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- mathematics page 267
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You are on page 1of 50

for

instant mental addition and subtraction of numbers.

without Counting Fingers or Any Paper work

Age 8yrs; No upper limit

This avoids carry-overs and borrowing

Prof. M. A. Thiruthuvadoss

Chennai, India

All Rights Reserved

No part of this publication may be reproduced, in any form, without the prior

permission of the author.

Cover Design: Author

Published by: Author

Author: M A Thiruthuvadoss

57/6 Indiranagar I Avenue

Chennai - 600 020, India.

quickmaths@gmail.com

mat.doss@yahoo.in

http://www.magicmaths.org

Telephone: 044-24423524

Cell: 94452 04774

PREFACE

Juggle Numbers also called Mental Addition and Subtraction has, now, been

completely re-written from scratch in an endless pursuit of continuous improvement

and upgradation.

This now becomes DossFAST

DossFAST - Doss Fast Addition and Subtraction Technique

which makes mental addition and subtraction of any two numbers possible and easy.

DossFAST assumes the ability to instantly add / subtract two single digit numbers.

Those who DO NOT possess this ability, but is determined to acquire it, can use one

of the two alternative methods in Appendix I or Appendix II, to learn and hone their

basic skills and abilities.

One has to have a firm will, set time, work daily until you master the skill.

Prof. M. A. Thiruthuvadoss

1 July, 2010

WRITE A MATHS BOOK - IT WILL COME TO YOU

Sometime in November, 2001 Sri Mathurakali# told me, You write a maths book.

For me, maths book meant school text-book and I was 62 then. I did not take it

seriously. After about three weeks Why have you not started?, She asked and

continued, Leave all other work; write the maths book. It is my order.

What shall I write? Write anything; just start. You will get [cdf;Fj; NjhZk;].

Always keep a paper and pencil handy. Note everything you get; because, you will

not remember after half-an-hour.

So the Magic Maths project is a gift from the Divine for Universal use. M. A.

Thiruthuvadoss is not the author but just an instrument, link or channel, like the

computer on which all this is being typed.

QUICK MATHS

help students. In March 2002, a 24 pages book, Quick Maths - a collection of 1-step

calculation techniques - with about 15 techniques was printed. Today (July, 2010)

Quick Maths runs into about 230 pages with innumerable techniques/methods*.

#

Sri Mathurakali is one of the numerous forms of Parvathi - the Universl Shakthi that drives the

entire Universe - is the presiding deity of the temple in Siruvachur (Trichy District), 48km from Trichy

(Tamilnadu, India) on the GST Rd, to Chennai. This is an unusual temple which opens only on two

days (Monddays and Fridays) of the week and a few other special days in the year.

*

iv

JUGGLE NUMBERS

JUGGLE NUMBERS

I conducted numerous free workshops all over and taught these techniques to children,

teachers and parents. During these workshops I realised that most children do not

have the required mastery over the basic arithmetic operations (+, , x, ) of even

single-digit numbers and and so Quick Maths was really of no use to them. So I

wrote Juggle Numbers - mental addition and subtraction, in 2003. After a few avatars,

Juggle Numbers is now DossFAST - a compact, easy and effective program.

MAGIC MATHS

When two girl students came to me for help with their CAT entrance preparation

(even though they had enrolled with two popular coaching institutions) I got a glimpse

of the dull formal high-school material dished out to them. It had nothing to do with

skill developement or aptitude. This prompted me to write the Magic Maths book,

solving aptitude problems in under 10 seconds by lateral methods. A part-I of the

book was printed in January, 2004 followed by a complete book later. Now a final

version of Magic Maths is getting ready and will be out in a couple of months.

GANITHA

In around 2005 a book was litterally thrust on me in a shop by its owner in Mylapore.

The book was, Classics of Indian Mathematics - Algebra, with Arithmetic and Mensuration,

from the Sanskrit of Brahmagupta and Bhaskara, by Henry Thomas Colebrooke, first

published in 1817 A.D. The shop was the Indological Book Shop on Appar Swami

Koil St. (Opp to Sanskrit College, Mylapore, Chennai). The result, I wrote the Lilavati

of Shri Bhascaracharya (1150 A.D.) in todays English as Ganitha.

BRAHMAS OWN NUMBERS

Working for Ganitha lead me to look into the numbers and number systems etc. and

as a result, the next book in the line is Brahmas Own Numbers.

ALL BOOKS ON THE WEB

I had been writing, modifying and updating the books on a continuous basis for the

past 8+ years, as and when I was getting new material and ideas. Now I am in the

process of redoing all the books into their final shapes. As and when the books get

ready, they will be put on the net - http://www.magicmaths.org/ - for the free use of

everyone. Hope these reach more and more people, for whom they are meant.

JUGGLE NUMBERS v

MATHS-PHOBIA

Mathematics is natural to humans. Everyone in the world, even the vegetable vendor

who, perhaps, never went to school, counts, calculates, compares, handles money

and materials and so on. No one is troubled by or scared of maths. So mathsphobia

is not a natural fear. It is a Frankenstein monster; it is our own creation

BASIC NUMERACY SKILLS

Addition of two numbers is the basis of all mathematics, science and life itself.

Subtraction is the reverse of addition; multiplication is extended addition and division

is the inverse of multiplication. A thorough fluency in these basic arithmetic operations

alone can save our children from this fear of maths. Answers must be instant as if

the question was, What is your name?

THE WORLD DOES NOT KNOW HOW TO TEACH ADDITION .....

We inherited excellent, easy and effective methods to teach basic mental arithmetic

computations. But the world, including us, the anglicised lot, destroyed all that and

now no one seems to know how to teach even addition of two single digits.

INDIANS EXCELLLED IN IT

Ancient Indians, down to our grandfathers, excelled in numbers, logic and aptitude.

After all it was India that gave todays numbers, number system, calculation techniques

and the arithmetic. They were taught the tables - Addition, Subtraction and

Multiplication (including table of fractions like: ,,,,,,etc.)

How can any other method become as effective? Perhaps, future generations will

plant a tables-chip in the brain.

