comparison. Pram¡¸a (means of knowledge) Pram¡¸a is the means leading to a knowledge-episode (pram¡) as its end. a posteriori and commonly seen.

color. and sound are objects of the senses and qualities of the earth etc. The mark of the mind is that there don’t arise (in the soul) more acts of knowledge than one at a time. Faults have the characteristic of causing activity. Smell. intellect. that which refers to matter which is seen. Activity is that which makes the voice. 16 .. transmigration from pain and release – are the objects of the right knowledge. apprehension and knowledge these are not different from one another. and that which refers to matter which is not seen. 2. mind. intellect. and body began their action. activity. and ear are the senses are produced from elements. Premeya (The objects of right knowledge). light. and ether – these are the elements. Desire. pain. touch. skin. viz. Earth.It is of two kinds. Body is the site of gesture. body. fault. water. air. objects of sense. senses and sentiments. eye. senses. volition. Nose tongue. pleasure. taste. Soul. aversion. and intelligence are the marks of the soul.

recognition of properties not common conflicting testimony. Doubt (Saƿaya). it is 17 . 3. from the conflicting testimony. and from irregularity of perception and non perception. Release is the absolute deliverance from pain.perception. or of properties not common to any of the objects. arises from the recognition of properties common to many objects. recognition of common properties. Fruit is the thing produced by activity and faults. which is a conflicting judgment about the precise character of an object. Doubts. An actual doubt. 4. cannot by itself necessitate the required inquiry. Pain has the characteristic of causing uneasiness. according as it arise from.Transmigration means re-birth. The inquiry or the philosopher must have. irregularity of perception and irregularity of non. Purpose (prayojana) Purpose in that with an eye to which one proceed to act. however. Doubt is of five kinds.

k¡ma. purpose. mokÀa. some prayojana. Philosophic inquiry according to this view. an ordinary man and an expert entertain the same opinion. There must be observed data and other principles which could be used as premises of the argument to follow the Ny¡ya covers these matters under two technical terms. D¤À¶¡nta and Sidd¡nta. D¤À¶¡nta is an object of perception in respect of which the observation of common people and of experts is undoubted. does not originate in our idle curiosity. nor is it to be regarded as a purposeless exercise. some intended goal in mind. It is a Prameya. It has been separately mentioned on account of its importance. A familiar instance is the thing about which. Some people believe that philosophic inquiry is aimed at the four prescribed goals dharma. Example (D¤À¶¡nta). Besides doubt and purpose an inquiry must have something to go upon.believed. artha. 5. Both inference and revelation rest upon it without it 18 .

When an object is at last known in the form “such and such exists”. 6. it is called a siddanta an established tenet. hypothesis. A dogmas peculiar to some school is a tenet which is accepted by similar schools. a conclusion. The application of Ny¡ya depends upon it. a hypothetical dogma and implies dogma. but rejected by opposite schools and ia claimed by at least one school.neither inference nor revelation would be possible. An implied dogma is a tenet which 19 . if accepted leads to the acceptance of another tenet. A tenet is a dogma resting on the authority of a certain school. a dogma peculiar to some school. A hypothetical dogma is a tenet which. or implication. A dogma of all the schools is a tenet which is not opposes by any school. The tenet is of four kinds wing to the distinction between a dogma of the schools. Tenets (sidd¡nta).

are so called with reference to the concatenation of words considered as a whole. 3. The steps are – 1. while complete the establishment of the object to be established. each step being a demonstration of different parts of the process by which a conclusion is reached. The members are proposition. A philosophical argument as envisioned here is an inference based upon evidence. Proposition – the hill is fiery. Members of syllogism (Avayava). Example – whatever is smoky is fiery as a kitchen. 20 . and conclusion. The full articulation of this inference consists of five steps. application. but which follows from the examination of particulars concerning it. 2. not explicitly declared as such. Avayava (members) that is the five beginning with pratijµa. reason. 7. Reason – because it is smoky.

Application – so is this hill (smoky). Which takes the form of a supportive argument but unlike the previous one. which is carried on for ascertaining the real character of a thing of which the character is not known. The most important step here is however the fourth step. Confutation (Tarka) Confutation.4. The second step assigns a reason or ground or evidence adduced and what is so be proved in the case under consideration. In the schema given above. 5. where one states what one is going to prove. Conclusion – therefore this hill is fiery. the first step is called pratijna. is reasoning which reveals the character by showing the absurdity of all contrary characters. which combines the second and the third to formulate what may be called the full fledged premise of the argument before the conclusion is drawn in the fifth step. it is not directly based 21 . 8.

