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Routing Basics

• Routing is moving packets across inter network from source to destination. • Routing involves two basic activities:– Determination of optimal path to the destination. – Transport or delivery of packets to the destination .

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Routing Methods
• Next hop routing: – In this method the routing table holds only the address of the next hop, instead of holding complete route information. Network Specific Routing: – Instead of having an entry for every host connected to the same physical network, only one entry to define the address of the network. Host Specific Routing: – The host address is given in the routing table. Default Routing: – Instead of listing all networks in the entire Internet a host can just have one entry called the default address.
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the router must first check for direct delivery. to route IP packets. – A host or a router keeps a routing table. – The routing table may be • Static • Dynamic © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . then network specific delivery and finally default delivery.Routing Basics • When looking for the route. with an entry for each destination. then host specific delivery.

• Static versus dynamic • Single-path versus multipath • Flat versus hierarchical • Host-intelligent versus router-intelligent • Intradomain versus interdomain • Link-state versus distance vector © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Routing Algorithms Routing algorithms can be classified by type.

© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . – Static routing system cannot react to network changes. – They are not suitable for Today’s large Internetwork .Static Routing – Static routing table mappings are established manually by the network administrator.

This is known as Dynamic routing. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Dynamic routing • By using Routing protocol the routers can automatically update any change in the route Dynamically. • In large WAN with multiple links between networks routers perform more effectively when they under stand how the network is linked.

Dynamic routing • Routers do this by exchanging information with other Routers. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . • As a result Routers create Routing Table that shows the best path between the various links.

– Others are open that have been standardised by official sanctioning Agencies. • Among the Proprietary are – IPX – IGRP • Open Protocols – RIP – OSPF – Intermediate System to Intermediate System © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Routing Basics • Wide variety of Routing Protocols can be found – Some are Proprietary or Single vendor for their own products.

Convergence must take place rapidly.Routing Algorithms • • • • • All dynamic routing protocols are based on some algorithms. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . Algorithms must be able to quickly determine the Network topology. – Routing algorithms use a variety of Metrics that affect calculation of Optimal Routes. This process is called Convergence. Each algorithm has a different impact on Network and Routers.

• Commonly used algorithms are – Distance Vector Protocol – Link Status Protocol © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . – Different routing protocols use different metrics and sometimes multiple metrics. – A metric is a variable assigned to a routes as a means of ranking them from best to worst or from most preferred to least preferred.Path Determination • When there are multiple routes to the same destination. a router must have a mechanism for calculating the best path.

Metrics • The following are the metrics used. – Hop Count – Bandwidth – Load – Delay – Reliability – Cost © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

• Each routers takes the routing information passed to it. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Distance Vector Protocol • In Distance Vector routing protocol each routers keeps a routing table of its perspective of the network. adds one hop to the route and passes the updated information to the next. • The distance vector protocol is also known as Ford-Fulkerson routing algorithm named after the inventors.

• Then advertises information about its immediate connections to the other routers directly connected. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . • The Distance vector routing protocol uses second hand information from their neighbor. • When the router is started it knows only the networks it is connected directly. • This information exchange helps them determine the scope of their network in a series of router hops that reveals more information about the network.Distance Vector Protocol • Routers create a network map by communicating in a periodic and progressive sequence with other routers.

Link Status Protocol • Based on Shortest Path First or Dijkstra Algorithm. • The routers perform two tasks – First they use the link-state data to build a complete table of router and network connections. • When a router detects changes in the state of its direct link the router broadcast the change to all others through a process called flooding. • Sending of link state advertisements (LSAs) to all other routers within the same hierarchical area. • SPF routers send link-state data to all routers. – Then each router calculates the optimal path to each link. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

Routing Protocols • Routing protocols are divided into – Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGP) – Exterior Gateway Routing Protocol (EGP) © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

Routing Protocols © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

Interior Gateway Protocol • Interior Gateway Protocol are used within an Autonomous System to dynamically determine the best route. • They are based on – Distance Vector Algorithm • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) • Routing Information Protocol 2 (RIP 2) – Link Status Algorithm • Open Shortest path first(OSPF) • Internet Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) • Enhanced IGRP • Integrated Intermediate System to Intermediate System © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

• Used to exchange routing information between different Autonomous systems. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Exterior Gateway Protocol • Exterior Gateway protocol is known as inter domain Protocol.