TEACH THE TABLES

If you are genuinely interested in the child, teach Mathematical Tables, mainly addition

and multiplication tables. Any other method like Counting Fingers or Five in the

mind ....., is meant for weaker children and not for us.

vi

JUGGLE NUMBERS

Contents

PREFACE .............................................................................................................................. 9 : 3

MAGIC MATHS PROJECT ..................................................................................................... 9 : 4

MATHS-PHOBIA AND MATHS TEACHING ........................................................................... 9 : 6

ABOUT THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................. 9 : 8

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK? .................................................................................................. 9 : 9

Add Any number (without Carryover) ........................................................................................

Add A Single Digit Number (to Double Digit) with Carryover ............................................

Add A Double Digit Number (with Carryover) ........................................................................

Add Any Number ............................................................................................................................

Actual Mental Addition ..................................................................................................................

9 : 12

9 : 12

9 : 14

9 : 16

9 : 18

9 : 19

Simple case ...................................................................................................................................... 9 : 22

Just Subtract ..................................................................................................................................... 9 : 24

Addition Tables ................................................................................................................................ 9 : 28

Teach Addition Tables ................................................................................................................. 9 : 29

APPENDIX II: ADDITION WITHOUT TABLES ....................................................................

What is 10? .....................................................................................................................................

What is 5? ........................................................................................................................................

What is 3? ........................................................................................................................................

What is 4? ........................................................................................................................................

What is 6? ........................................................................................................................................

What is 9? ........................................................................................................................................

What is 7? ........................................................................................................................................

What is 8? ........................................................................................................................................

Add Single Digit (to Single Digit) with Carryover .................................................................

9 : 33

9 : 33

9 : 35

9 : 37

9 : 37

9 : 39

9 : 41

9 : 43

9 : 45

9 : 47

Subtraction Tables .......................................................................................................................... 9 : 49

Multiplication Tables ....................................................................................................................... 9 : 50

The book is only the first TWO chapters (pages 12 to 25). This introduces a simple

technique called DossFAST which makes the job easier by avoiding the carryovers

and borrowings that are very essential part of our school learning.

THE REST (3 Appendices)

Obviously, I assume mastery over the basic ability to add and subtract two single

digit numbers, mentally and instantly, as if the question was, What is your name?

You can not run a race without legs!

But I do know the reality is very different and pathetic. So you get the 3 Appendices

which are for the ones who do not have this ability.

FOR WHOM IS THIS BOOK?

How many of us, children or adults (including people who teach maths to children),

can add three hundred and eighty seven and two hundred and forty five mentally,

without any writing, in under 10 seconds? Congrats if you can do it; else this book

could be for you.

DossFAST

This simple and short course (13 pages only) will show you how even a 8 year old

will add 387 and 245 in just three mental steps;

The child will rattle:

three

eight seven

five

eight seven

six

two seven

answer is:

six

three

two

i.e. 632

SELF-TEACHING BOOK

Gurus personal guidance and teaching is like Coke - the real thing. Anything else,

either the audio, video, DVD, electronic interfaces including interactive white boards

with chat are nothing but inferior compromises. This fact has well-established itself,

with the advent of each and every gadget, right from radio, TV, ... What I am giving

is (just) a self-teaching book.

viii

JUGGLE NUMBERS

1)

Follow any and every insruction, note or suggestion, method, writing or step,

etc. diligently and litterally. DO NOT CHANGE OR DROP ANYTHING; EVEN A SMALL

THING. Obviously students will grow out of this books language and

concepts as they grow. For now, to start with, make the material and

methods your own. Do not deviate.

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

The speed of response is instant; as fast as if you were asked your name.

7)

Have a reasonable limit for the work you learn in a day. You have to assimilate

everything you learn; this takes time. Simply doing a lot at one time is of no

real use.

8)

Everyday when you start, make sure that you are thorough with all the

previous methods and techniques.

9)

10) If necessary, write and do the work in the beginning. Once you master the

concept, in the following days try to do them mentally.

11) Do not rush through. This skill is so basic and so fundamental for maths

and aptitude developement, mastering is important and not the time spent.

Take your time. Remember the foundation, including every brick and every

layer of bricks, needs to be strong.

JUGGLE NUMBERS ix

1

ADDITION

USING

DossFAST

Doss Fast Addition and Subtraction Technique

ADD ANY NUMBER (without Carryover)

This is extremely simple and fast (assumes mastery of single digit addition).

Read 1st number, digit by digit; from left to right.

Add any digit from the 2nd number if in the corresponding place.

EXAMPLES

01) Take 624 + 35

As you read six two four, you will notice

6 has no digit to be added;

2 has 3 to be added;

4 has 5 to be added.

So you will read 6 2+3 4+5 [and not six two four]

which is six five nine.

624 + 35 = 659

[In one step]

02)

813 +

03)

42 +

52 = 865

56 =

[8 1+5 3+2]

98

[4+5 2+6]

04)

05)

254 +

06)

54 +

23 =

77

07)

35 +

24 =

59

31 = 285

08) 2314 +

32 = 2346

09) 8124 +

53 = 8177

10) 3261 +

35 = 3286

[2 3 1+3 4+2]

12) 5124 + 2315 = 7439

12

JUGGLE NUMBERS

We all know it is

6 hundred and twentyfour.

We better read digit by digit

Six, Two, Four

EXERCISE (9)

01)

34 +

3 = ________

24)

64 +

23 = ________

02)

23 +

41 = ________

25)

531 +

25 = ________

03)

13 +

45 = ________

26)

713 +

213 = ________

04)

547 +

21 = ________

27)

3000 +

498 = ________

05)

821 +

43 = ________

28)

5002 +

83 = ________

06)

742 +

43 = ________

29)

7000 +

275 = ________

07)

531 +

265 = ________

30)

08)

1623 +

51 = ________

31)

09)

3624 +

143 = ________

32)

10)

7825 +

42 = ________

33)

11)

8804 +

194 = ________

34)

12)

35)

502 +

71 = ________

13)

834 +

53 = ________

36)

57 +

21 = ________

14)

7153 +

26 = ________

37)

524 +

141 = ________

15)

137 +

12 = ________

38)

713 +

243 = ________

16)

5472 +

214 = ________

39)

3524 +

241 = ________

17)

8215 +

463 = ________

40)

8210 +

403 = ________

18)

7402 +

243 = ________

41)

7042 +

435 = ________

19)

42)

20)

43)

21)

44)

22)

7025 +

931 = ________

45)

7005 +

423 = ________

23)

8004 +

573 = ________

46)

4030 +

424 = ________

JUGGLE NUMBERS

13

ADD A SINGLE DIGIT NUMBER (to Double Digit) with Carryover

01) 38 + 7 = ?