Ascertainment in the determination of a question through the removal of doubt by hearing two opposite side. 9. without deviation 22 . The real nature of Tarka (literally ‘reasoning’ argument) has been the subject matter of controversy among Indian philosophers throughout history. knowledge is truth. while its opposite is assailed by confutation. For its maintenance are jalpa and vita¸·a. Tarka (hypothesis) and Nir¸aya (ascertainment) help carry on the world. For this reason Nir¸aya though included in the Prameya. Nir¸aya is tattvaguna. 10. v¡da (discussion) ends with it. It is the result of the pram¡¸as. and defended by the aid of any of the means of right knowledge. Ascertainment (Nir¸aya).upon empirical evidence. has been separately mentioned. Discussion (v¡da) Discussion is the adoption of one of two opposing sideswhat is adopted is analyzed in the form of five members.

from the established tenets. knowledge of truth. Cavil (vita¸·a). 12. 11. futilities and other processes which deserve rebuke. V¡da is discussion in which different speakers take part. In other words the 23 . Wrangle (jalpa). by quibbles. By the use of it as so defined – tattva vijµ¡na. each seeking to make good his own hypothesis. which aims at gaining victory. is attained. Cavil is a kind of wrangling which consists in mere attacks on the opposite side. and not by a desire for the determination of truth. Wrangling. Jalpa. and which ends with establishments emphasize its special feature. is the defense or attack of a proposition in the manner aforesaid. vita¸·a are verities of v¡da and are employed to keep up the effort in the pursuit of truth. A wrangle is activated by a desire for victory. It is said to be characterized by the lack of any attempt to prove the counter thesis.

All fallacies of the reason. Fallacy (hetv¡bh¡sa). for the solution of which it was employed. the equal to the question. the contradictory. The contradictory in the reason which oppose what is be established. The unproved is the reason which stands in need of proof. which cannot prove the existence of predicate in the subject. the unproved. Equal to the question is the reason which provokes the very question. the same way as the proposition does. 13. Fallacies of a reason are the erratic.debater here is engaged simply in the refuted of a position but does not give the opponent chance to attack his own position. The fallacies are faulty reason. The erratic is the reason which leads to more conclusions than one. 24 . and the mistimed. The mistimed is the reason which adduced when the time is passed in which it might hold well.

Quibble in respect of a genus consists in asserting the impossibility of thing which is really possible. viz. quibble in respect of a term. Quibble in respect of a term consist in willfully taking the term in a sense other than that intended by a speaker who has happened to use it ambiguously. and quibble in respect of a metaphor. Quibble in respect of a metaphor consists in denying the proper meaning of a word by taking it literally while it was used metaphorically and vice versa. It is of three kinds. A quibble (chala) consists in attacking a proposition by assuming another meaning of a word. Quibble in respect of genus.. 25 . which is not intended by the speaker.14. Quibble (chala) Quibble is the opposition by the assumption of an alternative meaning. on the ground that it belongs to a certain genus which is very.

15. Vaidharmya-Sama 3. Anutpatti-Sama. UtkarÀa-Sama. 4. Futility (J¡ti) Futility consists in offering objections founded on mere similarity or dissimilarity. ApakarÀa-Sama. P for the predicate or major term. M for the reason or middle term. 16.15. 9. Avi¿eÀa-Sama. 5. Sam¿aya-sama. S¡dya-Sama. Prasa´ga-Sama. Arth¡patti-Sama. The analogues are as follows: 1 S¡dharmya-Sama. 18. S for the subject or minor term. 6. 17. Ahetu-Sama. 26 . 8. Pr¡ptiSama. 11. Var¸ya-Sama. Pratid¤À¶¡ntaSama. E for the example. Avar¸ya-Sama. 2. 12. There are twenty four kinds of futilities. 13. Apr¡pti-Sama. 10. Prakara¸aSama. we shall use D for disputant. 14. and E for the counter example. O for an opponent. Futility is a sophistical refutation of an argument on the ground of mere similarity or dissimilarity without the support invariable concomitance of the reason with the predicate.

24. K¡rya-Sama.15.apasidh¡nta. They are occasions for rebuke due to will misunderstanding or want of understanding. are grounds of defeat in a philosophical debate. pratijµ¡ntara. 3. Ananub¡sa. adhika.ny£na. 12. 2. 22. Anupalabdhi-Sama. Nitya-Sama. Arth¡ntara. punarukta. paryanuyojyapekÀa¸a. 21. 13.vikÀepa. 1. 22.hetv¡ntara.avijµatartha. 6. 17. 9. or does not understand at all nigrahastana. Pratijµavirodha.pratijµ¡-h¡ni.apratiba. 8. Up¡patti-Sama. nirartaka. aprapta-kala 11. 16. 7.hetv¡bh¡sa. There are twenty two kinds of nigrahast¡na.19. Anitya-Sama. 20. 19. An occasion for rebuke arises when one misunderstand. 5. 21. A point of defeat (nigrahast¡na). Upalabdhi-Sama.aµjana. Niranuyojy¡nuyoga. 4. 18. 10.matanujµa. 27 . 23. 16. pratijµa-sanny¡sa. aparthaka. 20. They consists in one’s inability to refute an opponents thesis or to establish one own thesis refuted by him. 14.

the Vai¿eÀika is more symmetrical and also more uncompromising.e.). characteristic difference special property. The term vi¿eÀa means ‘the difference between’. atoms that aggregated in different ways to form new compounds that formed the variety of matter that existed on the earth. i. The great MaharÀi Ka¸¡da is considered to be the founder of Vai¿eÀika system of philosophy and also considered to be the author of the Vai¿eÀika-s£tra (300..C.Origin and Development of Vai¿eÀika Dar¿ana The system of the Vai¿eÀika is even more radical than the Ny¡ya. As a system of philosophy. His philosophy was described 28 . The Vai¿eÀika system was an early realistic school whose main achievement lay it its attempt to classifying nature into like and un-like groups it also posited that all matter was made up of tiny and indestructible particles.B. The term ‘Vai¿eÀika’ is derived from the root ‘vi¿iÀ’ meaning ‘distinct’.

