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CIE-Electricity-and-magnetism
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Electricity-and-magnetism........................................................................................................................1
Chapter 1 Electric Fields and Capacitance................................................................................................1
3-1 Electric charge Coulomb law...................................................................................................1
1-2 Electric field Electric field strength.......................................................................................1
1-3 Electric field lines .......................................................................................................................1
1-4 Electric potential difference Electric potential.........................................................................1
1-5 Linking the electric field and the electric potential.....................................................................1
1-6 Capacitor Capacitance .............................................................................................................1
1-7 The motions of charged particles in the uniform electric field ...................................................1
1-8 Comparison of electric and gravitational fields ..........................................................................1
1-9 29 Worked examples........................................................................................................................1
Chapter 2 Magnetic fields .........................................................................................................................1
2-1 Magnetic flux density .................................................................................................................1
2-1-1 Magnets and fields...........................................................................................................1
2-1-2 Magnetic fields from currents..........................................................................................1
2-1-3 Magnetic force on moving charges and flux density (B).................................................1
2-1-4 Magnetic force on a current.............................................................................................1
2-2 Moving charges in a magnetic field............................................................................................2
2-2-1 Charged particles in circular orbits..................................................................................2
2-2-2 The cyclotron...................................................................................................................2
2-3 19 Worked examples........................................................................................................................2
Chapter 3 Electromagnetic induction........................................................................................................2
3-1 Electromagnetic induction phenomena.......................................................................................2
3-2 Faraday law of electromagnetic induction and Lenzs law.........................................................3
3-3 Motional emf ..............................................................................................................................4
3-4 AC Generators ............................................................................................................................5
3-5 The physics parameters of alternating current ............................................................................5
3-6 The transformer...........................................................................................................................6
3-7 18 Worked examples........................................................................................................................9
Chapter 4 Current Electricity ..................................................................................................................27
4-1 Charge, current and potential difference...................................................................................27
4-2 Resistance .................................................................................................................................27
4-3 Ohms law and measuring resistance........................................................................................27
4-3-1 Graph of V against I and I against V for the ideal resistor ............................................27
4-4 Resistivity .................................................................................................................................27
4.5 Circuit components symbols: ....................................................................................................27
4-5-1 IV and VI graphs for different conductors.............................................................27
4-6 Circuits......................................................................................................................................27
4-7 Potential divider........................................................................................................................27
4-8 Electromotive force and internal resistance..............................................................................27
4-9 Alternating currents ..................................................................................................................27
4-9-1 AC Generators ...............................................................................................................27
4-9-2 The physics parameters of alternating current...............................................................27
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4-9-3 The transformer .............................................................................................................27
4-10 39 Worked examples....................................................................................................................27
Chapter 5 Gravitation..............................................................................................................................27
5-1 Newtons law............................................................................................................................27
5-2 Gravitational field strength.......................................................................................................28
5-3 Gravitational potential ..............................................................................................................28
5-4 Orbits of planets and satellites ..................................................................................................28
5-4-1 An orbit equation...........................................................................................................28
5-5 36 Worked examples......................................................................................................................28
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Electricity-and-magnetism
Chapter 1 Electric Fields and Capacitance
3-1 Electric charge Coulomb law

1-2 Electric field Electric field strength

1-3 Electric field lines

1-4 Electric potential difference Electric potential

1-5 Linking the electric field and the electric potential


1-6 Capacitor Capacitance

1-7 The motions of charged particles in the uniform electric field

1-8 Comparison of electric and gravitational fields


1-9 29 Worked examples


Chapter 2 Magnetic fields
2-1 Magnetic flux density
2-1-1 Magnets and fields

2-1-2 Magnetic fields from currents

2-1-3 Magnetic force on moving charges and flux density (B)

2-1-4 Magnetic force on a current

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2-2 Moving charges in a magnetic field
2-2-1 Charged particles in circular orbits