The 38 takes 2 from 7; becomes 40 (and 5 is left); so 45

02) 87 + 5 = 92

[cut 3 from 5]

03) 59 + 8 = 67

[cut 1 from 8]

04) 46 + 5 = 51

[cut 4 from 5]

In actual work, we can do this in two steps.

46 becomes 50 and then becomes 51

We shall write it like: 46 50 51

VERIFY

01)

58 + 7 = 65

[58 60 65]

02)

78 + 7 = 85

[78 80 85]

03)

38 + 7 = 45

[38 40 45]

04)

57 + 8 = 65 [57 60 65]

05)

18 + 7 = 25

[18 20 25]

06)

8 + 56 = 64

[56 60 64]

07)

5 + 26 = 31

[26 30 31]

08)

5 + 47 = 52

[47 50 52]

09)

4 + 69 = 73

[69 70 73]

10)

7 + 34 = 41

[34 40 41]

11)

16 + 7 = 23

[16 20 23]

12)

75 + 7 = 82

[75 80 82]

13)

56 + 6 = 62

[56 60 62]

14)

78 + 8 = 86

[78 80 86]

14

JUGGLE NUMBERS

EXERCISE (10)

01)

36 +

= ____

24)

95 +

= ____

02)

23 +

= ____

25)

128 +

= ____

03)

79 +

= ____

26)

84 +

= ____

04)

47 +

= ____

27)

35 +

= ____

05)

18 +

= ____

28)

22 +

= ____

06)

59 +

= ____

29)

57 +

= ____

07)

78 +

= ____

30)

73 +

= ____

08)

16 +

= ____

31)

49 +

= ____

09)

36 +

= ____

32)

52 +

= ____

10)

25 +

= ____

33)

17 +

= ____

11)

88 +

= ____

34)

14 +

= ____

12)

15 +

= ____

35)

97 +

= ____

13)

56 +

= ____

36)

76 +

= ____

14)

77 +

= ____

37)

89 +

= ____

15)

49 +

= ____

38)

37 +

= ____

16)

37 +

= ____

39)

28 +

= ____

17)

97 +

= ____

40)

15 +

= ____

18)

32 +

= ____

41)

67 +

= ____

19)

18 +

= ____

42)

14 +

= ____

20)

78 +

= ____

43)

88 +

= ____

21)

24 +

= ____

44)

46 +

= ____

22)

19 +

= ____

45)

27 +

= ____

23)

89 +

= ____

46)

19 +

= ____

JUGGLE NUMBERS

15

ADD A DOUBLE DIGIT NUMBER (with Carryover)

We avoid carry-overs and borrowing as they interfere with speed and flow.

The technique is better explained by examples.

We shall learn to go slow to GO FAST!.

Let us take the example on the earlier page

624 + 35 = ?

We take 624, the left side (L.S.) number;

Modify it by adding digits from right side (R.S.) number one by one.

We shall do only one addition (of one digit) in one step.

We read:

Step 1: 6 2 4

Step 2: 6 5 4

Step 3: 6 5 9

So 624 + 35 = 659

[ 2+3 ]

[ 4+5 ]

Consider 684 + 35 = ?

Now step 2 will be a problem as 8+3 gives a carryover.

Step 1: 6 8 4

8+3 is a problem; take 68+3

68 4

Step 2: 71 4

Step 3: 7 1 9

So 684 + 35 = 719

ACTUAL WORKING

684+35=?

step 1: 6 8 4

step 2: 68 4

71 4

step 3: 7 1 9

So

16

684+35=719

JUGGLE NUMBERS

[That is all the trick!]

[ 68+3 ]

[ 4+5 ]

EXAMPLES

01)

2 7 6 + 5 2 = ________

27 6

32 6

328

02)

576+83=659

57 6

65 6

659

03)

851+76=927

85 1

92 1

Cut the fist step also.

04)

368+91=459

45 8

Cut the remaining step also.

05)

483+62=545

NOTE

The student must practice many times like each of the examples above and move

to the next model when you are thorough and comfortable.

JUGGLE NUMBERS

17

ADD ANY NUMBER

Examples

01)

678+56=734

72 8

7 28

7 34

02)

973+521=1494

14 7 3

03)

678+256=934

878

92 8

9 28

9 34

04)

578+381=959

878

87 8

95 8

05)

247+316=563

547

557

5 57

5 63

06)

978+656=1634

15 7 8

1578

1 57 8

1 62 8

1 6 28

1 6 34

NOTE

The final level is to do just to write the answer (without any other writing).

18

JUGGLE NUMBERS

ACTUAL MENTAL ADDITION

THE BEST APPROACH

The enthusiastic and energetic parent / teacher may get the idea of the

DossFAST method from the past few pages; and then teach the student

only this page.

In the previous few pages the DossFAST method was explained. If the idea is

grasped then the actual working by the student is given below.

Using underlining instead of grouping is much simpler and easier.

The previous page will look like this.

The student must be encouraged to WRITE these steps, as they are, without

any change. Once they understand the method thoroughly, they will hate to

write any steps and they will just write the answer only.

Examples

01)

678+56=734

728

02)

973+521=1494

1473

03)

678+256=934

878

928

04)

578+381=959

878

958

05)

247+316=563

557

06)

978+656=1634

1578

1628

JUGGLE NUMBERS

19

EXERCISE (11)

01)

34 +

8 = ________

01)

74 +

15 = ________

02)

23 +

49 = ________

02)

258 +

53 = ________

03)

17 +

45 = ________

03)

574 +

247 = ________

04)

547 +

24 = ________

04)

05)

828 +

45 = ________

05)

468 +

327 = ________

06)

746 +

47 = ________

06)

543 +

728 = ________

07)

537 +

265 = ________

07)

374 +

586 = ________

08)

1278 +

551 = ________

08)

2479 +

152 = ________

09)

3624 +

735 = ________

09)

10)

7869 +

423 = ________

10)

11)

11)

12)

12)

5378 +

57 = ________

13)

527 +

65 = ________

13)

57 +

21 = ________

14)

1528 +

734 = ________

14)

524 +

141 = ________

15)

4075 +

846 = ________

15)

713 +

243 = ________

16)

72 +

14 = ________

16)

3524 +

241 = ________

17)

258 +

173 = ________

17)

8210 +

403 = ________

18)

18)

7042 +

435 = ________

19)

19)

78 = ________

20)

21)

21)

22)

22)

7005 +

423 = ________

23)

3408 +

23)

4030 +

424 = ________

20)

20

56 +

249 = ________

JUGGLE NUMBERS

2

SUBTRACTION

USING

DossFAST

Doss Fast Addition and Subtraction Technique

SIMPLE CASE

Go over all the subtraction problems that you may find from Exercise (1) onwards.

