You are on page 1of 14


Aboriginal peoples descendants of Canada's ArcView GIS program especially designed for
first inhabitants map -making
absolute measure type of measure that does not area symbol coloured pattern representing a
consider total amounts in relation to population feature on a topographic map
assimilate to lose yo ur culture and adopt the
acid precipitation rain, snow, or fog created culture of the larger group within which you live
after sulphur dioxide and nitric oxides mix with (e.g., First Nations adopting broader Canadian
water vapour in the atmosphere. Acid precipita- culture)
tion kills vegetation and turn lakes acidic, caus -
ing fish to die and wildlife to disappear. average annual temperature monthly average
temperatures added together and divided by 12
active layer upp er layer of permafrost that
thaws only briefly in summertime balance of trade difference between value of
exports and value of imports. If exports exceed
aerial photo photograph taken from the sky imports, there is a trade surplus. If imports
instead of the ground exceed exports, there is a trade deficit.
agribusiness agricultural business. Operations band an Aboriginal group that is recognized by
include growing, storing, processing, and distrib - the Canadian government. The government sets
uting food, and may be owned by a large corpo - aside money and land (reserves) for use by the
ration, a family, or an individual. band. There are almost 600 bands in Canada.
air mass large body of air having the same mois- bankruptcy protection a legal action that gives
ture and temperature conditions throughout companies and individuals time to reorganize
their operations and stops creditors from taking
air pressure weight of air action against them
alphanumeric grid grid that uses letters and banks shallow areas of a continental shelf
numerals to identify squares of a grid pattern on
a map barren without trees
alternative energy source non-conventional base map map providing only an outline of the
energy source such as solar, wind, and biomass most basic features of the mapped area
basic industry industry that sells its products
analog transmission transmission of a continu- outside the community, bringing money into the
ously variable signal as compared to a discrete community
(digital) one. The problem with analog transmis-
sions is that they are subject to signal loss and basic service service provided by basic indus-
distortions. tries to people and businesses outside the com-
munity, thereby bringing money into the
anchor large store, such as a department store community from the outside and ensuring its
or grocery store, that is located one at each end survival
of the shopping mall and attracts great numbers
of customers bedrock solid rock beneath the soil

anticlinal trap dome -shaped structure of rock bias distorted or misleading

layers created by folding. Oil and gas are often big-box store very large store, often specializing
fo und in these traps. in one kind of merchandise
aquaculture production of fish and other biomass energy energy produced by combusting
marine products on fish farms biomass materials such as wood, peat, and

- - ---- -- - - - ---- - - -- ~-- - - ---~ - - - -~~-


birth rate number of births per 1000 people carbon sink a reservoir that stores carbon. The
build-up of CO 2 in the atmosphere is moderated
bitumen in oil sand deposits , each grain of sand by carbon Sinks, which remove carbon from the
is covered by a layer of water and a heavy oil or atmosphere and store it for a period of time. The
black tar called bitumen. Processed into syn- oceans, growing vegetation, soil, and some sedi-
thetic crude oil. mentary rock (e.g., limestone) are carbon sinks
because more carbon moves into them than out
boreal and taiga forest coniferous (needl e- of them.
leaved) forest that stretches from east to west
carbon source an activity or location that gives
across Canada, south of the tundra but north of
off more CO 2 than it absorbs. Examp les of carbon
the grasslands and mixed forest sources include volcanoes, burning forests, lime-
branch plant Canadian company controlled by a stone weathering, decaying organic matter, the
burning of fossil fuels, and breathing, all of
foreign company
which release CO 2 into the atmosphere.
BSE (mad cow disease) bovine spongiform carrying capacity number of people that could
encephalopathy forms holes in the brains of be supported at current living standards by
infected animals, crippling and eventually killing Canada's productive land
the animal. BSE is believed to be caused by con-
cash crop crop that is grown by a farmer to be
taminated feed made from a diseased animal.
bulk cargo things like wheat, coal, gravel, and Cenozoic era most recent era of geologic time,
iron are shipped in loose form rather than in which began about 66 million years ago. See geo -
packages. They are usually of low value and must logic time.
be shipped as cheaply as possible.
census tract smallest urban area used for census
calcification proc ess by which, in dry climates, data collection
water carrying dissolved minerals moves upward Central Business District (CBD) downtown area
through the soil. At the surface, the water evapo- of a city or town, where most of the important
rates, leaving the minerals behind. The surface commercial and government activities take place
so il is then considered calcified.
central place village, town, or city that exists
call centre place of business where customer primarily to provide goods and services for a sur-
service telephone calls are received rounding hinterland