– A list of neighbor (or Peer) routers with which to exchange routing information. – A list of Networks to advertise as directly reachable. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Exterior Gateway Protocol • Exterior gateway protocols require the following three sets of information before routing can begin. – The Autonomous system number of the Local Router.

Exterior Gateway Protocol
• Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) • Border Gateway Protocol version4 (BGP 4)

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Routing Information Protocol
• RIP is a Distance Vector Protocol. • Each router automatically sends a copy of its routing table to each of its neighbors every 30 sec. • If the updates are not received with in 180 Sec then the route is declared as unreachable . • RIP routing table entries contain – the destination (Network or Host or Default) – Metric indicating the Distance – Interface to use. – Gateway to use. – Timer, reset whenever the entry is updated.

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Routing Information Protocol
• RIP maintains only the best route to a destination. • When a new information provides a better route this will replace old route information. • RIP uses single routing metric (Hop count).

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© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . – Split Horizon: • Never send the information about a router back in the same direction.RIP Features – Hop-count: • Maximum 15 hops. (Called reverse route) – Split Horizon with poisoned reverse: • Advertises reverse routes but with an unreachable metric. – Triggered Updates • If metric changes send out an update (Flash update) – Hold-Downs: • Prevents regular update for a route that has gone bad. Beyond that unreachable.

(Hop count is 15) – Do not Support variable Length Subnet Mask.Problems with RIP – Slow convergence – Not suitable for Larger Network. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . – Only uses one path (Only one entry per destination) • No provision for load balancing. – Max data gram size is 512 byte.does not produce optimal route. – HOP count are only a crude metric .

RIP version 2 – Support VLSM – Routing Tags to supports EGP – Support multicasting. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

– IGRP uses a combination of metrics • Internetwork Delay • Bandwidth (1200 bps to 10 gigabits) • Reliability • Load (Value 1 to 255) © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Interior Gateway Routing Protocol – Developed by CISCO in the mid 1980’s.

© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Enhanced IGRP – With Software Release 9. – It combines advantage of Link status with the Distance vector protocols.21 Cisco introduced EIGRP. – EIGRP incorporates the Diffusing Update Algorithm.

Much lower protocol traffic overhead. Metric can be as large as 65535.Open Shortest Path First – – – – – Introduced in 1989 Uses Link State algorithm. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . Using cost as metric. – Support VLSM – Support a much larger internetwork than RIP. Elimination of count to infinity problem.

– Sending link State advertisement to all other routers. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . – Exchanges only when tables are updated – Provides Load balancing. – Looping is not formed since each router has the complete information. – Faster convergence. • Multiple routes to a single destination.Open Shortest Path First – Each Router builds a database of the Network.

© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . • Each AS designates one or more routers that runs BGP. • Used for Exchanging network reacheability information between AS. • BGP routers in each AS are linked to BGP routers in one or more AS.Border Gateway Protocol • Border Gateway Routing Protocol is an Exterior Routing Protocol.

Border Gateway Protocol • Routing information are stored as a set of Routing Information Bases. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . • This enables each AS to find paths to each other network in other AS. • Presently BGPv4 is used as the inter domain routing protocol. • This information is exchanged between BGP routers. and propagated to the entire network.

but can have more BGP routers. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . • It is possible to use BGP routers to communicate between BGP routers with in the same AS.Topology • BGP supports an arbitrary topology of AS ‘s • An AS must have one router running BGP .

Topology • BGP can handle a set of AS connected – In a full mesh topology – Partial mesh – A chain of AS linked one to the next – Any other configuration • BGP can handle changes to topology that may occur. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

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What’s VoIP?

• VoIP is the ability to make telephone calls over IP-based data networks with a suitable quality of service and cost benefit.