Go through the following also and pick up any method, if you like.

Few simple methods; see the notes around each sum.

01) 70 26 50 44

or Jump from 26 to 30; get 4 and 30 to 70 is 40. So 44

From 300, keep 200 and 100 62 is 38

or 300 60 = 240; 240 2 = 238

or 800 100 = 700; 700 62 = 638

i.e. 800 162 700 640 638

04)

54

[Take away 60 and then 2]

[First subtract 100, then 60, finally 2]

45

06) 13 7 = ?

Subtracting 3 from 13 is easy; So split 7as 3 & 4

13 3 is 10; 10 4 = 6

So 13 7 = 6

i.e. 13 10 6

[Subtract 50 and then add 2]

07) 57 9 = ?

So 57 9 50 48

08) 45 8 = ?

So 45 8 40 37

09) 64 12 = 52

i.e. 64 60 52

10) 76 15 = 61

i.e. 76 70 61

EXERCISE (12)

01)

10

6 = ________

01)

43

3 = ________

02)

30

6 = ________

02)

58

6 = ________

03)

40

6 = ________

03)

50

7 = ________

04)

70

6 = ________

04)

70

9 = ________

05)

90

6 = ________

05)

100

3 = ________

06)

120

6 = ________

06)

320

4 = ________

07)

430

6 = ________

07)

720

5 = ________

08)

100

6 = ________

08) 1000

2 = ________

09)

50

6 = ________

09)

58

1 = ________

10)

50

8 = ________

10)

55

4 = ________

11)

50

5 = ________

11)

51

1 = ________

12)

50

3 = ________

12)

50

1 = ________

13)

6 = ________

13)

80

2 = ________

14)

38

6 = ________

14)

30

3 = ________

15)

78

6 = ________

15)

47

5 = ________

16)

578

6 = ________

16)

79

3 = ________

17)

29

5 = ________

17)

95

2 = ________

18)

54

3 = ________

18)

48

7 = ________

19)

69

7 = ________

19)

83

3 = ________

20)

78

4 = ________

20)

29

4 = ________

21)

58

8 = ________

21)

159

5 = ________

22)

23

1 = ________

22)

99

3 = ________

23)

34

3 = ________

23)

39

7 = ________

JUGGLE NUMBERS

23

JUST SUBTRACT

This is extremely simple and fast (assumes mastery of single digit subtraction).

Read 1st number, digit by digit; from left to right.

Subtract any digit from the 2nd number if in the corresponding place.

shall follow the underlining pattern on last page of Section 3.

Examples

01)

67856=622

622

02)

65976=583

589

03)

923561=362

423

363

04)

642356=286

342

292

05)

2578781=1797

1878

1798

06)

2475816=1659

1675

1665

07)

24

75036846=657

1503

703

663

JUGGLE NUMBERS

A F T E R

SUFFICIENT

PRACTICE THIS

CAN BE DONE IN

JUST ONE LINE!

EXERCISE (13)

01)

48

6 = _______

01)

53

27 = _________

02)

25

7 = _______

02)

359

74 = _________

03)

04) 725

43 = _______

05) 354

78 = _______

05)

06)

128

07)

08) 500

73 = _______

09) 342

29 = _______

09)

10) 700

99 = _______

10)

11)

12) 450

51 = _______

12)

13)

84

68 = _______

13)

98

72 = _________

14) 538

62 = _______

14)

173

57 = _________

15) 738

69 = _______

15)

16)

17) 293

50 = _______

18) 320

30 = _______

19) 2691

91 = _______

67 = _________

38

5 = _________

20)

22)

JUGGLE NUMBERS

25

END

OF

THE BOOK

APPENDIX

I

ADDITION

(of 2 single digit numbers instantly)

USING

ADDITION TABLES

ADDITION TABLES

1

2

3

4

5

+

+

+

+

+

1

1

1

1

1

=

=

=

=

=

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

+

+

+

+

+

2

2

2

2

2

=

=

=

=

=

3

4

5

6

7

1+

2+

3+

4+

5+

3

3

3

3

3

=

=

=

=

=

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

4

5

+

+

+

+

+

4

4

4

4

4

=

=

=

=

=

5

6

7

8

9

1+

2+

3+

4+

5+

5= 6

5= 7

5= 8

5= 9

5 =10

6

7

8

9

10

+

+

+

+

+

1

1

1

1

1

= 7

= 8

= 9

= 10

= 11

6

7

8

9

10

+

+

+

+

+

2

2

2

2

2

= 8

= 9

= 10

= 11

= 12

6+

7+

8+

9+

10 +

3

3

3

3

3

= 9

= 10

= 11

= 12

= 13

6

7

8

9

10

+

+

+

+

+

4

4

4

4

4

= 10

= 11

= 12

= 13

= 14

6+

7+

8+

9+

10 +

5 = 11

5 = 12

5 = 13

5 = 14

5 = 15

1

2

3

4

5

+

+

+

+

+

6

6

6

6

6

= 7

= 8

= 9

= 10

= 11

1

2

3

4

5

+

+

+

+

+

7

7

7

7

7

= 8

= 9

= 10

= 11

= 12

1+

2+

3+

4+

5+

8

8

8

8

8

= 9

= 10

= 11

= 12

= 13

1

2

3

4

5

+

+

+

+

+

9

9

9

9

9

= 10

= 11

= 12

= 13

= 14

1+

2+

3+

4+

5+

10 = 11

10 = 12

10 = 13

10 = 14

10 = 15

6

7

8

9

10

+

+

+

+

+

6

6

6

6

6

= 12

= 13

= 14

= 15

= 16

6

7

8

9

10

+

+

+

+

+

7

7

7

7

7

= 13

= 14

= 15

= 16

= 17

6+

7+

8+

9+

10 +

8

8

8

8

8

= 14

= 15

= 16

= 17

= 18

6

7

8

9

10

+

+

+

+

+

9

9

9

9

9

= 15

= 16

= 17

= 18

= 19

6 + 10 = 16

7 + 10 = 17

8 + 10 = 18

9 + 10 = 19

10 + 10 =20

The one and ten tables are easy; the results in bold in the tables (compiled

below) form nice patterns which children love and can be taught independently.