Canadian Shield large area of Precambrian rock circumstance in manufacturing, particular

influences on the location of fac tories that are
that forms the core of Canada more general and difficult to measure
canal waterway dug across land on which boats clear-cutting logging method whe reby all trees
and ships travel in an area (except for very small ones) are cut at
one rime
capillary action movement of water upward
through small spaces, as in soil climate weather conditions of a place averaged
over a long period of tim e
carat unit of mass of precious stones, especially
diamonds, equal to 200 milligrams climate station place where climate information
is gathered
carbon cycle movement of carbon through
commercial forest part of a forest that has large
plants, animals, water, soil, air, and rocks enough trees and is close enough to a market to
carbon dioxide greenhouse gas composed of allow it to be harvested by the forest industry
one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms in each communications transmission of information,
molecule, otherwise known as CO 2 especially by electronic or mechanical means
carbon fixation the process whereby carbon is commuter person who travels daily between
trapped in fossil fuels or sedimentary rock for home and a place of work
millions of years. Fixed carbon does not con- compass bearing degrees on a compass, meas-
tribute to global warming if we prevent its ured in c1oc.bvise direction from 0 orth) to

release into the atmosphere. 360·

_ _ • _ __ _ _ _ ...... ... T ~... ~~~ - - .-. .. - .I ~ --~~ _

---- - -- ---------=-- - -- - --

"' I

compass point direction on a compass, such as continentalist A person who believes that
north and south Canadian and American cultures are so similar
that there is no need to protect Canadian culture
compass rose diagram, in the shape of a flower, from American influences
showing directions (compass points) and bear-
ings (measured clockwise from north) used to continental shelf gently sloping outer edge of a
indicate direction on maps continent that extends below the surface of the
ocean to a maximum depth of about 200 metres
component one part of a program or system ; in
the Environmental Sustainability Index, one of convection current circular movement in a gas
five categories that measures the health of the or liquid created by uneven heating
environment, i.e., reducing human vulnerability,
social and institutional capacity, global steward- convectional precipitation precipitation caused
ship, environmental systems, and reducing envi- on hot summer days, when heated land causes
ronmental stresses the air above it to rise by convection. As the air
rises, it cools and condensation occurs. Rain or
comprehensive claim claim available to First hail may fall from thunderclouds that build up.
Nations who have never signed treaties in the
past that deals with many issues, including land conventional energy source well-established
ownership, self-government, ownership and source of energy such as oil, natural gas, coal,
control of resources, hunting/fishing/trapping hydro - and nuclear-electricity
rights, and financial compensation convergent technologies the merging of various
comprehensive treaty First ations land treaty communication technologies, such as the
negotiated in an area where no other treaty has Internet and telephone communication
ever been signed, i.e., the first treaty for that area craton ancient geologic feature formed in
concession system type of survey system used in Precambrian era, largely undisturbed by moun -
southern Ontario, whereby land is divided by tain- building for one billion years, containing
concession roads and side roads into squares and kimberlite pipes in which diamonds are found
rectangles of varying sizes culture the characteristics of a way of life that,
condensation process whereby water vapour is when put together, make a nation or people
cooled and changes from an invisible gas to liq- unique
uid water. Condensed water vapour is what forms database table of information in a computer
clouds. program that can be searched for particular val-
coniferous trees trees with cones and often nee- ues or rearranged in a variety of ways
dle-like leaves; evergreen death rate number of deaths per 1000 people
container metal box of standard size (2.4 m x deciduous trees broad-leaved trees that shed
2.4 m x 4.9 m or 9.8 m) used for moving freight. their leaves annually in the fall
The container is loaded at the point of shipment
and remains sealed until it reaches its destina- demography study of population numbers, dis-
tion. Along the way, it may be moved by truck, tribution, trends, and issues
train, plane, or ship. dependency load proportion of the population
contaminant substance that pollutes air, water, that is not in the workforce; total number of
oil, or food people 14 and under + 65 and over
continental climate climate type that develops dependent variable (graphing) variable that
away from the influence of the ocean . The annual goes on the vertical axis of the graph and is, to a
temperature range tends to be large and precipi- greater or lesser extent, caused or influenced by
tation is low. the independent variable
continental drift theory by German scientist deregulation removal of regulations controlling
Alfred Wegener stating that 300 million years ago certain parts of an industry. For example, deregu-
all of Earth's land masses, which were in constant lation of the airline industry removed rules con-
motion, collided to form one supercontinent trolling routes travelled and the price of seats.
called Pangaea. About 200 million years ago developed country country with a highly
Pangaea broke apart and the continents have developed economy. Its citizens have high
drifted apart to their present locations. incomes, abundant food, good housing, and
According to his theory, only continents drifted . can afford many luxuries. Sometimes called

