From Sturdevant Art and Science of Operative Dentistry 5th Edition

Enamel
Enamel is formed by ameloblasts,which originate from the embryonic germ layer known as ectoderm. Ameloblasts have short extensions toward the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ); these are termed Tomes processes. Enamel covers the anatomic crown of the tooth and varies in thickness in different areas (see Fig. 2-14). The enamel is thicker at the incisal and occlusal areas of a tooth and becomes progressively thinner until it terminates at the cementoenamel junction. (CEJ) The thickness also varies from one class of tooth to another, (1) averaging 2 mm at the incisal ridges of incisors and varying (2) from 2.3 to 2.5 mm at the cusps of premolars and (3) 2.5 to 3 mm at the cusps of molars. Enamel usually decreases in thickness toward the junction of the developmental cuspal lobes of the posterior teeth (premolars and molars), sometimes nearing zero where the junction is fissured (noncoalesced) (see Figs. 2-12 and 2-14). Because enamel is semitranslucent, the color of a tooth depends on the color of the underlying dentin, thickness of the enamel, and amount of stain in the enamel. The amount of translucency of enamel is related to variations in the degree of calcification. Enamel becomes temporarily whiter within minutes when a tooth is isolated from the moist oral environment by a rubber dam or cotton rolls. The shade must be determined before isolation (Teeth should be wet) and preparation of a tooth for a tooth-colored restoration. This change in color is explained by the temporary loss of loosely bound (or exchangeable) water (<1% by weight). Chemically, enamel is a highly mineralized crystalline structure containing 95% to 98% inorganic matter by weight. Hydroxyapatite, in the form of a crystalline lattice, is the largest mineral constituent and is present 90% to 92% by volume. Other minerals and trace elements are contained in smaller amounts.The remaining constituents of tooth enamel are an organic content of about 1% to 2% and a water content of about 4% by weight; these total approximately 6% by volume. Structurally, enamel is composed of millions of enamel rods or prisms, which are the largest structural components, and rod sheaths and a cementing interrod substance in some areas. Inter-rod substance, or sheath, may be the increased spacing between crystallites oriented differently to where the ―tail‖ portion of one rod meets the ―head‖portion of another. This spacing apparently is partially organic material. The rods vary in number from approximately 5 million for a mandibular incisor to about 12 million for a maxillary molar. The rods are densely packed and intertwined in a wavy course, and each extends from the DEJ to the external surface of the tooth. In general, the rods are aligned perpendicularly to the DEJ and the tooth surface in the primary and permanent dentitions except in the cervical region of permanent teeth, where they are oriented outward in a slightly apical direction.