Tell (encourage) them everyday how much they have

learnt and how little is left to be learnt. This gives them

a sense of achievement and gives them a comfortable

feeling that they already know quite a bit of addition

and addition is not difficult after all.

Now take up the remaining tables taking half a block

of 5 lines (shaded) at a time, for a week or so for the

child to learn it thoroughly. If the children take time it

does not matter; just encourage them and be positive.

28

JUGGLE NUMBERS

1+ 1= 2

2+ 2= 4

3+ 3= 6

4+ 4= 8

5 + 5 = 10

6 + 6 = 12

7 + 7 = 14

8 + 8 = 16

9 + 9 = 18

10 +10 = 20

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

= 10

= 10

= 10

= 10

= 10

= 10

= 10

= 10

= 10

TEACH ADDITION TABLES

TEACH AS RHYMES

Children love rhymes even without knowing (understanding) who is Jack or what

is Jill. Tables also are to be taught just as rhymes. It is rote learning and blind and

unconcious recital that we need.

HOW?

NO DISTRACTIONS

Turn off the electronic gadgets that distract the child. Help the child to concentrate.

Recite

The child repeatedly recites the chosen (5) lines, say 5 to 10 times.

Write ...

In case of a doubt we write an English word to get the correct spelling. So there is

some sort of memory in writing apart from oral, aural and visual memories. The

child recites a line of the table loud and at the same time writes the line. This way

the learning process takes place through the mouth, ear, hand and eyes. (Children

have a tendency to fill the tables by vertical columns; do not allow it as it is a total

waste of time and energy.)

Repeat

This process, reciting and writing, may be repeated morning and evening for a few

days until fluency is achieved. Start with the first block. Only when the child is

thorough with this, move on to the next block.

KEEP UPDATING

Each time you start, check earlier blocks learnt. When you test the child for addition

of 2 single-digit numbers, the response must be instant (not starting from the 1st line

etc.) as if the question was, What is your name?.

TEACH VERY EARLY

To avoid confusing the child, teach tables before the (education) system starts

messing up with numbers and, more importantly, calculations.

MAIL ME

quickmaths@gmail.com or

mat.doss@yahoo.in

JUGGLE NUMBERS

29

APPENDIX

II

ADDITION

(of 2 single digit numbers instantly)

WITHOUT

ADDITION TABLES

APPENDIX II:

WHAT IS 10?

10 is

Split 10

10 is

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

9

8

7

6

5

&

&

&

&

&

1

2

3

4

5

or

1

2

3

4

&

&

&

&

9

8

7

6

JUGGLE NUMBERS

33

EXERCISE (1)

34

10 is 01)

&

___

02)

&

___

03)

___

&

04)

&

___

05)

&

___

01) 10 7

____

06)

&

___

02) 10 5

____

07)

___

&

03) 10 1

____

08)

&

___

04) 10 8

____

09)

&

___

05) 10 6

____

10)

___

&

06) 10 3

____

11)

&

___

07) 10 9

____

12)

___

&

08) 10 4

____

13)

&

___

09) 10 0

____

14)

___

&

10

10) 10 2

____

15)

___

&

11) 10 10

____

16)

___

&

12) 10 3

____

17)

___

&

13) 10 7

____

18)

___

&

14) 10 5

____

19)

10

&

___

15) 10 1

____

16) 10 6

____

17) 10 5

____

18) 10 8

____

19) 10 4

____

JUGGLE NUMBERS

WHAT IS 5?

5 is

PRACTICE (1)

___

&

___

___

&

___

___

&

___

___

&

___

PRACTICE (2)

10 is

5 & ___

5 is

___ & 3

5 is

4 & ___

10 is

___ & 6

5 is

2 & ___

5 is

___ & 1

5 is

1 & ___

10 is

___ & 8

10 is

7 & ___

5 is

___ & 2

5 is

3 & ___

5 is

___ & 5

10 is

8 & ___

10 is

___ & 9

5 is

4 & ___

5 is

___ & 4

10 is

3 & ___

10 is

___ & 7

5 is

1 & ___

10 is

___ & 8

10 is

4 & ___

5 is

___ & 2

5 is

2 & ___

5 is

___ & 5

10 is

6 & ___

10 is

___ & 9

5 is

4 & ___

5 is

___ & 4

JUGGLE NUMBERS

35

EXERCISE (2)

01)

10 is

___ &

02)

5 is

___ &

03)

5 is

& ___

01)

3 = ____

04)

10 is

& ___

02)

5 = ____

05)

10 is

03)

1 = ____

06)

5 is

& ___

04)

10

3 = ____

07)

10 is

& ___

05)

10

5 = ____

08)

10 is

___ &

06)

10

10 = ____

09)

10 is

___ &

07)

10

7 = ____

10)

5 is

& ___

08)

2 = ____

11)

10 is

& ___

09)

0 = ____

12)

10 is

& ___

10)

3 = ____

13)

5 is

___ &

11)

10

0 = ____

14)

5 is

___ &

12)

3 = ____

15)

10 is

13)

4 = ____

16)

10 is

14)

10

8 = ____

17)

5 is

15)

1 = ____

18)

10 is

16)

10

2 = ____

17)

10

9 = ____

18)

10

6 = ____

36

___ &

& ___

___ &

3

& ___

___ &

JUGGLE NUMBERS

WHAT IS 3?

3 is

2&1

or

1&2

4 is

3&1

2&2

or

or

1&3

2&2

WHAT IS 4?