-- - - -. - - -

developing country country witb a poorly devel- ecological footprint (EF) measure of total
oped economy. Its citizens have low incomes. human impact on an ecosystem
shortages of food, poor housing, and cannot
ecological overshoot the amount by which our
afford luxuries. Sometimes called' less devel-
resource demands exceed Earth's supply
economic base economic activities that allow a
differential erosion process whereby softer sedi- community to exist. Fo r example, a town mighr
mentary rocks erode more quickly than harder exist because a mineral resource in the area i
rock, shaping the surface of the landscape (e.g., being developed.
three different levels of elevation on the prairies)
economic immigrant category of Canadian
digital mapping the location of geographic data immigrant that includes two groups: (a) skilled
(lines, points, areas, elevations, and numerical workers and (b) individuals with the ability to
data such as census infor mation) is digitized, make a sign ificant financial contribution throu
placed in databases, and use d in various com bi- the establishment or purchase of a business or
na tions to create maps. the making of an investment that creates jobs
digital transmission a method of transmission ecotourism tourism industry promoting travel
that uses binary bit (zeroes and ones) to for the purpose of observing ecosystems
increase television picture quality and the num-
ber of signal that can be carried per channel ecozone a distinct ecological region determin e
on the basis of physical, biological, and human
direct statement scale words are used to factors
describe the relationship between a distance on
a map and a specific distance on Earth's surface ecumene permanently occupied or settled area
(e.g., 1 cm to 10 km) of a country
emigrate to leave your country of origin to live
discharge rate amount of water that flows
permanently in another country
through a drainage basin. The discharge rate of a
drainage basin may vary greatly from season to emigration rate number of people per 1000 po -
season depending on the weather conditions. ulation in one year who emigrate
diversified urban centre town or city that has a entrepreneur person who takes a risk by settin
variety of basic urban hmctions up a business in order to m ake a profit
doubling time (demographics) how long it environmental stresses those factors that com-
would take for a country's population to double bine to cause the environment to deteriorate,
at the country' current rate of population such as pollution, overfishing, and deforestatio
growth Environmental Sustainability lndex (ESn mea -
drainage process whereby water is removed urement, devised by the World Economic Forum
from an area by flowing out of depres ions in the of current and future level of environmental
land such as lakes and rivers sustainability in each of 146 countries
drainage basin area drained by a river and its eras major divisions of geologic time (for exam-
tributaries. One drainage basin is separated from ple, the Paleozoic era). See geologic time.
another by an area of higher land called a water - erosion wearing away of Ea rth's surface foUO\ 'e'
shed. by the movement to other locations of materiab
Earth Charter a UN document that lists values that h ave worn away.
and principles that are thought to be necessary escarpment steep cliff formed by erosion or
for creating a just, s ustainable, and peaceful faulting
future for the Earth. It was developed through
international consultations and based on the evapotranspiration the movement of water im
four interdependent principles of Respect and the atmosphere by evaporation from the soil an
Care for tbe Community of Life; Ecological by transpiration from plants
Integrity; Social and Economic Justice ; and export product or service produced in one co
Democracy, on-violence, and Peace. The docu- try for ale in another country
ment has not been endorsed by the U because
of some concern by a number of countries. extensive farming type of farming in which
small amounts of labour, machinery, and
easting first three figures in a map reference giv- fertilizers a re used on large farms. Yields per
ing the east-west location hectare are small.

fair earthshare measurement of productive land geocactung hobby based on the use of a hand-
in the world divided by number of people in the held GPS unit and maps to find a hidden cache
world . This is how much of the productive land (stash of items). The person who has hidden the
each person would be entitled to, if aU of the cache places its location on the Internet so "geo-
world's productive land was shared equally. cacher " can search for it.
false colours colour artificially added to satel- geographic information systems (GIS) inte-
lite images of Earth, to make patterns more obVi - grated software package for the input, manage-
ous. These colours would not actually be seen ment, analysis, and display of spatial information
from space.
geographical systems various interconnected
family immigrant category of Canadian immi- ystems that shape our world, e.g. , forces that
grant in which family members and close rela - cause devastating earthquakes or why nations
tives of Canadian citizens or landed immigrants trade with each other
can be brought to Canada
geography the study of Earth's physical and
fertilizer substance, such as manure or a human systems and the relationships among
chemical, put on agricultural land to produce a them
greater crop yield
geologic time history of Earth from its formation
First Nation group of Aboriginal people who to the present. Earth's history may be divided
share the same culture and heritage into several major time periods, called eras:
fjord long, narrow inlet of the sea with steep Cenozoic era (most recent 66 million years)
sides. Fjords were created by glaciers that
scraped out valleys. When the glaciers melted, Mesozoic era (245 million to 66 million years
the sea flooded the valleys. ago)

foreign aid financial assistance provided to Paleozoic era (570 million to 245 million years
developing countries from other countries, usu- ago)
ally developed countries Precambrian era (4600 million to 570 million
fossil fuel any mineral that can be burned to years ago)
produce energy (e.g., coal, natural gas, oil) geologist scientist who studies the history, com-
free trade trade without tariff barriers position, and structure of Earth's crust

frontal rainfall rainfall caused by lighter, geomatics science and technology of gathering,
warmer air being forced to rise over colder, analyzing, and manipulating geographic (geospa-
denser air tial) information

frost-free period the number of days between geoscience a general term used to describe a
the last fro st in spring and the first frost in wide range of specialized scientific fields within
autumn the broad areas of geology and resource manage-
GDP per capita See gross domestic product
(GDP) per capita geospatial pertaining to the location of items
that can be located on Earth's surface
gemstone diamond diamond of high quality used
in jewellery, prized because of its rarity and beauty geostationary orbit satellite orbiting about
36 000 km above Earth at a speed that keeps it
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) index exactly above the same place on Earth
designed to indicate the amount of economic
and political power that a country's women have geotechnologies new geographic technologies,
such as remote sensing, GPS, and GIS, that have
general-purpose map map that contains many revolutionized the field of geography
different types of information
glaciation the state of being covered by glaciers
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) organ- or massive ice sheets
isms whose genetic tructure has been changed
to create a characteristic that is seen as desir- glaciers low-moving masses of ice
able, e.g. , resistance to a disease global connections economic, social, political,
and geographic connections between and among
countries around the world, e.g., economic con-
nections such as buying shoes made in another

