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# 02/25/2009

Momentum
 The linear momentum of an object of
Chapter 6 mass m moving with a velocity v is
defined as the product of the mass and
the velocity
Momentum and Collisions  p= m v
 S I Units are kg m / s
 V ector quantity, the direction of the
momentum is the same as the v elocity’s

## Momentum components Impulse

 p x = mvx and p y = mv y  In order to change the momentum of an
object, a force must be applied
 Applies to two-dimensional motion
two-
 The time rate of change of momentum of an
object is equal to the net force acting on it

∆p m( v f − vi )
 Fnet = = = ma
∆t ∆t
 Gives an alternative statement of Newton’s second
law

## Impulse cont. Impulse--Momentum Theorem

Impulse
 When a single, constant force acts on  The theorem states that the impulse
the object acting on the object is equal to the
 ∆p = F ∆t change in momentum of the object
 F∆t is defined as the impulse  F∆t = ∆p
 V ector quantity, the direction is the same  If the force is not constant, use the
as the direction of the force average force applied

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## Average Force in Impulse Average Force cont.

 The av erage force  The impulse imparted by a force during
can be thought of as the time interval ∆t is equal to the area
the constant force under the force-
force-time graph from the
that w ould giv e the
same impulse to the
beginning to the end of the time
object in the time interval
interv al as the actual  Or, to the average force multiplied by
time--v arying force
time the time interval
giv es in the interv al

## Impulse Applied to Auto

Collisions Air Bags
 The most important factor is the  The air bag
increases the time of
collision time or the time it takes the the collision
person to come to a rest  It w ill also absorb
 This w ill reduce the chance of dying in a some of the energy
car crash from the body
 Ways to increase the time  It w ill spread out the
area of contact
 S eat belts  decreases the
 Air bags pressure
 helps prevent
penetration wounds

## Conservation of Momentum Conservation of Momentum

 Momentum in an isolated system in  The principle of conservation of
which a collision occurs is conserved momentum states when no external
 A collision may be the result of physical forces act on a system consisting of two
contact betw een tw o objects
objects that collide with each other, the
 “Contact” may also arise from the
electrostatic interactions of the electrons in total momentum of the system before
the surface atoms of the bodies the collision is equal to the total
 An isolated system w ill hav e not external momentum of the system after the
forces collision

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## Conservation of Momentum, General Form of Conservation

cont. of Momentum
 Mathematically:m v + m v = m v + m v  The total momentum of an isolated
1 1i 2 2i 1 1f 2 2f
 Momentum is conserv ed for the sy stem of system of objects is conserved
objects regardless of the nature of the forces
 The system includes all the objects
interacting w ith each other
between the objects
 Assumes only internal forces are acting
during the collision
 Can be generalized to any number of
objects

## Types of Collisions More Types of Collisions

 Momentum is conserved in any collision  Elastic collision
 Inelastic collisions  both momentum and kinetic energy are
 Kinetic energy is not conserv ed conserv ed
Some of the kinetic energy is converted into

other types of energy such as heat, sound,  Actual collisions
work to permanently deform an object  Most collisions fall betw een elastic and
 P erfectly inelastic collisions occur w hen the perfectly inelastic collisions
objects stick together
 Not all of the KE is necessarily lost

Collisions Collisions
 When tw o objects  Momentum is a vector quantity
stick together after  Direction is important
the collision, they
 Be sure to hav e the correct signs
hav e undergone a
perfectly inelastic
collision
 Conserv ation of
momentum
becomes
m 1v 1i + m2 v 2 i = (m 1 + m2 )v f

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## More About Elastic Collisions Elastic Collisions, cont.