2-2-2 The cyclotron

2-3 19 Worked examples



Chapter 3 Electromagnetic induction
3-1 Electromagnetic induction phenomena
1.1 Magnetic flux and flux linkage
Consider a situation where the magnetic field is uniform in magnitude and
direction. Place a rectangular coil in the B-field. (Fig. 3.1)
Fig. 3.1 a rectangular coil in the B-field
Rectangular coil of
area A

The magnetic flux, , is defined as the product of the field magnitude by the
area crossed by the field lines.
u
cos B A BA u

u = =
is the component of B perpendicular to the coil, Where B

u is the angle
between B and the normal to the loop.
SI units: Weber (Wb) and
2
1 1 Wb T m =
0
Note:
if u = cos , then B A BA BA u

u = = =
if the coil has N turns in series, then there is a flux u through a coil of N
turns. And we call the flux linkage. Nu
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cos N NB A NBA u

u = = Flux linkage:
1.2 Electromagnetic induction phenomena
Provided that the magnetic flux varies in a circuit, there will be a current in
the circuit and no matter what method is used. Generating a current in a
magnetic field is called electromagnetic induction, and the current is called
an induction current.
3-2 Faraday law of electromagnetic induction and Lenzs law
(i) Faradays law of magnetic induction (Fig. 3.2):
The emf induced in a loop of wire is proportional to the rate of change of
magnetic flux through the coil. This statement is known as Faradays law.
We often call the emf induced by a changing magnetic flux and induced emf,
and the current it produces is called an induced current or an induction
current.
Fig. 3.2 a current is set up in the circuit as
long as there is relative motion between the
magnet and the loop

(ii) Lenzs law
Lenzs law: the polarity of the induced emf is such that is produces a current
whose magnetic field opposes the change in magnetic flux through the loop.
That is, the induced current tends to maintain the original flux through the
circuit.
We can write Faradays law of induction mathematically with the equation:
t
Au
E =
A

Here E is the induced emf in one loop of wire, Au
t A
is the change in
magnetic flux, and is the time interval over which the change takes place.
The minus sign indicates the direction of the emf and is in agreement with
Lenzs law. If we apply this equation to a coil containing N loops or turns of
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wire, then
N
t
Au
E =
A
l

3-3 Motional emf
In our discussion of Faradays law, we examined the changing flux in a loop
of wire due to the relative motion of the field and the loop. Now we extend
our study to include the effects of a magnetic field on a straight piece of wire
or other conductor that moves relative to the field. We will see that an emf is
developed between the ends of the wire.
To investigate the induction of emf on a moving conductor, lets consider a
conducting bar of length sliding along a stationary U-shaped conductor
that is perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B (Fig. 3.3). The bar moves
with a constant speed v in the x direction. As the bar moves, the area
enclosed by the loop consisting of the bar and the U-shaped conductor
increases. Consequently, the magnetic flux through the loop increases. The
emf developed around the loop is obtained from Faradays law:
( ) ( ) BA A l x x
B B Bl
t t t t t
Au A A A A
E = = = = =
A A A A A

Since
x
v
t
A
=
A
E Blv =
, we have



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3-4 AC Generators
AC generator (Fig. 2.4)
Fig. 3.4 a simple AC generator

As the Fig. 2.4 shows, if the field B is uniform and the loop rotates with a
constant angular speed e , the magnetic flux through the single loop of area
A may be expressed as
cos cos B A BA BA t u e

u = = =
This flux is a function of time, from the Faradays law, we calculate the emf
to be
(cos ) BA t
E
t t
e Au A
= =
A A

And
sin
con t
t
t
e
e
A
=
A
sin E BA t

Thus,
e e =
sin E NBA t

Note: generalize the result to N loops:
e e =
So, the output of an alternator is a sinusoidal emf. When an alternator is
connected to a closed circuit, it produces a sinusoidally alternating current.
3-5 The physics parameters of alternating current
Alternating current: the current repeatedly reverses its direction.
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Frequency ( ) of alternating current: number of cycle per second. f
Time period (T) of alternating current: the time for one full cycle.
And
1 1
T or f
f T
= =
Peak value of alternating current (or potential difference): the maximum
current (or potential difference) that is the same value in either direction.
Peak-to-peak value: the difference of the peak value in the opposite direction.
Root mean square value of an alternating current: the value of direct current
that would give the same heating effect as the alternating current in the same
resistor.
The root mean square value of an alternating current:
0
1
2
rms
I I =

