# Solutions

Solutions, Colloids, and Suspensions Solution Formation and Factors Affecting Solubility Solubility Curves Molarity and Solubility Product Constant (Ksp) Colligative Properties Key

Solutions, Suspensions, and Colloids: pp. 482–83 and pp. 490-493 Factors Affecting Solubility: pp. 501 - 508 Solubility Curves: pp. 504 – 505 Molarity and Ksp: pp. 509–512 and pp. 630-637 Colligative Properties: pp. 517 - 524

Assignment 1: Defining Solutions
Compare and contrast the contents of the three test tubes. Record observations in the chart below.

A Green clear liquid

B White cloudy liquid

C Brown cloudy liquid with particles at the bottom.

Read pp. 482-483, pp. 490-494, pp. 502-508, and pg354 in your textbook. Which of the three test tubes contains a solution. Explain why. The first tube has a solution because the particles are dissolved as small as they can get. It is not at all cloudy. How could I test to see if you are correct? I could look for a Tyndall effect by shining a light through the mixture and see if the light is scattered (you can see the beam of light in the mixture as it passes through). If you can, it is not a solution. Which of the following would also be a solution?

Blood no (colloid) Mayonnaise no (colloid) Italian Salad Dressing no (suspension) Coca-Cola yes Air yes Ocean Water no/yes The water itself would be a solution, but if you scooped up a sample, it would have all kinds of things in it (a suspension). Define: Solubility, Solute, Solvent Solvent: dissolves the solute Solute: is dissolved by the solvent Solubility: the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of water at a certain temperature. Tonight, find 10 things in your home that are classified as solutions. Make a list of these solutions. (What is the solute and the solvent in each solution?) Some examples: windex, coke, Listerine, vinegar…..

Assignment 2: Solutions and Molarity Review.
Solubility: Predict which of the following will dissolve in water and why. Look up the structures and consider the bonding, structure, and the intermolecular forces. Sodium chloride (table salt) NaCl is ionic so is likely to dissolve.

Sucrose (sugar) C12H22O11 is covalent, but is polar so will dissolve to some degree. These molecules have dipole-dipole interactions.

Vegetable oil CH3(CH2)16COOH is a long carbon chain and they tend to be nonpolar so not soluble. It

What is the molarity of the solution? 0. What does the rule “like dissolves like” state? This rule says that polar solvents dissolve solutes that are polar or ionic (have a + and a -) and solvents that are non-polar dissolve solutes that are non-polar (turpentine dissolves non-polar solutes). It would have dipole-dipole attractions.25 L .8 M 0. specifically H-bonding. A salt solution has a volume of 250 mL and contains 0. Are there any that do not follow the rule “like dissolves like”? Are any of these substance already in solution when you buy them from the grocery store? These all follow the rule. Molarity Review: 1. Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) C4H9OH is polar covalent and would dissolve in water.70 moles NaCl = 2. Acetic Acid (vinegar) HC2H3O2 is polar covalent (actually ionizes as an acid in water) so would dissolve.70 mol of sodium chloride.would have only dispersion forces. Test your hypothesis by dissolving a small amount of the substance in water. It has dipole-dipole interactions. The alcohol and vinegar are already in water when you buy them.

11 mole = 0.0 L solution How many moles of solute are in 250 mL of 2.355 L Assignment 3: Factors Affecting Solubility: Effect Reason Does Solubility Change? .20 moles = 0.25 M solution of calcium hydroxide. 110.) Put 0.20 moles 3.0 g C6H12O6 x 1 mole 180.0 L and contains 36.0 g of solute. What is the molarity of the solution? 36.50 moles CaCl2 x 5.0 M = x moles 0. What is the molarity of the sugar solution in a can of coke? (Assume sugar to be sucrose) 39 g C12H22O11 x 1 mole 342 g = 0.2.10 M 2. A solution of glucose has a volume of 2.11 mole M = 0.98 g CaCl2 = 55 g CaCl2 1 mole CaCl2 Describe how you would make a 0.25 moles (19 grams) of Ca(OH)2 in a volumetric flask and add water to the 1 L mark. 0.16 g = 0.50 moles Ca Cl2 4. M = 0.0 M calcium chloride solution? How many grams would that be? 2.25 L x = 0.31M . (Use sketch to illustrate.