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Motivations for VoIP

• Demand for Multimedia communication • Demand for integration of Voice and Data networks • Cost Reduction in long distance telephone calls

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Motivations and Benefits of VoIP  Low Cost of public Internet  Long distance call for the price of local PSTN  Integration of voice and data applications  Internet–aware telephones  Intranet Telephony  Trivial implementation of existing services  Video conferencing © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

L A N S wi t c h e s e t c .How to VoIP? Analog Digital Voice Compression to less than 32Kbps Tr a n s f e r s t h r o u g h R o u t e r s . u s i n g t h e i r P r o t o c o l s © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

I P. e tc ) Digital Network © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . U D P.Voice To/From IP Analog Voice C O D EC : A n a l o g t o D i g i ta l C o m p re s s C re a te Vo i c e D a ta g ra m Add Header ( R T P.

Voice To/From IP Digital Network Process Header Re-sequence and B u ff e r D e l a y Decompress CODEC: Digital to Analog Analog Voice © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

Configuration Options Telephone-to-Telephone © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

PC-to-PC © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

Telephone-toPC © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . AT M . E t h e r n e t .323 / SIP / MGCP RT P / T C P / U D P IP F R . etc. P P P.ISO Reference Model and VoIP Standards ISO Protocol layer Presentation Session Tr a n s p o r t N e t wo r k Link Protocols and standards Codecs / Applications H.

VoIP Standards • ITU H.323 • IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

323 Entities MCU Terminal Gatekeeper Gateway Terminal LAN © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .H.

Terminal • Endpoint on a LAN • Supports real-time.audio codecs Signaling and setup • Optional support: Video Data © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .323 entity • Must support: Voice . 2-way communications with another H.

Gateway • Interface between the LAN and the circuit switched network • Translates communication  p r o c edu res a n d fo r m a ts  b e tw e en n e tw o r ks • Call setup and clearing • Compression and packetization of voice Example: IP/PSTN gateway © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

Gatekeeper • The most vital component of H.323 system • Manages a zone (a collection of H. alternate gatekeeper might exist for backup and load balancing • Functionalities:     Address Translation Call authorization and signaling Bandwidth Management Call Management © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .323 devices) • Usually one gatekeeper per zone.

. PC) or integrated into a gateway.Multi-point Control Unit (MCU) • Endpoint that supports conferences between 3 or more endpoints • Can be stand-alone device (e.g. gatekeeper or terminal © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

9 4 4 .5 11 ITSP Number : 1-888-745-2654 Gateway Local Loop Tr u n k 785-5372736 Local Switch 1-888745-2654 Caller dials ITSP toll free number : 1-888-745-2654 C a l l e r g e t s c o n n e c t e d t o Vo I P g a t e w a y o f I T S P © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Simple VoIP Call Caller Number : 785-537-2736 C a l l e d N u m b e r : 4 1 0 .

2 3 . 3 4 5 .9 4 4 2 5 11 ? .Simple VoIP Call Gatekeeper Gateway LRQ LCF ARQ ACF 785-537-2736 Local Switch 1-888-7452654 W h a t i s t h e I P a d d r e s s o f t h e d e s t i n a t i o n g a t e wa y f o r 4 1 0 . 7 8 .L R Q T h e I P a d d r e s s o f t h e d e s t i n a t i o n g a t e wa y i s 1 5 4 .A C F © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . – L C F May I call the IP address? ARQ Yo u m a y u s e X X K b p s b a n d wi d t h .

245 request: OpenLogicalChannelForAudio © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .23.10.2 5 11 ) (785-537-2736) 1-888-7452654 Destination Gateway Destination Called-number H.931/H.245 Gateway 785-537-2736 Local Switch The setup message consists of Originator gateway IP address (129.225/Q.130.Simple VoIP Call Gatekeeper Connect H.345) Caller-number ( 4 1 0 .123) Gateway IP address (154.78.9 4 4 .