The orientation of the enamel rod heads and tails and the gnarling of enamel rods provide strength by resisting. Enamel tufts are hypomineralized structures of enamel rods and inter-rod substance that project between adjacent groups of enamel rods from the DEJ (Fig. Enamel requires a base of dentin to withstand masticatory forces. also. hand cutting instruments in tooth preparation. the enamel rods in the cervical and central parts of the crown are nearly perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and are similar in their direction to the permanent teeth in the occlusal two thirds of the crown. extend into the enamel in the direction of the long axis of the crown. 2-7). the tail regions and the periphery of the head regions are relatively resistant to acid attack. Enamel rod diameter near the dentinal borders is about 4 μm (about 8 μm near the surface). which occurs near the cervical regions and the incisal and occlusal areas (Fig. spiraling course. . Enamel rods follow a wavy. The rounded head portion of each prism (5 μm wide) lies between the narrow tail portions (5 μm long) of two adjacent prisms (Fig. 2-9). Groups of enamel rods may entwine with adjacent groups of rods. and they follow a curving irregular path toward the tooth surface. with hardness lowest at the DEJ. The dissolution process due to caries or acid etching occurs more in the head regions of the rod. An organic matrix or prism sheath also surrounds individual crystals. and dissipating impact forces. which form a repetitive series of interlocking prisms. distributing. so it acts as a cushion for the enamel. The structural components of the enamel prism are millions of small. For maximal strength in tooth preparation. These constitute gnarled enamel. this appears to be an organically rich interspace rather than a structural entity. This type of enamel formation does not yield readily to the pressure of bladed. Generally. Dentin is a highly compressive tissue When compared to enamel. and may play a role in the spread of dental caries. The density of enamel also decreases from the surface to the DEJ. where they end a few micrometers short of the tooth surface. 2-5). it decreases inward. Enamel rods that fail to possess a dentin base because of caries or improper preparation design are easily fractured away from neighboring rods. These projections arise in the dentin. Human enamel is composed of rods that in transverse section are shaped with a rounded head or body section and a tail section. the tail section is oriented cervically. Hardness may vary over the external tooth surface according to the location. Enamel is a brittle structure with a high elastic modulus and low tensile strength. producing an alternating arrangement for each group or layer of rods as they change direction in progressing from the dentin toward the enamel surface. all enamel rods should be supported by dentin. Gnarled enamel is not subject to cleavage as is regular enamel. the rounded head portion is oriented in the incisal or occlusal direction.In the primary dentition. elongated apatite crystallites that vary in size and shape. The crystallites are tightly packed in a distinct pattern of orientation that gives strength and structural identity to the enamel prisms. which indicates a rigid structure. The hardest substance of the human body is enamel.

leaflike faults between enamel rod groups that extend from the enamel surface toward the DEJ. In vertical sections. The DEJ is also a hypermineralized zone about 30 μm thick. such invaginations decrease enamel thickness in these areas. the solubility of surface enamel is decreased. This interdigitation seems to contribute to a firm attachment between dentin and enamel.Enamel lamellae are thin. The interface of the enamel and dentin is called the dentinoenamel junction (Fig. chemical reactivity. the lines transverse the cuspal and incisal areas in a symmetric arc pattern descending obliquely to the cervical region and terminating at the DEJ. which are sound. Enamel is soluble when exposed to an acid medium. Enamel is incapable of repairing itself once destroyed because the ameloblast cell degenerates after formation of the enamel rod. The final act of the ameloblast cell is secretion of a membrane covering the end of the enamel rod. When fluorides are present during enamel formation or are topically applied to the enamel surface. These fissures act as food and bacterial traps that may predispose the tooth to dental caries (Fig. but the dissolution is not uniform. 2-9). explaining the enamel sensitivity experienced by some patients during tooth preparation. Fluoride additions can affect the chemical and physical properties of the apatite mineral and influence the hardness. 2-11). This layer is referred to as the Nasmyth membrane. 2-10). a potential precursor to dental disease. This membrane covers the newly erupted tooth and is worn away by mastication and cleaning. This arrangement leaves a V-shaped escape path between the cusp and its opposing groove for the movement of food during chewing. Enamel permeability decreases with age because of changes in the enamel matrix. with the crest of the waves penetrating toward the enamel. Sound coalescence of the lobes results in grooves. Fluoride concentration decreases toward the DEJ. 2-12). A functional cusp that opposes a groove occludes on the enamel and inclines on each side of the groove and not in the depth of the groove. . which is a precipitate of salivary proteins. Grooves or fissures are formed at the junction of the developmental lobes of the enamel. Enamel spindles may serve as pain receptors.or the primary enamel cuticle. sometimes extending into the dentin (see Fig. this decrease is referred to as enamel maturation. while preserving the apatite structures. these are termed enamel spindles when their ends are thickened (Fig. faulty coalescence results in fissures. In horizontal sections of a tooth. Occlusal grooves. Solubility of enamel increases from the enamel surface to the DEJ.which is a weak area predisposing a tooth to the entry of bacteria and dental caries. serve an important function as an escape path for the movement of food to the facial and lingual surfaces during mastication. although basic permeability is maintained. the striae of Retzius appear as concentric circles. and stability of enamel. The membrane is replaced by an organic deposit called a pellicle. Microorganisms may invade the pellicle to form bacterial plaque. Deep invaginations occur in pit-and-fissure areas of the occlusal surfaces of premolars and molars. They contain mostly organic material. Odontoblastic processes sometimes cross the DEJ into the enamel. It is scalloped or wavy in outline.

