ECEG30 (Wireless Communications

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BRIEF HISTORY OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION
In 1962, the world's first active communications satellite, Telstar 1, was launched. This satellite was built by Telesat's predecessors at AT&T and Bell Laboratories. During its seven months in operation, Telstar 1 dazzled the world with live images of sports, entertainment and news. It was a simple single-transponder low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellite, but its technology of receiving radio signals from the ground, and then amplifying and retransmitting them over a large portion of the earth's surface, set the standard for all communications satellites that followed. During the 1960s and 1970s, advances in satellite performance came quickly and a global industry began to develop. Satellites were mainly used at first for international and long-haul telephone traffic and distribution of select television programming, both internationally and domestically. In 1973 the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation began distributing its video programming to Canadian customers using Telesat’s Anik A satellite. Then in 1975 HBO began distributing its video programming to US customers by satellite. The commercial and technical success of these ventures led to a greater use and acceptance of satellite broadcasting. By the 1990s, satellite communications would be the primary means of distributing TV programs around the world.

WHAT IS A SATELLITE?
A Satellite is a solid object which revolves around some heavenly body due to the effect of gravitational forces which are mutual in nature.

COMMUNICATION SATELLITE
A communication satellite is an artificial satellite that acts as a radio relay station in orbit above the earth that receives, amplifies, and redirects analog and digital signals carried on a specific radio frequency. It acts as a repeater in long distance communication path.

TYPES OF SATELLITE
•  • Natural Satellite E.g. moon Artificial Satellite

WHAT IS SATTELITE COMMUNICATION? Satellite communication is simply the communication of the satellite in space with large number of earth stations on the ground. which is processed at the earth station and then transmitted to the satellite through dish antennas. These transponders serve dual purpose i. . A Communication Satellite can be looked upon as a large microwave repeater.e. Users are connected to the earth station via some telephone switch or some dedicated link. WHY SATELLITE COMMUNICATION? Long distance communication beyond 10 – 20 MHz in three modes failed:Ground wave due to conduction losses Space wave due to limited line of sight Sky wave due to penetration of the ionosphere by the higher frequencies beyond critical frequency. provides amplification of the incoming and performs the frequency translation of the incoming signal to avoid interference between the incoming and outgoing signals. there came the need of satellite communication. This baseband signal is then transmitted to the respective user via dedicated link or other terrestrial system. We have seen that the waves of freq. • Passive Satellite . The earth station then receives the signal from the satellite through parabolic dish antenna and processes it to get back the baseband signal.are relay stations in space.• Active Satellite -It is a functioning satellite that receives and transmits or retransmits radiocommunication signals to or from a base station. It simply reflects light or radio waves transmitted from one ground terminal to another without amplification or retransmission. > 30MHz cannot propagate by conventional modes due to penetration of frequencies beyond 30MHz through ionosphere. The satellite receives the uplink frequency and the transponder present inside the satellite does the processing function and frequency down conversion and then transmits the downlink signal at different frequency. And thus. They have more complicated structures having processing equipment called Transponder which is very vital for functioning of the satellite. They generate baseband signals.

00 GHz 7. Communication links could be setup throughout the entire world using satellites.00 GHz 11.00 GHz DOWNLINK 4. little rain fade Disadv.3 GHz 3 to 8 GHz 8 to 12 GHz 10 to 18 GHz 18 to 22 GHz SATELLITE UPLINK AND DOWNLINK FREQUENCIES IN DIFFERENT BAND Frequency Band C-band X-Band Ku-Band Ka-Band UPLINK 6. : Broad Footprint. large antenna sizes and amplifiers Ku-Band .00 GHz 8.5 GHz 1 to 1. And a new concept of communication. This can’t be done with other modes of communication due to some severe limitations.00 GHz 20.00 GHz ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENT BAND C-Band Adv. FREQUENCY BANDS USED IN SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Frequency Band L-Band S-band C-Band X-Band Ku-Band Ka-Band Range 1 to 1. interference.00 GHz 14. : Weak signals.00 GHz 30. the communication through a Satellite revolutionized communication technology.A single satellite can provide coverage to over 30% of Earth’s surface and thus was adopted for long distance communication. It is often the only solution for some isolated areas.