The root mean square value of an alternating potential difference:
0
1
2
rms
V V =

Where I
0
is the peak current, V
0
is the peak voltage.
Therefore:
The root mean square value of an alternating current or pd
=
1
2
the peak value
Then the mean power supplied to the resistor:
2
2 rms
rms rms rms
V
p I R I V
R
= = =
3-6 The transformer
One of the most important applications of mutual induction and
self-induction takes place in a transformer. A transformer is a device for
increasing or decreasing an AC voltage.
Fig. 3.5 shows a drawing of a transformer. The transformer consists of an
iron core on which two coils are wound: a primary coil with turns, and a
secondary coil with
p
N
s
N turns.
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The primary coil is connected to an ac generator. And the alternating current
in the primary coil establishes a changing magnetic field in the iron core.
Because iron is easily magnetized, it greatly enhances the magnetic field
relative to that in an air core and guides the field lines to the secondary coil.
In a well-designed core, nearly all the magnetic flux u that passes through
each turn of the primary coil also goes through each turn of the secondary
coil. Since the magnetic field is changing, the flux through the primary and
secondary coils is also changing, and consequently an emf is induced in both
coils. In the secondary coil the induced emf
s
E arises from mutual induction
and is given by Faradays law of electromagnetic induction as
s s
E N
t
Au
=
A
p
E

In the primary coil the induced emf is due to self-induction and is
specified by Faradays law as
p p
E N
t
Au
=
A

The term
t
Au
A
is the same in both of these equations, since the same flux
penetrates each turn of both coils. So
s s
p p
E N
E N
=
In a high-quality transformer the resistances of the coils are negligible, so the
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magnitudes of the emfs,
s
E
p
and E , are nearly equal to the terminal
voltages,
s
V
p
V and , across the coils. The relation
s s
p p
E N
E N
= is called the
transformer equation and is usually written in terms of the terminal voltages:
Thus
Transformer equation:
sec
s s
p p
V N ondary voltage
primary voltage V N
= =
According to the transformer equation, if
s
N
p
N is greater than , the
secondary voltage is greater than the primary voltage. In this case we have a
step-up transformer. On the other hand, if
s
N
p
N is less than , the secondary
voltage is less than the primary voltage. In this case we have a step-down
transformer.
The transformer can change the voltage of the secondary coil, but the energy
conservation requires that the energy delivered to the secondary coil must be
the same as the energy delivered to the primary coil, provided no energy is
dissipated in heating these coils or is otherwise lost. In a well-designed
transformer, less than 1% of the input energy is lost in the form of heat.
Noting that power is energy per unit time, and assuming 100% energy
transfer, the average power p P delivered to the primary coil is equal to the
average power delivered to the secondary coil; so s P
p p s s
I V I V =

Or
p
s s
p s p
I
V N
V I N
= =

But in fact, there is energy dissipated, so the efficiency of the transformer can
be calculated in this form:
100%
s s
p p
I V
transformer efficiency
I V
=




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3-7 18 Worked examples
1. A magnetic field with 0.2 B T = pass through a circle with an area of
, as Fig. 1.1 shows, find the flux through the circle in each orientation
shown.
2
60cm
Fig. 1.1

Solution:
We know that B A

u =
4 2 3
(0.2 ) (60 10 ) 1.2 10

(a) B A BA T m Wb

u = = = =
(b)
0 0 3 3
3
( cos30 ) cos30 1.2 10 1.04 10
2
B A B A BA Wb Wb

u = = = = =
Au


2. A square coil 10 cm on a side has 20 turns of wire. Initially, it is at rest
between the poles of a magnet whose field is 0.25 T, with the plane of the coil
perpendicular to the field. What average voltage (emf) is produced on the coil
if it is withdrawn completely from the field in 0.10 s?
Solution:
To find the emf, we must first find the change in magnetic flux . Then
from knowledge of the time interval t A , we can use the equation
N
t
Au
E =
A
to compute E. and we know that B A

u =
l
2
l
2
i
B A Bl

u = =
0
, because the field is
perpendicular to the plane of the coil, and the initial flux is just the produce
of the field B with the area of the coil. For a square coil of side length , the
area is , thus the initial flux is