try to avoid placing the margins of restoration in occlusal contact area or place a restorative material that wears at a same rate as enamel. Composite or pit-and-fissure sealant is bonded to the enamel surface by resin tags formed in the acid-etched enamel rod structures. An established operative technique involves acid etching the enamel surface for the micromechanical ―bonding‖ of composite restorative materials or pit-and-fissure sealants directly to the etched surface. • Attrition: The change usually seen in enamel with age due to wear of occlusal surfaces and proximal contact points during mastication. 3. Acid etching causes preferential dissolution of enamel surface and helps in increasing the bonding between resin and enamel. • Acid etching: Acid etching is used in fissure sealants and bonding of restorative material to enamel. enamel walls should be supported by underlying dentin. • Cracks present on the enamel surface sometimes lead to pulpal death and fracture of tooth. So. Acid etching has been considered as accepted procedure for improving the bonding between resin and enamel. • Defective surfaces like hypoplastic areas. The etchant usually is a 35% to 50% solution of phosphoric acid. pits and fissures are at more risk for dental caries. decreasing the rate of demineralization. • Permeability: Enamel has been considered to be permeable to some ions and molecules.The structure of enamel can be an asset when it is subjected to purposeful and controlled acid dissolution of the enamel rods to provide this microretention for composite or sealant. in these patients.6). So. these hypomineralized areas are more sensitive to dental caries.Trace amounts of fluoride stabilize enamel by lowering acid solubility. Clinical Significance of Enamel • Color: Color of the enamel varies because of following factors: – Age – Ingestion of tetracycline during the formative stages – Ingestion of fluoride – Extrinsic stains – Developmental defects of tooth. and enhancing the rate of remineralization. DENTIN . • To avoid fracture of tooth and restoration. Hypomineralized areas present in the enamel are more permeable than mineralized area. This etching produces an irregular and pitted surface with numerous microscopic undercuts by an uneven dissolution of enamel rod heads and tails. • Remineralization: Remineralization is only because of enamel’s permeability to fluoride. Sometimes bruxism or contacts with porcelain also lead to attrition (Fig. •Preparation walls should be made parallel to direction of enamel rods since enamel rod boundaries are natural cleavage lines through which fracture can occur. calcium and phosphate (available from saliva or other sources).

It is approximately one-half of that of enamel.) Inorganic material Organic material Water Color 70% 20% 10% slightly darker than enamel and is generally light yellowish in young individuals.5 mm on the coronal surface. The organic components consist primarily of collagen type 1. 3. Thickness usually more on the cuspal heights and incisal edges and less in the cervical areas of tooth.7). As the modulus of elasticity of dentin is low. the thickness of secondary and tertiary dentin increases. so it indicates dentin is flexible in nature. The tensile strength of dentin is 40-60 MPa. On constant exposure to oral fluids and other irritants. With advancing age and various irritants. Composition (by wt. the color becomes light brown or black (Fig. . Its hardness at the DEJ is 3 times more than that near the pulp so it is important to keep the depth of preparation near the DEJ. Hardness is not the same in all its thickness. Hardness of dentin also increases with advancing age due to mineralization. Hardness The hardness of dentin is one-fifth that of enamel.) • Hardness increases with age.67 × 106 Psi. The flexibility of dentin provides support or cushion to the brittle enamel. It is around 3-3. The modulus of elasticity is about 1.Composition Dentin contains 70% inorganic hydroxyapatite crystals and the rest is organic substance and water making it more resilient than enamel.darker with age. Compressive hardness is about 266 MPa. Hardness of dentin • One-fifth of enamel • Compressive hardness is 266 MPa • Tensile strength—40-60 Mpa (approximately one-half of that of enamel.