: Interference to rain. : Focused Foot prints. 1. telemetry and command equipment etc. orbit and altitude control.Adv. no terrestrial interference small antenna and amplifier Disadv. Earth Stations . 1. It transmits and receives the signal to and from the satellite. tracking. The Satellite 2. Ka-Band Adv.is basically consist of an earth station. Telemetry and Telecommand  The Ground Segment . frequency up. COMPONENTS OF A SATELLITE SYSTEM  Space Segment . modulators and demodulators. Since the user baseband signal cannot be transmitted directly. : Interference to rain. Tracking. transponders and other control systems like temperature control. it is also consist of amplifiers. An earth station provides a complete uplink and downlink chain for the signal. : Focused Foot prints. It is also consist of an antenna.and down. A satellite has various transmitting and receiving antenna. power supply control.converters. large unused bandwidths Disadv.is consist of the satellite itself.

the satellite travels in the same direction and at the same speed as the Earth's rotation on its axis. a satellite can circle the Earth in approximately one and a half hours • 2. LEO (Low Earth Orbit) • • 500-2.786 km).TYPES OF SATELLITE ORBIT ON THE BASIS OF ALTITUDE An orbit is the path that a satellite follows as it revolves around Earth. MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) • • • 8. the height of this orbit allows almost the Earth’s entire surface to be covered by the satellites. TYPES OF SATELLITE ORBIT ON THE BASIS OF ECCENTRICITY 1.000 km above the earth These orbits are primarily reserved for communications satellites that cover the North and South Pole MEO's are placed in an elliptical (oval-shaped) orbit 3. A single geostationary satellite can view approximately one third of the Earth's surface. In terms of commercial satellites. GEO (Geosynchronous Orbit) • • 35.000 km above the earth These orbits are much closer to the Earth.282 miles above the equator (35. Thus. taking 24 hours to complete a full trip around the globe. .786 km above the earth Orbiting at the height of 22.000-20. Circular orbit: An orbit that has an eccentricity of 0 and whose path traces a circle. there are three main categories of orbits: 1. it will appear to be "stationary" with respect to a specific location on the Earth. requiring satellites to travel at a very high speed in order to avoid being pulled out of orbit by Earth's gravity At LEO. • If three satellites are placed at the proper longitude. as long as a satellite is positioned over the equator in an assigned orbital location.

3. Geo-Synchronous Satellite • • • • • Orbit on the equatorial plane . Therefore it has an inclination of (or very close to) 90 degrees 3. Equatorial orbit: An orbit whose inclination in reference to the equatorial plane is zero degrees. Elliptic orbit: An orbit with an eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1 whose orbit traces the path of an ellipse. Parabolic orbit: An orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1. TYPES OF SATELLITE 1. Such an orbit also has a velocity in excess of the escape velocity and as such. Identified by Longitudinal position with ref.2. Removes Satellite hand-over problems. 2 deg. Advantage of Geostationary Satellite • • • Simple ground station tracking requirements. 4.appears stationary Altitude of 36000 Kms. Circular orbit around earth with period of 24 hours. to Greenwich. Polar orbit: An orbit that passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet on each revolution. If the speed of such an orbit is increased it will become a hyperbolic orbit. will escape the gravitational pull of the planet and continue to travel infinitely. Coverage of about 1/3 of Earth. TYPES OF SATELLITE ORBIT ON THE BASIS OF INCLINATION 1. Such an orbit also has a velocity equal to the escape velocity and therefore will escape the gravitational pull of the planet and travel until its velocity relative to the planet is 0. Hyperbolic orbit: An orbit with the eccentricity greater than 1. Inclined orbit: An orbit whose inclination in reference to the equatorial plane is not zero degrees. Negligible Doppler shift . 2. apart.

3. 3. . although they require earth stations to continually track the satellite LIFE AND COST OF SATELLITE GEO MEO LEO Lease Own 15 yrs 10 yrs 5 yrs 1 yr 5-15 yrs $2B $2-3B $1. 5. Point to Multi point communication is possible. cost and quality of signal is independent 8. 7. Inclined Orbit Satellite • • A disadvantage of Geostationary satellites is that points on Earth beyond about 80 deg latitude are not visible. With just 3 geosynchronous satellite we can cover the entire earth.5-3B ADVANTAGES OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION 1. These satellites can be kept in low earth orbit (800 -900 km) or at 36000km apart. Inclined orbits. Wide bandwidths (155 Mbps) are available now. on the other hand can provide visibility to the higher northern and southern latitudes. Polar Orbiting Satellite • • • These satellites orbit the earth in such a way as to cover the north and south polar regions. 6. Only solution for developing and isolated areas. During critical condition earth stations can be removed and relocated easily. 4. Ideal for broadcast applications. No need for the local loop. Can reach over large geographical area. These satellites if in a low earth orbit have to travel at a very high speed.2. A single satellite can provide coverage to over 30% of Earth’s surface. Transmission of distances. 2.

High atmospheric losses above 30 GHz limit carrier frequencies.DISADVANTAGES OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION 1. 3. 5. Terrestrial break even distance expanding (now approx. Communication path between TX and RX is approximately 75000 km. Delay reduces the of satellite in data transmission during long file transfer. Large up front capital costs (space segment and launch) 6. Delay of 270+270 msec makes one feel annoying. Congestion of frequencies and orbits . 2. size of Europe) 7. 4.

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