 Both momentum and kinetic energy are  A simpler equation can be used in place
conserved of the KE equation
 Typically have two unknowns v 1i − v 2 i = −( v1f − v 2f )
m1v 1i + m2 v 2 i = m1v 1f + m2 v 2 f
1 1 1 1
m1 v12i + m2 v 22i = m1v 21f + m2 v 22f
2 2 2 2
 Solve the equations simultaneously

## Problem Solving for One - Sketches for Collision

Dimensional Collisions Problems
 Set up a coordinate axis and define the  Draw “before” and
velocities with respect to this axis “after” sketches
 It is conv enient to make your axis coincide  Label each object
w ith one of the initial v elocities  include the direction
of velocity
 In your sketch, draw all the velocity  keep track of
vectors with labels including all the subscripts
given information

## Sketches for Perfectly Inelastic Problem Solving for One-

One-
Collisions Dimensional Collisions, cont.
 The objects stick  Write the expressions for the
together momentum of each object before and
 Include all the after the collision
v elocity directions
 Remember to include the appropriate signs
 The “after” collision
 Write an expression for the
total
combines the
masses momentum before and after the
collision
 Remember the momentum of the system is
w hat is conserv ed

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## Problem Solving for One-

One-
Dimensional Collisions, final Glancing Collisions
 If the collision
is inelastic, solve the  For a general collision of two objects in
momentum equation for the unknown three-dimensional space, the
three-
 Remember, KE is not conserv ed
conservation of momentum principle
implies that the total momentum of the
 If the collision
is elastic, you can use system in each direction is conserved
the KE equation (or the simplified one)  m1v1ix + m2v 2ix = m1v 1fx + m 2v 2fx and
to solve for two unknowns m1v1iy + m2v 2iy = m1v 1fy + m 2v 2fy
 Use subscripts for identifying the object,
initial and final, and components

## Problem Solving for Two-

Two-
Glancing Collisions Dimensional Collisions
 Set up coordinate axes and define your
velocities with respect to these axes
 It is conv enient to choose the x axis to
coincide w ith one of the initial v elocities
 In your sketch, draw and label all the
 The “after” v elocities hav e x and y velocities and include all the given
components information
 Momentum is conserv ed in the x direction
and in the y direction
 Apply separately to each direction

## Problem Solving for Two-

Two- Problem Solving for Two-
Two-
Dimensional Collisions, cont Dimensional Collisions, final
 Write expressions for the x and y  Solve for the unknown quantities
components of the momentum of each  If the collision is inelastic, additional
object before and after the collision information is probably required
 Write expressions for the total  If the collision is perfectly inelastic, the

momentum before and after the final v elocities of the tw o objects is the
same
collision in the x-
x -direction
 If the collision is elastic, use the KE
 Repeat for the y-
y -direction
equations to help solv e for the unknow ns

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## Rocket Propulsion Rocket Propulsion, cont.

 The operation of a rocket depends on  The rocket is accelerated as a result of
the law of conservation of momentum the thrust of the exhaust gases
as applied to a system, where the
 This represents the inverse of an
system is the rocket plus its ejected fuel
 This is different than propulsion on the inelastic collision
earth w here tw o objects exert forces on  Momentum is conserv ed
each other  Kinetic Energy is increased (at the expense
 road on car of the stored energy of the rocket fuel)
 train on track

##  The initial mass of the rocket is M + ∆m  The rocket’s mass is M

 M is the mass of the rocket  The mass of the fuel, ∆m, has been ejected
 m is the mass of the fuel  The rocket’s speed has increased to v + ∆v
 The initial v elocity of the rocket is v

## Rocket Propulsion, final Thrust of a Rocket

 The basic equation for rocket propulsion is:  The thrust isthe force exerted on the
M  rocket by the ejected exhaust gases
vf − v i = ve ln i 

 Mf   The instantaneous thrust is given by
 Mi is the initial mass of the rocket plus fuel ∆v ∆M
 Mf is the final mass of the rocket plus any Ma = M = ve
∆t ∆t
remaining fuel
 The thrust increases as the exhaust speed
 The speed of the rocket is proportional to the
exhaust speed increases and as the burn rate (∆M/∆t)
increases