. Qualities did not however contain qualities themselves. fluidity (dravatva). and Abh¡va (Non-existence). touch (spar¿a).through the enumeration of the following concepts. dimension (parim¡¸a). pain (dukha). separateness (p¤thaktva). Twenty four qualities enumerated such as –color (r£pa). 29 . i. Sam¡nya (Generality). priority (aparatva). Gu¸a (Quality). Vi¿eÀa (Particularity). taste (rasa). Gu¸a or quality which resided in a Dravya. smell (gandha). sound (¿abdÅ). Karma (Action). knowledge (buddhi). viscidity (sneha). number (Sa´khya) . Substances were repositories for qualities and actions. posteriority (paratva). was understood as the specific result of a particular aggregate effect. conjunction (samyoga). disjunctions (vibh¡ga). pleasure (sukha). Samav¡ya (Inherence). heaviness (gurutva). the combination of atoms in unique way.e. Dravya (substance).3 Dravya (substance).

throwing upwards or down wards. contraction. disjunction. and tendency (samsk¡ra). referring to the absence of an object before its creation.was seen as a mental construct to create common classes of substances. effort (prayatna). S¡m¡nya or (generality. Four categories of Abh¡va or (negation) or non-existence were listed: Pr¡gabh¡va or non-existence. merit (dharma). Action was the determinant of conjunction.desire (iccha). expansion and locomotion. qualities or actions while Vi¿eÀata (particularity) was used to identify and separate individual items from their general classes. demerit (adharma). Samav¡ya or (inherence) –was a relation that existed in those things that could not be separated destroying them. aversion (dveÀa). karma was dynamic. Karma or (Action) represented physical movement. Pradhvams¡bh¡va or 30 . Five types of action were noted:. unlike quality which was passive.

Both systems agree in viewing the earthly life as full of sufferings and the destruction of those sufferings is the 31 . Ny¡ya and Vai¿eÀika occupy a unique position. as the absence of an object after it had been destroyed. or Anyony¡bh¡va or mutual non-existence. both on account of their cardinal doctrines and on the mass of learning that has accumulated around them. citing the example of air as permanently lacking in smell. referring to an object being distinct and different from the other. Ny¡ya is a system of atomistic pluralism and logical realism.4 The periods and development of inter-related Ny¡yaVai¿eÀika Among the numerous system of philosophy that evolved in India during the last three thousand years. It is closely allied to the vaisesika system which is regarded as ‘sam¡natantra’ or similar philosophy. present and future.posterior negation. indicating non-existence in the past.

C. This clearly brings out the predominality of logical and epistemological character of Ny¡ya. while Vai¿eÀika recognize six categories and classifies all reals under them. Thus there is some common style between these orthodox systems. In Ny¡ya philosophy the first category is Pram¡¸a or the means of valid knowledge. Ny¡ya accepted four means of valid knowledge. till very recent times. which may be noted. At the same time there are some important difference between them. First. from about the 4th century B. Both also agree that bondage is due to misapprehension of things and that liberation is due to right knowledge of categories. of 32 . the Ny¡ya accept sixteen categories.supreme and of life. Roughly speaking. that it. But Vai¿eÀika accepted only two means of knowledge. the literature of the Ny¡ya and Vai¿eÀika systems extends over a period of twenty-two centuries.

The second period is pre-eminently distinguished by a series of commentaries on these s£tras beginning with V¡tsy¡yana and comprising several works of acknowledged authority. to 500. The history may be divided into three periods: the first from about 400. A. B. and the third after that till the end of the last century.D. These three periods in the development of the two systems.D. The 33 . The third period saw the introduction of independent treatises and commentaries on them which at last dwindle down into short manuals like. the second from hence to 1300. The only known representatives of the first period are the two collections of aphorisms going under the name of Gotama and Ka¸¡da respectively.which the last two hundred years. Tarka-SaÆgraha and Tarka-Kaumudi. may be left out of account. and perhaps the scholium of Pra¿astap¡da also. A. but there must have existed other works now lost. not being distinguished by any original works..C.

so we have commentaries on the sutras like áa´kara Misra’s Upask¡ra. however. the second that of their elaboration by commentators. however. appears to have changed at different times. The mutual relation of these two systems. the second by a fullness of details and the third by scholastic subtlety ultimately leading to decadence. This division may sometimes overlap. affect our general conclusion that the writings of the 14th century and onwards are in marked contrast with those of the preceding age. written afterwards. During the first 34 . The exact duration of these periods may have varied a little in the case of the two systems. This does not. but the order is the same. for we have treatise like Tark¢ka-rakÀa and Saptapad¡rthi before 14th century.first may be called the age of the formation of doctrine in the sutras. and the third that of their systematization by writers of special treatises. and Vi¿vanatha’s V¤tti. The first characterized by great originality and freshness.