Temperature Change of Solids Temperture Change of Gases Stirring Particle Size Pressure Of Gases Assignment 4: Ksp Problems: 1. Write the equation for the dissolving and the solubility product constant expression for the following solids: .

6 x 10-8 3. BaCrO4 (s)  Ba+2 (aq) + CrO4-2 (aq) Ksp = [Ba+2][CrO4-2] I x 0 0 C -x +x +x E 0 x x 8.024g x 1 mole = 7.02 grams is dissolved in one liter be saturated? SrCrO4 (s)  Sr+2 (aq) + CrO4-2 (aq) Ksp = [Sr+2][CrO4-2] I x 0 0 C -x +x +x 5. calculate the solubility in moles per liter.0 x 10-8 4.6 x 10-5.25 x 10-4] [1.038 grams per liter.024 g per liter. would a solution in which 1. PbSO4 (s)  Pb+2 (aq) + SO4-2 (aq) Ksp = [Pb+2][SO4-2] 0. Ksp = [Na] [Cl] Ksp = [Ag]2 [SO4] Ksp = [Pb] [OH]2 Ksp = [Al]2 [SO4]3 The solubility of PbSO4 in water is 0.2 x 10-5] = 1.3 x 10-11 = x2 x = 9. Ag2CrO4 (s)  2 Ag+1 (aq) + CrO4-2 (aq) Ksp = [Ag+1]2 [CrO4-2] 0. Determine the solubility product constant.2 x 10-5)]2 [7.25 x 10-4 moles in 1 liter 303 g Ksp = [1. The solubility of silver(I) chromate in water is 0.3 x 10-11.2 x 10-5 moles in 1 liter 332 g Ksp = [2(7.038g x 1 mole = 1. . Calculate the solubility product constant.NaCl Ag2SO4 Pb(OH)2 Al2(SO4)3 2.2 x 10-6 M If the Ksp for strontium chromate is 3.25 x 10-4] = 1. If the Ksp of barium chromate is 8.

53M and the Ksp for AgCl is 1. so not all Cl-1 is from AgCl. Calculate the [Ag+] AgCl (s)  Ag+1 (aq) + Cl-1 (aq) Ksp = [Ag+1][Cl-1] 1.0060 M 1 mole 1 liter (unsaturated) What happenes if the product of the concentrations of A+ ion and B. When 12 M HCl is added to a saturated solution of NaCl. The [Cl-] in seawater is 0.000060 which is a saturated solution.8 x 10-9.0002 is larger than 0.8 x 10-10 = [Ag+1] [0. Will calcium carbonate precipitate if the Ca+2 concentration in a solution is 0. The Ksp is 4. It would precipitate is shaken or given a seed crystal.4 x 10-10 M *There are lots of salts in seawater.53] x = 3.6 x 10-5 = x2 0.7 x 10-8.0060 moles x 203. CaCO3 (s)  Ca+2 (aq) + CO3-2 (aq) Ksp = [Ca+2][CO3-2] I x 0 0 C -x +x +x E 0 x x 4. Challenge: The Ksp for PbF2 is 3.0002M and the CO-2 concentration is the same. 7. 3.0 x 10-5 M yes. Explain why? NaCl (s)  Na+1 (aq) + Cl-1 (aq) Ksp = [Na+1][Cl-1] By adding Cl-1 ions. Calculate the grams of each ion dissolved on one .E 0 x x 6. a precipitate forms.2 g will dissolve in x = 0.6 g = 1. 0. Seawater is saturated with AgCl. 8.8 x 10-10.ion is greater than the Ksp value? The solution would be supersaturated and would not be stable. You shift the reaction 9. the reaction is shifted toward the reactants (the solid) so a precipitate forms.8 x 10-9 = x2 x = 6.

Does heat increase the solubility of all compounds the same amount? no 2.51 grams PbF2 in 1 liter 245 g Assignment 5: Solubility Curves 1.1 x 10-3 x 1 mole PbF2 = 0.1 x 10-3 moles Pb+2 in one liter and 2(2.0 g of water at 80.0oC? NaCl . Is sodium chloride of potassium nitrate more soluble at 20. 2. At what temperature are sodium chloride and potassium nitrate equally soluble? At about 22oC 4.0oC to prepare a saturated solution of: Potassium bromide 98g Sodium chloride 40g 3.7 x 10-8 = 4x3 x = 2. How many grams of solute are needed to saturate 100.7 x 10-8 = (x)(2x)2 3.1 x 10-3) moles of F-1 in one liter.liter of a saturated solution. PbF2 (s)  Pb+2 (aq) + 2 F-1 (aq) I x 0 0 C -x +x +2x E 0 x 2x Ksp = [Pb+2][F-1]2 3.

