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Group psychotherapy

(group therapy)

a form ofpsychotherapyin which one or

more therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group.

The term can legitimately refer to any form

of psychotherapy when delivered in a group format, includingCognitive behavioral therapyor Interpersonal therapy, but it is usually applied to psychodynamic group therapy where the group context andgroup processis explicitly utilized as a mechanism of change by developing, exploring and examining interpersonal relationships within the group.


Drama Therapy Psychodrama Art Therapy Music Therapy

Research on effectiveness

There is clear evidence for the

effectiveness of group psychotherapy fordepression: ameta-analysisof 48 studies showed an overalleffect sizeof 1.03, which is clinically highly significant. Similarly, a meta-analysis of five studies of group psychotherapy for adultsexual abusesurvivors showed moderate to strong effect sizes, and there is also good evidence for effectiveness with chronictraumatic stressin war veterans. There is less robust evidence of good outcomes for patients withborderline personality disorder,

Crisis Intervention

Can be defined as emergency

psychological care aimed at assisting individuals in a crisis situation to restore equilibrium to their biopsychosocial functioning and to minimize the potential forpsychological trauma.
Crisiscan be defined as onesperceptionor

experiencing of an event or situation as an intolerable difficulty that exceeds the persons current resources andcopingmechanisms.
The priority of crisis intervention/counseling is

to increase stabilization.

Typical responses to crisis

On the cognitive level they may blame

themselves or others for the trauma.

Oftentimes the person appears

disoriented, becomes hypersensitive or confused, and has poor concentration, uncertainty, and poor troubleshooting. Physical responses to trauma include: increased heart rate, tremors, dizziness, weakness, chills, headaches, vomiting, shock, fainting, sweating, and fatigue.
Some emotional responses the person

may experiences consist of apathy, depression,irritability,anxiety,panic,

Universal principles of crisis intervention

While dealing with crisis, both personal and

societal, there are five basic principles outlined for intervention. Victims are initially at high risk for maladaptive coping or immobilization. Intervening as quickly as possible is imperative. Resource mobilization should be immediately enacted in order to provide victims with the tools they need to return to some sort of order and normalcy, in addition to enable eventual independent functioning. The next step is to facilitate understanding of the event by processing the situation ortrauma. This is done in order to help the victim gain a better understanding of what has occurred and allowing him or her to express feeling about the experience.

Critical incidentdebriefingis a widespread

approach to counseling those in a state of crisis. This technique is done in a group setting 2472hours after the event occurred, and is typically a one-time meeting that lasts 3 4hours, but can be done over numerous sessions if needed.
Debriefingis a process by which facilitators

describe various symptoms relatedPTSDand otheranxiety disorders that individuals are likely to experience due to exposure to a trauma.
As a group they process negative emotions

surrounding the traumatic event. Each member is encouraged continued participation in

Milieu Therapyis a form

ofpsychotherapythat involves the use oftherapeutic communities. Patients join a group of around 30, for between 9 and 18 months. During their stay, patients are encouraged to take responsibility for themselves and the others within the unit. Milieu therapy is thought to be of value in treatingpersonality disordersandbehavioral problems.

Partial hospitalization, also known

asPHP(from Partial Hospitalization Program), is a type of program used to treatmental illnessandsubstance abuse. In partial hospitalization, the patient continues to reside at home, but commutes to a treatment center up to seven days a week. Since partial hospitalization focuses on overall treatment of the individual, rather than purely safety, the program is not used for acutely suicidal people.

Expressive therapy, also known

asexpressive arts therapyorcreative arts therapy, is the use of thecreative artsas a form oftherapy. Unlike traditionalartexpression, the process of creation is emphasized rather than the final product. Expressive therapy is predicated on the assumption that people can heal through use of imagination and the various forms of creative expression.

Art therapyis a form of psychotherapy that

uses art media as its primary mode of communication. It is practiced by qualified, registered Art Therapists who work with children, young people, adults and the elderly Clients who can use art therapy may have a wide range of difficulties, disabilities or diagnoses. These include, for example, emotional, behavioral or mental health problems, learning or physical disabilities, lifelimiting conditions, brain-injury or neurological conditions and physical illness. Art therapy may be provided for groups, or for individuals, depending on clients needs. It is not a recreational activity or an art lesson, although the sessions can be enjoyable. Clients do not

Dance therapy, ordance movement

therapyis thepsychotherapeuticuse of movement anddancefor emotional,cognitive,social, behavioral and physicalconditions. As a form ofexpressive therapy, DMT is founded on the basis that movement and emotion are directly related. The ultimate purpose of DMT is to find a healthy balance and sense of wholeness.


Therapy(writtendramatherapyin the UK) is the use of theatre techniques to facilitate personal growth and promote mental health. Dramatherapy is used in a wide variety of settings, includinghospitals, schools, mental health centers,prisons, and businesses. Drama Therapy, as a form ofExpressive Arts Therapy, (also known asExpressive Therapy), exists in many forms and can be applicable to individuals, couples, families, and various groups.

Music therapyis anallied health

professionand one of theexpressive therapies, consisting of an interpersonal process in which a trained music therapist uses music and all of its facetsphysical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritualto help clients to improve or maintain their health. Music therapists primarily help clients improve their health across various domains (e.g., cognitive functioning, motor skills, emotional and affective development, behavior and social skills, and quality of life) by using music experiences (e.g., free improvisation, singing, songwriting, listening to and discussing music, moving to music) to achieve treatment goals

Writing therapyis a form ofexpressive

therapythat uses the act of writing and processing the written word as therapy. Writing therapy posits that writing one's feelings gradually eases feelings of emotional trauma. Writing therapeutically can take place individually or in a group and it can be administered in person with a therapist