Preface

Corrosion is both costly and dangerous. Billions of dollars are spent annually for the replacement of corroded structures, machinery, and components, including metal roofing, condenser tubes, pipelines, and many other items. In addition to replacement costs are those associated with preventive maintenance to prevent corrosion, inspections, and the upkeep of cathodically protected structures and pipelines. Indirect costs of corrosion result from shutdown, loss of efficiency, and product contamination or loss. Although the actual replacement cost of an item may not be high, the loss of production resulting from the need to shut down an operation to permit the replacement may amount to hundreds of dollars per hour. When a tank or pipeline develops a leak, product is lost. If the leak goes undetected for a period of time, the value of the lost product could be considerable. In addition, contamination can result from the leaking material, requiring cleanup, and this can be quite expensive. When corrosion takes place, corrosion products build up, resulting in reduced flow in pipelines and reduced efficiency of heat transfer in heat exchangers. Both conditions increase operating costs. Corrosion products may also be detrimental to the quality of the product being handled, making it necessary to discard valuable materials. Premature failure of bridges or structures because of corrosion can also result in human injury or even loss of life. Failures of operating equipment resulting from corrosion can have the same disastrous results. When all of these factors are considered, it becomes obvious why the potential problem of corrosion should be considered during the early design stages of any project, and why it is necessary to constantly monitor the integrity of structures, bridges, machinery, and equipment to prevent premature failures. To cope with the potential problems of corrosion, it is necessary to understand 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mechanisms of corrosion Corrosion resistant properties of various materials Proper fabrication and installation techniques Methods to prevent or control corrosion Corrosion testing techniques Corrosion monitoring techniques

Corrosion is not only limited to metallic materials but also to all materials of construction. Consequently, this handbook covers not only metallic materials but also all materials of construction.

Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 cover the mechanisms of corrosion and the effects of atmospheric corrosion. Chapter 3 through Chapter 27 cover metallic materials and their alloys. Corrosion’s potential is discussed for each metal or alloy. Charts are provided for the compatibility of each metal or alloy with selected corrodents. References are provided for additional compatibility data. It is the intention of this book that regardless of what is being built, whether it be a bridge, tower, pipeline, storage tank, or processing vessel, information for the designer/engineer/maintenance personnel/or whoever is responsible for the selection of construction material, this book will enable them to avoid unnecessary loss of material through corrosion. Philip A. Schweitzer

Author

Philip A. Schweitzer is a consultant in corrosion prevention, materials of construction, and chemical engineering based in York, Pennsylvania. A former contract manager and material specialist for Chem-Pro Corporation, Fairfield, New Jersey, he is the editor of the Corrosion Engineering Handbook and the Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook, Second Edition; and the author of Corrosion Resistance Tables, Fifth Edition; Encyclopedia of Corrosion Technology, Second Edition; Metallic Materials; Corrosion Resistant Linings and Coatings; Atmospheric Degradation and Corrosion Control; What Every Engineer Should Know About Corrosion; Corrosion Resistance of Elastomers; Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems; Mechanical and Corrosion Resistant Properties of Plastics and Elastomers (all titles Marcel Dekker, Inc.); and Paint and Coatings, Applications and Corrosion Resistance (Taylor & Francis). Schweitzer received the BChE degree (1950) from Polytechnic University (formerly Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn), Brooklyn, New York.

Contents

Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion ......................................... 1 1.1 Forms of Corrosion...................................................................................... 2 1.1.1 Uniform Corrosion ......................................................................... 3 1.1.1.1 Passive Film on Iron......................................................... 3 1.1.1.2 Passive Film on Nickel..................................................... 4 1.1.1.3 Passive Film on Austenitic Stainless Steel.................... 4 1.1.1.4 Passive Film on Copper................................................... 4 1.1.1.5 Passive Film on Aluminum ............................................ 5 1.1.1.6 Passive Film on Titanium ................................................ 5 1.1.1.7 Passive Film on Tantalum ............................................... 5 1.1.1.8 Uniform Corrosion Rates................................................. 5 1.1.2 Intergranular Corrosion ................................................................. 7 1.1.3 Galvanic Corrosion ......................................................................... 8 1.1.4 Crevice Corrosion ......................................................................... 10 1.1.5 Pitting Corrosion........................................................................... 12 1.1.6 Erosion Corrosion ......................................................................... 15 1.1.7 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) ............................................... 16 1.1.8 Biological Corrosion ..................................................................... 18 1.1.8.1 Corrosion of Specific Materials..................................... 21 1.1.9 Selective Leaching......................................................................... 23 1.2 Corrosion Mechanisms ............................................................................. 24 1.3 Measuring Polarization............................................................................. 31 1.3.1 Anodic Polarization...................................................................... 34 1.4 Other Factors Affecting Corrosion .......................................................... 35 Reference .............................................................................................................. 37 Chapter 2 Atmospheric Corrosion............................................................... 2.1 Atmospheric Types .................................................................................... 2.2 Factors Affecting Atmospheric Corrosion ............................................. 2.2.1 Time of Wetness ............................................................................ 2.2.1.1 Adsorption Layers .......................................................... 2.2.1.2 Phase Layers .................................................................... 2.2.1.3 Dew ................................................................................... 2.2.1.4 Rain ................................................................................... 2.2.1.5 Fog ..................................................................................... 2.2.1.6 Dust ................................................................................... 2.2.1.7 Measurement of Time of Wetness ................................ 2.2.2 Composition of Surface Electrolyte ........................................... 2.2.2.1 Oxygen.............................................................................. 39 40 41 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 45 45