0oC. Is a 2.0g of potassium bromide in 100 g of water at 20. .1kg or 100g) The chart indicates that 40g NaCl will dissolve in 100g H2O at 30.0 M solution.1 L water (about 0.0oC? 2M = x moles = 0.5 g NaCl = 11.0oC The chart indicates that 70g of KBr will dissolve in 100g water at 20oC. What is the molality of a saturated solution of potassium bromide at 50.0oC? 95g of NaClO3 will dissolve in 100g of water at 10oC 95g x 1 mole = 0. so 40g in 100g water would be unsaturated.0oC The chart indicates that 80g of KBr will dissolve in 100g of water at 50oC.1 kg water 7.1 kg water 6.9m 0. unsaturated.89 moles NaClO3 = 8. so it is possible to make a 2. What is the molality of a saturated solution of sodium chlorate at 10.7 grams NaCl in 0. or supersaturates? 40.0M solution of sodium chloride possible at 30.5.1 L 0.7m 0.5 g NaClO3 m = 0.67 moles KBr = 6. 40. Are the following solutions saturated.0oC? 80g of KBr will dissolve in 100g of water at 50oC 80g x 1 mole 119 g KBr = 0.20 moles NaCl x 58.89 moles 106.0g of water at 50.0g of potassium bromide in 50.2 moles NaCl 0. 8.67 moles m = 0.

0g of water at 10.0g of NaCl was dissolved in 50g of water.so half that amount would dissolve in 50g water: 80g KBr = x g KBr 100g H2O 50g H2O The solution would be saturated. if 20. 35g NaCl = x g NaCl 100g H2O 50g H2O x = 17.0g of sodium chloride in 50. 20.5g x = 40g So.0oC The chart indicates that 35g of NaCl will dissolve in 100g water at 10oC. I C E PbS (s)  Pb+2 (aq) + S-2 (aq) x 0 0 -x +x +x 0 x x Ksp = [Pb+2][S-2] 3 x 10-28 = x2 x = 2 x 10-14 M PbS is a saturated solution . Book Problems: 25. it would be supersaturated. so half that amount will dissolve in 50g water.

002 *This solution would provide 0.04 – x above will be negligible in comparison to 0.001M Ca-2 . FeS (s)  Fe+2 (aq) + S-2 (aq) x 0.001 +0.27. [Ag+] = 2 (1 x 10-17) = 2 x 10-17 M [S-2] = 1 x 10-17 M (or M 1 x 10-17 Ag2S is a saturated solution) 29.04 x -x +x +x 0 0.001 0.001 0 0 -0. I C E Ag2S (s)  2 Ag+1 (aq) + S-2 (aq) x 0 0 -x +2x +x 0 2x x Ksp = [Ag+1]2 [S-2] 8 x 10-51 = (2x)2(x) 8 x 10-51 = 4x3 x = 1 x 10-17 so. Ca(NO3)2 (s)   Ca+2 (aq) + 2 NO3-1 (aq) 0.001 +0.04.04 + x x Ksp = [Fe+2][S-2] *Because the Ksp is so small. you know the x in 0.002 0 0.04] x x = [2 x 10-17] 31. 8 x 10-19 = [0. so you can leave the x out.

0008 0 0.0016 0.001 0.001] [0.0008] = 8 x 10-7 This number is higher than the actual Ksp of 4.5 x 10-9 so a ppt would form! .0008 Ksp = [0.0016 +0.Na2CO3 (s)   2 Na+1 (aq) + CO3-1 (aq) 0.0008 +0.0008 0 0 -0.0008M CO3-2 so: CaCO3 (s)  Ca+2 (aq) + CO3-2 (aq) 0.0008 *This solution would provide 0.

Assignment 6: More Solubility Curves 1. Most substances on this graph show increased solubility as the temperature increases. Each curve shows how solubility for that substance changes as temperature . What are the exceptions? NH3 (gas) and Ce2(SO4)3 2.