Intertubular Dentin This dentin is present between the tubules which is less mineralized than peritubular dentin. This layer of dentin.000-20. .1: Dentinal tubules Pulp Diameter 2-3 μm Numbers 45. cusps and root areas.1) The dentinal tubules follow a gentle ―S‖-shaped curve in the tooth crown and are straighter in the incisal edges. Primary dentin a.000/mm2 at DEJ to 45.Structure of Dentin 1. 3. Peritubular Dentin This dentinal layer usually lines (inside) the dentinal tubules and is more mineralized than intertubular dentin and predentin. Table 3. Intertubular dentin 5. a complex mixture of proteins such as albumin. The dentinal tubules have lateral branches throughout the dentin. In addition to an odontoblast process. Reparative dentin 8. which is much more mineralized than the surrounding intertubular dentin.00065. Sclerotic dentin Dentinal Tubules (Table 3. Number of dentinal tubules increase from 15.000/mm2 DEJ 0. the tubule contains dentinal fluid. It is first formed dentin and is not mineralized. Secondary dentin 7. Circumpulpal 6. which are termed as canaliculi or microtubules. lie very close to the pulp tissue which is just next to cell bodies of odontoblasts.9 μm 15.000/mm2 Predentin The predentin is 10-30 μm unmineralized zone between the mineralized dentin and odontoblasts.000/mm2 toward the pulp.000-65. transferrin. tenascin and proteoglycans. Intertubular dentin determines the elasticity of the dental matrix. Dentinal tubules may extend from the odontoblastic layer to the dentinoenamel junction and give high permeability to the dentin. Each dentinal tubule is lined with a layer of peritubular dentin.000-20. Mantle b.8).5-0. The ends of the tubules are perpendicular to dentinoenamel and dentinocemental junctions (Fig. Predentin 3. Dentinal tubules 2. Peritubular dentin 4.

peritubular dentin becomes wider due to deposition of calcified materials. odontoblast like cells synthesize specific reparative dentin just beneath the site of injury to protect pulp tissue. denser. In this. Mantle dentin: At the outermost layer of the primary dentin. which progress from enamel to pulp. a narrow zone called mantle dentin exists. . Secondary dentin forms at a slower rate than primary dentin. therefore helping in prevention of diffusion of noxious agents from the tubules. Eburnated dentin: It is type of reactive sclerotic dentin which is formed due to destruction by slow caries process or mild chronic irritation and results in hard. This dentin outlines the pulp chamber and therefore. In other words. It is formed as a result of initial mineralization reaction by newly differentiated odontoblasts. both affected and associated odontoblasts die. attrition and trauma. darkened cleanable surface on outward portion of reactive dentin. with cellular inclusions. gives initial shape of the tooth. In sclerotic dentin. Physiologic sclerotic dentin: Sclerotic dentin occurs due to aging. less sensitive and more protective of pulp against irritations. Reparative dentin matrix has decreased permeability. This area becomes harder. Secondary Dentin Secondary dentin is formed after completion of root formation. Sclerotic Dentin It occurs due to aging or chronic and mild irritation (such as slowly advancing caries) which causes a change in the composition of the primary dentin. Reparative Dentin/Tertiary Dentin Tertiary dentin frequently formed as a response to external stimuli such as dental caries. These are called dead tracts due to appearance of black under transmitted light. Unlike physiological dentin. If the injury is severe and causes odontoblast cell death. 2. The secondary odontoblasts which produce reparative dentin are developed from undifferentiating mesenchymal cells of pulp. it may be referred to as circumpulpal dentin. the direction of tubules is more asymmetrical and complicated as compared to primary dentin. Also the tubular pattern of the reparative dentin ranges from a irregular to an atubular nature. Reactive sclerotic dentin: Reactive sclerotic dentin occurs due to irritants. Composed of two layers: 1.Primary Dentin This type of dentin is formed before root completion. Circumpulpal dentin: It forms the remaining primary dentin and is more mineralized than mantle dentin. It continues to grow till 3 years after tooth eruption. just under the enamel. reparative dentin is irregular. it is first formed dentin in the crown underlying the dentinoenamel junction. resulting in empty dental tubules which appear black when ground sections of dentin are viewed under transmitted light. Dead Tracts This type of dentin usually results due to moderate type of stimuli such as moderate rate caries or attrition. It is formed before root completion. In this case.