2.2.2.2 SOX .................................................................................... 2.2.2.3 NOX ................................................................................... 2.2.2.4 Chlorides .......................................................................... 2.2.2.5 CO2 .................................................................................... 2.2.2.6 Concentrations of Different Species............................. 2.2.3 Temperature................................................................................... 2.2.4 Initial Exposure ............................................................................. 2.2.5 Sheltering........................................................................................ 2.2.6 Wind Velocity ................................................................................ 2.2.7 Nature of Corrosion Products .................................................... 2.2.8 Pollutants Present ......................................................................... 2.3 Mechanisms of Atmospheric Corrosion of Metals............................... 2.3.1 Damp Atmospheric Corrosion (Adsorption Layers) ..................................................................... 2.3.2 Wet Atmospheric Corrosion (Phase Layers) ............................ 2.3.2.1 Dew ................................................................................... 2.3.2.2 Rain ................................................................................... 2.3.2.3 Fog ..................................................................................... 2.3.3 Deposit of Pollutants .................................................................... 2.4 Corrosion Products.................................................................................... 2.5 Specific Atmospheric Corrodents ........................................................... 2.5.1 Sulfur-Containing Compounds .................................................. 2.5.2 Nitrogen-Containing Compounds ............................................. 2.5.3 Chlorine-Containing Compounds.............................................. 2.5.4 Carbon Dioxide (CO2).................................................................. 2.5.5 Oxygen (O2) ................................................................................... 2.5.6 Indoor Atmospheric Compounds .............................................. 2.6 Summary ..................................................................................................... 2.7 Effects on Metals Used for Outdoor Applications ............................... 2.7.1 Carbon Steel................................................................................... 2.7.2 Weathering Steels.......................................................................... 2.7.3 Zinc.................................................................................................. 2.7.4 Aluminum...................................................................................... 2.7.5 Copper ............................................................................................ 2.7.6 Nickel 200....................................................................................... 2.7.7 Monel Alloy 400 ............................................................................ 2.7.8 Inconel Alloy 600 .......................................................................... Reference .............................................................................................................. Chapter 3 Corrosion of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels........................... 3.1 Corrosion Data ........................................................................................... 3.2 Stress Corrosion Cracking ........................................................................ 3.3 Sulfide Stress Cracking ............................................................................. 3.4 Pitting........................................................................................................... 3.5 Hydrogen Damage ....................................................................................

45 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 47 48 49 52 54 54 54 55 55 56 58 59 61 62 62 62 63 63 63 63 64 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 67 67 78 78 79 79

3.5.1 Hydrogen Blistering ..................................................................... 3.5.2 Hydrogen Embrittlement ............................................................ 3.5.3 Decarburization............................................................................. 3.5.4 Hydrogen Attack .......................................................................... 3.6 Corrosion Fatigue ...................................................................................... 3.7 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion ................................................ Reference .............................................................................................................. Chapter 4 Corrosion of Cast Iron and Cast Steel..................................... 4.1 Cast Irons .................................................................................................... 4.1.1 Gray Iron ........................................................................................ 4.1.2 Compacted Graphite Iron............................................................ 4.1.3 Ductile (Nodular) Iron ................................................................. 4.1.4 White Iron ...................................................................................... 4.1.5 Malleable Iron................................................................................ 4.2 High Alloy Cast Irons ............................................................................... 4.2.1 Austenitic Gray Cast Irons .......................................................... 4.2.2 Austenitic Ductile Cast Irons ...................................................... 4.2.3 High-Silicon Cast Irons ................................................................ 4.3 Carbon and Low-Alloy Carbon Steels ................................................... References ............................................................................................................

80 80 80 80 81 81 82 83 86 86 87 87 88 88 88 88 89 89 96 97

Chapter 5 Introduction to Stainless Steel.................................................. 99 5.1 Stainless Steel Classification..................................................................... 99 5.1.1 Ferritic Family ............................................................................. 100 5.1.2 Martensitic Family ...................................................................... 102 5.1.3 Austenitic Family........................................................................ 102 5.1.4 Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steels............................... 103 5.1.5 Superferritic Stainless Steels ..................................................... 104 5.1.6 Duplex Stainless Steels............................................................... 104 5.1.7 Superaustenitic Stainless Steels ................................................ 105 5.2 Passivation ................................................................................................ 105 5.3 Sanitizing................................................................................................... 106 5.4 Preparing for Service............................................................................... 106 5.4.1 Iron Contamination .................................................................... 106 5.4.2 Organic Contamination.............................................................. 107 5.4.3 Welding Contamination............................................................. 107 Chapter 6 Corrosion of Stainless Steels................................................... 6.1 Pitting......................................................................................................... 6.2 Crevice Corrosion .................................................................................... 6.3 Stress Corrosion Cracking ...................................................................... 6.4 Intergranular Corrosion .......................................................................... 6.5 High-Temperature Corrosion................................................................. 109 111 112 112 114 116

6.6 6.7

Corrosion Fatigue .................................................................................... 122 Uniform Corrosion .................................................................................. 122 123 126 127 127 128 128 132 132 133 134 134 136 136 137 137 139 139 144 144 145 146 147 147 148 148 149 149 149 151 155 156 156 157 158 158 158 158 159

Chapter 7 Ferritic Stainless Steel Family................................................. 7.1 Type 405 (S40500)..................................................................................... 7.2 Type 409 (S40900)..................................................................................... 7.3 Type 430 (S43000)..................................................................................... 7.4 Type 439L (S43035) .................................................................................. 7.5 Type 444 (S44400)..................................................................................... 7.6 Type 446 (S44600)..................................................................................... Reference ............................................................................................................ Chapter 8 Superferritic Stainless Steel Family ...................................... 8.1 Type XM-27 (S44627) ............................................................................... 8.2 Alloy S44660 (Sea-Cure) ......................................................................... 8.3 Alloy S44735 (29-4C) ............................................................................... 8.4 Alloy S44800 (29-4-2)............................................................................... 8.5 Alloy S44700 (29-4) .................................................................................. Reference ............................................................................................................ Chapter 9 Martensitic Stainless Steel Family......................................... 9.1 Type 410 (S41000)..................................................................................... 9.2 Type 414 (S41400)..................................................................................... 9.3 Type 416 (S41600)..................................................................................... 9.4 Type 420 (S42000)..................................................................................... 9.5 Type 422 (S42200)..................................................................................... 9.6 Type 431 (S43100)..................................................................................... 9.7 Type 440A (S44002).................................................................................. 9.8 Type 440B (S44003) .................................................................................. 9.9 Type 440C (S44004).................................................................................. 9.10 Alloy 440-XH ............................................................................................ 9.11 13Cr-4N (F6NM) ...................................................................................... Reference ............................................................................................................ Chapter 10 Austenitic Stainless Steel Family......................................... 10.1 Type 201 (S20100)................................................................................... 10.2 Type 202 (S20200)................................................................................... 10.3 Type 22-13-5 (S20910) ............................................................................ 10.4 Type 216L (S21603) ................................................................................ 10.5 Type 301 (S30100)................................................................................... 10.6 Type 302 (S30200)................................................................................... 10.7 Type 303 (S30300)................................................................................... 10.8 Type 304 (S30400)................................................................................... 10.9 Type 305 (S30500)...................................................................................

