Form 3 / Chapter 7: Electricity
Electrostatic 1. Electrostatic charges are static electrical charges that do not move. 2. Electrostatic charges can be produced by rubbing two different substances against one another. 3. These charges can be positive or negative. 4. An object is said to be neutral if it has the same number of positive charges and negative charges. 5. If a neutral object loses electrons, it becomes positively charged. 6. If a neutral object gains electrons, it becomes negatively charged. 7. Opposite charges attract one another. 8. Same charges repel one another.

9. The force that is responsible for attracting and repelling these charges is known as electrostatic force. 10. Static electrical charges can be detected by using an electroscope. 11. When a neutral substance is brought near the metal cap, the gold leaf will not diverge. 12. When a charged substance is brought near the metal cap, the gold leaf will diverge. 13. It can be used to determine whether a substance is positively or negatively charged.

Gold leaf electroscope

Charging and discharging a gold leaf electroscope 14. Phenomena caused by static electrical charges a) Occurrence of lightning i. Clouds acquire electrical charges when water vapour in it rubs with air ii. Lightning is produced by a discharge of electrical charges from one cloud to another or between a cloud and the Earth iii. Negative static electrical charges build up on the clouds during a storm as strong wind rubs against water particles in the clouds. iv. The negative charges leap to the ground or another cloud causing lightning 1

Safety Measures a) The main hazard of static electricity is it produces sparks that can set off an explosion or fire. c) A glass window which is cleaned with dry cloth attracts dust easily d) We may get slight electrical shocks when touching the body of a car while getting out of the car in a hot day e) We may get a slight shocks after walking across a carpet and touching a metal door handle 15. b) Safety measures must be taken to prevent static charges from accumulating on materials. Electrical charges ‘jump’ across spark space on the plug to produced sparks. These sparks cause the fuel to burn to produce energy b) Electronic lighter i. Static electrical charges can build up on aeroplanes and oil tankers as air rubs against the body of the vehicles while they are moving. ii. ii. Electric charges are produced when an electronic lighter is lit produce sparks. The sparks will then ignite the gas. Static electricity is used to ‘attract’ the paint to the target. d) A conductor strip is used to allow charges to flow to the ground and prevent static charges from accumulating on the oil tanker. c) A lightning conductor is used to protect a building from being damaged by lightning.LTP/2013/F3/Chapter7 Formation of lightning b) Aeroplanes and oil tankers i. This will reduce paint wastage and improve coverage of the target. 16. iii. ii. e) The tyres of aeroplane are made of conducting rubber to discharge the built up static electrical charges 2 . Uses of electrostatics a) Spark plug i. c) Photocopiers and laser printers use electrostatics in printing process d) Electrostatic paint spraying i. A spray is produced when a car engine is started.

Ohm’s Law is given by the formula. Electrical energy (electricity) is the flow of electrical charges (electrons) in one direction. Ammeter is connected in series in an electric circuit with the positive terminal connected to the positive electrode of an energy source and vice versa. 15. 9. Voltage is the energy needed to move the electrical charges from one point to another. 11. The relationship between current.LTP/2013/F3/Chapter7 Electricity 1. Electric current flows from the positive terminal to the negative terminal. 6. A fixed resistor is an electrical component with a particular resistance and a rheostat is a resistor whose resistance can be changed. voltage and resistance 1) Ohm’s Law a) The current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage b) If I is the current flowing through a conductor when a voltage. Electric current is measured by using an ammeter. parallel to the component to be tested. The voltage between two points in an electric circuit is also known as the potential difference between the two points. 13. 16. V is applied across it. This property is called resistance. Flow of electric current (conventional current) Flow of electrons 7. Voltage. 5. 19. 4. An electric current is defined as the rate of flow of electrons in a conductor. I 3 . Every substance has the property of resisting or opposing the flow of electrical charges through it. Electrons flow from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. The symbol for voltage is V and its SI unit is the volt (V). 14. 17. 8. 18. Source of electrical energy used in everyday life: a) Dry cells b) Accumulator c) Mains d) Solar panel / solar cells e) Dynamo 2. 12.V Current . 10. voltage and resistance are physical quantities. Voltmeter is connected in parallel in an electric circuit. that is. The symbol for current is I and its SI unit is the ampere (A). The continuous flow of electrons forms an electric current. Voltage is measured by using a voltmeter. 3. The symbol for resistance is R and its SI unit is the ohm (Ω). A galvanometer is used to detect electric current. Electric current.

b) When the resistance increases. Electric current can flow in the circuit and the bulb will light up. Electric current cannot flow in the circuit and the bulb will not light up. 3) Circuit diagram show how the components of an electric circuit are assembled. the current increases. Parallel and Series Circuit 1) A simple circuit consists of a source of electrical energy. 4) An open circuit is incomplete circuit. Batteries Bulb Switch is opened An open circuit – has gap in the circuit 5) A closed circuit is complete circuit. a) When the voltage in a circuit increases. 2) The components of an electric current can be represented by symbol. the current decreases. Batteries Switch is closed Bulb A closed circuit – has no gap in the circuit 4 . connecting wires and other electrical components.LTP/2013/F3/Chapter7 2) According to the Ohm’s law.

More components can be added parallel with each other without the need for higher voltage Parallel Circuit 5 . b) Each component in a series circuit is connected to the next to form a single path. The quantity of current can be increased by adding more batteries to the circuit. Only one switch is needed to control all the components in the circuit. 7) Parallel circuit a) A parallel circuit is a complete circuit that has two or more path for current flow.LTP/2013/F3/Chapter7 6) Series circuit a) A series circuit is a complete circuit that has only one path for current flow. 3. other components can still work. If a bulb is removed. Series Circuit Parallel Circuit V A T T V R1 T T R1 A 1 R2 A 2 A A V 1 1 V 1 V 2 R2 V 2 A 2 Current : ITotal = I1 = I2 Voltage: V Resistance: R Total =R +R 1 2 =V +V Total 1 2 Current: ITotal= I1 + I2 Voltage: V =V =V Total 1 2 Resistance: 1 RTotal = 1 1 + R1 R2 Advantages: 1. 2. Series Circuit Advantages: 1. Power supplied to the circuit lasts longer. 2.

2) The area or region around a magnet where a magnetic force can be detected is known as a magnetic field. compass and other magnets. All the bulbs share the voltage from the battery. Batteries connected parallel will produce the same amount of current as one battery. 2. Each new bulb that is added will decrease the current in the circuit Disadvantages: 1. 6 . If one component fails. 6) The direction of a magnetic field line is from the north pole to the south pole. the lines are further apart as the field is weaker. however. 5) Away from the poles. surrounded by a large magnetic field b) The magnetic field of the Earth causes the needle of the compass to rest in a north-south position. the other components will not work. 3) A magnetic field is invisible. its effect can be seen by using iron filling. Magnetism 1) The magnet will only attract the iron nails if the magnet is brought near enough them. 7) The use of a magnet in a compass a) A magnetic compass works because the Earth is like a giant magnet.LTP/2013/F3/Chapter7 Disadvantages: 1. 4) The magnetic field lines that represent magnetic force do not meet each other and are closest together near the poles because the magnetic field is strongest near the poles. 3.

7 . 2) Electromagnet is a magnet made when a wire was wrapped around an iron bar.LTP/2013/F3/Chapter7 Electromagnetism 1) Electromagnetism is the effect of the electric current flowing through a conductor produces a magnetic field around the conductor. the iron bar becomes a magnet when current flows through the coil of wire.

LTP/2013/F3/Chapter7 8 .

LTP/2013/F3/Chapter7 9 .

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