Yo u m a y u s e X X K b p s b a n d wi d t h .Simple VoIP Call Gatekeeper Gateway ACF ARQ 785-537-2736 Local Switch 1-888-7452654 Destination Gateway  D e s t i n a t i o n g a t e wa y m a k e s a r e q u e s t t o t h e g a t e k e e p e r t o accept the call from the originator  M a y I c a l l t h e o r i g i n a t o r g a t e wa y I P a d d r e s s ? A R Q  Ye s .A C F © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

245 Gateway 785-537-2736 Local Switch 1-888-7452654 Destination Gateway D e s ti n ati on g a te w a y s e n d s a c o n n e ct c o n fi r m m e s s a g e.931/H.225/Q.Simple VoIP Call Gatekeeper Connect H. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

Simple VoIP Call Gatekeeper Local Switch Gateway Gateway Local Switch  D e s ti n ati on G a te w a y e s ta b l i s hes PST N c o n n ecti o n w i th PST N c i r c u i t s w i tc h a n d H .2 4 5 a u d i o c h a n n e l  C a l l e r w i l l h e a r th e r i n g e r to n e g e n e ra te d b y th e d e s ti n a ti on s w i tc h © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

p a c k e t arrival time. Delay greater than 50ms leads to echo and talker overlap. Jitter Packet Loss Re-ordering © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . Loss in excess of 5-10% causes significant degradation in voice q u a l i t y. one wa y l a t e n c y m u s t n o t b e greater than 150ms.QoS Issues Delay For high quality voice. The solution to this problem is to i n t r o d u c e j i t t e r b u ff e r s . Va r i a t i o n i n i n t e r . Packets may arrive out of order and this leads to garbled speech.

WindowsMessenger (Microsoft)  Net2Phone CommCenter (Net2Phone)  DialpadChameleon (DialPad)  eDial Desktop Voice Conferencing System (eDial)  IP Communications (WorldCom) © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Voice enabled Software  NetMeeting.

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© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

What is MPLS ? Multi protocol label switching (MPLS) is a versatile solution to address the problems faced by present day IP networks – • Speed • Scalability • Quality of service (QoS) • Traffic engineering © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

• Unlike conventional routing of IP Datagrams at layer 3. • Thus over all forwarding speed fastens up © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . MPLS follows the principle of switching of IP Datagrams at layer 2 (Data link layer).What is MPLS ? • MPLS is a new packet forwarding protocol which works at layer 2.

n e t wo r k l a y e r r o u t i n g s c a l a b i l i t y  L e v e r a g e e x i s t i n g AT M h a r d wa r e  U l t r a f a s t f o r wa r d i n g  I P Tr a ff i c E n g i n e e r i n g ( C o n s t r a i n t .b a s e d R o u t i n g )  VPN (Controllable tunneling mechanism) © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Why MPLS ? The evolution of MPLS has come out with the idea to address certain network associated problems  L a y e r 3 .

Introduction  MPLS performs the following functions  Specifies mechanism to manage traffic flows  Provides a means to map IP address to simple. ATM and Frame relay layer-2 protocols  Interfaces to existing routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . fixed length labels  Remains independent of layer-2 and layer-3 protocols  Supports the IP.

Introduction  In conventional packet forwarding every router opens the IP datagram and looks at IP header to find out destination IP address and then with the help of its routing table takes independent decision to forward the packet.  This operation takes place at layer 3 © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .  Handling a bulky IP header and then reconstructing it before forwarding to next router compromises with the speed of the entire operation.

Switching and Forwarding Routing – The process of setting up routes to understand the next hop a packet should take towards its destination between networks.Routing. A router is the device that sets up routing table and operates on layer 3 packet header to analyze the best forwarding path Switching – The knowledge of directing the forwarding process to choose the correct output port. A switch is a device that operates on layer 2 header information to direct the forwarding process Forwarding – The process of receiving a packet on an input port and sending it out through an output port © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

 Unlike conventional forwarding of IP packets.  Subsequent routers only look at the label and route the packet after swapping the label with a new one.MPLS  MPLS works at layer 2. MPLS classifies each packet and attaches a small label with IP datagrams based on FEC(Forwarding Equivalence Class) of that packet at the ingress point of MPLS network. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

label) Operation (1. 12) Swap Swap Swap Swap Port 3 Port 4 • Label Swapping  Connection table maintains mappings  Exact match lookup  Input (port.MPLS Connection Table IP 25 Port 1 Port 2 In Out Label (port. label) (port. 17) (4. 17) (3. 23) (2. 19) (3. 22) (1. label) determines: • Label operation • Output (port. label)  Same forwarding algorithm used in Frame Relay and ATM © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . 24) IP 19 (1. 25) (2.