considerable quantities of cutting debris made up of small particles of mineralized collagen matrix are formed.5 μm/day depending on the stimuli Least More Less . resulting in dentinal sensitivity (Fig. Provides flexibility to the tooth 4. This can be done by etching or conditioning. 4. Dentinal tubules are composed of odontoblastic processes and dentinal fluid.When bonding of restorative materials to tooth structure. in further. 6.9). care should be taken during tooth preparation. Defensive in action (initiating pulpal defence mechanism). The dehydration of dentin by air blasts causes outward fluid movement and stimulates the mechanoreceptor of the odontoblast. Provide strength to the tooth 2. Provides strength and rigidity to the tooth. Tooth preparations should be done under constant air water spray to avoid build up of heat formation which. 3. Restoration should be well adapted to the preparation walls so as to prevent microleakage and thus damage to underlying dentin/pulp.5 μm to 3. When tooth is cut. This forms a layer on enamel of dentin called smear layer.Functions of dentin 1. Dentin should always be protected by liners. 2. attrition and trauma Secondary odontoblasts or undifferentiated mesenchymal cells of pulps Localized to only area of external stimulus Usually Formed by primary odontoblasts Formed by primary odontoblasts Location Orientation of tubules Rate of formation Permeability Found in all areas of dentin It is not uniform. 5. Clinical Considerations of Dentin 1. Offers protection of pulp 3. mainly present over roof and floor of pulp chamber Irregular Slow Regular Rapid Atubular Rapid between 1. Affects the color of enamel 5. 3. this smear layer has to be removed or modified. bases or dentin bonding agents. Primary Definition Type of cells Dentin formed before root completion Secondary Formed after root completion Tertiary Formed as a response to any external stimuli such as dental caries. damages dental pulp. 7. Etching of dentin causes removal of smear layer and etching of intertubular and peritubular dentin for micromechanical bonding.

The central region of both coronal and radicular pulp contains nerves and blood vessels. Histology of Dental Pulp Basically the pulp is divided into the central and the peripheral region. fibers.10): 1.e. The pulp is connective tissue system composed of cells. It consists of specialized cells. odontoblasts as well as other cells which can differentiate into hard tissue secreting cells. This close relationship between odontoblasts and dentin is known as ―Pulp – dentin complex‖. Due to lack of true collateral circulation. nerve fibers and dendritic cells may be found around the odontoblasts in this zone. Due to presence of the specialized cells. Odontoblastic layer : Odontoblasts consist of cell bodies and their cytoplasmic processes. Pulp is actually a microcirculatory system consists of arterioles and venules as the largest vascular component. pulp is dependent upon few arterioles entering through the foramen. ground substances. odontoblasts. This enables the vital pulp to partially compensate for loss of enamel or dentin occurring with age. Capillaries. i. The peripheral region contains the following zones (Fig.odontoblasts arranged peripherally in direct contact with dentin matrix. The odontoblastic cell bodies form the odontoblastic zone whereas the odontoblastic processes are located within predentin matrix.3. . interstitial fluid.DENTAL PULP The dental pulp is soft tissue of mesenchymal origin located in the center of the tooth. The pulp retains its ability to form dentin throughout the life. fibroblasts and other cellular components.