NaCl 3. How many 11. At 50 grams of potassium nitrate will precipitate when the solution is cooled to 40oC? 82g KNO3 at 50oC. The solubilities of substances whose curves show greater (steeper) slopes are mores (more/less) affected by temperature changes than those that have more gradual slopes. 62g KNO3 at 40oC 82g – 62g = 20g will fall out. At what temperature do potassium chlorate and potassium chloride have the same solubility in water? KClO3 5. How many grams of sodium chloride are required to saturate 100 grams of water at 100oC? 8. Which salt has solubility values that are least affected by changes in temperature? 96oC 4. What is the percent by mass of a saturated solution of potassium chlorate at 40oC? 15g KNO3 x 100 = 13% 115g total 200g 160g 13g 20g 13% . 12. How many grams of sodium chloride are required to saturate 500 grams of water at 100oC? 40g NaCl = x g NaCl x = 200g NaCl 100g H2O 500g H2O 9. How many grams of cerium(III) sulfate must be added to saturate the solution if the temperature is changed to 0oC? 5g Ce2(SO4)3 at 50oC. 100 grams of water is saturated with cerium(III) sulfate. How many grams of sodium nitrate are required to saturate 200 grams of water at 10oC? 80g NaNO3 = x g NaNO3 = 160g NaNO3 100g H2O 200g H2O 10. At 50oC. 18g Ce2(SO4)3 at 0oC 18g – 5g = 13g need to be added oC. Which compound is least soluble in water at 12oC? KNO3 6. 100 grams of water is saturated with potassium nitrate. A saturated solution of which compound contains 130 grams of solute per 100 grams of water at 70oC? 40 g 7.changes.

What is the Ksp of the Na NO3 at 25oC? NaNO3 (s)   Na+1 (aq) + NO3-1 (s) Ksp = [Na+1] [NO3-1] [10.100 kg H2O = 10.10.8m 13.8] [10.08 moles 85. What is the molarity of a saturated solution of NaNO3 at 25oC? 92g NaNO3 x 1 mole NaNO3 = 1.8] = 117 Assignment 7: Yet More Solubility Curves .08 moles NaNO3 0.0g NaNO3 m = 1.8m 117 14.

If 30 grams of potassium chloride is dissolved in 100 grams of water.20g 5g 20g 1. 50g – 30g = 20g . If 50 grams of water saturated with potassium chlorate at 23oC is slowly evaporated to dryness. 100 grams of water is saturated with potassium chloride. 2. how many additional grams would be needed to make the solution saturated at 80oC? 50g will go in 100g H2O at 80oC. 62g at 40oC 82g – 62g = 20g ppt. How many grams of solute will precipitate when the solution is cooled to 45oC 82g at 50oC. how many grams of salt will be recovered? 10gKClO3 = xg KClO3 x = 5g 100g H2O 50g H2O 3. At 80oC.

30oC .18M 0.81 moles = 8. Which chloride has the greatest percent by mass at 60oC? What is the percent? 55g NH4Cl x 100 = 35% 155g total 0.100 L solution 0.54 0 [0.54] Ksp = [Ce+3]2 [SO4-2]3 = [0.020 8.51g of 4.018 moles 568g Ce2(SO4)3 M = 0.1] = 16. What is the molarity (molality) of a saturated solution of cerium(III) sulfate at 25oC? 10g Ce2(SO4)3 x 1 mole Ce2(SO4)3 = 0.1 +8.020 -30oC 9.1] 0 0 -8.54]3 = 0.2m = .2 m total particles ∆tf = 1. 82g KNO3 x 1 mole KNO3 = 0.018 moles Ce2(SO4)3 = 0. What is the rate of increase in solubility in grams per degree?? 105g NaNO3 at 40oC 115g NaNO3 at 50oC NH4Cl 6.18 + 0.1] [8. A solution of KNO3 is saturated at 50oC. A saturated solution of sodium nitrate in 100 grams of water at 40oC is heated 1g/ to 50oC.1m 0.36] [0.36 + 0. What is the Ksp of a saturated solution of cerium(III) sulfate at 25oC? Ce2(SO4)3 (s)   2 Ce+3 (aq) + 3 SO4-2 (aq) [0.36]2 [0. What is the smallest mass of water required to dissolve completely 23 grams ammonium chloride at 40oC? 45g NH4Cl = 23g NH4Cl x = 51g H2O 100g H2O x g H2O oC 5.18] 0 0 .81 moles 101g KNO3 m = 0.18M 7.1 +8.1 0 [8.100 kg H2O KNO3 (s)   K+1 (aq) + NO3-1 (aq) [8.86oC/m x 16.0. At what temperature would the solution freeze 82g KNO3 dissolve in 100g H2O at 50oC.