R S V P – Tr a f f i c E n g i n e e r e d R S V P © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .forward using labels (as opposed to IP addr) .classify packets .label them In Core: .MPLS CONCEPT AND TERMINOLOGY At Edge: .label indicates service class and destination LER – Label Edge Router LSR – Label Switch Router Protocol LSP – Label Switch Path LDP FEC – Forwarding Equivalence Class LIB – Label Information Base LDP – Label Distribution CR-LDP – Constraint routing T E .

SWITCH IN CORE EDGE CORE IP IP #L1 IP #L2 IP #L3 IP Routing Switching Routing I P F o r wa r d i n g LABEL SWITCHING I P F o r wa r d i n g © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .ROUTE AT EDGE.

MPLS Terminology Bangalore New Delhi LSP • Label-Switched Path (LSP) – Simplex L2 tunnel across a network – Concatenation of one or more label switched hops © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

MPLS Terminology LSR Bangalore LSR LSR LSR New Delhi LSP • L a b e l.Swi tchi n g R o u te r ( L SR )  F o r w a rds M PL S p a c k e ts u s i n g l a b e l.s w i tch i ng  C a p a b l e o f fo r w a r di n g n a ti ve IP p a c k e ts  Exe c u te s o n e o r m o r e IP r o u ti n g p r o to co l s  Pa r ti c i p ate s i n M PL S c o n tr ol p r o to co l s © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

MPLS Terminology Egress LSR Ingress LSR Bangalore Transit LSR New Delhi Transit LSR LSP • Ingress LSR (“head-end LSR”)  Examines inbound IP packets and assigns them to an FEC  Generates MPLS header and assigns initial label • Transit LSR  F o r wa r d s M P L S p a c k e t s u s i n g l a b e l s wa p p i n g • Egress LSR (“tail-end LSR”)  Removes the MPLS header © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

LSR (Label Switching Router) • The devices that participate in the MPLS protocol mechanisms can be classified into Label edge routers (LERs) and Label switching routers (LSRs) • An LSR is a high speed router in the core of an MPLS network that participates in the establishment of LSPs using the appropriate label signalling protocols and high speed switching of the data traffic based on the established paths. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

using the signalling protocol at the ingress and distributing the traffic back to the access network at egress The LER plays a very important role in the assignment and removal of labels © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .LER (Label Edge Router) An LER is a router that operates at the edge of the access network and MPLS network LERs support multiple ports connected to dissimilar networks LERs forward the traffic on to the MPLS network after establishing label Switched Paths.

Forward Equivalence Class FEC = “A subset of packets that are all treated the same way by a router” The concept of FECs provides for a great deal of flexibility and scalability In conventional routing. L3 look-up)  In MPLS it is done only once at the ingress router.e. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . a packet is assigned to a FEC at each hop (i.

MPLS Label Format Label (20-bits) CoS S TTL L2 Header MPLS Header 32-bits IP Packet Fields Label Experimental (CoS) Stacking bit Time to live IP packet is encapsulated by ingress LSR IP packet is de-encapsulated by egress LSR © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

Separation of Control Plane and Forwarding Plane Routing Updates Routing Protocol Control Plane Implemented In Software (Slow) Data Path Conventional Layer 3 Routing Routing Table Forwarding Plane Implemented In Hardware (Fast) Interface Forwarding Table Packet Processing Switching Fabric Interface Data Path MPLS layer 2 Switching – By completely separating the control component from the Forwarding component each component can be Independently Developed and modified The only requirement is that control component continue to communicate with forwarding component by managing the Packet f o r w a r d i n g Ta b l e . © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . B y d e p l o y i n g t h e e x t r e m e l y s i m p l e l a b e l s w a p p i n g algorithms can Provide extended forwarding capabilities.