Lymphocytes: In normal pulps. rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). increased vessel permeability and thus allowing fluids and leukocytes to escape. 3. Odontoblasts synthesize mainly type I collagen. 3. Mast cells: On stimulation release histamine which causes vasodilatation. bacteria and foreign bodies. c. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes: Most common form of leukocyte is neutrophil. Golgibodies is located centrally. 3. Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells: Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells are descendants of undifferentiated cells of dental papilla which can dedifferentiate and then redifferentiate into many cells types. Ultrastructure of the odontoblast shows (Fig. Structural or Cellular Elements 1.2. Glycoproteins 3.11) large nucleus which may contain up to four nucleoli. though it is not present in healthy pulp. Nucleus is situated at basal end. They are associated with injury and resultant immune response. It contains fibroblasts. ribosome are also distributed throughout the cell body. where they form the cell-rich zone. Cell rich zone: This zone lies next to subodontoblastic layer. 4. It contains plexuses of capillaries and fibers ramification of small nerve. Defence cells (Fig. Mitochondria. Extracellular Components The extracellular components include fibers and the ground substance of pulp: Fibers The fibers are principally type I and type III collagen. amorphous material and large crystals into tubule lumen which result in dentin permeability to irritating substance. Cell free zone of Weil : Central to odontoblasts is subodontoblastic layer. d. They are major cell type in microabscesses formation and are effective at destroying and phagocytizing bacteria and dead cells. mainly T-lymphocytes are found. Glycosaminoglycans 2. Components of ground substance are: 1. alkaline phosphatase. Irritated odontoblast secretes collagen. proteoglycans.12). These are particularly numerous in the coronal portion of the pulp. debris. Water Functions of ground substance: . Odontoblasts: The first type of cells encountered as pulp is approached from dentin. etc. Fibroblasts: The cells found in greatest numbers in the pulp are fibroblasts. They are involved in the elimination of dead cells. They also secrete sialoproteins.13): a. termed as cell free zone of Weil. 3. 2. 3. undifferentiated cells which maintain number of odontoblasts by proliferation and differentiation. They secrete extracellular components like collagen and ground substance (Fig. b. Ground Substance It is a structureless mass with gel like consistency forming bulk of pulp. Histiocytes and macrophages: They originate from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells.

Innervation of Tooth Through the nervous system. . • Presence of dystrophic calcification and pulp stones • Decrease in sensitivity. attrition. Morphologic Changes • Continued deposition of intratubular dentin. • Reduction in pulp volume due to increase in secondary dentin deposition (Fig. • Initial transport of inorganic components to newly formed matrix. Pulp performs four basic functions. Pulp primarily helps in: • Synthesis and secretion of organic matrix. Nutrition of Dentin Nutrients travels into the dentin through the network of tubules created by the odontoblasts to contain their processes. Nutrition of dentin 3.: 1. 2. Forms the bulk of the pulp. also senses temperature and touch.1. Age Changes in Pulp Pulp like other connective tissues. i. trauma or restorative procedure.15). Odontoblasts are differentiated from the dental papilla adjacent to the basement membrane of enamel organ which later deposits dentin. Functions of Pulp The pulp lives for dentin and the dentin lives by the grace of the pulp. Pulp transmits pain. 3. Defense of tooth.reduction in tubule diameter.e. • Reduction in number of blood vessels. undergoes changes with time. Supports the cells. Acts as medium for transport of nutrients from the vasculature to the cells and of metabolites from the cells to the vasculature. pulp transmits sensations mediated through enamel or dentin to the higher nerve centers. Formation of Dentin It is primary function of pulp both in sequence and importance. Formation of dentin 2. 3. • Creates an environment favorable for matrix mineralization. Pulp can show changes in appearance (morphogenic) and in function (physiologic). Innervation of tooth 4. Physiologic Changes (Function) • Decrease in dentin permeability provides protected environment for pulp-reduced effect of irritants. Defense of Tooth Odontoblasts form dentin in response to injury particularly when original dentin thickness has been compromised as in caries. • Possibility of reduced ability of pulp to react to irritants and repair itself.