like the Tarka-SaÆgraha for instance.C. According to S. The third period saw the amalgamation of the two system. however.Vidyabh£Àa¸a the school of Indian logic is divided into three period. they become somewhat antagonistic. and we come across many works. Medivial period and 3. in which the authors have attempted to select the best portions of each and construct from these fragments a harmonious system of their own. partly owing to an accumulation of points of difference between the two.period they seem to have been two different systems. independent in origin but treating of the same topics and often borrowing from each other. 2. the ancient school of Indian logic. Modern school of Indian logic. V¡tsy¡yana regards them as supplementary. and partly on account of the alliance of the Vai¿eÀika with the Buddhists. In the first period of the school of logic work text Ny¡ya-s£tra of Gautama 35 . In the second period.

and their commentaries. the medieval school of logical work is Pram¡¸a-samuccaya by Di´n¡ga. A.D. Udyotakara was next to V¡tsy¡yana with his Ny¡ya-V¡rttika in the 6th century A. other wise known as PakÀila Sw¡min. when a revival took place under the influence of the author of Ny¡ya-kandali which is the earliest known commentary on Pra¿astap¡da Bh¡Àya.D. The age of commentaries proper begin with V¡tsy¡yana. V¡tsy¡yana must have lived about the end of the 5th century. whose commentary on Gouthamas work is the oldest known work. and their commentaries. After Udyotakara there seems to have occurred another long gap in the succession of orthodox Ny¡ya writer until the end of the 10th century. This interregnum soto say is the more inexplicable as the period was one of intellectual 36 . The modern school of Indian logical work is Tatvacint¡ma¸i of Ga´ge¿a and their commentaries.

A. After this a series commentaries come under the base of that notable commentaries of Pra¿astap¡da and V¡tsy¡yana who had then come to be looked upon as ancient authorities to explained and enlarged with reverence. as represented by the M¢m¡Æsakas and Ved¡ntins on the one hand and the Budhists and Jainas on the other occupy almost the whole of this period. The interregnum from Udyotakara’s time to the end of the 10th century may have been produced by various causes which cannot be known at present. nor can we say for certain how the subsequent revival was brought about. Ny¡ya and Vai¿eÀika proper can be assigned to the interval between the 7th and the 10th century.activity. Controversies between the Br¡hmi¸s. The first writer of this age of revival was Sridara who wrote his Ny¡ya-kandali in 991 . ár¢dhara takes great pains 37 .D. rather than criticized or corrected by abler successors.

V¡caspati Mi¿ra wrote an able commentary on the V¡rtikas of Udyotakara’s. viz the Vyom¡vati of áiv¡ refute the opinions of Kum¡rila and Sure¿wara. V¡caspati wrote commentaries on all the principles of philosophical systems. the Kira¸¡vali of Udayana and the L¢l¡vati of ár¢valsa or Vallabha all of which were written after ár¢dharas’s work but before the end of the 13th century. The chronological order of these writers may be fixed as ár¢dhara. Each of them was distinguished for some new conception or original treatment of old topics. called V¡rttika T¡tparyat¢ka and this T¢ka of V¡caspati became the text of 38 . who was followed by V¡caspati Mi¿ra in the 11th century. Udayan. besides ár¢dharas’s work. and whose work have been deservedly held in the highest estimation by the succeeding generation. Rajasekara a Jaina commentator on Ny¡ya kandali mentions three other commentaries on Pra¿astap¡da Bh¡Àya. Vallabha. and Mandana etc. Udayana. and áiv¡ditya.

that is the middle of the 14th century. Ga´gesa. wrote his M¡nyaloka a commentary on Gangesa’s Tatvacint¡ma¸i about five centuries ago. He founded a new school of text-writers and commentators in this period. V¡sudeva Sarvabhouma has been another remarkable man. The end of the 14th century saw the commencement of the third period of Ny¡ya system. but who probably lived about the end of the 11th century. V¡sudeva’s pupil Rekhunadasiromani. may be said to be its oracle. who wrote D¢titi the best 39 . Jayadeva otherwise known as PakÀadarami¿ra. So many other commentaries and writers come under this period. Ga´ge¿a was followed by two writers of note. V¡sudeva Mi¿ra. a fellow student of Jayadeva and the author of a commentary of Ga´ge¿a’s work. the exact date of Ga´ge¿a is not known.another commentary. or Ga´ge¿op¡dy¡ya the author of Tatvacint¡ma¸i. Jayadeva and V¡sudeva.