10.10 Type 308 (S30800)................................................................................... 10.11 Type 309 (S30900) ................................................................................... 10.12 Type 310 (S31000)................................................................................... 10.13 Type 316 (S31600)................................................................................... 10.14 Type 317 (S31700)................................................................................... 10.15 Type 321 (S32100)................................................................................... 10.16 Type 329 (S32900)................................................................................... 10.17 Type 347 (S34700)................................................................................... 10.18 Type 348 (S34800)................................................................................... Reference ............................................................................................................ Chapter 11 Superaustenitic Family of Stainless Steel ......................... 11.1 Alloy 20Cb3 (N08020) ........................................................................... 11.2 Alloy 20Mo-4 (N08024) ......................................................................... 11.3 Alloy 20Mo-6 (N08026) ......................................................................... 11.4 Alloy 904L (N08904) .............................................................................. 11.5 Alloy 800 (N08800) ................................................................................ 11.6 Alloy 825 (N08825) ................................................................................ 11.7 Type 330 (N08330).................................................................................. 11.8 Al-6XN (N08367) .................................................................................... 11.9 Alloy 254SMo (S31254).......................................................................... 11.10 Alloy 25-6Mo (N08926)......................................................................... 11.11 Alloy 31 (N08031) .................................................................................. 11.12 Alloy 654SMo (S32654) ......................................................................... 11.13 Inconel Alloy 686 (N06686).................................................................. Reference ............................................................................................................ Chapter 12 Duplex Stainless Steel Family .............................................. 12.1 Alloy 2205 (S31803)................................................................................ 12.2 7-MoPlus (S32950).................................................................................. 12.3 Zeron 100 (S32760)................................................................................. 12.4 Ferralium 255 (S32550).......................................................................... Chapter 13 Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Family ............... 13.1 Alloy PH13-8Mo (S13800) .................................................................... 13.2 Alloy 15-5PH (S15500) .......................................................................... 13.3 Alloy 17-4PH (S17400) .......................................................................... 13.4 Alloy 17-7PH (S17700) .......................................................................... 13.5 Alloy 350 (S35000).................................................................................. 13.6 Alloy 355 (S35500).................................................................................. 13.7 Custom 450 (S45000) ............................................................................. 13.8 Custom 455 (S45500) ............................................................................. 13.9 Alloy 718 (N07718) ................................................................................ 13.10 Alloy A286 (S66286) ..............................................................................

159 159 164 164 169 172 174 175 175 176 177 180 185 185 186 186 187 190 191 192 193 194 194 195 195 197 200 201 202 203 205 207 207 208 209 212 212 213 214 214 215

13.11 Alloy X-750 (N07750) ............................................................................ 13.12 Pyromet Alloy 31................................................................................... 13.13 Pyromet Alloy CTX-1............................................................................ 13.14 Pyromet Alloy CTX-3............................................................................ 13.15 Pyromet Alloy CTX-909........................................................................ 13.16 Pyromet Alloy V-57............................................................................... 13.17 Thermospan Alloy................................................................................. References .......................................................................................................... Chapter 14 Cast Stainless Steel Alloys .................................................... 14.1 Martensitic Stainless Steels................................................................... 14.2 Ferritic Stainless Steels .......................................................................... 14.3 Austenitic Stainless Steels .................................................................... 14.4 Superaustenitic Stainless Steels ........................................................... 14.5 Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels ........................................... 14.6 Duplex Stainless Steels.......................................................................... References .......................................................................................................... Chapter 15 Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys ............................................ 15.1 Nickel 200 and Nickel 201.................................................................... 15.2 Monel Alloy 400 (N04400).................................................................... 15.3 Alloy B-2.................................................................................................. 15.4 Alloy 625 (N06625) ................................................................................ 15.5 Custom Age 625 Plus (N07716)........................................................... 15.6 Alloy C-276 (N10276) ............................................................................ 15.7 Alloy C-4 (N06455) ................................................................................ 15.8 Alloy C-22 (N06022) .............................................................................. 15.9 Hastelloy Alloy C-2000 ......................................................................... 15.10 Alloy X (N06002).................................................................................... 15.11 Alloy 600 (N06600) ................................................................................ 15.12 Alloy G (N06007) and Alloy G-3 (N06985) ....................................... 15.13 Alloy G-30 (N06030) .............................................................................. 15.14 Alloy H-9M ............................................................................................. 15.15 Alloys for High-Temperature Corrosion............................................ 15.15.1 Hastelloy Alloy S................................................................... 15.15.2 Haynes Alloy 556 (R30556).................................................. 15.15.3 Alloy 214................................................................................. 15.15.4 Alloy 230 (N06230)................................................................ 15.15.5 Alloy RA333 (N06333) .......................................................... 15.15.6 Alloy 102 (N06102)................................................................ Reference ............................................................................................................

215 216 217 218 218 219 220 220 221 224 225 226 229 231 231 233 235 237 243 245 252 257 262 263 264 265 267 268 269 270 272 272 273 273 274 275 276 277 277

Chapter 16 Cast Nickel and Nickel-Based Alloys ................................. 279 16.1 Commercially Pure Nickel ................................................................... 279 16.2 Nickel–Copper........................................................................................ 279

