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A more explicit connection will be attempted by condensing the unitary aspects of the symmetries U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) with the 4-vectors and a curved metric. Start with the standard model Lagrangian:

where

The electromagnetic potential A_mu is a complex-valued 4-vector. The only way to form a scalar with a 4-vector is to use a metric. Since it is complex-valued, use the conjugate like so:

Use the parity operator to flip the sign of the spatial part of a 4-vector:

Normalize the potential:

Now you can show that the normalized 4-vector is an element of the symmetry group U(1) if the multiplication operator is the metric combined with the parity and conjugate operators. In curved space-time, the previous equation will not equal one. Mass breaks U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) symmetry, but does so in a precise way. Notice that the above equation is minus the need of a Higg’s field. The aspects normally associated with the Higg’s field simply become properties of the space-time involved in the first place. Going back to the proposed Lagrangian for gravity

and the classical electromagnetic Lagrangian

The total Lagrangian will be a merger of these two which only apply if the other force is not in effect. The kinetic energy term is the same as either Lagrangian separately. The moving charge term is a sum. Without loss of generality, the regular derivatives in the electromagnetic Lagrangian can be written as covariant derivatives. This leads to the unified Lagrangian for gravity and electromagnetism:

The kinetic energy term is for one particle experiencing both gravity and electromagnetism. The Fermi Lagrangian of electromagnetism is a subset. In local covariant coordinates, the connect is zero, which leads to a simpler expression of the Lagrangian:

The Poisson field equation of classical Newtonian gravity can be solved by a 1/R^2 potential. The potential has a point singularity where R = 0. But as discussed earlier time drops out of this equation at such a point. So this theory maintains aspects of double special relativity. The unified field equations are relativistic, so time must also be incorporated. A 1/distance potential does not solve the field equations in four dimensions. In local covariant coordinates where the connection is zero, the potential A_mu = (1/sigm^2, 0) solves the field equations, where sigma squared is the Lorentz invariant distance, or the negative of the square of the Lorentz invariant interval tau. So this equation also reduces to Newton in the weak field, nonrelativistic scales and maintains relativity’s requirement of Lorentz Invariance irrespective of the scale variable C incorporated into it. (Author would like to note the following: Newtonian space-time is not the same as Minkowski space-time. To shift from the above equations that are dependent upon Minkowski space-time one must break the symmetry between space and time. At this point I will not go into such a method. Gravity as geometry is regarded as the fundamental idea. What’s needed: an inclusive geometry with an essentially geometrical explanation of electromagnetism. This means an irreducible geometry in which both g_{mn} and A_m live on equal terms. There are two such: 1.) A space based on "path invariance" instead of interval invariance, essentially a form of projective differential geometry. The paths play the role of geodesics in this space. The details were worked out by mathematicians T.Y. Thomas, L.P. Eisenhart, and O. Veblen in the 20s and 30s. This geometry turns out to be isomorphic to Kaluza-Klein theory. 2.)A metrical space based on non-transferable directions (gravity) AND lengths (EM). Lengths are transferable if the EM field vanishes. The full geometry is known as a Weyl space(1) and

still represents the most cogent unification of gravity and EM only it doesn't work in 4 dimensions due to lack of a suitable variational principle. This author follows the first approach with aspects of the second[see note on Weyl space]. In any case, in a truly unified theory, gravitational phenomena must be accompanied by electromagnetic phenomena which the above solves.)

REFERENCES AND NOTES 1.) An m-dimensional manifold Wm(gij, Tk) with a conformal metric tensor gij and a symmetric connection ∇k is called a Weyl space if the compatibility condition ∇k gij2 Tk gij=0 is satisfied, where Tk is a covariant vector field. If the Weyl space Wm admits an almost Hermitian structure Fji that satisfies [(∇)\dot]k Fji=0 (for all i, j, k) then Wm is called a Kahlerian space. For one such attempted unification model consider: http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0107023

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