PRACTICE (1)

PRACTICE (2)

3 is

& ___

& ___

is

4 is

& ___

& ___

is

4 is

& ___

& ___

is 10

3 is

& ___

& ___

is

4 is

& ___

& ___

is 10

3 is

& ___

___ &

is

4 is

& ___

___ &

is 10

5 is

& ___

___ &

is

10 is

& ___

___ &

is 10

4 is

& ___

___ &

is 10

5 is

& ___

___ &

is

10 is

& ___

___ &

is

10 is

& ___

___ &

is 10

5 is

& ___

___ &

is 10

4 is

& ___

___ &

is

3 is

& ___

___ &

is

10 is

& ___

___ &

is

JUGGLE NUMBERS

5

5

5

37

EXERCISE (3)

01)

6 + 4 = ____

1)

10 4 = ____

02)

3 + 2 = ____

2)

5 2 = ____

03)

2 + 1 = ____

3)

3 1 = ____

04)

1 + 4 = ____

4)

5 4 = ____

05)

2 + 8 = ____

5)

10 8 = ____

06)

2 + 3 = ____

6)

3 3 = ____

07)

3 + 7 = ____

7)

10 7 = ____

08)

8 + 2 = ____

8)

4 2 = ____

09)

2 + 2 = ____

9)

2 2 = ____

10)

1 + 3 = ____

10)

2 1 = ____

11)

4 + 1 = ____

11)

10 3 = ____

12)

7 + 3 = ____

12)

5 3 = ____

13)

16 + 4 = ____

13)

45 3 = ____

14)

43 + 2 = ____

14)

95 3 = ____

15)

72 + 1 = ____

15)

20 3 = ____

16)

21 + 4 = ____

16)

40 2 = ____

17)

32 + 8 = ____

17)

5 4 = ____

18)

92 + 3 = ____

18)

25 4 = ____

19)

23 + 7 = ____

19)

7 7 = ____

20)

58 + 2 = ____

20)

27 7 = ____

21)

23 + 2 = ____

21)

23 3 = ____

22)

61 + 4 = ____

22)

68 8 = ____

23)

57 + 3 = ____

23)

74 2 = ____

38

JUGGLE NUMBERS

WHAT IS 6?

6 is

5&1

4&2

3&3

PRACTICE (1)

or

or

or

1&5

2&4

3&3

PRACTICE (2)

is

& ___

& ___ is

is

& ___

& ___ is

is

& ___

& ___ is

is

& ___

& ___ is

is

& ___

& ___ is

is

& ___

___ &

is

is

& ___

___ &

is

10

10

is

& ___

___ &

is

is

& ___

___ &

is

is

& ___

___ &

is

is

& ___

___ &

is

is

& ___

___ &

is

10

is

& ___

___ &

is

10

is

& ___

___ &

is

is

& ___

___ &

is

is

& ___

___ &

is

is

& ___

___ &

is

is

& ___

& ___ is

is

& ___

& ___ is

JUGGLE NUMBERS

39

EXERCISE (4)

01)

2 + 4 = ____

01)

10 4 = ____

02)

3 + 7 = ____

02)

5 2 = ____

03)

2 + 3 = ____

03)

3 1 = ____

04)

1 + 5 = ____

04)

6 4 = ____

05)

4 + 6 = ____

05)

10 8 = ____

06)

1 + 4 = ____

06)

4 3 = ____

07)

1 + 9 = ____

07)

10 7 = ____

08)

4 + 2 = ____

08)

4 2 = ____

09)

5 + 5 = ____

09)

6 2 = ____

10)

65 + 5 = ____

10)

5 3 = ____

11)

5 + 1 = ____

11)

3 1 = ____

12)

8 + 2 = ____

12)

4 1 = ____

13)

3 + 2 = ____

13)

10 3 = ____

14)

13 + 2 = ____

14)

20 3 = ____

15)

2 + 1 = ____

15)

40 3 = ____

16)

12 + 1 = ____

16)

6 4 = ____

17)

2 + 11 = ____

17)

26 4 = ____

18)

8 + 2 = ____

18)

96 3 = ____

19)

18 + 2 = ____

19)

6 6 = ____

20)

4 + 2 = ____

20)

26 6 = ____

21)

14 + 2 = ____

21)

56 6 = ____

22)

54 + 2 = ____

22)

68 8 = ____

23)

94 + 2 = ____

23)

76 2 = ____

40

JUGGLE NUMBERS

WHAT IS 9?

9 is

PRACTICE (1)

8

7

6

5

&

&

&

&

1

2

3

4

or

or

or

or

1

2

3

4

&

&

&

&

8

7

6

5

PRACTICE (2)

is

2 & ___

& ___ is

is

3 & ___

& ___ is

is

1 & ___

& ___ is

is

1 & ___

& ___ is

is

4 & ___

& ___ is

10

is

3 & ___

___ &

is

is

2 & ___

___ &

is

12

is

7 & ___

___ &

is

is

5 & ___

___ &

is

is

3 & ___

___ &

is

is

1 & ___

___ &

is

is

2 & ___

___ &

is

is

2 & ___

___ &

is

is

1 & ___

___ &

is

is

6 & ___

___ &

is

10

is

7 & ___

___ &

is

is

4 & ___

___ &

is

is

8 & ___

& ___ is

JUGGLE NUMBERS

41

EXERCISE (5)

01)

26 + 3 = ____

01)

9 3 = ____

02)

37 + 2 = ____

02)

6 2 = ____

03)

52 + 1 = ____

03)

4 3 = ____

04)

14 + 4 = ____

04)

3 1 = ____

05)

22 + 8 = ____

05)

9 4 = ____

06)

83 + 6 = ____

06)

2 1 = ____

07)

42 + 7 = ____

07)

10 3 = ____

08)

91 + 8 = ____

08)

5 2 = ____

09)

65 + 4 = ____

09)

6 3 = ____

10)

18 + 2 = ____

10)

5 3 = ____

11)

48 + 1 = ____

11)

10 7 = ____

12)

76 + 3 = ____

12)

9 5 = ____

13)

35 + 4 = ____

13)

10 8 = ____

14)

43 + 3 = ____

14)

68 8 = ____

15)

67 + 2 = ____

15)

59 2 = ____

16)

4 + 35 = ____

16)

95 4 = ____

17)

21 + 8 = ____

17)

36 4 = ____

18)

22 + 3 = ____

18)

79 3 = ____

19)

32 + 7 = ____

19)

29 7 = ____

20)

83 + 2 = ____

20)

49 6 = ____

21)

24 + 2 = ____

21)

17 1 = ____

22)

1 + 38 = ____

22)

65 5 = ____

23)

4 + 12 = ____

23)

65 60 = ____

42

JUGGLE NUMBERS

WHAT IS 7?