, thus After the coil is withdrawn from the magnet, u =
2
0
i i
Bl Au = u = u =

Therefore, the induced emf is
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2 2 2
(0.25 ) (10 10 )
20 0.5
0.10
Bl T m
N N V
t t s

Au
E = = = =
A A
E Blv =


3. A 0.27-m aluminum rod is rapidly moved between the poles of a
laboratory magnet that generates a magnetic field of 0.89 T. with what speed
must the rod be moved so that the emf developed between the ends is 1.5 V?
the rod and its motion are perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field.
Solution:
From the equation , we can get the speed
1.5
6.2 /
0.89 0.27
E V
v m s
Bl T m
= = =

sin E NBA t


4. A coil made of 25 loops, each of area 0.01 m
2
, is rotated about an axis
perpendicular to the earths magnetic field (about ) at a frequency
of 60 Hz. what is the peak emf generated by the coil
5
5.0 10 T

Solution:
The peak emf in the coil is given by the equation e e = , modified
by including the number of loops N and with sin t 1 e = :
E NBAe =
2 2 60 377 The angular frequency f Hz Hz e t t = = =
5 3
5.0 10 0.01 377 4.71 10 4.71 25 T V mV E NBA
, thus the emf becomes
e

= = = =

5. (a) In an experiment to illustrate electromagnetic induction, a permanent
magnet is moved towards a coil, as shown in Fig. 5.1, causing an emf to be
induced across the coil.

Using Faradays law, explain why a larger emf would be induced in this
experiment if a stronger magnet were moved at the same speed.
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You may be awarded additional marks to those shown in brackets for the
quality of written communication in your answer.
Solution:
A stronger magnet produces flux lines closer together, which causes more
flux lines cut per unit time. And the rate of change of flux is greater, thus the
emf is larger.
Review:
The emf induced in a loop of wire is proportional to the rate of change of
magnetic flux through the coil. This statement is known as Faradays law.
We often call the emf induced by a changing magnetic flux and induced emf,
and the current it produces is called an induced current or an induction
current.
(b) A conductor of length l is moved at a constant speed v so that it passes
perpendicularly through a uniform magnetic field of flux density B, as shown
in Fig. 5.2.

(i) Give an expression for the area of the magnetic field swept out by the
conductor in time t.
Solution:
The distance traveled in time t A is given by s v t = A
A ls lv t = = A
. Thus the area swept
out by the conductor is
(ii) Show that the induced emf, c , across the ends of the conductor is given
by
Blv c =
Solution:
From Faradays law:
( ) BA A lv t
B B Blv
t t t t
Au A A A
E = = = = =
A A A A

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The minus sign indicates the direction of the emf and is in agreement with
Lenzs law.
(c) A simple electrical generator can be made from a copper disc, which is
rotated at right angles to a uniform magnetic field, directed into the plane of
the diagram (Fig. 5.3). An emf is developed across terminals P (connected to
the axle) and Q (connected to a contact on the edge of the disc).
Fig. 5.3

The radius of the disc is 64 mm and it is rotated at 16 revolutions per second
in a uniform magnetic field of flux density 28mT.
(i) Calculate the angular speed of the disc.
Solution:
The time taken for one revolution (time period T) is given by
1
16
T =
Therefore, the angular speed is given by
2
2 16 32 101 / rad s
T
t
e t t = = = =
(ii) Calculate the linear speed of the mid-point M of a radius of the disc.
Solution:
Distance between M and the axle is
64
32
2 2
M
r
r mm = = =
3
32 10 101 3.23 /
M M
v r m s e

= = =
E Blv =

Thus, the linear speed of M is given by
(iii) Hence, or otherwise, calculate the emf induced across terminals P and Q.
Solution:
The equation gives the induced emf, and
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3
64 64 10
PQ
l r r mm m