00M (molar). What is the molarity of a solution in which 82.86oC/m x m m = 6.0g Ca(NO3)2 x 1 mole = 0.313 moles 159.3m 10.3 +3. What is the molality of a solution in which 50.00M = x moles Na2SO4 = 0.3] 0 0 -3.0g of copper(II) sulfate is dissolved in 250.3] [3.04g Na2SO4 = 71.3 +3.5. Calculate the mass of solute in 250.00M 0.3 0 [3.3.500 moles 0.500 moles Na2SO4 x 142.0mL of water 50.3] = 6. 2. it must be half that for each ion or 3. .313 moles CuSO4 = 1. A solution of KNO3 freezes at -12oC.0g Na2SO4 1 moles Na2SO4 4.5m total Assignment 8: Molarity.0mL of sodium sulfate solution that is 2.5000 L soln 2.5 g CuSO4 m = 0.0g CuSO4 x 1 mole CuSO4 = 0. molality. Calculate the mass of solute in 250. At what temperature would the solution be saturated? -12oC = 1.00m (molal).09g M = 0.0g of calcium nitrate is dissolved in enough water to make 500.2500 kg H2O 3.4998 moles 164.4998 mol = 1.3m each KNO3 (s)   K+1 (aq) + NO3-1 (aq) [3.5m total particles Because KNO3 breaks into 2 particles and the total is 6. and colligative properties 1.2500 L soln 0.25 m 0.0 mL of solution? 82.0mL of sodium sulfate solution that is 2.

00M = x moles Na2SO4 = 0.9 x 10-3 moles = 0.2500 kg H2O 142.016] [0. A saturated solution of lead(II) chloride at 25oC contains 2.0g Na2SO4 1 moles Na2SO4 0. AgI (s)   Ag+1 (aq) + x 0 0 -x +x +x 0 x x I-1 (aq) Ksp = [Ag+1] [I-1] 8.500 moles ~ 0.032 0 [0.0 mL.1 x 10-9 M 6.2.5000 L PbCl2 (s)   Pb+2 (aq) + 2 Cl-1 (aq) [0.3 x 10-17 at 25oC.3 x 10-17 = x2 x = 9.016] 0 0 .9 x 10-3 moles M = 7.500 moles Na2SO4 x 5.2g PbCl2 x 1 mole PbCl2 278.032] Ksp = [Pb+2] [Cl-1]2 = [0.016] [0. what is the molarity of a saturated solution? Write the reaction for the dissolving. 2.6 x 10-5 vs 8.016 + 0.6 x 10-5 Is the lead(II) chloride or the silver iodide in the previous problem more soluble? The lead(II) chloride is more soluble as the Ksp is higher (1.2 grams of solute in 500.3 x 10-17) . What is the Ksp? Write the reaction for the dissolving.032]2 = 1.0.016 + 0.04g Na2SO4 = 71. The Ksp of silver iodide is 8.016 M 0.1g PbCl2 = 7.

5g NaCl x 1 mole = 1.11.1000 kg C12H22O11 (s)   C12H22O11 (aq) 2.5g m = 1. is – 43. is – 3. NaCl.85 ∆tf = 1.0 grams of water? 68.5 grams of sucrose.00 ∆tf = 1.7 + 11.5oC .5g C12H22O11 x 1 mole 342g = 0.85m = 1. dissolved in 100.0.5m total ∆tf = 1.85 0 0.00 0 .00 + 2. What is the freezing point of a 0. dissolved in 100.200 moles m = 0.7 0 0 .00 m 0.85 0 .5oC so the freezing pt.00 0 2. What is the freezing point of a solution that contains 68.17 moles 58.17 moles = 11.86oC/m x 2.72oC so the freezing pt.200 moles = 2.86oC/m x 0.2.86oC/m x 23.85 + 0.7m 11. C12H22O11 (s)   C12H22O11 (aq) 0.1000 kg NaCl (s)   Na+1 (aq) + Cl-1 (aq) 11. is – 1.5 grams of salt.7.72oC 9.4m = 43.6oC so the freezing pt.86oC/m.6oC 8.00m = 3. What is the freezing point of a solution that contains 68.85 molal solution of sugar? Kf = 1.7 0 11.7 m 0.7 +11.7m 23.0 grams of water? 68. C12H22O11.