- -- - ----~ - ---- -- -- ---~ - --~


globalization the development of an increas- growing season the number of days when the
ingly integrated world in which free movement of mean daily air temperature equals or exceeds SoC
goods, services, and people make national bor- (air temperature at which most animal feed crop
ders less important begin to grow). Farmers grow only those crops
that will ripen within the growing season in their
Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite navi - area.
gation system that is u ed to compute the exact
latitude and longitude position of any place on halocarbon chemical compound composed of
Earth carbon and one or more halogens (bromine,
chlorine, fluorine, or iodine)
global viJiage idea that the world i becoming
like one large village because of improvements in hardwood wood from broad-leaved trees such
communication as maple. oak. and elm. Hardwood is u ed to
make furniture, sports equipment, tool handles,
global warming rise in the world's temperatures floors, and boats. Not all hardwoods are "hard";
as a result of increasing levels of carbon dioxide for example. poplar and basswood are actually
and other greenhouse gases in the atmosp here quite soft.
GMOs See genetically mo dified organisms herbicide chemical designed to kill unwanted
Google one of the most popular search engines. plants (weeds) . If used improperly, a herbicide
The company's mission statement reads can become a pollutant.
"Google's mission is to organize the world's infor- highlands areas of high elevation containing
mation and make it universally accessible and mountains and plateaus
high -order good or service high -priced product
graduated colour map map in which a range of or service that is purchased infrequently
colour shades is used to indicate different values
hinterland the area around a town that trades
greenbelt undeveloped land protected from with it. Hinterlands have fewer services and less
urban development surrounding a city. It con- variety in economic activities than urban areas.
tains farms, parks, and natural areas.
hit Web page containing th e word(s) entered in a
greenhouse effect absorption of heat energy by search with a search engine
greenhouse gases and reradiation into the atmos-
phere Human Development Index (HDI) . index that
includes measures of health, education. and
greenhouse gases (GHGs) gases , uch as carbon wealth to indicate a country's level of human
dioxide and methane, that contribute to global development
humus dark. upper layer of soil made up of par-
gross domestic product (GDP) per capita to tal tially decayed plant material
value of the goods and services produced within
a country per person, excluding transactions hydroelectric generating station facility that
with other countries generates electricity through the movement of
water from a higher to a lower elevation
gross world product (GWP) the value of the total
goods and services produced annually in the hydrologic cycle pathway followed by water
world from oceans and lakes through the atmosphere
and then back to the land and waterways
groundfish fish, such as cod and sole, that live,
feed, and are caught near the bottom of the sea immigrant person who moves to a new country
with the intention of settling there
groundwater water found below Earth's surface
in the spaces in soil and bedrock immigrate to move permanently to a country
other than one's native country
growing degree-days (GDDs) a measure of heat
in one day. Daily GDDs over a period of a year immigration rate number of new Canadians
are added together to determine the amount of who have immigrated here from another country
heat available in a specific location. GDDs are per 1000 people of Canada's population
used to determine locations in which plants can impervious quality of a substance that does not
be successfully grown. They are also used to esti- allow fluids or gases to pass through it
mate the stage of development of plants and
insects because the development of organisms is import product or service that is brought into a
closely related to the accumulation of heat. country from another country

import substitution process of replacing for- intervening obstacle event or factor that dis-
eign-produced goods with Canadian ones to sup- courages people from migrating from one place
port Canadian business, e.g., buying a to another
Canadian-made car instead of one made in the
United States, Japan, or elsewhere intracity movement within a city. For example,
an intracity bus moves people from their home
independent variable (graphing) the independ- to schooL
ent variable goes on the horizontal axis of the
graph and is, to a greater or lesser extent, caus- jet stream west to east movement of air in the
ing or influencing the dependent variable. mid-latitude flowing at speeds of up to 400 km/h
at an altitude of between 8000 and 15 000 m
index number, expressed without a unit of
measurement, used to make comparisons joule en metric unit used to measure energy
between and among countries just-in-time OIT) manufacturing and stock con-
1lldianAct,1876 act of the Canadian govern- trol system in which goods are produced and
ment authorizing the government to sign treaties delivered only as they are needed
with ative groups to give up their claim to the kimberlite pipe rare geologic structure that may
lands they occupied and move to reserves contain diamonds; exists only in enormous
indicator an occurrence or circumstance that masses of ancient rock called cratons
demonstrates the existence of certain environ- knowledge industry type of industry based on
mental conditions human knowledge rather than on natural
indicator minerals minerals that are found with resources
diamonds. When these minerals are traced back Kyoto Protocol 1997 treaty designed to limit the
to their point of origin, diamonds can be located. impact of global warming that was signed by 180
industrial diamond poor quality diamond used countries and came into effect in 2005.
as a tool in many kinds of industries because it is Developed countries agreed to reduce green-
the hardest known substance house gas emissions by 5.2% below 1990 levels
between 2008 and 2012.
industrial mineral non-metallic minerals, such
as salt or asbestos, used by industry and manu - labour supply availability of workers or labour
facturing force (total number of people working and look-
ing for work in an area)
Industrial Revolution time, beginning in the
late 1700s in England, when the inuoduction of land capability ability of land to be used for a
water power and steam into factories greatly certain purpose. For example, land capability for
increased the size and output of industries agriculture is based on soil quality, drainage,
slope, and climate.
inshore fishery commercial fishing that takes
place within a few kilometres of the shoreline. landform natural feature on Earth's surface
Small fishing boats go out to sea and return to land use how urban, suburban, or rural land is
shore each day. and can be used (e.g., parks, housing, industry,
instream use use of water without removing it commercial, agriculture, etc.)
from its source for activities, e.g., fishing and large-scale map map that shows a large amount
hydro-electric power of detail of a small area, such as a map with a
intensive farming large amount of labour, scale of 1:50 000
machinery, and fertilizers used on small farms. latitude distance north or south of the equator,
High yields per hectare are obtained. The grow- measured in degrees. The equator is O· and the
ing of fruit is an example of intensive farming. North Pole is 90· north latitude.
intercity movement between cities, e.g., an inter- leaching removal of minerals from soil by water
city bus between Toronto and Montreal as it moves downward through the soil. Leaching
Internet international network linking comput- occurs in wet climates.
ers of individuals, educational and research insti- leeward side of a mountain or mountain range
tutions, government agencies , and businesses facing away from the prevailing winds
interprovincial migration the relocation of indi- life expectancy average lifespan of a population
viduals from one province to another
lignite soft, low-value coal sometimes used in
thermal-electric plants

