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Momentum

The linear momentum of an object of

Chapter 6 mass m moving with a velocity v is

defined as the product of the mass and

the velocity

Momentum and Collisions p= m v

S I Units are kg m / s

V ector quantity, the direction of the

momentum is the same as the v elocity’s

p x = mvx and p y = mv y In order to change the momentum of an

object, a force must be applied

Applies to two-dimensional motion

two-

The time rate of change of momentum of an

object is equal to the net force acting on it

∆p m( v f − vi )

Fnet = = = ma

∆t ∆t

Gives an alternative statement of Newton’s second

law

Impulse

When a single, constant force acts on The theorem states that the impulse

the object acting on the object is equal to the

∆p = F ∆t change in momentum of the object

F∆t is defined as the impulse F∆t = ∆p

V ector quantity, the direction is the same If the force is not constant, use the

as the direction of the force average force applied

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02/25/2009

The av erage force The impulse imparted by a force during

can be thought of as the time interval ∆t is equal to the area

the constant force under the force-

force-time graph from the

that w ould giv e the

same impulse to the

beginning to the end of the time

object in the time interval

interv al as the actual Or, to the average force multiplied by

time--v arying force

time the time interval

giv es in the interv al

Collisions Air Bags

The most important factor is the The air bag

increases the time of

collision time or the time it takes the the collision

person to come to a rest It w ill also absorb

This w ill reduce the chance of dying in a some of the energy

car crash from the body

Ways to increase the time It w ill spread out the

area of contact

S eat belts decreases the

Air bags pressure

helps prevent

penetration wounds

Momentum in an isolated system in The principle of conservation of

which a collision occurs is conserved momentum states when no external

A collision may be the result of physical forces act on a system consisting of two

contact betw een tw o objects

objects that collide with each other, the

“Contact” may also arise from the

electrostatic interactions of the electrons in total momentum of the system before

the surface atoms of the bodies the collision is equal to the total

An isolated system w ill hav e not external momentum of the system after the

forces collision

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02/25/2009

cont. of Momentum

Mathematically:m v + m v = m v + m v The total momentum of an isolated

1 1i 2 2i 1 1f 2 2f

Momentum is conserv ed for the sy stem of system of objects is conserved

objects regardless of the nature of the forces

The system includes all the objects

interacting w ith each other

between the objects

Assumes only internal forces are acting

during the collision

Can be generalized to any number of

objects

Momentum is conserved in any collision Elastic collision

Inelastic collisions both momentum and kinetic energy are

Kinetic energy is not conserv ed conserv ed

Some of the kinetic energy is converted into

other types of energy such as heat, sound, Actual collisions

work to permanently deform an object Most collisions fall betw een elastic and

P erfectly inelastic collisions occur w hen the perfectly inelastic collisions

objects stick together

Not all of the KE is necessarily lost

Collisions Collisions

When tw o objects Momentum is a vector quantity

stick together after Direction is important

the collision, they

Be sure to hav e the correct signs

hav e undergone a

perfectly inelastic

collision

Conserv ation of

momentum

becomes

m 1v 1i + m2 v 2 i = (m 1 + m2 )v f

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02/25/2009

Both momentum and kinetic energy are A simpler equation can be used in place

conserved of the KE equation

Typically have two unknowns v 1i − v 2 i = −( v1f − v 2f )

m1v 1i + m2 v 2 i = m1v 1f + m2 v 2 f

1 1 1 1

m1 v12i + m2 v 22i = m1v 21f + m2 v 22f

2 2 2 2

Solve the equations simultaneously

Dimensional Collisions Problems

Set up a coordinate axis and define the Draw “before” and

velocities with respect to this axis “after” sketches

It is conv enient to make your axis coincide Label each object

w ith one of the initial v elocities include the direction

of velocity

In your sketch, draw all the velocity keep track of

vectors with labels including all the subscripts

given information

One-

Collisions Dimensional Collisions, cont.

The objects stick Write the expressions for the

together momentum of each object before and

Include all the after the collision

v elocity directions

Remember to include the appropriate signs

The “after” collision

Write an expression for the

total

combines the

masses momentum before and after the

collision

Remember the momentum of the system is

w hat is conserv ed

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02/25/2009

One-

Dimensional Collisions, final Glancing Collisions

If the collision

is inelastic, solve the For a general collision of two objects in

momentum equation for the unknown three-dimensional space, the

three-

Remember, KE is not conserv ed

conservation of momentum principle

implies that the total momentum of the

If the collision

is elastic, you can use system in each direction is conserved

the KE equation (or the simplified one) m1v1ix + m2v 2ix = m1v 1fx + m 2v 2fx and

to solve for two unknowns m1v1iy + m2v 2iy = m1v 1fy + m 2v 2fy

Use subscripts for identifying the object,

initial and final, and components

Two-

Glancing Collisions Dimensional Collisions

Set up coordinate axes and define your

velocities with respect to these axes

It is conv enient to choose the x axis to

coincide w ith one of the initial v elocities

In your sketch, draw and label all the

The “after” v elocities hav e x and y velocities and include all the given

components information

Momentum is conserv ed in the x direction

and in the y direction

Apply separately to each direction

Two- Problem Solving for Two-

Two-

Dimensional Collisions, cont Dimensional Collisions, final

Write expressions for the x and y Solve for the unknown quantities

components of the momentum of each If the collision is inelastic, additional

object before and after the collision information is probably required

Write expressions for the total If the collision is perfectly inelastic, the

momentum before and after the final v elocities of the tw o objects is the

same

collision in the x-

x -direction

If the collision is elastic, use the KE

Repeat for the y-

y -direction

equations to help solv e for the unknow ns

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02/25/2009

The operation of a rocket depends on The rocket is accelerated as a result of

the law of conservation of momentum the thrust of the exhaust gases

as applied to a system, where the

This represents the inverse of an

system is the rocket plus its ejected fuel

This is different than propulsion on the inelastic collision

earth w here tw o objects exert forces on Momentum is conserv ed

each other Kinetic Energy is increased (at the expense

road on car of the stored energy of the rocket fuel)

train on track

M is the mass of the rocket The mass of the fuel, ∆m, has been ejected

m is the mass of the fuel The rocket’s speed has increased to v + ∆v

The initial v elocity of the rocket is v

The basic equation for rocket propulsion is: The thrust isthe force exerted on the

M rocket by the ejected exhaust gases

vf − v i = ve ln i

Mf The instantaneous thrust is given by

Mi is the initial mass of the rocket plus fuel ∆v ∆M

Mf is the final mass of the rocket plus any Ma = M = ve

∆t ∆t

remaining fuel

The thrust increases as the exhaust speed

The speed of the rocket is proportional to the

exhaust speed increases and as the burn rate (∆M/∆t)

increases

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