Harirama Tark¡lamkara. and in him the modern Nyaya dialectics reached its climax. Reghudeva and Gadadara. who were followed by their respective pupils. and Jagad¢¿a. Gadadara must have belonged to the end of 16th century or the beginning of the 17th century. Another sign of the Ny¡ya system was the production of manuals adapted to the understanding of the beginners and explaining the latest ideas 40 . a commentary on Ka¸¡das Vai¿eÀika s£tra and Vi¿van¡tha who wrote Sidd¡nta Mukt¡vali and Gautama s£tra V¤tti. The generation next after Gadadara is represented by two writers standing on a somewhat lower level but equally famous. Rakhunada’s immediate successors were Madhuranatha. Gadadara may be called the prince of Indian school men. the author of Upask¡ra. These were áa´kara Mi¿ra.commentary on Gangesa’s Tatvacint¡ma¸i and is acknowledged to be the highest authority among the modern Naiy¡yikas.

The two exceptions are Vi¿vanathas Sidd¡nta Mukt¡vali and Annambha¶¶as Tarka-Samgraha. etc. are instance of this class of book. An introduction to Ë the simplest language. Ëyurveda is one of the most ancient sciences of life invented during Vedic peirod. These manuals proved very handy and useful to students. which being written by the authors of the original work are more like larger editions of those texts than were explanatory glosses. Though invented in India it is a most precious gift of the wisdom of ancient risis for the welfare of mankind. religion and nationality.500 B. The aim and objectives for development of this system is described as: “º´ÉºlɺªÉ º´ÉɺlªÉ®úIÉhÉÆ +ÉiÉÖ®úºªÉÊ´ÉEòÉ®ú|ɶɨÉxɨÉÂ*”5 41 . The Bh¡À¡-paricheda. Let us consider the origin and development of Ëyurveda. irrespetive of race. the Tarka Samgraha and Tark¡m¤ta. which may be 1000 to 2.

diet and drugs “½äþiÉÖ˱ÉRÂóMÉÉè¹ÉvÉYÉÉxÉÆ º´ÉºlÉÉiÉÖ®ú{É®úɪÉhɨÉÂ* ÊjɺÉÚjÉÆ ¶ÉÉ·ÉùiÉÆ {ÉÖhªÉÆ ¤ÉÖ¤ÉÖvÉä ªÉÆ Ê{ÉiÉɨɽþ:*” 42 6 . This system deals elaborately with measures for healthy living during the entire span of life and its various phases.'Preservation of the healthy people and curing persons suffering from disease'. Bases and branches of Ëyurveda The subject of Ëyurveda is for health as well as for diseased persons and for both these groups it is three fold. besides dealing with principles for maintenance of heath. Hetu¿¡stra . AuÀadha ¿¡stra .signs snd symptoms 3. viz: 1.Causes of etiology 2. Li´ga ¿¡stra . It has also developd a wide range of therapeutic measures to combat illness.

performance of such rites as are conducive to 43 . are some of the basic principles which are applied for prevention and cure of diseases. s¡m¡nya. Ëyurveda the traditional system of Indian medicine is a special branch of knowledge on life dealing the whole branches of life.Basic Principles of Ëyurveda Paµcabh£ta siddh¡nta. and vi¿eÀa siddh¡nta. Artha. the body and mind. and prabh¡va.e. vip¡ka. etc. mental and sensory pleasure of every Individual . gu¸a. v¢rya. proper digestion and physiological functions but also spiritual. Our tradition teach us the four primary objectives of human life are. Definition of health in Ëyurveda “ºÉ¨ÉnùÉä¹É ºÉ¨ÉÉÊMxɶSÉ ºÉ¨ÉvÉÉiÉ֨ɱÉÊGòªÉ:* |ɺÉzÉÉi¨ÉäÎxpùùªÉ¨ÉxÉÉ: º´ÉºlÉ <iªÉʦÉvÉÒªÉiÉä**” The positive health according to Ëyurveda is not only balance of dosas. K¡ma and MokÀa.i. TridoÀa theory. action of drugs based on rasa. Dharma.

' knowledge' or more preciously 'science'. and ahita (bad). mental. So the man has therefore. 'Ëyus'. Caraka defines:“ʽþiÉÉʽþiÉÆ ºÉÖJÉÆ nÖù:JɨÉɪÉÖºiɺªÉ ʽþiÉÉʽþiɨÉÂ* ¨ÉÉxÉÆ SÉ iÉSSÉ ªÉjÉÉäHò¨ÉɪÉÖ´Éænù: ºÉ =SªÉiÉä**” 7 'Ëyu' comprises sukha (happiness).the well being of the individual as well as the society. and spiritual health in the context of man's interaction with his environment. The term 'Ëyurveda' is divided into two. and 'Veda'. Achievements of these four fold objectives only through a good healthy body. It also seeks to promote a totality of physical. The scope of Ëyurveda is not limited to physical health alone. Sukham¡yuÅ or a life of happiness is free from 44 . eternally endeavoured to keep himself healthy and free from miseries. The former means j¢vita or life and the latter. dukha (sorrow) hita (good). The scope of the term ayus extends to the understanding of life in all its conditions and bearings.

of perpetual change and progress. three basic principles. The opposite of this is ahita. which is prove to do what is beneficial to this world and the next. and (2) historical analysis. it is also a cycle of nityaga and anubandha. Hitam¡yuÅ a good life. self control. and vitality. and self-restraint. strength. ie. indicates a life of honest disposition. Asukham¡yuÅ or a life of dukha is just the opposite. Tradition has it that Ëyurveda is of divine 45 .physical and mental disease. and the soul. It is also concerned with the polongation of life. Ëyus is also defined by Caraka as life with body. Origin and Antiquity The available records of the history of Ëyurveda indicate that the origin and antiquity of Ëyurveda have been examined from two considerations: (1) myth and tradition. endowed with vigour. sense organ. and full of all sorts of enjoyment and success. energy. Ëyurveda deals with these four conditions of life.