line scale line divided into unit of distance market cu tomers of a company
(e.g., km) that represent the actual units on the
ground mechanization proce s whereby machinery
takes over the work of humans or animals
line symbol line ar symbol used to represent fea-
tures on topographic maps, e.g. , roads and rail- meltwater water resulting from the melting of
way lines glacier ice and/or snow

literacy percentage of a population that has the mental map map in our mind of places we know
ability to read and write Mesozoic era period of geologic time from 245
location factors factors such a historical head mUlion to 66 million years ago. See geologic
start, market, location of raw material , power, time.
fresh water, labour, transportation, and political metallic mineral mineral that yields a metal
situation that help explain the location of cities when proce sed, for example, iron, gold, ura-
and industries nium, and silver
lock e nclose d section in a can al that permits methane colourless, odourless, flammable gas,
vessels to be raised 0 r lowered to different water the simplest of the hydro carbons
level s outside this com p ar tment, eith er by letting
water in or out of the compartment or, in a lift middle-order good or service product or service
lo ck, by raising or lowering the water-filled com - that people buy occasionally
partment itself
milling processing ore into concentrates
longitude distance ea t and west of the prime
meridian, measured in degrees. The prime mineral a naturally occurring, pure, non-living
meridian i 0° longitude. substance found in rock

long-grass prairie type of vegetation in the mineral reserve known quantity of minerals in a
Canadian prairie provinces where higher precip i- country or area
tation levels cau e grasses to grow longer than in mineral rights rights to access and profit from
drier, short-grass prairie areas minerals found under the surface of land
long lot settlement pattern in southern Quebec mixed forest vegetation region that contains
and some other areas of Canada where individual both coniferous and deciduous trees. It i a tran -
lots tend to be long and narrow and extend back
sition zone between the deciduous forest and the
from major rivers or roads
boreal forest.
lowlands areas of low elevation containing
mobility ability to move about
plains and hills
moderating effect effect that large water bodies
low-order good or service product or service
that is purchased frequently have on the climate over nearby land areas.
Winter temperatures are warme r and summer
manufacturing processing raw materials into temperatures are cooler than areas located away
a more finished state. For example, m aking from large water bodies. The result is a small
lumb e r from logs is primary manufact uring, annual temperature range.
and making furniture from lumber is secondary
manufacturing. multicultural characteristic of a society that is
made up of many different cultures
map representation of Earth's features drawn on
a flat surface multinational corporations (MNCs) corpora-
tions that have operations in countries outside
map grid series of line on a map that can be their country of origin that are also known as
used to locate any place on the map transnational corporations
map projection method used to transfer fea- multiplier effect total effect on the economy
tures of the globe onto the flat surface of a map. caused by an expansion or contraction in one
There are hundreds of ways that this can b e done part of it. For example, a new mine employing
and hundreds of different projections. Each pro - 300 people may cause 900 other jobs to develop
jection has its strengths an d weaknesses. in manufacturing and se rvices.
maritime climate climate type that is strongly nationalist person who believes that English-
influenced by the clo eness of an ocean or other Canadian culture is wamped with American cul-
large water body. The annual temperature range tural "products" and encourages independence
tend to be small and precipitation is high. from the United State, e pecially in the area of