= = = =
3.23 /
M
v v m s Average linear speed of the disc is = =
3 3 3
28 10 64 10 3.23 5.8 10 E Blv V

= = =
u
cos B A BA

Therefore,


6. Which one of the following is not a unit of magnetic flux?
A NmA
-1

B Wb
C Tm
2

D Vs
-1

Solution:
The magnetic flux, , is defined as the product of the field magnitude by the
area crossed by the field lines.
u

u = =
Where is the component of B perpendicular to the coil, B

u is the angle
between B and the normal to the loop.
SI units: Weber (Wb) and
2
1 1 Wb T m =
And
sec
1 ( ) ( )
newton ond
N s
tesla T
C m
coulomb meter


Thus
2 2
1 1 1 ( ) 1 1
N s N s m N m
Wb T m m
C m C A

= = = =


As 1 1
C
A
s
=
Choose (D).

7. The magnetic flux through a coil of 5 turns changes uniformly from
to in 0.50 s. What is the emf induced in the coil due to
this change in flux?
3
15 10 Wb

3
7.0 10 Wb

A 14mV
B 16mV
C 30mV
D 80mV
Solution:
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Using the Faradays law of induction, the magnitude of the induced emf is
given by
3 3
15 10 7 10
5 0.08 80
0.5
N V mV
t

Au
E = = = =
A

Choose (D).

8. A wire of length 0.50 m, forming part of a complete circuit, is positioned at
right angles to a uniform magnetic field. The graph shows how the force
acting on the wire due to the magnetic field varies as the current through the
wire is increased.

What is the flux density of the magnetic field?
A 2 mT
B 4 mT
C 15 mT
D 25 mT
Solution:
The magnetic force on the wire is given by:
( ) F BIL BL I = =
And the gradient of the graph is
10
2 /
5
mN
k mN A
A
= =
2 / (0.5 ) 2 /

That is
BL mN A mB mN A = =
We can get
B = 4 mT.
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Choose (B).

9. A uniform magnetic field is produced by mounting two flat magnets on a
U-shaped iron frame, so that the north and south poles are facing, as shown in
Fig. 9.1. The flux density of the magnetic field is 45 mT and may be assumed
to act only over the area of the pole faces, which measure 40 mm by 20 mm.
This magnet arrangement rests on the pan of a top pan balance.
Fig. 9.1

(a) A horizontal wire is placed in the centre of the magnetic field and aligned
to make it perpendicular to the flux lines. When a current is passed through
the wire, the balance reading increases by
3
1.4 10 kg

.
Calculate the current in the wire.
Solution:
Magnetic force on a current:
sin F BIL u =
0
sin sin 90 1 u = =
, the wire is perpendicular to the flux lines. Thus

Therefore, the current in the wire
3
3 3
(1.4 10 )(9.81 / )
7.63
(45 10 )(40 10 )
F kg N kg
I A
Bl T m

= = =



(b) The wire is disconnected from the current source and its ends are
connected to a sensitive voltmeter. When the wire is moved rapidly, vertically
upwards across the whole magnetic field, cutting all of the flux lines
perpendicularly, the voltmeter gives a reading.
Calculate
(b) (i) the magnetic flux change experienced by the wire during its movement
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completely across the magnetic field,
(b) (ii) the time taken for the wire to pass completely across the magnetic
field, assuming it is moved at constant speed, if the voltmeter reads 0.15 mV.
Solution:
(i) The magnetic flux, cos B A BA u

u = = , where u is the angle between B


and the normal to the area; and here cosu cos 0
o
1 = =
Thus
cos B A BA BA u

u = = =
3 3 4 2
40 10 20 10 8 10

The wire is moved across the whole magnetic field, so the area is given by
A m m m

= =
3 4 2 5
45 10 8 10 3.6 10 BA T m Wb

u= = =
(ii) From the equation
t
Au
E =
A
, we can get the time taken

5
3
3.6 10
0.24
0.15 10
Wb
t s
V

Au
A = = =
E


10. The magnetic flux through a coil of N turns is increased uniformly from
zero to a maximum value in a time t. An emf, E, is induced across the coil.
What is the maximum value of the magnetic flux through the coil?
A
Et
N

B
N
Et

C EtN
D
E
Nt

Solution:
Using the equation
max max
0
0
N N N
t t t
u u Au
E = = =
A

Thus,
max
Et
N
u =
Choose (A).