27) hold this divine 46 . who in their turn were responsible. medicine and surgery. ie. Possibly some common sources were relied upon by these two medical authorities in this regard. This is corroborated by the association of Dhanvantari with his incarnated name Divodasa and subsequently with Bharadvaja in the Îg-Veda and the later Vedic texts. for the two streams of Ëyurveda. Bharadvaja and Dhanvantari.8 The divine origin of Ëyurveda has been mentioned by Caraka and Su¿ruta as well as by later authorities.origin from Brahma who later on communicated this knowledge to the A¿vins and from the twin divinities it come to Indra. Caraka (1.30. Its human tradition began with the transmission of this divine knowledge to two mythical personages. Traditionally Bharadvaja specalized in both medicine and archery or ¿alya that is surgery. It therefore appears that the two streams originated not from two persons but from one under two appellations.

Its medical corpus is an extension and systematization of earlier medical knowledge of the pre-Ëryan and Indo-Ëryan peoples. While tradition would have us believe in the eternity of Ëyurveda. particularly S¡´khya and the Ny¡yaVai¿eÀika. but considers it have a beginning from its first systematized comprehension or instruction.Its philosophical speculation and logical deliberations in the understanding of the creation of the world in the context of material components of the body and in finding out the aetiology of diseases are borrowed from different philosophical systems. 47 . historical consideraitons lead us to trace its origin to pre-Ëryan times. different streams of thought and ideas are found to have been incorporated through ages in the various branches of Ëyurveda. infact.knowledge of Ëyurveda as eternal. These contributed to the development of Ëyurveda as we have it today.

Historical Analysis. The history of development of the Ëyurveda may conventionally divide into six different periods. Different periods of Ëyurveda Pre-Vedic Period. Archeological remainings concern Pre-Ëryan medical elements unearthed form different sites of Indus and pre-Indus cultures testify to rudimentory ideas about some medical and surgical practices. Surgical activities are inferred from triphined human skulls and curved knives from two pre-Indus sites in Kashmir and Kalibanga. Pre-Ëryan civilization, going back to the third millenium B.C, from the Archeological excavations at Mohenja-daro, Harappa and many other regions out side, it indicates that the medical practices of some health and hygeinic measures in pre-Aryan times. Manufactured impliments and bricks made in kilns and engravings in precious stones, indicates

a high level knowledge of the physical and chemical sciences, likely to be matched by a similar knowledge of medical drugs and compoundings.This is no doubt a mere conjecture, but th existence of a high level of social sanitation and of public hygeine in these communities is fully borne out by archeological findings.9 While the Pre-Ëryan elements led to the knowledge of the development of some medical practices in Ëyurveda, indoËryan medical elements facilitated the growth of some concepts and theories.Thses are mainly noticed in cosmo-physical

speculatious about the three basic constituents of living organisms, viz., v¡yu, pitta, and kapha (b) ideas about the aetiology of disease, and (c) belief in the association of medical treatment with god physicians. Cosmo-physiological

speculations relate to the humoral theory of Ëyurveda which propounds that wind (v¡yu) bile (pitta), and phlegm (kapha) are

the three basic elements activating, sustaining, nourishing and maintaing the life- principle.10 Indian Medicine in Vedic period The Indian system of medicine is almost as old as Indian civilization and a rich heritage of Inida. The tradition of Indian medicine, characterised as Ëyurveda is said to have its origin from Vedas, like other traditional sciences and arts ancient India, ie, science philosophy, culture religion energy discipline in Indian has got nourishment from the vedas. It is regarded as the repository of knowledge and super knowledge. It is believed that Vedas created by Brahma, for the universal consciousness, and the same were re-arranged by 'Vy¡sa' under the four heads, Îgveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda. There are four upavedas viz. Dhanurveda, Sthapatya Veda, Gandharvaveda, and Ëyurveda respectively.