natural increase rate difference between the Northern Strategy comprehensive development
birth rate and the death rate of a country strategy for Canada's North that enables northern
people to achieve the best possible political, eco-
natural vegetation plants that would grow in an nomical, and ocial development
area in the absence of human influence
northing last three figures in a map reference,
near-polar orbit fixed north-south orbit fol- giving the north-south location
lowed by satellites as Earth rotates below them
nuclear-electric generating station place where
net exports amount by which the exports of a energy, in the form of heat, is generated by split-
commodity (e.g., wheat) are greater than the ting atoms of radioactive materials, then is used
imports of that commodity to generate electricity
net imports amount by which the imports of a official development assistance (ODA) govern-
commo dity (e.g., stereo equipment) are greater ment-provided foreign aid
than the exports of that commodity
offshore fishery ocean fishery using boats
net migration rate difference between people longer than 25 m. The boats stay at sea several
imm igrating to a country and people emigrating days before returning to shore with their catch.
from the same country
oil sand mixture of heavy crude oil. sand, and
newly industrializing country countries in the water
tl ansition stage between developing and devel-
o ped countries. ewly industrializing countries oil seed seed used in the production of oils, e.g.,
typically have rapidly growing economies. canola and sunflower
new urbanism new planning'movement to com - old growth forest area of mature forest that has
bat urban and suburban sprawl. It includes: never been cut down
- building communities around people instead One-Tonne Challenge a federal government pro-
of cars gram, started in 2003, to encourage Canadians to
take per onal actions to reduce their current
- an identifiable downtown centre emissions of greenhouse gases by one tonne per
- narrow lots and smaller houses (higher year and then to maintain that new level
den ity) open pit mining method of mining using a large
- mixed-income housing hole that is dug for the purpose of extracting ore
found near Earth's surface
- homes designed to look like those built 50 to
100 years ago ore rock that contains enough valuable minerals
to make mining profitable
non-basic industry industry that sells its prod -
ucts within the community. It does not bring organic farming agriculture without the use of
money into the community. chemicals, antibiotics, hormones, or genetically
modified organisms. Organic farming ensures
/ non-basic service service that is provided within sustainable agriculture and does not damage the
the community. It does not bring money into the environment.
outsourcing transferring a business and its jobs
non-commercial forest part of a forest that has to another country where labour is cheaper. The
trees too small to harvest or is too far away from term also refers to buying services or products
the market from an outside supplier or manufacturer to cut
non-governmental organization (NGO) organi- costs.
zation that is not part of a government and pro- Pacific Rim countries in the Americas, Asia, and
vides a wide range of aid around the world Oceania (geographical region that includes
non-metallic mineral mineral that yields non- Australia, ew Zealand, and most of the smaller
metal when proce sed, e.g., salt, potash, and islands) that border the Pacific Ocean
asbestos Paleozoic era period of geologic time from 570
non-renewable resource resource that can be million to 245 million years ago. See geologic
used only once, e.g., oU or iron ore time.
Pangaea supercontinent that included all Earth's
land masses. It existed from about 300 million to
about 200 million years ago.

parent material rock from which soil is derived population pyramid graph that depicts popula-
tion distribution by age and sex
parkland vegetation region that is a transition
zone between Grassland and Boreal Forest power grid system of electrical power lines that
connects large generating stations to buildings
peacekeeping military assistance, usually by where people use electricity
members of the UN , that functions as a police
force or contlict mediator, where the parties in a Precambrian era period of geologic time from
conflict have agreed to work toward peace the beginning of the Earth to 570 million years
ago; first era in the Earth's geologic history. There
peacemaking military assistance, usually by were virtually no life forms at this time. See geo-
members of the UN, that may include military logic time.
operations, where there has been no peace
agreement prevailing winds winds that are most commonly
found in an area. For example, over most of
pelagic fish fish, such as salmon and tuna , that Canada, the prevailing winds are the westerlies,
live and feed in the open ocean which blow from west to east.
permafrost permanently frozen ground that primary industry industry that deals with the
does not completely thaw in the summer production of primary products such as minerals
that are mined or quarried, or an agricultural
pesticide chemicals desigried to kill harmful product that is harvested in its raw state
plants (herbicide) and harmful insects (insecti-
cide) prime meridian line (meridian) of longitude on
maps or globes that joins the North and South
phytoplankton microscopic aquatic plants Poles and runs through Greenwich, England.
found in plankton Longitude is measured 180 east and 180 west
0 0

pie graph common graph that uses sections of a from this line (00).
circle to illustrate comp arative values proportional area graph type of graph that can
piggyback system system whereby truck trailers be produced in many shapes, frequently circles;
are transported on railway cars is often combined with pie graphs to show not
just the amount of something, but also how this
pipeline line of pipes for carrying gas, oil, or quantity is divided
other liquids
protectionism a national policy of trying to pro-
plate tectonics theory that states that Earth's tect certain industries by having high tariffs. It is
outer shell consists of plates that move causing the opposite of free trade.
earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, and the for- pull factor factor that draws immigrants to a
mation of new crust country, such as job opportunities, freedom of
plateau elevated flat area. See highlands. speech and religion, and lower taxes
point symbol symbol representing features that push factor factor, such as war, absence of
occupy a specific point, such as bridges and human rights, poor economic and educational
buildings, on a topographic map opportunities, religious persecution, terrorism,
and natural disasters, that causes people to
polar front stormy boundary between cold, dry emigrate from their country
polar air and warm, moist tropical air
quaternary industry highly speci,dized (and
political decision decision made by government usually expensive) knowledge-based technologi-
that will help attract new business or, if it is not cal and support services
careful, that will drive investment away
quaternary worker person who works in an
population density figure calculated by dividing industry that involves intellectual services, such
the population of a region by the region's area as writing software and architectural design.
Other quaternary industries include the high
population distribution pattern showing where tech industry, research and development, and
people live in an area. For example, a scattered information technology.
distribution along a coastline or road .
radar in remote sensing, radar sensors send out
population growth rate measurement that com- microwaves to Earth's surface and use the
bines both natural increase and net migration to microwaves reflected back to create an image of
calculate the overall growth of a country's popu- human objects and natural features on Earth's
lation surface