Data traffic Which is. Any time network device encounters a packet that is not data. These packets are processed more slowly because they need to be examined by software. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . The data traffic follows the ‘fast path” which is realized in hardware.The “fast path” and “slow path” Router A Software Control Path Control Slow Path Data Fast Path Router B Software Control Path Data Forwarding Path Hardware – – – – – Forwarding Path Hardware Data T h e Tr a ff i c t h a t f l o ws i n t o t h e n e t wo r k c a n b e o f t wo t yp e s : Control traffic. well . which includes routing and management information. the packet is sent up to control path processing. everything else.

7 ( Tr a n s port .  M PL S i s d e p i c te d a s a n e w “ s h i m l a ye r ” th a t h a s i n te r p o se d i ts e l f b e tw e e n th e n e tw o r k a n d d a ta l i n k l a ye r © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . a p p l i c at i on) Layer 3 (Network) Layer 2.5 Te c h n o l o gy i s a n o th e r p h r a s e th a t i s o fte n u s e d to d e s c r i be w h a t M PL S i s .5 (?) (MPLS) Layer 2 (Data link ) Layer 1 (Physical)  L a ye r 2 .MPLS Model L a ye r 4 . s e s s i on P r e s e nt a t io n.

1 47.1 47.1 47.3 1 3 2 47.2 47.2 47.MPLS BUILT ON STANDARD IP Dest 47.I S .1 47.3 Out 1 2 3 Dest 47.2 47.2 D e s t i n a t i o n b a s e d f o r w a r d i n g t a b l e s a s b u i l t b y O S P F.3 Out 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 47. R I P. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . I S .3 Out 1 2 3 Dest 47.

IP FORWARDING USED BY HOP-BY-HOP CONTROL Dest 47.1 Dest 47.1 3 IP 47.2 47.1 47.3 3 IP 47.1 47.1.3 Out 1 2 3 1 3 2 47.1.1 47.1.1 1 2 1 47.1.1.1.1.2 47.1 2 47.3 Out 1 2 3 IP 47.2 47.3 Out 1 2 3 Dest 47.1 IP 47.1.2 © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

1 1 3 0.MPLS Label Distribution Intf Label Dest Intf Label In In Out Out 0.1 1 Request: 47.40 47.50 47.50 47.1 Intf Dest Intf Label In Out Out 47.40 3 Intf In 3 Label Dest Intf In Out 0.40 3 1 2 47.1 1 0.2 MPLS Domain © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .3 1 3 2 3 1 2 Mapping: 0.1 47.

50 47.1.40 47.1.3 3 IP 47.50 1 2 47.1.Label Switched Path (LSP) Intf Label Dest Intf Label In In Out Out 0.2 MPLS Domain © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .1 1 Intf Dest Intf In Out 3 47.1.1 1 Intf In 3 Label Dest Intf In Out 0.1 1 47.40 3 0.1 Label Out 0.1 3 1 2 3 2 47.1 1 IP 47.

maps unicast destinations into labels RSVP.CR-LDP-used for traffic engineering and resource reservation along with label distribution to upstream routers Protocol-independent multicast(PIM)-used for multicast states label mapping BGP-external labels(VPN) © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .Label Distribution MPLS architecture uses various methods of signalling for label distribution LDP.

The label values provided on different interfaces could be the same.Label Spaces • The Labels used by an LSR for FEC-Label bindings are categorized as follows : Per Platform-The label Values are unique across the whole LSR. No two labels distributed on different interfaces have the same Value.The Label ranges are associated with interfaces. The labels are allocated from a common pool. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . Multiple label pools are defined for interfaces. Per Interface. and labels provided on those interfaces are allocated from the separate pools.

© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

E x i s t i n g r o u t i n g p r o t o c o l s ( e . O S P F.MPLS Operation 1 a . g . Ingress Edge LSR receives packet. LSR switches packets using label swapping © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) and delivers establishes label to destination packet network mappings. 2. E d g e L S R a t egress establish reachability to destination networks removes label 1b.I S ) 4 . performs Layer 3 lookup and “labels” packets 3. I S .