Under the second category may be cited (a) three types of bodily channelssira. Îgveda is considered as old among the four Vedas.Its relation to the Atharva -Veda is seen its (1) twofold objective of the curing of disease and the attainment of a long life. dhamani. In its conseptual aspects Ëyurveda has greater affinity to Îg-vedic notions. 12 and (ii) anatomical and physiological ideas. An elaborating healing ritual was performed to restore a patient. while in practice it draws much from Athrava-vedic medicins.11 Ëyurveda and Atharva Veda. demon. and n¡di-used in th sense of duct in th Atharva Veda and corresponding to sira. attacked by a disease domen or suffering an injury. and this is treated by rituals (mantras). nadi of Ëyurveda 51 . and othe malevolent forces invaded the body and caused their victims to exhibit a state of disease. dhamani.The Vedic Indian's attitude towards the diseases was dominated by the belief of evil spirits.

the vital element in the body recognized in Athrarvan medicine and in Ëyurveda.13 (b) idea of five vital breaths common in the two systems. even luck in gambling.which mentions an additional channel (strotas). as well as to bless and also charms of a positive character to obtain benefits. health and longevity. Protection of journy. Atharva Veda is considered as the important source of the study of the ancient Indian medicine. The Atharva-veda differs widely from the other Vedas. It consists chiefly of a variety of spells and incantation. and (d) ojas (ailbumen). in that it is not essentially religion in character and not connected with the ritual of the Soma sacrifice. to ensure love.14 (c) osteological ideas in connection with the number and nomenclature of bones. which is the genesis of Ëyurveda. because it contains more reference to Ëyurvedic concept it is considered as Upaveda of Ëyurveda. intended to cure. happy family life. 52 .

SaÆhita period (period of Compilations) This period witnessed the compilation of the works of ancient teachers who were the founder writers of different aspects of Ëyurveda. detail of the worm in body. para physical science. the position of five elemets in the body. 721 s£ktas and 5977 mantra. hundreds of mantras. the characteristics of different elements. surgery. one that is meant for curing the diseas and create peace and prosperity (white magic) and the othe meant for wreaking haveoc (black-magic). and the herbal science. i. and their eradiciton. the science of the poisonous element. it could be categorised into two. vajikarana.We are well aware that Atharvaveda comprises of 20 k¡¸·a.e. These aspect of eight parts of Ëyurveda 53 . various types of treatement. which indicate the inbicacies of Ëyurveda. digestive system. names of the diseases and the physician. various name of the bodily parts. it deals in details with the three physical problems.

the Su¿ruta-SaÆhit¡ is one 54 . Bh£tavidya (demonology). etc. This work delt primarily with therapeutics but toched upon other aspects of Ëyurveda excepting ¿alya. áalya-tantra (¿alya literally means arrow) deals with the methods of removing foreign bodies. Ëgada-tantra (toxicology). Which are supposed to originate mainly from disturbances of the three humor. based on the teachings of Ëtreya Punarvasu. Ras¡yana-tantra (geriatrics). K¡ya Cikitsa. The first and foremost compilation was the Agnive¿a-tantra of Agnive¿a. obstetrics. k¡yacikitsa (Therapecutics). Kaum¡rab¤tya (peadiatrics). alkalsis. áalya-tantra (major surgery). bandages.relates to treatment of diseases affecting the whole body. and V¡j¢kara¸a-tantra (Virilifications). and the use of fsurgical instruments. the treatment of injuries and deseases requiring surgery.include.

of the great classics in Indian surgery. Kaum¡rab¤tya . á¡l¡khya-tantra is concerned with the treatment of diseases of the body above the clacivle and use of thin bars. restoration of youth. oblations.insects etc.Gives methods of treatment of child diseases caused by demons. and prevention of disease. Ëgada-tantra discusses methods of diagnosis and treatment of the bites of poisnous snakes. drugs and soforth as remedies. improvemnt of memory. belonging to DivodasaDhanvantari School. Bh£ta-vidya treats of mental derangements and other disturbances said to be caused by demons and prescribes prayers. 55 . etc as instruments. Ras¡yana-tantra deals with the methods of preservation and increase of vigour. exorcism. and of herbal or othe poison cases. small sticks or probes.

partial summaries includee numerious works relating to actiology. Cikits¡s¡ra saÆgraha of Cakr¡p¡¸idata. treatment of particular diseases. Gdanigraha of Sadhabala. were epitomes of earlier texts.V¡j¢kara¸a-tantra Concern the means of increasing virile powers. AÀ¶¡´gah¤daya of V¡ghbhata II. materia medica. some of the extent work of prominance are the Rugvini¿caya or Madhava (allidara of Madhavakara. á¡r´gadhara-saÆhita of á¡r´gadhara cikits¡s¡ra saÆgraha of Vangasena. These summarises were of two types: Comple and partial. science of pulse. Sidhayoga of Vrinda. etc. appearing from about the seventh century onwards. Navan¢taka (bower manu scripts). and Yogarathnakar and Bh¡vaprak¡¿a of Bh¡vami¿ra. Arkaprak¡¿a of R¡va¸a. 56 . diatics. etc. Period of Epitoms : The Sa´grahas. The eight compel texts extent today come the AÀ¶¡´ga-Sa´graha of V¡gbhata I.