17 moles = 11.7 +11. When NaCl dissolves.11.7m 11. Solvent 3. Solute .5m total ∆tb = 0. only 2 particles are produced.5g = 1. Solution 2.Why is CaCl2 used on the roads instead of NaCl or sucrose? When CaCl2 dissolves. is 112oC Assignment 10: Solutions Review Define: 1.7 0 11.7 + 11. 10. What is the boiling point of the solution in problem #9? 68. 0 0 .7 m 0. 3 particles are produces.7m 23.512oC/m x 23.1000 kg NaCl (s)   Na+1 (aq) + Cl-1 (aq) 11.5g NaCl x 1 mole 58.5m ∆tb = 12oC so the boiling pt.17 moles m = 1.

Does sucrose dissociate? C12H22O11 (s) ------. Homogeneous Heterogeneous Soluble Insoluble Solvation Colligative property Saturated solution (how do you tell?) Unsaturated solution (how do you tell?) Supersaturated solution (how do you tell?) Questions: Write the reaction for the dissolving of sucrose in water. Write the Ksp expression for the above equations. 5.(aq) Does dissociate into ions. 10. The boiling point is increased due to a lowered vapor pressure. 12. 11. What does Ksp describe? What does a large Ksp mean? Ksp = [K+ ] [Br. 6. Write the reaction for the dissolving of potassium bromide in water? Does KBr dissociate? KBr (s) -----. A large Ksp means the compound is more soluble. Therefore.K+ (aq) + Br.] Ksp = [C12H22O11] The solubility product constant describes how far the reaction goes toward the products which is the dissolved for of the compound.4. The water molecules are attracted to the solute and are less likely to evaporate causing a lowered vapor pressure. What happens to the freezing point of a solvent when a solute is added? The boiling point? The freezing point is lowered because the solute gets in the way of crystal formation. 8. 7. Molecules stay together.C12H22O11 (aq) Does not dissociate. more heat must be added to get the vapor pressure to equal . 9.

so more contact of solvent with solute. Describe some techniques that could be used to separate the components of a solution. The opposite is true for gases. so speeds up dissolving.the atmospheric pressure. Pressure of gases-pushes molecules closer together so more dissolves. so that ice would not be as thick. What effect do each of these factors have? For which factor(s) would the Ksp change? Would the Ksp go up or down? Temperature change-heating speeds up molecules so dissolve faster and more. Particle Size-more surface area. Ksp unchanged. List 4 factors that effect the dissolving of solutes.P. Ksp unchanged. Ksp goes up. Is it safer to ice skate on a frozen lake or a frozen oceanic bay in the same conditions? Why? It would be safer to skate on the lake because the salt dissolved in the oceanic water would depress the freezing point. Your should be able to describe: Distillation (look at your lab) Reverse Osmosis . more because there are more ions released upon dissolving of calcium chloride that sodium chloride. Increased temperature causes the dissolved gas to "boil" out. Stirring-brings solute in contact with solvent so speeds up dissolving. Would the addition of sodium chloride or the addition of calcium chloride raise the boiling point of water more? Explain. Ksp increases with heat. Calcium chloride would raise the B.

529 mole NaNO3 = .0g of potassium chloride is added to 600.6000 kg water How many grams of sodium chloride are needed to make 100.01 g NaNO3 0.0 moles NaCl 1 L solution = 0.872 mole KBr = 1.0mL of solution? 45.5000 L soln = 0.0M solution? .20 moles x 58.0 g NaNO3 x 1 mole NaNO3 85.0g of sodium nitrate is added to enough water to make 500.45 m .5 g NaCl = 12g NaCl 1 mole How many moles of ammonium chloride are used with 2.872 mole KCl 0.5 g KCl = 0.0mL of water? 65.529 mole NaNO3 1.06 M What is the molality of a solution in which 65.0mL of a 2.1000 L x 2.0L of water .Chromatography Dialysis Problems: What is the molarity of a solution in which 45.0 g KCl x 1 mole KCl 74.