avascular connective tissue that covers the roots of the teeth. Covers the cervical third of the root. Cementum Cementum can be defined as hard. d.PERIRADICULAR TISSUE Periradicular tissue consists of cementum.) • Water Types There are two main types of root cementum: 1. e. Cellular cementum(Secondary) a. which are embedded in cementum and bone.) • Organic matter— 50-55% (by wt. Acellular cementum(Primary) a. Less calcified than acellular cementum. Periodontal Ligament Periodontal ligament is a unique structure as it forms a link between the alveolar bone and the cementum. It is softer than dentin. c. Periodontal ligament houses the fibers. Formed before the tooth reaches the occlusal plane. Main function is anchorage. Mainly found in apical third and interradicular. It is continuous with the connective tissue of the gingiva and communicates with the marrow spaces through vascular channels in the bone. f. Formed after the tooth reaches the occlusal plane. 3. Sharpey’s fibers are present in lesser number as compared to acellular cementum. Thickness is in the range of 30-230 μm.17). it does not contain cells. 2. are the principal collagenous fibers of periodontal ligament Composition • Inorganic content—45-50% (by wt. It is very permeable to dyes and chemical agents. d. b. f. b. periodontal ligament and alveolar bone (Fig. It contains cells. c. Abundance of Sharpey’s fibers. Cementum consists of approximately 45 to 50% inorganic matter and 50 to 55% organic matter and water by weight. e. Sharpey’s fibers. As the name indicates. from the pulp canal and the external root surface. differentiated from enamel by its lack of luster and darker hue. Main function is adaptation. cells and other structural elements like blood vessels and nerves. The periodontal ligament comprises of the following components: .

III. Transeptal fibers: These fibers run from the cementum of one tooth to the cementum of another tooth crossing over the alveolar crest. They bear the occlusal forces and transmit them to alveolar bone. IV. Alveolar crest group: These fibers arise from the alveolar crest in fan-like manner and attach to the root cementum. Nerve Fibers Either of myelinated or non-myelinated type. Protective 5. Provides lymphatic drainage 4. Cells present in bone are: a. Functions of Periodontal Ligament 1.Periodontal Fibers (Fig. The principal fibers are present in six arrangements. Osteocytes . Horizontal group: These fibers are arranged horizontally emerging from the alveolar bone and attached to the root cementum. Oblique fibers: These fibers make the largest group in the periodontal ligament. Blood Vessels PDL receives blood supply from the gingival. Apical fibers: These fibers are present around the root apex. Mast cells d. 3.18) The most important component of periodontal ligament is principal fibers. Cells and Intercellular Matrix 1. Fibroblast b. These fibers prevent the extrusion of the tooth. Interradicular fibers: Present in furcation areas of multirooted teeth.I. Formative 6. Neutrophil e. Lymphocytes f. Epithelial cells rests of Mallassez. Nutritive 3. They extend from cementum to bone obliquely. Macrophages c. Resorptive function is accomplished with cells like osteoclasts and cementoclasts. alveolar and apical vessels. Alveolar Bone Bone is specialized connective tissue which comprises of inorganic phases that is very well designed for its role as load bearing structure of the body. Plasma cells g. II Cells a. Supportive 2.

the crest of alveolar bone lies approximately 2-3 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction but it comes to lie more apically in periodontal diseases.etc. Bone consists of two plates of compact bone separated by spongy bone in between. . Osteoblasts c. Inorganic matter is composed mainly of minerals calcium and phosphate along with hydroxyapatite. citrate. Organic matrix is composed mainly of collagen type I (90%). Intercellular matrix: Bone consists of two-third inorganic matter and one-third organic matter. Osteoclasts 2. In some area. there is no spongy bone. it gets resorbed easily. The spaces between trabeculae of spongy bone are filled with marrow which consists of hemopoietic tissue in early life and fatty tissue latter in life. In healthy conditions. carbonate. In periapical diseases.b. Both local as well as hormonal factors play an important role in metabolism of bone. Bone is a dynamic tissue continuously forming and resorbing in response to functional needs.

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