rain shadow aTea on the leeward side of moun - Royal Proclamation of 1763 decree by the
tains, receiving little precipitation British establishing two important principles for
negotiations: (a) land ownership rights of the
raw material something used by an industry to First Nations must be respected; (b) if a First
be processed into a more finished state. For arion did choose to give up land, it should
example, iron are (raw material) is made into receive a fair payment for it
steel (product), and steel (raw material) is made
into an automobile (product). Rule of 70 in demographics, process whereby
you divide 70 by the population growth rate to
refugee person who migrates to another country estimate how many years it will take for the
out of fear of cruel or inhumane treatment (or country's populatio n to double
even death) in his or her own country
run-off water that flows off the land through
relative measure type of measure that considers lakes and rivers into oceans
total amounts in relation to population sizes
rural outside towns and cities
relief precipitation precipitation created when
an air mass rises to cross a mountain barrier; rural depopulation the migra"ion of people from
also called orographic precipitation. rural areas to urban areas
remote situated far from main centres of popu- rural settlement permanent settlement of peo -
lation ple in an area that is weLl removed from large
urban centres
remote sensing study of characteristics of Earth
using photographs and electronic images taken rural-urban fringe area adjacent to an urban
from aircraft and satellites area where there is a mixture of urban and rural
land uses
renew make new again
satellite manufactured object that is launched
renewable resource resource that replaces itself by a rocket and circles Earth. Satellites are used
unless badly mismanaged. For example, trees to communicate, to study Earth's resources, and
grow to replace those cut down or lost to fire or to aid the military.
saturated zone area where crevices in the rock
representative fraction scale scale on a map and the spaces between the particles of soil,
given as a ratio of distance on the map to dis- sand, and gravel are filled with water. The top of
tance on the ground, e.g., 1:50 ODD, which means this zone is called the water table.
1 cm on the map represents 50 000 cm on Earth's
surface scale measurement on a map that represents an
actual distance on Earth's surface. For example, a
research and development (R&D) process of scale of 1:50000 means that 1 cm on the map
inventing a new product and then preparing this represents 50 000 em on Earth's surface.
product for sale
search engine program designed to help you
reserve area of land set aside for the use of a find information (Web ites) on a computer sys-
band of status Indians tem such as the World Wide Web
reservoir artificial lake built to store water for secondary industry industry dealing with manu-
usc in a hydro -electric generating station, for facturing or construction
irrigation, or for flood control
secondary recovery variety of method.s used to
residential density measure of the number of remove a greater percentage of oil from deposits .
housing units per hectare Even with secondary recovery, only about 60% of
resource-based community a town that exists the oil in most deposits can be recovered.
primarily to exploit the presence of a mineral, section system survey system in most of the
forest, or other resource prairie provinces with units of land 1.6 km by
retail sale of goods to the public in stores 1.6 km (l square mile) . When settlers first
arrived, they were given a quarter-section of land
rift valley valley created when the portion of to farm .
land between two faults (cracks in the earth)
drops down. The St. Lawrence River valley is a
rift valley.

----- -- -- ---- - --- - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -- -

sediment eroded material, such as sand and sod mat deep intertwined root system of the
gravel, that is deposited by water, wind, or grass. This sod mat absorbs and stores moisture.
glacial ice and holds the soil in place.
selective cutting lumbering technique in which softwood wood from coniferous (needle-leaved)
only trees of a certain type, size, and quality a re trees
soil surface layer of Earth, composed of mineral
self-government principle that each distinct and organic materials, air, and water
group of people has the right to control its own
affairs. In Canada, this term is mo t often soil proFJ1e different horizons (layers) in the soil
applied to First lations. and the rock layer (bedrock) below the soil. Each
horizon has different physical, biologica l, and
services teniary indu trie that provide func- chemical characteristics.
tions needed by other industries and ociety in
general. Services include retailing, education, specific claim First Nation's claim based on a
health care, communications, and government. belief that the government did not fulfill its obli-
The service sector is the largest part of Canada's gations under a treaty or other agreement related
economy. to land, money, or other assets
settlement pattern distribution of homes, spreadsheet computer program designed partic-
farms , villages, towns, and cities in an area ularly to manipulate numerical information
shellfish molluscs and crustaceans such as oys- stacked bar graph very much like a simple bar
ters, shrimps, and lobsters graph, with one important difference: while each
shelterwood logging metho d of logging, often bar in a simple bar graph represents one value, a
used in forests with trees of uniform age and stacked bar can be used to represent several
size, that clear-cuts pans of the forest, leaving closely related values
some seed-bearing trees £0 regenerate the statistical analysis studying collected data for
logged area the purposes of summarizing information to
shield large area of Precambrian rock that forms make it more usable and for making generaliza-
the core of a continent tions
short-grass prairie type of vegetation in the stereo pair pair of aerial photographs that, when
Canadian prairie provinces where very little pre- looked at through a ste reoscope, shows a 3-
cipitation causes grasses to be shorter than in dimensional image
slightly wetter long-grass prairie area
stewardship the management of resources in a
silviculture branch of forestry dealing with the careful and ustainable way
cultivation and care of forests
strip mining method of mining used to recover
site refers to the characteristics of the land on mineral deposits located very near the surface
which a city is built
subsidy money given in the form of a grant or
situation refers to the re la tionship between a gift by a government to a private company,
city's location and the area surrounding it organization, or individual farmers to help them
slag the impurities that are separated from stay in business
molten metal and removed during smelting suburban referring to low-dens ity housing areas,
smaU-scale map map that shows a small amount commercial areas, etc. usually found on the out-
of detail of a large area, such as a map with a skirts of a city. Suburban i between rural and
scale of 1:250 000 urban .
Smart Growth conservation policy intended to survey system pattern of land division used in
promote and manage growth of communities, an area
sustain a strong economy in the region, and pro - sustainability approach to development that
mote a healthy natural enviro nm ent mee ts the needs of the prese nt without nega-
smelting process whereby metals are removed tively affecting the ability of future generations
from ore or concentrate for use in industry to meet their needs
smokestack industry traditional resource-based sustainable agriculture approach to agricultural
industry, uch as steel-making, auto assembly, or production that can be maintained indefinitely
oil refining without harming the environment