..................................................13 Poultice Corrosion ....... 19..........................5 Copper–Aluminum Alloys.................................... 16.................... ....4 Nickel–Chromium–Molybdenum .................................................5 Other Nickel-Based Alloys..................8.................8. 18................................................................. 19...................................................................................................................6 Copper–Nickel Alloys .........3............. 18..................................................................................8 Intergranular Corrosion .................................3 Copper–Zinc Alloys (Brasses)........................................................................................................................................ 18.................................................................................................................... 19.............1 H1X—Strain-Hardened Only ......1 Classifications and Designations........3............................5 Chemical Composition.......................................................................... 18.......... 19....8 Cast Copper Alloys . 19................................................8..2 High-Copper Alloys .............................10 Stress Corrosion Cracking ......... 19.......1 Mechanism of Intergranular Corrosion in 2XXX Alloys ............................................... 283 469 472 475 475 483 483 485 488 488 488 490 491 492 493 494 494 494 494 494 495 499 500 506 506 508 509 509 510 510 511 511 512 514 Chapter 18 Copper and Copper Alloys ..............2 Temper Designations......................... 19.....................................................14 Galvanic Relations ....... 18...................................................................................................16 Weathering ......... 19.......3....... 18................................................................4 Heat-Treated Subdivisions .................... Chapter 17 281 281 282 282 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys .........................2 H2X—Strain-Hardened and Partially Annealed...............15 Reduction of Ions of Other Metals by Aluminum .............................................................................................................. References ...................... 19... 19............. 19........................ 19............................ 19...6 General Corrosion Resistance ......... 19....................................................................................................................................................................2 Mechanism of Intergranular Corrosion in 7XXX Alloys ................................................................4 Copper–Tin Alloys.........1 Coppers ............................. 19..................................................................................................................... 18.............. 19....................................11 Filiform Corrosion............................................. Chapter 19 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys................. 19............................ 19....................... 19...................... 18.............................................................................................................. 19......... References ......... 19...................3 H3X—Strain-Hardened and Stabilized..................9 Exfoliation Corrosion ..........................7 Copper–Beryllium Alloys...... 18.....................................................................................12 Crevice Corrosion ....................................7 Pitting Corrosion...................................................... 16...3 Nickel–Chromium .................16.........3 Strain-Hardened Subdivisions..................................1 Corrosion Resistance........

............. 21............1 Seacoast Atmosphere..................................................19.........................2.......................... 20......3 Hydrochloric Acid ....... 21.. 21.............................. 21................................4....... 20......19............................. 21........19......2.................... 21...................... 19..20 Waters (Specific) ...........................2..................................................... 19...................2...............................................1 Freshwaters.......4 Gases.......................................................................... 21...2.......2..................................5 Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide .............................1 Alloys ......... 21..... 21.......... 21........3 Alkali Salts.... and Other Media.............................2...............................22 Cast Aluminum ...................................2........... Chapter 21 Tantalum ........................4 Nitric Acid......3 Hydrogen Embrittlement.......................... References ............................................................................2. 19.......2....................... 21...........2.2............. 21......... 19........................19...................................4..........................2. 19........... Organics......................................................................... Chapter 20 Titanium..............................................................................................................................................2 Acids..2........................4 Crevice Corrosion.....3 Corrosion Resistance ..................4 Halogens ....19........1 Water ....2 Phosphoric Acid ..... 21...............20............... 21......2 Urban or Industrial Atmospheres ................1 The Oxide Film—A Protective Barrier .................................................2 Types of Corrosion...............2....... 19....................................................................................3 Piping Applications.................................................................6 Nitrogen Monoxide and Nitrous Oxide .................... 19.................. 21......2 Effect of Specific Corrosive Agents................. References .. 21............................4 Indoor Atmosphere.......4...................6 Acid Mixtures and Other Acids .....1 General Corrosion .........2 Galvanic Corrosion ..19 Atmospheric Weathering........5 Stress Corrosion Cracking ...............................................2..........2................2. 20.1 Oxygen and Air .....................2 Seawater .................... 19...................4................3 Hydrogen..4..............................................2............................2... 19.........................................7 Other Gases ...........2.......... 20............... 20........................................................................1 Sulfuric Acid ..........................................................................................................................20... 514 514 515 515 516 517 517 518 518 519 519 520 520 522 525 526 528 529 529 529 534 536 536 538 539 540 542 542 542 545 545 546 547 547 547 548 549 549 550 551 554 554 554 554 ... 19..........................................2............................................................................................................18 Relative Resistance of Aluminum and Alloys ..............2.......................................20........5 Hydrofluoric Acid ....2.................3 Rural Atmosphere ............................. 21...4...21 Alclad Products .................. 19............................................................................................................. 21.............................. 20........ 20.............2................2.... 20.............................2...............2 Nitrogen ................................. 19....................17 Waters (General)............................................................................................................................4.................................. 21......2...

............... 22.........12 Silver ....................15 Thorium–Magnesium.........3...................8 Alkalies.............. 22..........12 Molten Salts and Metals..........6 General Corrosion Data............5............3............... 22...........................4 Nitric Acid ..16 Uranium and Plutonium Alloys .2...........................................3 Halogen Acids.....................5..................4 Calcium.. 21........3...2. 21.......................2 Salt Water ..2..................................... 21....3 Bismuth..........5.....................................................................1 Tantalum–Tungsten Alloys ......6 Phosphoric Acid ................ 22............ 21...................................................................3...................5......2....................... 22........................... 21....2....................................... 555 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 557 557 557 557 557 558 558 558 558 558 561 563 566 566 567 568 568 571 571 573 574 574 577 580 581 582 586 588 591 594 594 594 596 597 598 ..................... 22............6 Gallium ........2.......................5. 22..................2..........................................4 Tantalum–Titanium Alloys .....................5 Liquid Metals ...2...... 21......................3 Tantalum–Niobium Alloys .................................................... 22........................... 21..8 Lithium ...2..........................2...2............ 22.............................................. 21..................5.............5........5....7 Other Acids........................... 21................................... 22.......... 21.............2............................5................ 21......2.......2.........2.........2.....1 Aluminum ......... 21. 22............................2.........................................5..........2..............................7 Lead .................2...................5 Cesium .....1 Introduction .......5......3...................................2............. 21...................3............11 Gases................................................2..........................................2....................................3..............2...............5.....2..................3.............................3 Chemical and Corrosion Properties................................5 Sulfuric Acid................. 22....9 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys...2.................14 Tellurium....................5..... 22..................2.....................................3......................... 22.............................................5................................... 21......................................3......... 21.............13 Sodium ...................................1 Physical Properties................2......9 Salt Solutions ...............3....2.......5..........2................................2............................ 21............3............... 22.................................................. 22.........2 General Characteristics ............2....................3......10 Mercury ......................................................................................3......... 22.......................................................5 Other Alloys ...........17 Zinc ................1 Water and Steam.21.3...............................2............ Chapter 22 Zirconium ....2........... 21............2 Mechanical Properties .... 21.............................. References ........2...............................5... 21...................... 21........ 21..... 21............11 Potassium ......2 Tantalum–Molybdenum Alloys ..........5......................3.................3......... 21..... 21....................10 Organic Solutions ......................3 Corrosion Resistance of Tantalum-Based Alloys...............................................................................2 Antimony.......................