5 g NH4Cl 1 kg 1 mole NH4Cl What is the expression for the solubility product constant (Ksp) for the dissolving of calcium chloride? CaCl2 (s)   Ca+2 (aq) + 2 Cl-1 (aq) Ksp + [Ca+2] [Cl-1]2 The solubility of copper(II) hydroxide is 3.5 g NH4Cl = 53.4 x 10 + 3.50m solution? 2.4 x 10-7] [6.9 x 10-3 + 5.0 kg x 0.8 x 10-7 Ksp = [Cu+2] [OH-1]2 = [3.4 x 10 + 6.9 x 10-3] 0 0 .9 x 10-3] [ 5.4 x 10-7 6. calculate the Ksp.8 x 10-7]2 = 1.4 x 10-7 moles per liter of solution.9 x 10-3 0 [5.6 x 10-19 If 1. what is the solubility product constant (Ksp)? Cu(OH)2 (s)   Cu+2 (aq) + 2 OH-1 (aq) 3.4 x 10-7 0 0 -7 -7 .2g SrCrO4 x 1 mole SrCrO4 203.9 x 10-3 moles/L = Molarity SrCrO4 (s)   Sr+2 (aq) + CrO4-2 (aq) [5.2g of SrCrO4 will dissolve in 1 liter of solution.8 x 10-7 0 3.5.to make a 0.0 moles NH4Cl x 53.9 x 10-3 + 5.6g SrCrO4 = 5. 1.3.50 moles = 1.9 x 10-3] .

0.14 moles MgF2 0.Ksp = [Sr+2] [CrO4-2] = [5. calculate the Ksp.027] 0 .027] + = 0.027 +0. CoS (s)   Co+2 (aq) + S-2 (aq) .8 x 10-5 Is the SrCrO4 or the MgF2 more soluble? How do you know? The MgF2 is more soluble because it has a higher Ksp.027M 2 F-1 (aq) 0 + 0.9 x 10-3] = 3. calculate the solubility in moles per liter of solution (maximum molarity).5 x 10-5 If 0.27g MgF2 = 0.9 x 10-22.4 x 10-8 M = [PbCrO4 ] If the Ksp for the dissolving of CoS in water is 4.50 L solution MgF2 (s)   Mg+2 (aq) [0. If the Ksp is 2 x 10-16 at 250.50 liters of solution.054]2 = 7.9 x 10-3] [5.054] Ksp = [Mg+2] [F-1]2 = [0.14 moles M = 0. what is the molarity of a saturated solution at this temperature? PbCrO4 (s) -----.054 [0.Pb+2 (aq) + CrO4 -2 (aq) x 0 0 -x +x +x 0 x x 2 x 10-16 = [Pb+2 ] [CrO4-2 ] 2 x 10-16 = x2 1.85g of MgF2 will dissolve in 0.027] [0.85g MgF2 x 1 mole MgF2 62. 0.027 0 [0.

Would it be possible to dissolve 0. AgI (s)   Ag+1 (aq) x 0 -x +x 0 x Ksp = [Ag+1] [I-1] 8.2 x 10-6 grams in 1L 1 mole AgI + I-1 (aq) 0 +x x The Ksp for the dissolving of ZnS is 1.9 x 10-22 = [x] [x] or x2 x = 2.x -x 0 0 +x x 0 +x x 4.5 x 10-17 = [x][x] x = 9.5 x 10-17 . is the solution saturated or unsaturated? ZnS (s)   Zn+2 (aq) x 0 + S-2 (aq) 0 .9 x 10-22 = [Co+2] [S-2] 4.2 x 10-11 M The solubility product constant for the dissolving of AgI in water is 8.045g in 780mL of water? If so.2 x 10-9 M 9. Calculate the solubility of AgI in grams per one liter of solution.3 x 10-22.2 x 10-9 moles x 235 g AgI = 2.