as mentioned in the earlier vedic literature. etc. commentaries.are Caraka. there exist two othe separate types of work. Su¿ruta and the third one known as K¡¿yapas. The decline of Ëyurveda began in the period of the SaÆgrahas whom medical authorities started sumarising the classics and codyfing them as a separate treatise. Ëyurvedic remedies prior ot these traditions also exist. The birth of a rational Ëyurveda may be traced to the appearance of recensions of earlier medical texts Caraka and Su¿ruta. Both the Su¿ruta and 57 . Besides these another political and other factors are caused to decline of Ëyurveda.. However. Three traditions of Ëyurveda exist today. viz.Apart form the three aforementioned classes of Ëyurvedic treaties. This process accelarated in the post SaÆgraha period with the total absence of new redactions. Rasagranthas or iatro-chemical texts and nighantus or medical lexicons.

contains much of the same materal is a more diffuse form. The scholar Vagbha¶a. the AÀ¶¡´ga SaÆgraha. and V¡gbha¶a are considered canonical and reverentially called the V¤ddha trayi. (7th century A. Su¿rutas original text is believed to have been redacted by one N¡garjuna between the third and fourth 58 . The date of the redaction of the Caraka-saÆhit¡ may be assigned to the first century A. The works of Caraka. or B¤hat trayi. Another work associate with the same author. written in a mixture of prose and verse. having been revised and supplemented over a period of several hundred years. Su¿ruta. on the identification of Caraka with one having the same name who happened to be the court physician of KaniÀka. “ the greator Triad”.D) wrote a synthesis of earlier Ëyurvedic materials in a collection of verses called the AÀ¶¡´ga H¤dayam.Caraka saÆhitas are the product of several scholars.D. “the triad of ancients”.

Each of these two SaÆhitas deals with. is a much more compact and systematic work.A. Some differences are noticed in their presentation and treatment. 59 . In the treament of subjects the two compendia follow two traditions. contains. and Su¿ruta that of Dhanvantari. a vast amount of floating tradition.centureis. personal hygiens and medical ethics. while sufficiently emphasizing earlier traditions and knowledge. Caraka that of Ëtreya. anatomy. psychic therapy. physiology. These two SaÆhit¡s bear testimony to the scientific research patient investigation. among other subjects. This is also attested by Caraka. of considerable historical value where as Su¿ruta.D. Caraka an enormous compendium suffereing from repetitions. and experimentation which proceeded them and served as works of references to students and research workers alike. toxicology.

Caraka SaÆhita The Caraka SaÆhita is divided into eight sth¡nas (books) arranged in the following section and chapters.Caraka SaÆhit¡ Planning of the text. Nidh¡na sth¡na 3. Kalpasth¡na 8. Number of chapters 1. Sidhisth¡na Total 60 30 8 8 8 12 30 12 12 120 chapters . Indriyasth¡na 6. áar¡rasth¡na 5. Vim¡na sth¡na 4. S£tra sth¡na 2. Cikits¡sth¡na 7.

The subject matter dealt with in the above eight section are funda mentals. fatal signs.Thus the text is completed in eight sections and 120 chapters in the above order. at the time of V¡gbhata the Caraka-SaÆhita and the Su¿ruta-SaÆhita were the only texts 61 .Though in early times there was a large number of saÆhit¡s on different specialities. human body. disease. In the first section. health. The last two chapters are known as saÆgrah¡dhy¡ya (concluding chapters). preparations. They are called as catuÀk¡s (quadrupluts) which deals with the drugs. treatment. diagnosis. planning and diet. Popularity of Caraka saÆhita The Caraka saÆhita has been popular as the most outstanding and authoritative work amongst the SaÆhitas of Ëyurveda. specific features. pharmaceutical and successful management. precepts. the chapters have been grouped topicwise having four chapters in each group.

Bhattara Hari¿candra. The work became so popular and its demand was so extensive that it was translated in various languages from time to time. V¡gbhatas AÀ¶¡´ga saÆgraha and AÀ¶¡´ga h¤daya based mainly on these two text. Wrote commentary on it. Cakrap¡¸i etc. english. Only in getting his place after those two in the great triad. and various regional languages. It transtated into perion. though V¡gbhata tried his level best to degenerate their authority in orde to establish his own footing.representing the schools of medicine and surgery respectively. he could succeed. The popularity of the Caraka saÆhit¡ continued to increase and it attracted many top ranking scholars to involve themselves as commentaries. 62 . later on it was translated in Hindi. Sudhira. Ì¿varasena. Jejjata. arabic.

Das Gupta.S. 30.S.56-59.26 6 C.I. Das Gupta.Veda.64.16.31.P..Su.290-291 14 AtharvaVeda SaÆhit¡.L..12.13 C.116. I.20 7 C..P. pp.1-53 3 C. Dev Raj Chanana . p. p.5 VI.P. p.132.41..p.1. I. p.. I.P. p. 13 H.176-182 5 C..S.37.NOTES 1 I. p.p.II.S..I. 11 H. 2 H.175 4 Ibid.Fillozat..Su.X.8 63 ...2. I.8 VI.I.Su.I.Su... Vol. The classical doctrine of Indian Medicine trans. Vol. 10 Fillosat..I..6. 9 Some aspects of pre-historic technology in India.4 J. 12 History of Chemistry and medieval India.S. 8 Îg.. p.

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