...........3 Fretting Corrosion ....................................... 22............................1........ 22....2 Stress Corrosion Cracking .......................3......4..........................Selected Corrosion Topics..........................................1 Nuclear Industry ...................... 22............................. 22............ 23.......................2........................5 Crevice Corrosion ...4. 23....................................2.................................3 Formic Acid .............1 Urea............... 22..... 23.....4 Corrosion Fatigue.3 Intergranular Corrosion ..........4..2.3 Zinc Coatings...3 Film Formation in Air or Oxygen .......................... 22..............3..........................................................................2..........................3.....1.......6 Concluding Remarks................ 22... 23..... 23......................... 22..........................2............................................. 22.......... Chapter 23 Zinc and Zinc Alloys.......................... 23..............................3 Mechanical Coating ....................... 23..................................1 Corrosion of Zinc ... 23..............2.......4 598 598 599 600 600 601 601 601 601 602 602 602 603 604 605 605 606 607 608 608 609 612 613 614 616 616 617 617 623 623 623 624 625 625 625 626 626 630 630 631 631 632 632 632 637 .....4...2.....1.......................................2 Acetic Acid .............................2.........6 Nitric Acid-Containing Processes ......................................... 22................................4 Sheradizing............................. 22..........................2..................2 Bimetallic Corrosion ...... 22............................. 22.. 23...........................................................2 Electrochemical Protection .....3...................................2.......................................5 Thermally Sprayed Coatings.. 22.............1.4 Corrosion of Zinc Coatings ....3 Typical Applications..........................2.....................5 Stress Corrosion....................................................1 Hot Dipping .....1................................7 Others .............2....................3......................3...................4 Film Formation in Molten Salts......3.2 Chemical Processing and Other Industries .......... 22........1.... 22..2 Autoclave Film Formation ............................2.....3......5...........1 White Rust (Wet-Storage Stain)..5..............3............................... 22................... 23............ 22..........2.................................4 Sulfuric Acid-Containing Processes ...............5 Corrosion Protection.............................................. 22........................2....................1.................1 Principle of Protection ............ 22..1..........................5...............2......... 22................ 23.......................................................................1 Oxide Film Formation..3.......2....................................................4 Galvanic Corrosion....................3......................... 23... 22..........3...........2......1 Pitting ............... 22.....................................2..........5............................5 Zinc Alloys...3..3 Others .......................................... 23.............................. 22............................. 23..... 23....................2........................................5 Health and Safety ............................1 Anodizing.....1..........4 Zirconium Products.........................................................5................................................................4......... 22..............................2............. 22......... 23..3...5 Halide-Containing Processes ........................5...................... 22........................2 Zinc Electroplating..2................ References .....................5............................................2 Zinc Coatings.

................................................ 651 Reference .................... 723 Chapter 27 .................................. 24..................... 24.................................. 655 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Nonferrous Metals and Alloys..........................................1 Corrosion Resistance ....................................................................4 Zinc–Iron Alloy Coating .................................................................... 23. 651 25.................................5...........................5..................5 General Alloy Information ...... 637 639 640 641 643 645 646 648 649 649 649 Chapter 25 Lead and Lead Alloys .........................1 Zinc–5% Aluminum Hot-Dip Coatings................................................................ 24..................1 Corrosion Resistance ..........................................................................2 Zinc–55% Aluminum Hot-Dip Coatings...................... Chapter 24 Niobium (Columbian) and Niobium Alloys ........................5.5.............. 23............................................. 654 Chapter 26 Magnesium Alloys..................................................... 655 26............ 721 Index ..................... 24....................................................................................................3 Zinc–15% Aluminum Thermal Spray .................6 Cast Zinc...............................................................................................................23...................................................................................4 WC-1Zr Alloy ...... 657 Reference .......................1 Corrosion Resistance ....................................3 WC-103 Alloy ..............................2 Niobium–Titanium Alloys.......................................................................... 23....................................... 24................. 23............................

.

this means the formation of oxides or sulfides. Fortunately. Several years ago. bridges. Premature failure of bridges or structures due to corrosion can also result in human injury or even loss of life. These figures were confirmed by various technical organizations. by an increase in the temperature or aeration. by the presence of certain bacteria. It is the natural tendency of a material’s compositional elements to return to their most thermodynamically stable state. and ships. and conservation. or by other less prevalent factors. It has been further estimated that the cost of protection against atmospheric corrosion is approximately 50% of the total cost of all corrosion-protection methods.1 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion There are three primary reasons for concern about and the study of corrosion—safety. or other basic metallic compounds generally considered to be ores. Conversely. Under normal circumstances. atmospheric corrosion of various outdoor structures such as buildings. by the motion of the metal. automobiles. the National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly the National Bureau of Standards) estimated that the annual cost of corrosion in the United States was in the range of $9 billion to $90 billion. Failure of operating equipment can have the same disastrous results. corrosion of highways and bridges from deicing chemicals. economics. and innumerable other applications exposed to the atmospheric environment. Rapid corrosion may take place in water. corrosion is generally retarded by films (or protective layers) 1 . For most metallic materials. corrosion usually will not take place. atmospheric corrosion of steel fences. Included in this estimate was corrosion attributed to chemical processes. in which the rate of corrosion is increased by the acidity or velocity of the water. towers. Corrosion is the degradation of a material’s properties or mass over time due to environmental effects. the rate at which most of these processes progress is slow enough to provide useful building materials. including the National Association of Corrosion Engineers. iron and steel corrode in the presence of both oxygen and water. If either of these materials is absent. Only inert atmospheres and vacuums can be considered free of corrosion for most metallic materials.