1oC so freezing point would be – 10.44m = 10.2. What is the freezing point of an NaCl solution that contains 21.44m total particle ∆tf = 1.368 moles NaCl = 2.86oC/m x 5.2 grams solute in 135g water? 21.2g NaCl x 1 mole NaCl 58.0.135 kg H2O NaCl (s)   Na+1 (aq) 2.045g will not dissolve in 780mL of water.72m 0.72 0 .72 2.368 moles NaCl m = 0.4 g ZnS = = 1.-x 0 +x x +x x Ksp = [Zn+2] [S-2] 1.3 x 10-10 grams so….72 + Cl-1 (aq) 0 + 2.1 x 10-11 moles x 1 mole ZnS 97.72 0 2.72 + 2.1oC .72 = 5.07 x 10-9 g ZnS 1000 ml x g ZnS 780 mL x = 8.1 x 10-11 M 1.3 x 10-22 = [x][x] x = 1.07 x 10-9 grams in 1L (1000mL) 1.5g NaCl = 0.

35 + 0. So.35m NaCl dissociates to 2 particles so 0.Which of the following solutions has (a) the higher boiling point and (b) the higher melting point: 0.9 = 0.70 0 0.9 + 0.9 0 .512oC/m x 1. For Sucrose ∆tb = 0.46oC Arrange the following solutions in order of decreasing freezing point: 0. so 0.60m total 0.35 0.70m total 0.15m total .10m Na3PO4 dissociates to 4 particles so 0.54oC.9 0 0.05m total particles C12H22O11 (s)   C12H22O11 (aq) 0.9m sucrose CaCl2 (s)   Zn+2 (aq) + 2 Cl-1 (aq) 0.512oC/m x 0.35 + 0.20m MgCl2 dissociates to 3 particles so 0. CaCl2 has the higher boiling point and sucrose has the higher melting (freezing) point.15m C12H22O11 does not dissociate.0.54oC So it boils at 100.40m total 0.9m = 0.35m calcium chloride or 0.0.9 total particle therefore CaCl2 causes the larger freezing point depression and the larger boiling point elevation.46oC So it boils at 100.35 0 0 .70 = 1.05m = 0. What are the boiling points of the above solutions if the Kb for water is 0.512oC/m? For CaCl2 ∆tb = 0.

53. MgCl2. unsaturated. (hint: you have to express as grams in 100g water) 9 g of NaNO3 in 100 g of water is unsaturated at any temp. Na3PO4.5g NH4Cl = x g NH4Cl 2000g H2O 100g H2O Calculate the Ksp of a saturated solution of potassium nitrate at 25oC.68 g of NH4Cl in 100 g of water is unsaturated at any temp.K+ (aq) + NO3 (aq) .8 g of KBr in 100 g of water is unsaturated at any temp. NaCl = lowest freezing point Use the chart on assignments 6 and 7 to answer the following: Determine if the solutions above are saturated.C12H22O11. 10. 45g NaNO3 = x g NaNO3 500g H2O 100g H2O 10. KNO3 (s) ------. or supersaturated if prepared at 25oC.8g KCl = 600g H2O x g KCl 100g H2O 12 g NaCl in 100 g of water is unsaturated at any temp. 2.

38g NaCl x 1 mole NaCl 58.7 g NH4Cl How many grams will precipitate out of 100mL of a solution of potassium chloride that is saturated at 50oC if the solution is cooled to 10oC? At 50 degrees.Ksp = [K+ ] [NO3] At 25 degrees.396 moles KNO3 101 g KNO3 0.65 moles NaCl .100 L so….0 M (about) . A solution of NaCl is saturated at 25oC. only about 30 grams will dissolve. about 40 g will dissolve.396 moles KNO3 = 4.5g NaCl = 0. about 38g of NaCl will dissolve in 100g water. About 10 grams will precipitate out.0 ] [4. At 25oC. At 10 degrees.0] = 16 How many grams of sodium chloride will dissolve in 100g of water at 30oC? About 38 g NaCl will dissolve in 100g H2O How many grams of ammonium chloride will dissolve in 122g of water at 15oC? 35 g NH4Cl = x g NH4Cl 100 g water 122 g water = 42. Ksp = [4. At what temperature would the solution freeze. about 40 grams of potassium nitrate will dissolve in 100 g of water: 40 g x 1 mole KNO3 = 0.

5 + 6.100 kg H2O NaCl (s)   Na+1 (aq) 6.65 moles NaCl = 6.86oC/m x 13m = 23.5 0 .5 + Cl-1 (aq) 0 + 6.6.5 0 6.9oC .m = 0.5m 0.5 = 13m total particle ∆tf = 1.5 6.9oC so freezing point would be – 23.