EARTHING TRANSFORMER An earthing transformer is usually associated with three phase supply systems.

Earthing of any electrical system at the source is considered by most countries to be the safer practice with regard to personnel and equipment safety. On a three phase system, the neutral would be earthed either directly or through some limiting impedance / resistance. When the neutral point is not available or does not exist with a delta secondary winding of the transformer, a neutral point needs to be created. This is the purpose of the earthing transformer, which could consist of a zig- zag winding, or a two winding star delta transformer where the star winding of correct voltage supplies an accessible neutral point when connected to the supply system.

Folks, Zigzag transformers are used all over the world for earthing (grounding) and unearthed bus, and in voltage ranges from LV to MV. I think the original question is along the lines "why would you bother earthing a bus with a seperate zigzag when star-points (wyepoint) are available?" I think it mainly comes down to cost - if there is a need to earth a bus via several seperate star-connected transformers, each with associated neutral bushing and full voltage insulation at the netra end, the lower cost with a single zigzag transformer comes into consideration. I have seen them on a set of 33 kV busses where one of the incomers was delta, so there was a possibility of an ungrounded bus if that incomer was in service with all other star-connected feeders and incomers out of service - a dedicated earthing transformer then makes sense and zigzag construction is a very cost-effective way of achieving that. If all incomers on a bus were star connected and are able to be earthed at tehe star-point, then there is no need for a seperate earthing transformer. Earthing transformers do not have to be zigzag - it is just one method - they can also be a more normal star delta with the star-point earthed and teh delta either used for aux power or not used.

Earthing up to 2 MVA – 33 kV - Earthing transformers are used to create a neutral point in a three-phase system, which provides possibility for neutral earthing. The earthing can be through an arc-suppression reactor, a neutral earthing reactor or resistor or directly in these earth transformers. Earthing transformers are usually oil immersed and may be installed outdoor. In cases where a separate reactor is connected between the earth transformer neutral and earth, the reactor and the transformer can be incorporated in the same tank. Neutral earthing transformers are normally provided in 3-phase system, which is without neutral and earth fault protection. Neutral earthing transformer is having zig-zag (interstar) winding to achieve the required zero phase impedance. In addition an auxiliary winding can also be provided to meet the requirement of auxiliary power supply in these earthing transformers.

a neutral earthing reactor or resistor or directly. Figure shows the connection diagram. The earthing can be through an arc-suppression reactor. which is zigzag connected. the neutral current through the transformer will be high but the duration is limited to a few seconds. The characteristic of earthing transformer should be selected to match the property of the system. Unbalanced voltages will cause some higher currents flowing through the earthing transformer. The design can be a transformer with just one winding. which provides possibility for neutral earthing. if it is desired to increase the zero sequence impedance. An alternative connection to the zigzag is star/delta connection where the delta connected winding will compensate the zero sequence magnetic fields so it will be confined to a leakage field between the star and the delta winding and make the zero sequence impedance of the transformer relatively small. the rated current (and its duration) of the earthing transformer will be determined by the data for the arc-suppression reactor. Earthing transformer must be designed to withstand the thermal and mechanical effects of the rated neutral current. However. It is the randomly occurring short – duration currents that cause any heating of significance. If the earthing transformer is used for directly earthing or through a current limiting reactor. Ageing of the cellulose . this can be achieved by opening the delta connection and insert a reactor or resistor It is possible to provide the earthing transformer with a secondary winding for continuous auxiliary station supply.ONAN /ONAF cooling with conventional pressed steel radiators. the reactor and the transformer can be incorporated in the same tank. During undisturbed system operation with balanced (symmetrical) voltages the current through the earthing transformer is small & of the same size as the magnetizing current. In cases where a separate reactor is connected between the transformer neutral and earth. Earthing transformers are usually oil immersed and may be installed outdoor. but it can be increased if the purpose is to limit the current through the transformer in case of an earth fault somewhere in the system. Most of the time in service the loading of earthing transformers is very low. When the earthing transformer is going to be used together with an arc-suppression reactor. The range includes up to 33 KV systems and as per the site requirements. which it must be capable to carry. The zero sequence impedance of such a winding is normally quite low. Earthing transformers are used to create a neutral point in a three-phase system.

Temperatures for items in direct contact with the oil should then not exceed 140 o C The system earth fault protection relay may not be effective at low currents. the value of maximum continuous earth fault current may be declared and sensitive protection provided. Neutral Earthing Resistors Share: National Resistors offers premium quality Neutral Earthing Resistors. Neutral Earthing Resistor We are engaged in the manufacturing and supplying of Neutral Earthing Resistors. the temperature limits in IEC 60076-2 (1993-04) Power transformers Part 2. industrial installations and power distribution.materials is then not a matter of concern. Three parameters are needed to specify the earthing resistor: 1) u : rated voltage line to line voltage or system voltage (kv) 2) if: rated fault current (a) 3) t s: rated time (sec) . oil thermometer with alarm/trip contacts is recommended. temperatures that cause excessive gas development in the oil should be avoided. It is manufactured by using high grade stainless steel. which are fabricated in accordance with the international quality standards. These resistors are connected amid the neutral position of a generator and earth or transformer and earth. For earthing transformers that carry continuous load because of a secondary winding that supplies local consumers. These are quality tested on several parameters and are delivered in a timely manner. These resistors are designed to operate in harmful working conditions and environmental changes. For currents with duration in the order of hours or more. The temperature during currents of say 10 seconds duration must not cause softening of the winding conductor material. They are extensively used in miming. say 250o C for copper and 200 o C for aluminium. Temperature rise apply. which allows temperature variations. Our products appreciated for their reliability and are highly durability.duration of the fault resistance value : r =u 1/3 when the flow of an electric current through a resistor . Regarding acceptable temperatures there are two aspects to consider. To prevent damage to earthing transformer by such current. Alternatively. which are used to limit the current flow during an earthing fault on an alternative current distribution system.

