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 The linear momentum of an object of
Chapter 6 mass m moving with a velocity v is
defined as the product of the mass and
the velocity
Momentum and Collisions  p= m v
 S I Units are kg m / s
 V ector quantity, the direction of the
momentum is the same as the v elocity’s

Momentum components Impulse

 p x = mvx and p y = mv y  In order to change the momentum of an
object, a force must be applied
 Applies to two-dimensional motion
 The time rate of change of momentum of an
object is equal to the net force acting on it

∆p m( v f − vi )
 Fnet = = = ma
∆t ∆t
 Gives an alternative statement of Newton’s second

Impulse cont. Impulse--Momentum Theorem

 When a single, constant force acts on  The theorem states that the impulse
the object acting on the object is equal to the
 ∆p = F ∆t change in momentum of the object
 F∆t is defined as the impulse  F∆t = ∆p
 V ector quantity, the direction is the same  If the force is not constant, use the
as the direction of the force average force applied


Average Force in Impulse Average Force cont.

 The av erage force  The impulse imparted by a force during
can be thought of as the time interval ∆t is equal to the area
the constant force under the force-
force-time graph from the
that w ould giv e the
same impulse to the
beginning to the end of the time
object in the time interval
interv al as the actual  Or, to the average force multiplied by
time--v arying force
time the time interval
giv es in the interv al

Impulse Applied to Auto

Collisions Air Bags
 The most important factor is the  The air bag
increases the time of
collision time or the time it takes the the collision
person to come to a rest  It w ill also absorb
 This w ill reduce the chance of dying in a some of the energy
car crash from the body
 Ways to increase the time  It w ill spread out the
area of contact
 S eat belts  decreases the
 Air bags pressure
 helps prevent
penetration wounds

Conservation of Momentum Conservation of Momentum

 Momentum in an isolated system in  The principle of conservation of
which a collision occurs is conserved momentum states when no external
 A collision may be the result of physical forces act on a system consisting of two
contact betw een tw o objects
objects that collide with each other, the
 “Contact” may also arise from the
electrostatic interactions of the electrons in total momentum of the system before
the surface atoms of the bodies the collision is equal to the total
 An isolated system w ill hav e not external momentum of the system after the
forces collision


Conservation of Momentum, General Form of Conservation

cont. of Momentum
 Mathematically:m v + m v = m v + m v  The total momentum of an isolated
1 1i 2 2i 1 1f 2 2f
 Momentum is conserv ed for the sy stem of system of objects is conserved
objects regardless of the nature of the forces
 The system includes all the objects
interacting w ith each other
between the objects
 Assumes only internal forces are acting
during the collision
 Can be generalized to any number of

Types of Collisions More Types of Collisions

 Momentum is conserved in any collision  Elastic collision
 Inelastic collisions  both momentum and kinetic energy are
 Kinetic energy is not conserv ed conserv ed
Some of the kinetic energy is converted into

other types of energy such as heat, sound,  Actual collisions
work to permanently deform an object  Most collisions fall betw een elastic and
 P erfectly inelastic collisions occur w hen the perfectly inelastic collisions
objects stick together
 Not all of the KE is necessarily lost

More About Perfectly Inelastic Some General Notes About

Collisions Collisions
 When tw o objects  Momentum is a vector quantity
stick together after  Direction is important
the collision, they
 Be sure to hav e the correct signs
hav e undergone a
perfectly inelastic
 Conserv ation of
m 1v 1i + m2 v 2 i = (m 1 + m2 )v f


More About Elastic Collisions Elastic Collisions, cont.

 Both momentum and kinetic energy are  A simpler equation can be used in place
conserved of the KE equation
 Typically have two unknowns v 1i − v 2 i = −( v1f − v 2f )
m1v 1i + m2 v 2 i = m1v 1f + m2 v 2 f
1 1 1 1
m1 v12i + m2 v 22i = m1v 21f + m2 v 22f
2 2 2 2
 Solve the equations simultaneously

Problem Solving for One - Sketches for Collision

Dimensional Collisions Problems
 Set up a coordinate axis and define the  Draw “before” and
velocities with respect to this axis “after” sketches
 It is conv enient to make your axis coincide  Label each object
w ith one of the initial v elocities  include the direction
of velocity
 In your sketch, draw all the velocity  keep track of
vectors with labels including all the subscripts
given information

Sketches for Perfectly Inelastic Problem Solving for One-

Collisions Dimensional Collisions, cont.
 The objects stick  Write the expressions for the
together momentum of each object before and
 Include all the after the collision
v elocity directions
 Remember to include the appropriate signs
 The “after” collision
 Write an expression for the
combines the
masses momentum before and after the
 Remember the momentum of the system is
w hat is conserv ed


Problem Solving for One-

Dimensional Collisions, final Glancing Collisions
 If the collision
is inelastic, solve the  For a general collision of two objects in
momentum equation for the unknown three-dimensional space, the
 Remember, KE is not conserv ed
conservation of momentum principle
implies that the total momentum of the
 If the collision
is elastic, you can use system in each direction is conserved
the KE equation (or the simplified one)  m1v1ix + m2v 2ix = m1v 1fx + m 2v 2fx and
to solve for two unknowns m1v1iy + m2v 2iy = m1v 1fy + m 2v 2fy
 Use subscripts for identifying the object,
initial and final, and components

Problem Solving for Two-

Glancing Collisions Dimensional Collisions
 Set up coordinate axes and define your
velocities with respect to these axes
 It is conv enient to choose the x axis to
coincide w ith one of the initial v elocities
 In your sketch, draw and label all the
 The “after” v elocities hav e x and y velocities and include all the given
components information
 Momentum is conserv ed in the x direction
and in the y direction
 Apply separately to each direction

Problem Solving for Two-

Two- Problem Solving for Two-
Dimensional Collisions, cont Dimensional Collisions, final
 Write expressions for the x and y  Solve for the unknown quantities
components of the momentum of each  If the collision is inelastic, additional
object before and after the collision information is probably required
 Write expressions for the total  If the collision is perfectly inelastic, the

momentum before and after the final v elocities of the tw o objects is the
collision in the x-
x -direction
 If the collision is elastic, use the KE
 Repeat for the y-
y -direction
equations to help solv e for the unknow ns


Rocket Propulsion Rocket Propulsion, cont.

 The operation of a rocket depends on  The rocket is accelerated as a result of
the law of conservation of momentum the thrust of the exhaust gases
as applied to a system, where the
 This represents the inverse of an
system is the rocket plus its ejected fuel
 This is different than propulsion on the inelastic collision
earth w here tw o objects exert forces on  Momentum is conserv ed
each other  Kinetic Energy is increased (at the expense
 road on car of the stored energy of the rocket fuel)
 train on track

Rocket Propulsion Rocket Propulsion

 The initial mass of the rocket is M + ∆m  The rocket’s mass is M

 M is the mass of the rocket  The mass of the fuel, ∆m, has been ejected
 m is the mass of the fuel  The rocket’s speed has increased to v + ∆v
 The initial v elocity of the rocket is v

Rocket Propulsion, final Thrust of a Rocket

 The basic equation for rocket propulsion is:  The thrust isthe force exerted on the
M  rocket by the ejected exhaust gases
vf − v i = ve ln i 

 Mf   The instantaneous thrust is given by
 Mi is the initial mass of the rocket plus fuel ∆v ∆M
 Mf is the final mass of the rocket plus any Ma = M = ve
∆t ∆t
remaining fuel
 The thrust increases as the exhaust speed
 The speed of the rocket is proportional to the
exhaust speed increases and as the burn rate (∆M/∆t)