5/16 200. 0) 134.2/24 Next Hop (2. 99) Out (2. 99) 1 2 3 5 200.1.6.1 2 200.1 200.MPLS Forwarding Example MPLS Table In (2.5.1 200. 0) 200.3. 56) Out (5.7 MPLS Table In (1.6.2.2/24 Next Hop 134.3.7 © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .5 Egress Routing Table 2 3 Destination 134. 56) MPLS Table In (3.3.2.7 6 134.5/16 200.3.3.5.2.2.3.5.3. 84) Out (6.1 Ingress Routing Table Destination 134.2. 84) (3.

Signalling Mechanism • Label Request – Using this mechanism. a downstream LSR will send a label to the upstream initiator using the label mapping mechanism . • Label Mapping – In response to a label request. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . an LSR requests a label from its downstream neighbour so that it can bind to a specific FEC. This mechanism can be employed down the chain of LSRs up untill the egress LER.

c r e a te L SPs . w h i c h i n tu r n .  L D P s e s s i o n s a r e e s ta b l i s h ed b e tw e e n L D P p e e r s i n M PL S n e tw o rk  L D P d o e s n o t p r o vi d e tr a ffi c e n g i n e e r i ng c a p a b i l i ty. maintain.Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)  T h e L D P i s a n e w p r o to co l fo r th e l a b e l b i n d i n g i n fo r m a ti o n to L SR s i n a n M PL S n e tw o r k. T h e p e e r s e xc h a n g e th e fo l l o w i n g typ e o f L D P m e s s a ge s: – D i s c o ve r y m e s s a g e s – a n n o u n c e a n d m a i n t a i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n LSR in a network – Session messages – establish. c h a n g e a n d d e l e t e l a b e l mapping for FECs – Notification messages – Provide advisory information and signal error information © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . It i s u s e d to m a p F EC s to l a b e l s . and terminate session between LDP peers – A d ve r t i s e m e n t m e s s a g e s – C r e a t e .

0.Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) Label Request for FEC 10. 17) Out (5. 17) MPLS Table In (4.0.0 Upstream LDP peer Net: 10.0.0 Label: 52 Downstream Net: 10.0 LDP peer Label: 29 3 1 Advertise incoming label 2 Receive outgoing label 3 MPLS Table In (3.0.0. 35) Out (1.0 Label: 17 LSR 4 5 Net: 10. 29)  L a b e l s a s s i g n e d b y d o w n s tream p e e r  Be n e fi ts  L a b e l s a r e n o t p i g g yb a c ked o n r o u ti n g p r o toco l s  L i m i ta ti o ns  L SPs fo l l o w th e c o n ve n ti o na l IG P p a th  D o e s n o t s u p p o r t e xp l i c i t r o u ti n g © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . 52) MPLS Table In (2.0.0. 52) Out (3.0.

RSVP provides traffic Engineering Capability in MPLS networks. Some extensions has been done in this protocol to carry the label request with path message in down stream directions and label mapping with reservation message in upstream directions along with resource reservation message. It is a soft state protocol as it depends on periodical path and reservation refresh messages.RSVP-Resource Reservation Protocol This protocol was originally developed for providing quality of service in IP networks. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

RSVP Resource Reservation Protocol Senders Path Message (Data Path) Resv Message © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D Receivers .

© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

but it may also cause the following problems : The shortest path from different sources overlap at some links. Traffic engineering in Internet is needed mainly because current IGPs always use the shortest paths to forward traffic. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . causing congestion on those links.Traffic Engineering Traffic Engineering is the process of controlling how traffic flows through one’s network so as to optimise resource utilization and network performance. Using shortest paths conserves network resources.

Traffic engineering does not necessarily select the shortest path between two devices.Traffic Engineering The traffic from a source to a destination exceeds the capacity of the shortest path. This way. while a longer path between these two routers is under-utilized. the less exposed or less-used network segment can be used and differentiated services can be provided © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

QoS Different types of service quality can be provided for various types of traffic that is traversing the Internet like data. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . An MPLS QoS application is actually derived from applying general QoS techniques to the integrated services (IntServ) frame work and Diffserv building block model of MPLS. packetized voice. and video.