11. An aircraft, of wing span 60 m, flies horizontally at a speed of 150ms
-1
, If
the vertical component of the Earths magnetic field in the region of the plane
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is , what emf is induced across the wing tips of the plane?
5
1.0 10 T

A 0.09V
B 0.90V
C 9.0V
D 90V
Solution:
Motional emf:
5
1.0 10 60 150 0.09 E Blv V

= = =
Choose (A).

12. The graph shows how the magnetic flux passing through a loop of wire
changes with time.

What feature of the graph represents the magnitude of the emf induced in the
coil?
A the area enclosed between the graph line and the time axis
B the area enclosed between the graph line and the magnetic flux axis
C the inverse of the gradient of the graph
D the gradient of the graph
Solution:
The induced emf in one loop of wire is given by
t
Au
E =
A

Therefore, choose (D).

13. A 20-W high-intensity bulb in a desk lamp has a resistance of 7.2 O
when burning. The lamps power comes from the secondary of a small
transformer, the primary of which is connected to a 120-V circuit. (a) What is
the ratio of the number of turns on the primary winding to the number of
turns on the secondary winding? (b) What is the minimum current through
the primary when the lamp is on?
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Solution:
To find the relative number of turns, we first need to find the secondary
voltage. We can calculate the secondary voltage from knowledge of the
lamps resistance and the power expended. Then we can use the primary and
secondary voltages to find the ratio of turns. We will assume that the power
input and the power output are equal and use the equation
p p s s
I V I V = to find
the primary current.
(a) The secondary voltage
s
V is found from

2
s
s s s
s
V
P I V
R
= =
(20 )(7.2 ) 12
s s s
V P R W V = = O =
According to the equation
sec
s s
p p
V N ondary voltage
primary voltage V N
= = , the number of turns is
equal to the ratio of the voltages. Setting 120
p
V V = , we have
120
10
12
p p
s s
N V
V
N V V
= = =
20
p p s s

That is, the primary coil has 10 turns of wire for each turn of wire in the
secondary coil.
(b) We now equate the input power to the output power to find the primary
current:
I V I V W = =
20
0.17
120
p
W
I A
V
= =
p
N


14. (a) (i) Outline the essential features of a step-down transformer when in
operation.
Solution:
A transformer is a device for increasing or decreasing an AC voltage. The
transformer consists of an iron core on which two coils are wound: a primary
coil with turns, and a secondary coil with
s
N turns. The primary coil is
connected to an ac generator. And if
s
N
p
N is less than , the secondary
voltage is less than the primary voltage. In this case we have a step-down
transformer.
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(a) (ii) Describe two causes of the energy losses in a transformer and discuss
how these energy losses may be reduced by suitable design and choice of
materials.
The quality of your written communication will be assessed in this question.
Solution:
Any two from the following four:

(1) When a transformer is in operation, there are ac currents in the primary
and secondary coils. The coils have some resistance and the currents cause
heating of the coils, causing some energy to be lost. This loss may be reduced
by using low resistance wire for the coils. This is most important for the high
current winding (the secondary coil of a step-down transformer). Thick
copper wire is used for this winding, because thick wire of low resistivity has
a low resistance.
(2) The ac current in the primary coil magnetises, demagnetises and
remagnetises the core continuously in opposite directions. Energy is required
both to magnetise and to demagnetise the core and this energy is wasted
because it simply heats the core. The energy wasted may be reduced by
choosing a material for the core which is easily magnetised and demagnetised,
ie a magnetically soft material such as iron, or a special alloy, rather than
steel.
(3) The magnetic flux passing through the core is changing continuously.
The metallic core is being cut by this flux and the continuous change of flux
induces emfs in the core. In a continuous core these induced emfs cause
currents known as eddy currents, which heat the core and cause energy to be
wasted. The eddy current effect may be reduced by laminating the core
instead of having a continuous solid core; the laminations are separated by
very thin layers of insulator. Currents cannot flow in a conductor which is
discontinuous (or which has a very high resistance).
(4) If a transformer is to be efficient, as much as possible of the magnetic flux
created by the primary current must pass through the secondary coil. This
will not happen if these coils are widely separated from each other on the
core. Magnetic losses may be reduced by adopting a design which has the
two coils close together, eg by better core design, such as winding them on
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top of each other around the same part of a common core which also
surrounds them.
(b) Electronic equipment, such as a TV set, may usually be left in standby
mode so that it is available for instant use when needed. Equipment left in
standby mode continues to consume a small amount of power. The internal
circuits operate at low voltage, supplied from a transformer. The transformer
is disconnected from the mains supply only when the power switch on the
equipment is turned off. This arrangement is outlined in Fig. 14.1.
Fig. 14.1

When in standby mode, the transformer supplies an output current of
300 mA at 9.0V to the internal circuits of the TV set.
(b) (i) Calculate the power wasted in the internal circuits when the TV set is
left in standby mode.
Solution:
The power wasted is given by
3
9 300 10 2.7 P VI W

= = =
(b) (ii) If the efficiency of the transformer is 0.90, show that the current
supplied by the 230 V mains supply under these conditions is 13mA.
(b) (iii) The TV set is left in standby mode for 80% of the time. Calculate the
amount of energy, in J, that is wasted in one year through the use of the
standby mode.

7
1 3.15 10 year s =
Solution:
(ii)
The power in the mains supply is given by
2.7
3
0.9 0.9
s
P
P W = = =
Thus the current supplied by the mains supply is
3
0.013 13
230
P W
I A mA
V V
= = = =
(iii)
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The total time
7 7
3.15 10 80% 2.52 10 t s = =
7 7
3 2.52 10 7.6 10
Thus, the energy wasted is given by
E Pt J = = =
(b) (iv) Show that the cost of this wasted energy will be about 4, if electrical
energy is charged at 20 p per kWh.
Solution:
7
3
7.6 10
Energy wasted 21 10 ( ) 21( )
3600
J
Wh kWh
s

= = =
Cost of wasted energy 21 20 420 4.20 p = = =


(c) The power consumption of an inactive desktop computer is typically
double that of a TV set in standby mode. This waste of energy may be
avoided by switching off the computer every time it is not in use. Discuss one
advantage and one disadvantage of doing this.
Solution:
Advantage: Cost saving, saving essential fuel resources, reduced global
warming.
Disadvantage: energy required to reboot may exceed energy saved by
switching off.

15. A coil rotating in a magnetic field produces the following voltage
waveform when connected to an oscilloscope.

With the same oscilloscope settings, which one of the following voltage
waveforms would be produced if the coil were rotated at twice the original
speed?
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Solution:
The induced emf is given by
sin E BA t e e =
Where e is angular speed
And now the speed is doubled, thus the induced emf now is given by
1
(2 ) sin(2 ) 2 sin(2 ) E BA t BA t e e e e = =
Thus, the amplitude is doubled, but the time period is halved.
Choose (C).

16. A 230V, 60 W lamp is connected to the output terminals of a transformer
which has a 200 turn primary coil and a 2000 turn secondary coil. The
primary coil is connected to an ac source with a variable output pd. The lamp
lights at its normal brightness when the primary coil is supplied with an
alternating current of 2.7 A.
What is the percentage efficiency of the transformer?
A 3%
B 10%
C 97%
D 100%
Solution:
The current passing through the lamp is given by
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60
0.26
230
P
I A
V
= = =
And
p
s
s p
I
N
I N
=

The current passing through the secondary coil is given by
2.7 200
0.27
2000
p p
s
s
I N
I A
N

= = =
Therefore, the efficiency q is given by
0.26
100% 100% 97%
0.27
s
I
I
q = = =
Choose (C).