sustained yield forest management use of forest trade process of buying and selling goods and
resources at a rate that allows the forests to services. International trade involves the buying
renew themselves and selling of goods and services between
sustained yield management use of a renewable
resource at a rate that allows the resource to trade deficit situation in which a country has
renew it elf. For example, the number of fish bought (imported) more in goods or ervices
caught should not be greater than the number of than it has sold in exports
fish reaching maturity.
trade surplus situation in which a country has
tailings waste materials left over from process- bought (imported) less in goods or services than
ing are it has sold in exports
tandem engineering a process whereby two or transect line through a community along which
more engineering teams work on a product and land use or other data are analyzed
the next generation of that product simultane-
ously to speed up the process of getting new transition zone area where the characteristics of
products to market one region gradually change into those of
tariff tax charged on goods imported into a
country to protect local industries from foreign transportation movement of people and goods
competition from one place to another

telematics GPS technology that is integrated transportation hub major centre for interna -
with computers and mobile communications tional and domestic transportation
equipment. For example, vehicle telematics can treaty in Canada, an official agreement between
track a company's fleet vehicles, locate stolen the federal government and First Nations
vehicle , and collect road tolls. whereby the Aboriginal peoples give up their
temperature range subtraction of coldest aver- land rights except for reserves and accept treaty
age monthly temperature from warmest average money and other kinds of government assistance
monthly temperature tree line boundary between the Tundra and the
tertiary industry industry that provides services Boreal Forest zone. North of this line it is too
rather than goods cold for trees to grow.

tertiary worker person who works in services. tributary a small stream or river that joins a
This sector of the economy includes government larger stream or river
services, retail and wholesale, transportation, tsunami a long, high sea wave caused by under-
banking, entertainment, education, and utilities. water earthquakes
thematic map map containing information on tundra northernmost vegetation region, found
only one topic or theme in areas too cold for trees to grow. Bushes,
thermal-electric generating station facility that grasses, mosses, and similar plants dominate.
generates electricity through the use of steam underground mining method of mining used to
produced by heat from burning fuel such as recover deep mineral deposits
coal, oil, and natural gas
unit train train that carries large amounts of
threshold population minimum number of only one cargo along a route. For example, coal is
customers needed to make a business profitable carried from the interior of British Colum bia to
or to allow a service, such as a post office or Vancouver for shipment to Japan.
library, to be offered
urban towns and cities of 1000 or more people
topographic map large-scale map showing both
natural and human-made features urban growth actual number of people by which
a city or town's population grows
topography natural and human features of the
landscape urban renewal process of rebuilding older parts
of a city
topsoil surface layer of soil
urban sprawl low-density development sur-
toxic chemicals chemicals that are harmful to rounding a city
humans or to the environment
urbanization process of changing from rural to

----- ------- --- --- ------ ~ -


value added when materials are processed, their wholesale buying and selling of goods other
value increases. For example, when tomatoes are than to the public. For example, sale of goods by
made into tomato juice, the value of the juice is manufacturer to distributor
greater than the value of the unprocessed toma-
toes. The difference in price between the wind horizontal movement of air over Earth's
unprocessed tomatoes and the tomato juice is surface, caused by differences in air pressure
the value added. windward the side of a mountain range that
variable a factor whose value changes over time, faces the prevailing wind
such as fertili ty and mortality rates, greenhou e winter-city concept idea to build cities with
gas emis ions, and GDP per capita inside and outside environments tbat are livable
water table top of the soil zone in which all pore during long, harsh winters
spaces are filled with water, called the saturated winter ice road roads that are buHt over frozen
zone. Above the water table, the pore spaces are tundra, lakes, and rivers to provide vehicle access
filled with air. to northern communities and mining sites dur-
watershed an area of high land that separates ing the winter
one drainage basin from another withdrawal use water that is permanently
waypoint fixed location with latitude and longi- removed from a river for consumption in homes,
tude coordinates that is stored in a GPS unit industries, agriculture, or business

weather combination of temperature, precipita- World Wide Web (WWW) international network
tion, cloud cover, and winds experienced daily of Internet sites
x/y scattergraph simple and useful graph show-
weathering breakdown of rock into small parti-
cles ing relationship between two sets of data

Web pages documents that are accessible zoning laws, usually passed by city governments,
through the World Wide Web controlling the kind and amount of development
in an area
wetlands swamp, marsh, and bog; places where
the water table is at ground level zooplankton microscopic aquatic animals found
in plankton