7 is

PRACTICE (1)

6&1

5&2

4&3

or

or

or

1&6

2&5

3&4

PRACTICE (2)

7 is

& ___

& ___

is

7 is

& ___

& ___

is

10 is

& ___

& ___

is

9 is

& ___

& ___

is

13 is

& ___

& ___

is 10

7 is

& ___

___ &

is

3 is

& ___

___ &

is

9 is

& ___

___ &

is 16

6 is

& ___

___ &

is

15 is

10

& ___

___ &

is

7 is

& ___

___ &

is

6 is

& ___

___ &

is

4 is

& ___

___ &

is

11 is

& ___

___ &

is

7 is

& ___

___ &

is 18

7 is

& ___

___ &

is 25

5 is

& ___

___ &

is 76

7 is

& ___

& ___

is 92

7 is

& ___

& ___

is

JUGGLE NUMBERS

43

EXERCISE (6)

01)

26 + 1 = ____

01)

6 2 = ____

02)

35 + 2 = ____

02)

26 3 = ____

03)

2 + 145 = ____

03)

10 4 = ____

04)

9 4 = ____

05)

39 4 = ____

06)

23 + 3 = ____

06)

5 3 = ____

07)

32 + 7 = ____

07)

89 5 = ____

08)

81 + 2 = ____

08)

4 3 = ____

09)

23 + 2 = ____

09)

3 2 = ____

10)

12 + 3 = ____

10)

50 7 = ____

11)

49 + 1 = ____

11)

7 3 = ____

12)

57 + 3 = ____

12)

5 3 = ____

13)

63 + 4 = ____

13)

10 6 = ____

14)

3 + 24 = ____

14)

25 3 = ____

15)

2 + 15 = ____

15)

9 2 = ____

16)

1 + 431 = ____

16)

29 2 = ____

17)

2 + 804 = ____

17)

39 2 = ____

18)

2 + 312 = ____

18)

56 4 = ____

19)

37 7 = ____

20)

85 + 2 = ____

20)

17 5 = ____

21)

28 + 2 = ____

21)

6 3 = ____

22)

16 + 3 = ____

22)

7 4 = ____

23)

6 2 = ____

44

JUGGLE NUMBERS

WHAT IS 8?

8 is

PRACTICE (1)

7

6

5

4

&

&

&

&

1

2

3

4

or

or

or

or

1

2

3

4

&7

&6

&5

&4

PRACTICE (2)

8 is

3 & ___

& ___ is

12 is

2 & ___

& ___ is

10 is

6 & ___

& ___ is

8 is

7 & ___

& ___ is

8 is

4 & ___

& ___ is

19 is

9 & ___

___ &

is

8 is

2 & ___

___ &

is

18

8 is

7 & ___

___ &

is

28

5 is

5 & ___

___ &

is

5 is

2 & ___

___ &

is

8 is

6 & ___

___ &

is

8 is

3 & ___

___ &

is

8 is

4 & ___

___ &

is

19 is

1 & ___

___ &

is

38 is

8 & ___

___ &

is

10

10 is

5 & ___

___ &

is

6 is

2 & ___

___ &

is

7 is

4 & ___

& ___ is

10

JUGGLE NUMBERS

45

EXERCISE (7)

02)

3 + 382 = ____

02)

3 + 25 = ____

03)

2 + 41 = ____

03)

2 + 126 = ____

04)

31 + 4 = ____

05)

53 + 7 = ____

06)

1 + 39 = ____

08)

6 + 2 = ____

09)

25 + 3 = ____

09)

42 + 8 = ____

10)

1 + 37 = ____

10)

7 + 73 = ____

11)

4 + 14 = ____

11)

49 + 1 = ____

12)

75 + 3 = ____

12)

75 + 3 = ____

13)

8 2 = ____

13)

9 3 = ____

14)

5 3 = ____

14)

39 3 = ____

15)

3 2 = ____

15)

59 2 = ____

16)

8 5 = ____

16)

8 6 = ____

17)

10 3 = ____

17)

28 6 = ____

18)

7 3 = ____

18)

43 3 = ____

19)

9 7 = ____

19)

37 7 = ____

20)

5 2 = ____

20)

56 2 = ____

21)

6 4 = ____

21)

32 1 = ____

22)

7 2 = ____

22)

88 1 = ____

23)

8 1 = ____

23)

47 2 = ____

46

JUGGLE NUMBERS

ADD SINGLE DIGIT (to Single Digit) with Carryover

01) 8 + 5 = ?

The 8 needs a 2 to make 10; Take this 2 from 5; we are left with 3

8 10; 5 3;

So 8 + 5 = 10 & 3 = 13

02) 7 + 5 = ?

7 takes 3 from 5 leaving behind 2; so 7 + 5 = 12

03) 9 + 8 = ?

9 takes 1 from 8 leaving behind 7; so 9 + 8 = 17

01) 8 + 3 = 11

[cut 2 from 3]

02) 9 + 6 = 15

[cut 1 from 6]

03) 7 + 5 = 12

[cut 3 from 5]

04)

05)

06)

07)

08)

09)

4 + 8 = 12

6 + 9 = 15

2 + 9 = 11

3 + 9 = 12

5 + 8 = 13

7 + 9 = 16

[cut 6

[cut 4

[cut 8

[cut 7

[cut 5

[cut 3

from

from

from

from

from

from

8]

9]

9]

9]

8]

9]

or

or

or

or

or

or

03)

04)

06)

07)

08)

09)

8 + 4 = 12

9 + 6 = 15

9 + 2 = 11

9 + 3 = 12

8 + 5 = 13

9 + 7 = 16

[cut 2

[cut 1

[cut 1

[cut 1

[cut 2

[cut 1

from

from

from

from

from

from

4]

6]

2]

3]

5]

7]

01)