brasses. temperature. and the predictability of corrosion begins to suffer rapidly. Since it is governed by reactions on an atomic level. repeated. Selective leaching In addition. there are other forms of corrosion that specific metals or alloys are subject to. The amount of corrosion is controlled by either water or oxygen. which are essential for the process to take place. and aluminum corrode so slowly under the condition in which they are placed that they are expected to survive for long periods of time without protection. 1. Intergranular corrosion 3. Prevention or control of corrosion can usually be achieved by use of a suitable material of construction. and stress. Corrosion is an electrochemical process. high alkalinity of the water also reduces the rate of corrosion on steel surfaces. stainless steels. Erosion corrosion 7.2 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals consisting of corrosion products or adsorbed oxygen. These corrosion processes follow the basic laws of thermodynamics. and by following in-plant procedures. or result in subsurface microscopic damage. add just basic environmental variables such as pH. Under controlled conditions it can be measured. . Complicate these forms of corrosion with further subdivisions. Uniform corrosion 2. However. Biological corrosion 9. corrosion processes can act on isolated regions. All structural metals corrode to some degree in natural environments. Stress corrosion cracking 8. Pitting 6. steel will not corrode in dry air and corrosion is negligible when the relative humidity of the air is below 30% at normal or reduced temperatures. use of proper design and installation techniques.1 Forms of Corrosion There are nine basic forms of corrosion that metallic materials may be subject to: 1. For example. uniform surface areas. zinc. or a combination of these. Galvanic corrosion 4. Crevice corrosion 5. and predicted. Prevention of corrosion by dehumidification is based on this. bronzes.

It is generally thought of as metal loss due to chemical attack or dissolution of the metallic component into metallic ions. The network formers are noncrystalline. Combination with oxygen to form metallic oxides. temperature. the rusting of iron.1 Passive Film on Iron Iron in iron oxides can assume a valence of two or three. It can also be formed more quickly by chemical treatment. uniform attack is one form most commonly confronting the user of metals and alloys. whereas the intermediates tend to be microcystalline at low temperatures. This is known as the oxide film theory. The former acts as a modifier and the latter is a network former. scale ultimately flakes off to return to nature. which is the simplest form of corrosion. nitric acid. will form this protective film. Uniform or general corrosion. and the aggressiveness of the chemical. The iron is protected from the corrosion environment by a thin oxide film l–4 mm in thickness with a pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi composition of Fe2 O3 =Fe3 O4 . In high-temperature situations. intermediates. The metals that fall into network-forming or intermediate classes tend to grow protective oxides that support anion or mixed anion/cation movement. forming a chemisorbed film. because . This division can be related to thin oxide films on metals. the tarnishing of silver. Iron is more difficult to passivate than nickel. while the Fe3O4 provides the basis for the formation of a higher oxidizing state. or modifiers. Such a film is actually a form of corrosion. but once formed it prevents further degradation of the metal. There are two theories regarding the formation of these films. However. The first theory states that the film formed is a metal oxide or other reaction compound.1. is an even rate of metal loss over the exposed surface. provided that the film remains intact. results in the loss of material in its useful engineering form. Metal oxides can be classified as network formers.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 3 1. The immunity of the film to attack is a function of the film composition. The Fe2 O3 layer is responsible for the passivity. For example. Examples of such films are the patina formed on copper. the fogging of nickel.1. A metal resists corrosion by forming a passive film on the surface. all chemisorbed films react over a period of time with the underlying metal to form metal oxides.1. This film is naturally formed when the metal is exposed to the air for a period of time.1 Uniform Corrosion Although other forms of attack must be considered in special circumstances. It does not provide an overall resistance to corrosion because it may be subject to chemical attack. The second theory states that oxygen is adsorbed on the surface. This is the same type of film formed by the pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi reaction of clean iron with oxygen or dry air. uniform metal loss is usually preceded by its combination with another element rather than its oxidation to a metallic ion. 1. if applied to austenitic stainless steel. or scale. and the high-temperature oxidation of metals. Oxide films are formed at room temperature.

. and this film is highly pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi susceptible to chemical dissolution. It is entirely NiO with a small amount of nonstoichiometry.2 mm.1. Passivation takes place by the rapid formation of surface-absorbed hydrated complexes of metals that are sufficiently stable on the alloy surface that further reaction with water enables the formation of a hydroxide phase that rapidly deprotonates to form an insoluble surface oxide film. The addition of molybdenum or tungsten will improve the corrosion resistance.4 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi with iron it is not possible to go directly to the passivation species Fe2 O3 . which is the major element in the alloy.1. When alloyed with chromium. 1.3 Passive Film on Austenitic Stainless Steel The passive film formed on austenitic stainless steel is duplex in nature. in reality. Corrosion will be in the form of pitting. The film thickness on nickel is between 0. is in itself very corrosion resistant and is found in greater abundance in the passive film than iron. consisting of an inner barrier oxide film and an outer deposit of hydroxide or salt film. Instead. Differences in the nature of the oxide film on iron and nickel are responsible for this phenomenom. a lower oxidation state of Fe3O4 is required. once formed.1. giving rise to Ni3C cation vacancies. During this time.2 Passive Film on Nickel The passive film on nickel can be formed quite readily in contrast to the formation of the passive film on iron. The Fe2 O3 layer will not form until the Fe3O4 phase has existed on the surface for a reasonable period of time. There are two theories as to what the passive film on nickel is. 1. producing a greater corrosion resistance to a variety of oxidizing media. a much-improved stable film results.1. 1. the coloration is a corrosion product that acts as a protective film against further corrosion. The three most commonly used austenite stabilizers—nickel.1. these alloys are subject to attack in environments containing chlorides or other halides. The length of time required to form the patina depends upon the atmosphere.1. the patina exhibits a dark color that gradually turns green. and nitrogen—all contribute to the passivity. manganese. especially if oxidizing agents are present. The passive oxide film on nickel. However. Fe3O4 layer continues to form.9 and 1. copper will form a coloration on the surface known as patina. a major alloying ingredient. or it consists of an inner layer of NiO and an outer layer of anhydrous Ni(OH)2. cannot be easily removed by either cathodic treatment or chemical dissolution. whereas the iron oxide film is between 1 and 4 mm. The passive film on nickel will not protect the nickel from corrosive attack in oxidizing atmospheres such as nitric acid. Chromium. When first formed.4 Passive Film on Copper When exposed to the atmosphere over long periods of time.