17. Fig. 17.1 shows an end view of a simple electrical generator. A
rectangular coil is rotated in a uniform magnetic field with the axle at right
angles to the field direction. When in the position shown in Fig. 17.1 the
angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the normal to the plane
of the coil isu .
Fig. 17.1

(a) The coil has 50 turns and an area of 1.910
3
m
2
. The flux density of the
magnetic field is 2.810
2
T. Calculate the flux linkage for the coil whenu
is 35, expressing your answer to an appropriate number of significant
figures.
Solution:
cos N NB A NBA u

u = = Flux linkage:
Where u is the angle between B and the normal to the loop.
Therefore
2 3 0 3
cos 50 2.8 10 1.9 10 cos 35 2.2 10 N NBA Wb u

u = = =
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(b) The coil is rotated at constant speed, causing an emf to be induced.
(b) (i) Sketch a graph on the outline axes to show how the induced emf varies
with angleu during one complete rotation of the coil, starting when 0 u = .
Values are not required on the emf axis of the graph.

Solution:
The induced emf of the generator is given by
sin E NBA t e e =
sin

Thus, it is a reasonable sine curve drawn on axes, showing just one cycle,
starting at emf = 0.
(b) (ii) Give the value of the flux linkage for the coil at the positions where
the emf has its greatest values.
Solution:
The induced emf of the generator is given by
E NBA t e e = sin 1 t , when the emf at its greatest values, , thus e =
cos 0 t e =
cos 0 N NBA t
, and
Flux linkage: e u = =
Therefore, the flux linkage in these positions is zero.
(b) (iii) Explain why the magnitude of the emf is greatest at the values of u
shown in your answer to part (b)(i).
Solution:
The induced emf of the generator is given by
sin E NBA t e e = sin 1 t , when e =
0
90 t e =
0
270 t e =
, the emf has greatest values, thus in one cycle,
or .

18. Domestic users in the United Kingdom are supplied with mains electricity
at a root mean square voltage of 230V.
(a) State what is meant by root mean square voltage.
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(b) (i) Calculate the peak value of the supply voltage.
(b) (ii) Calculate the average power dissipated in a lamp connected to the
mains supply when the rms current is 0.26 A.
(c) The frequency of the voltage supply is 50 Hz. On the axes below draw the
waveform of the supplied voltage labelling the axes with appropriate values.

Review:
Root mean square value of an alternating current: the value of direct current
that would give the same heating effect as the alternating current in the same
resistor.
The root mean square value of an alternating current:
0
1
2
rms
I I =

The root mean square value of an alternating potential difference:
0
1
2
rms
V V =

Where I
0
is the peak current, V
0
is the peak voltage.
Therefore:
The root mean square value of an alternating current or pd
=
1
2
the peak value
Then the mean power supplied to the resistor:
2
2 rms
rms rms rms
V
p I R I V
R
= = =
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Solution:
(a) Root mean square value of an alternating current: the value of direct
current that would give the same heating effect as the alternating current in
the same resistor.
(b)(i) From
0
1
2
rms
V V =
,
0
2 2 230 325
rms
V V = = = V

(b)(ii)
2
2
0.26 230 60
rms
rms rms rms
V
p I R I V
R
= = = = = W
(c) Time period is given by
1 1
0.02
50
T s
f
= = =












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Chapter 4 Current Electricity
4-1 Charge, current and potential difference

4-2 Resistance

4-3 Ohms law and measuring resistance

4-3-1 Graph of V against I and I against V for the ideal resistor

4-4 Resistivity
4.5 Circuit components symbols:

4-5-1 I V and VI graphs for different conductors

4-6 Circuits


4-7 Potential divider


4-8 Electromotive force and internal resistance

4-9 Alternating currents
4-9-1 AC Generators

4-9-2 The physics parameters of alternating current

4-9-3 The transformer

4-10 39 Worked examples

Chapter 5 Gravitation
5-1 Newtons law

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5-2 Gravitational field strength

5-3 Gravitational potential
5-4 Orbits of planets and satellites
5-4-1 An orbit equation


5-5 36 Worked examples