masses as high as possible are therefore required. With that method of calculation we can determine the exact dimensions of the resistor to be buflt for resistors heating adiabadcalh/. E. the rise in die resistors temperature will be provided by the relation: c : specific heat of the material (. The change may be calculated from the temperature coefficient of resistivity. r: mean value of the resistance (ii) for an intermediate temperature between cold an hot.is relatively short. a0 corresponds to the temperature rise of the resistor 0i = temperature of resistor after rated lime (°k ) 0i = ambient temperature (*k) when large-scale masses and energies are involved. Its heat value itself) in proportion to the mass and specific heat of the material used. . cfcssipaoon is negligible and the heating temperature of that resistor depends on its capacity to store the electric energy {i. the allowable temperature rise for 1030 or 60 sec time rating is 7600k. r2 r1 = = hot r (1 resistance + value aae) (q) r1 = resistance value at ambient temperature (£2) d: = temperature coefficient of resistance material as per ieee-32 for neutral earthing resistor made from stainless steel resistance material. Oule/kg/°k): i: effective current in amperes (a).6io"k for extended time rating and 385ck for continous rating . the real resistance value of me resistor is taken into account. calculation of hot resistance value (resistance value after rated time) the resistance of resistor element changes to extent with temperature after rated time. because it varies with the temperature which itself depends on the current flow time.

. Normally rated current value is same as full load current. Duty rating or Time Rating : It is length of time for which NGR must tolerate rated voltage. Rated Current : Means initial current that will flow through resistor when it is cold. If fault is immediately cleared and system made healthy then chances of fault repetition should be considered. 1. etc. rating. Earth Fault Condition: Restricted fault current passes through the resistor protecting the system till automatic protection takes place. Short Time Rating : Normally it is 10 or 30 or 60 seconds depending on design parameters of protection system. IS-3043 recommends 30 sec. 2. No Earth Fault : Continuous current ( 5 % to 10 % of full load current) may pass through the resistor due to system unbalance. thereby protecting the transformer. IMPORTANT PARAMETERS & CONSTRUCTIONS :     Rated Voltage : For neutral grounding resistor rated voltage means line-to neutral voltage ( System Voltage divided by 1. The earth pressure (Rated Voltage) is absorbed by the resistor protecting the winding etc.732). TYPICAL RESISTANCE ELEMENT USED OPERATION: Consider two conditions. transformer. generator system ].NEUTRAL GROUNDING RESISTORS Neutral Grounding Resistor Panel upto 66 KV PURPOSE : Neutral Grounding Resistor are connected between the neutral & the earth so that it will limit the earth fault current to a safe value [ Normally full load current of the generator.

Aluminium or Stainless Steel. Material of Resistance Element : we offer resistor elements made from any stainless steel or fecral or cast iron or CU-NI or NI-CR or any other resistance material as per requirement. as per IEEE-32. termination kit. Elevating Stands. stand off insulator. Options/Accesories : Few of the following are usually incorporated. Incase of XLPE cable terminal box with suitable clearance and undrilled removable gland plate is provided. flats or bus duct as per requirement. space heater with thermostat control are also offered. Potentials Transformers. plus required insulators. For continous rating enclosure protection is not above IP 43. # Any other standard as required. safety screen enclosure is provided if required. Normally formed stainless steel element are best and economical for NGRS. rise as per requirement. internal connections and hardware. Enclosure upto IP 65 protection are offered.       Continuous Rating : It is normally 10 % of full load current for healthy system neutral grounding resistor to be designed for continuous rating of 5% to 10 % of full load current ( if required). Standards Followed : # IEEE-32.c.c. a] Visual and Dimentional . Current Transformers. Painting / Galvanising or Hot Dip Galvanising or Powder Coating is offered as per requirement. # Is 2147 or IS 12063 of 1987 for degree of protection for enclosure. Cabling/ Termination : Suitable arrangement is provided for termination of cable. rise is restricted to 375 deg. as per BS 587. Enclosure material can be Mild Steel. Two bushing. Enclosure : For outdoors application enclosure designed to give degree of protection of IP 33 is normally used. We can offer NGR of any other temp. Lightning arrestors. Grounding Transformers. TESTS: A ] ROUTINE TEST : Following tests are conducted. Temperature Rise Allowed : Normally Temp. Construction : NGR include resistor assembly . earth leakage relay. # IS 5 for paint shade. IS-3043 & BS 162 for neutral grounding resistor. It can be 760 deg. auxiliary control wiring terminal box with cable glands. Manual/ Electrical operated/ Motorised Isolator.

40/80 Volts. NEUTRAL GROUNDING RESISTOR ELEMENTS . Continuous. a] 2000 AMP. Temperature rise test : C. test Certificate for IP33.b] Meger test using 1000 V Meger c] Resistance measurement d] High voltage test as per IEEE . C] SPECIALS TEST : Our resistors are tested for following tests on prototype unit a.R. Any other test as required.32 B] TYPE TEST : Temperature rise test or ( Heat run test ) of following rating can be conducted in house. e. Chemical Composition of resistance material. Pune.I Bangalore. 3 Phase. b. Protection Test : ARAI. d. b] 415/230 Volts. c. test certificate for temperature rise test for continuous & short time rating. IP 55 and IP 65 protection Test as per IS 2147 or IS 12063 of 1987. 1 Phase.P. 100 KW. 60 SEC. Tensile strength of resistance material.