Addition of alloying elements to titanium affect the corrosion resistance because these elements affect the composition of the oxide film.8 Uniform Corrosion Rates When exposed to a corrosion medium. If formed at elevated temperatures or in the presence of water or water vapor. forming stable compounds similar to those found in nature. 1. titanium is capable of healing ruptures in this film almost instantly in any environment where a trace of moisture or oxygen is present.7 Passive Film on Tantalum When exposed to oxidizing or slightly anodic conditions. are those which penetrate or dissolve the film. In both cases. it will be thicker. protective. oxide film is stable.6 Passive Film on Titanium Titanium forms a stable. This passivating oxide has the broadest range of stability with regard to chemical attack or thermal breakdown compared to other metallic films. In a marine atmosphere. Because of its strong affinity for oxygen.1.1. metals tend to enter into a chemical union with the elements of the corrosion medium. 1. With increasing alloy content and on heat-treatable alloys.5 Passive Film on Aluminum Aluminum forms a thin. compact.1. the oxide film becomes more nonhomogeneous. and adherent oxide film on the surface that limits further corrosion. Breakdown of the film at weak points leads to localized corrosion. The oxide film is not homogeneous and contains weak points. This film forms instantly when a fresh surface is exposed to air or moisture. the most notable of which is hydrofluoric acid. The oxide film of titanium is very thin and is attacked by only a few substances. 1. With a few exceptions.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 5 because the coloration is given by copper hydroxide compounds.1.1. the compound formed is referred to as the corrosion product .1. This oxide film is stable in the pH range of 4–9. strongly adherent oxide film. tens or hundreds of years may be required to form the patina. tantalum forms a thin impervious layer of tantalum oxide. in industrial atmospheres. 1.1. Exceptions are concentrated nitric acid (pH 1) and concentrated ammonium hydroxide (pH 13). When metal loss occurs in this manner. Chemicals or conditions that attack tantalum. such as hydrofluoric acid. When exposed in a clean rural atmosphere. it is copper/hydroxide/sulfate. the compound is a mixture of copper/hydroxide/chloride.1. These compounds will form in approximately 7 years. the film will dissolve at lower or higher pH ranges. When formed in air at atmospheric temperatures it is approximately 5 mm thick.

sometimes millimeters per year is used.163 0.198 0.74 8.1 in. This type of attack is termed uniform corrosion.550 5070 3160 4970 4490 Multiply ipy by (696!density) to obtain mdd.72 8.92 8. 0. Conversion factors are given in Table 1.00144/density) to obtain ipy. Conversion of ipy to mdd or vice versa requires knowledge of the metal density.202 0.35 1. corrosion rates for materials are often expressed in terms of metal thickness loss per unit time. general corrosion rates of less than 3 mpy are considered acceptable.4 8.161 0.47 8.205 0. . The rate of uniform attack is reported in various units.1.95 7. low rates of corrosion are often tolerated and catastrophic failures are rare if planned inspection and monitoring is implemented.75 8. One common expression is mils per year (mpy).317 0. Corrosion tables are developed to indicate the interaction between a chemical and a metal. It is one of the most easily measured and predictable forms of corrosion. Multiply mdd by (0.14 6.e.87 7.137 0. resulting in general corrosion.!1000Z100 mpy). One such is Reference [1].164 0.6 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals and the surface is referred to as having been corroded.161 0.170 0.171 0.45 Density!10L3 0..50 16.162 0.167 0. They will react with and penetrate the film on stainless steel.223 696!Density 1890 6100 5880 6020 5850 6210 6210 5480 4870 7900 1210 6180 6140 7300 11.54 7. In the United States.89 8. To convert from ipy to mpy.00144 Metal Aluminum Brass (red) Brass (yellow) Cadmium Columbium Copper Copper–nickel (70–30) Iron Duriron Lead (chemical) Magnesium Nickel Monel Silver Tantalum Tin Titanium Zinc Zirconium Density (g/cc) 2. Many references exist that report average or typical rates of corrosion for various metals in common media. For most chemical process equipment and structures.84 10.127 0.1 Conversion Factors from ipy to mdd 0.6 7. Rates between 3 and 20 mpy are routinely considered useful engineering materials for the TABLE 1.65 8. it is generally reported in inches penetration per year (ipy) and milligrams per square decimeter per day (mdd).0 11.0868 0.826 0. Because corrosion is so uniform.529 0. particularly chlorides. Because of its predictability.183 0. An example of such an attack is that of halogens. multiply the ipy value by 1000 (i.29 4.

This results in the loss of strength and ductility. In high-temperature situations. days. even at low concentrations. materials exhibiting high general corrosion rates between 20 and 50 mpy might be considered economically justifiable.2 T. Little or no attack is observed on the main body of the grain. and density of the metal are used to calculate the corrosion rate of the metal using the formula: mpy Z where WL. Contamination of product. DAT . time. in. as in aluminum alloys or nickel–chromium alloys 22:273WL . surface area exposed.1. The factors that contribute to the increased reactivity of the grain boundary area include: 1. The attack is often rapid. area. The corrosion rates calculated from the formula or taken from the tables will assist in determining how much corrosion allowance should be included in the design based on the expected lifetime of the equipment. 1. g/cm3 A. penetrating deeply into the metal and causing failure. g D. weight loss. The exposure time. can be more costly than replacement of the corroded component. To determine the corrosion rate. Materials that exhibit rates of general corrosion beyond this are usually unacceptable. It is a preferential attack on the grain boundary phases or the zones immediately adjacent to them.2 Intergranular Corrosion Intergranular corrosion is a localized form of corrosion. density. weight loss. uniform loss is more commonly preceded by its combination with another element rather than its oxidation to a metallic ion. In severe environments. It should be remembered that not only does the metal loss need to be considered. a prepared specimen is exposed to the test environment for a period of time and then removed to determine how much metal has been lost. Combination with oxygen to form metallic oxide or scale results in the loss of the material in its useful engineering form as it ultimately flakes off to return to nature. Uniform corrosion is generally thought of in terms of metal loss due to chemical attack or dissolution of the metallic component into metallic ions. but where the metal is going must also be considered. Segregation of specific elements or compounds at the grain boundary.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 7 given environment.