QoS General Qos is the ability to guarantee at some quantifiable level that network nodes or application can provide a satisfactory level of performance and reliability. QoS requires every element from the start of an application flow to its completion to be aware and respond to QoS requirements © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

Call Guaranteed Provisioned Connections Priority TOS Based Relative Priorities Int Serv No Guarantee Internet To d a y Premium Access Diff Serv A p p l i c a t i o n Ty p e R e a l Ti m e Vo i c e / V i d e o Application Specified Basic Browsing Access/E-mail © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .by .The QoS Spectrum QoS Level Guaranteed Connections End .to .End Call .

 The resources might also be controlled by IntServ policies created by network management. RSVP is the only currently implemented signaling protocol used for IntServ that communicates with the QoS processes running on various nodes along the route.QoS in MPLS Integrated Services (IntServ) The IntServ framework deals with resource reservation where network resources are apportioned to the needs of the application flows that will be using the device. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

network traffic is classified by designated fields in the header and then examined at each node for the predefined treatment it should receive. With the Diffserv model.QoS in MPLS Differentiated Services (Diff-Serv) DiffServ is often compared to a set of building blocks that can be used in various ways to prioritize the packets in the QoS flow. The DiffServ effort was first focused on the TOS byte definition for the IP header © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

A set of packet with the same TOS field value should receive the same treatment. TOS 8 bit Version Header length 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .QoS in MPLS DiffServ • The fundamental DiffServ concept is that each IP packet carries its CoS information within the IP packet header.

Thus the 6 bits give 64 independent values. The first six bits are used as an index value to a table implemented in the network node. These data treatments are called per-hop behaviors © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . The DSCP index maps to various data treatments that handle CoS.QoS in MPLS DiffServ • The DS Byte The TOS field was later defined as Diffserv Byte field DS Byte field uses the former TOS field location in the IPv4 header. This is called Diff-Serv code point (DSCP) field.

scheduling and congestion control.QoS In MPLS Per Hop Behaviors • A Per Hop Behavior PHB includes CoS handling mechanism such as queue selection. The currently defined PHBs include Expedited Forwarding (EF) – Gold Assured Forwarding (AF) – Silver Default Behavior (DB) – Bronze © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

QoS In MPLS Per Hop Behaviors • An EF is required when loss. and delay must be low. jitter and other QoS parameters • A DB PHB is the default best effort behavior © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .jitter. This PHB generally prevents any queues in the node from increasing in size • An AF PHB assures the delivery but does not guarantees the delay.

This is possible because unlike the public internet.MPLS VPN VPNs based on MPLS provides the best of both worlds as it has inherent self-healing ability by automatically re-routing traffic and also ensures quality of service including high throughput with low latency and jitter. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . the routers are interconnected over fully dedicated long distance backbone transmission network of the service provider.

dealers and factories with the main offices spread all over the country. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . ERP solutions which are very popular among enterprises. highly secure and highly reliable enterprise networking solution. can easily run over the MPLS-VPN network inter connecting the various branch offices.MPLS VPN provides … MPLS VPN provides low cost.

Internet and Multicast etc. Data Transfer. Access VPN. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D . E-Mail. Intra Office Voice Calls.  MPLS VPN provides common infra structure for carrying wide range of services like Multimedia Services. Intranet. Extranet.MPLS VPN provides … Upgrading the network with higher band width as and when required. Video Conferencing.. VOIP.

 MPLS VPN network is capable of handling encryption data. © B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .  Service provider manages the interconnections.Benefits of MPLS VPN  Reduces customers networks complexity and cost.  MPLS VPN network also provides Layer 2 Service which is almost like the physical leased line. Need to provide only one connection from their office router to service provider edge router.  Layer 3 VPN service is also possible.

© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .

© B H A R AT S A N C H A R N I G A M L I M I T E D .