7 + 6 = ______

02)

8 + 6 = ______

03)

9 + 5 = ______

04)

8 + 4 = ______

05)

2 + 9 = ______

06)

6 + 5 = ______

07)

3 + 8 = ______

08)

4 + 7 = ______

09)

6 + 8 = ______

10)

7 + 9 = ______

11)

5 + 7 = ______

12)

8 + 5 = ______

JUGGLE NUMBERS

47

EXERCISE (8)

48

01)

6 + 7 = ____

01)

5 + 6 = ____

02)

3 + 8 = ____

02)

8 + 7 = ____

03)

9 + 4 = ____

03)

4 + 6 = ____

04)

7 + 5 = ____

04)

5 + 8 = ____

05)

8 + 7 = ____

05)

2 + 8 = ____

06)

9 + 4 = ____

06)

7 + 4 = ____

07)

8 + 5 = ____

07)

3 + 9 = ____

08)

6 + 8 = ____

08)

9 + 7 = ____

09)

6 + 4 = ____

09)

2 + 8 = ____

10)

5 + 9 = ____

10)

7 + 6 = ____

11)

8 + 4 = ____

11)

4 + 7 = ____

12)

5 + 6 = ____

12)

7 + 5 = ____

13)

6 + 8 = ____

13)

6 + 6 = ____

14)

7 + 7 = ____

14)

9 + 5 = ____

15)

9 + 6 = ____

15)

7 + 7 = ____

16)

7 + 4 = ____

16)

8 + 5 = ____

17)

7 + 6 = ____

17)

5 + 9 = ____

18)

2 + 9 = ____

18)

7 + 6 = ____

19)

8 + 5 = ____

19)

4 + 7 = ____

20)

8 + 9 = ____

20)

8 + 4 = ____

21)

4 + 8 = ____

21)

6 + 5 = ____

22)

9 + 9 = ____

22)

7 + 8 = ____

23)

9 + 8 = ____

23)

9 + 3 = ____

JUGGLE NUMBERS

SUBTRACTION TABLES

One can learn these subtraction tables; but it is not a must.

If one knows addition (tables) well then subtraction (additions reverse process)

is pretty easy, like division is easy if you are thorough with multiplication tables.

All the dotted lines indicate easy results.

1

2

3

4

5

1

1

1

1

1

=

=

=

=

=

0

1

2

3

4

2

3

4

5

6

2

2

2

2

2

=

=

=

=

=

0

1

2

3

4

3

4

5

6

7

3

3

3

3

3

=

=

=

=

=

0

1

2

3

4

4

5

6

7

8

4

4

4

4

4

=

=

=

=

=

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

5=

5=

5=

5=

5=

0

1

2

3

4

6

7

8

9

10

11

1

1

1

1

1

1

=

=

=

=

=

=

5

6

7

8

11

10

7

8

9

10

11

12

2

2

2

2

2

2

=

=

=

=

=

=

5

6

7

8

9

10

8

9

10

11

12

13

3

3

3

3

3

3

=

=

=

=

=

=

5

6

7

8

9

10

9

10

11

12

13

14

4

4

4

4

4

4

=

=

=

=

=

=

5

6

7

8

9

10

10

11

12

13

14

15

5= 5

5= 6

5= 7

5= 8

5= 9

5 = 10

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

0

9

1 10

2

11

3 12

4 13

5 14

6 15

7 16

8 17

9 108

10 19

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

10 = 0

10 = 1

10 = 2

10 = 3

10 = 4

10 = 5

10 = 6

10 = 7

10 = 8

10 = 9

10 = 10

MULTIPLICATION TABLES

The 1-table and 10-table are easy.

The 5-table is an interesting pattern and easy to learn. Children love them.

The 10 results with bold letter also form a nice pattern and so these could be

taught as a separate set. Children love these too.

Now take up the remaining tables taking half a block of 5 lines at a time. If the

children take time it does not matter; just encourage them and be positive.

1

2

3

4

5

x

x

x

x

x

1

1

1

1

1

=

=

=

=

=

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

x

x

x

x

x

2

2

2

2

2

=

=

=

=

=

2

4

6

8

10

1x

2x

3x

4x

5x

3

3

3

3

3

=

=

=

=

=

3

6

9

12

15

1

2

3

4

5

x

x

x

x

x

4

4

4

4

4

= 4

= 8

= 12

= 16

= 20

1x

2x

3x

4x

5x

5=

5=

5=

5=

5=

5

10

15

20

25

6

7

8

9

10

x

x

x

x

x

1

1

1

1

1

=

=

=

=

=

6

7

8

9

10

6

7

8

9

10

x

x

x

x

x

2

2

2

2

2

=

=

=

=

=

12

14

16

18

20

6x

7x

8x

9x

10 x

3

3

3

3

3

=

=

=

=

=

18

21

24

27

30

6

7

8

9

10

x

x

x

x

x

4

4

4

4

4

=

=

=

=

=

24

28

32

36

40

6x

7x

8x

9x

10 x

5=

5=

5=

5=

5=

30

35

40

45

50

1

2

3

4

5

x

x

x

x

x

6

6

6

6

6

=

=

=

=

=

6

12

18

24

30

1

2

3

4

5

x

x

x

x

x

7

7

7

7

7

=

=

=

=

=

7

14

21

28

35

1x

2x

3x

4x

5x

8

8

8

8

8

=

=

=

=

=

8

16

24

32

40

1

2

3

4

5

x

x

x

x

x

9

9

9

9

9

=

=

=

=

=

9

18

27

36

45

1x

2x

3x

4x

5x

10 =

10 =

10 =

10 =

10 =

10

20

30

40

50

6

7

8

9

10

x

x

x

x

x

6

6

6

6

6

= 36

= 42

= 48

= 54

= 60

6

7

8

9

10

x

x

x

x

x

7

7

7

7

7

= 42

= 49

= 56

= 63

= 70

6x

7x

8x

9x

10 x

8

8

8

8

8

= 48

= 56

= 64

= 72

= 80

6

7

8

9

10

x

x

x

x

x

9

9

9

9

9

= 54

6 x 10 = 60

= 63

7 x 10 = 70

= 72

8 x 10 = 80

= 81

9 x 10 = 90

= 90 10 x 10 =100

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