such as welding. When two different metallic materials are electrically connected and placed in a conductive solution (electrolyte). This potential difference will provide a stronger driving force for the dissolution of the less noble (more electrically negative) material. and other heat treatments. 1. often causing professionals the most headaches. as in brass 3. Table 1.g. or by specifying solution heat treatment followed by a rapid quench that will keep carbides in solution. Enrichment of one of the alloying elements at the grain boundary. as in stainless steel In the case of austenitic stainless steels. lowcarbon-content alloys are recommended to delay precipitation of carbides.. while zinc and magnesium are at the lower potential (less noble or anodic) end. or titanium is added to stabilize the alloy against precipitation of chromium or molybdenum carbides. Nickel-based alloys can also be subjected to carbide precipitation and precipitation of intermetallic phases when exposed to temperatures lower than their annealing temperatures. niobium. The most practical approach is to use either a low carbon content or stabilized austenitic stainless steel.3 Galvanic Corrosion This form of corrosion is sometimes referred to as dissimilar metal corrosion. an electric potential exists. The coupling of the carbon steel to the copper causes the carbon steel to corrode. The galvanic series of metals provides details of how galvanic current will flow between two metals and which metal will corrode when they are in contact or near each other and an electrolyte is present (e. Those elements combine with carbon instead of the chromium or molybdenum. Notice in Table 1. and is found in unusual places. such as alloy 625. the attack is the result of carbide precipitation during welding operations. . As with austenitic stainless steels. stress relief. All of these factors contributing to intergranular corrosion originate in the thermal processing of materials. by using alloys that have been stabilized with columbium (niobium) or titanium.03% carbon. In some alloys. Depletion of the corrosion-resisting constituent at the grain boundary.1. It will also reduce the tendency for the more noble metal to dissolve. It is this principle that forms the scientific basis for using such materials as zinc to sacrificially protect the stainless steel drive shaft on a pleasure boat. tantalum. water).8 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 2.2 that the precious metals gold and platinum are at the higher potential (more noble or cathodic) end of the series (protected end). Galvanic corrosion is often experienced in older homes where modern copper piping is connected to the older existing carbon steel lines. Carbide precipitation can be prevented by using alloys containing less than 0.2 lists the galvanic series.

This film shifts the measured potential in the noble direction. The rate of corrosion is also affected by the relative areas between the anode and cathode. the material is said to be passive. such as in seawater or in reducing . The particular way in which a metal will react can be predicted from the relative positions of the materials in the galvanic series.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion TABLE 1. two materials should be selected that are relatively close in the galvanic series. When it is necessary to use dissimilar metals. Corrosion of the anode can be 100–1000 times greater than if the two areas were equal. This is the result of the tendency of some metals and alloys to form surface films. being indicated as either active or passive. the combination of a large cathodic area and a small anodic area is undesirable. In most material environments.2 Galvanic Series of Metals and Alloys Corroded end (anodic) Magnesium Magnesium alloys Zinc Galvanized steel Aluminum 6053 Aluminum 3003 Aluminum 2024 Aluminum Alclad Cadmium Mild steel Wrought iron Cast iron Ni-resist 13% Chromium stainless steel (active) 50/50 Lead tin solder Ferretic stainless steel 400 series 18-8 Stainless steel type 304 (active) 18-8-3 Stainless steel type 316 (active) Lead Tin Muntz metal Naval bronze Nickel (active) Inconel (active) Hastelloy C (active) Yellow brass Admiralty brass Aluminum bronze Red brass Copper Silicon bronze 70/30 Cupro-nickel Nickel (passive) Iconel (passive) Monel 9 18-8 Stainless steel type 304 (passive) 18-8-3 Stainless steel type 316 (passive) Silver Graphite Gold Platinum Protected end (cathodic) You will note that several materials are shown in two places in the galvanic series. When chloride concentrations are high. In this state. especially in oxidizing environments. Ideally. The passivity of stainless steel is the result of the presence of a corrosionresistant oxide film on the surface. the anode area should be larger than the cathode area. The further apart the metals are in the galvanic series. the greater the rate of corrosion. it will remain in the passive state and tend to be cathodic to ordinary iron or steel. Because the flow of current is from the anode to the cathode.

rubber. while fully penetrated butt-welded joints are preferred to threaded joints. but not exceeding 3. gaskets.4 Crevice Corrosion Crevice corrosion is a localized type of corrosion occurring within or adjacent to narrow gaps or openings formed by metal-to-metal-to-nonmetal contact. associated deposits on the metal surface. and living organisms have been reported to cause crevice corrosion. glass. After the attack begins within the crevice. 1. its progress is very rapid. It results from local differences in oxygen concentrations. concrete. Crevice corrosion may take place on any metal and in any corrosive environment. such as in crevices and beneath contamination of partially fouled surfaces. metals like aluminum and stainless steels that depend on their surface oxide film for corrosion resistance are particularly prone to crevice corrosion. Strained portions of metals tend to be anodic and unstrained portions tend to be cathodic. plastic washers can be used to separate the two metals. when bolting flanges of dissimilar metals together. such as moisture content and resistivity. The material responsible for forming the crevice need not be metallic. However. are cathodic to the base metal or to some metallic components in their contact. or crevices under a bolt or around rivet heads where small amounts of liquid can collect and become stagnant. It is frequently more intense in chloride environments. . Differences in soil concentrations. or lead sulfate on lead. The gap defining a crevice is usually large enough for the entrapment of a liquid but too small to permit flow of the liquid. especially in environments such as seawater that contain chloride ions.10 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals solutions. Where there is a difference in concentrations of oxygen in the water or in moist soils in contact with metal at different areas. such as mill scale (Fe2O3) or iron sulfide on steel. cathodes will develop at relatively high oxygen concentrations. This occurs when there is no free access to oxygen. wax. Nonabsorbant gasketting material should be used at flanged joints. The width is on the order of a few thousandths of an inch.18 mm. Oxygen starvation also causes a change to the active state. When joining two dissimilar metals together. Conductive films. For example.1. plastic. Wood. asbestos. can be responsible for creating anodic and cathodic areas. Sometimes nonmetallic conductors may act as cathodes in galvanic couples. galvanic corrosion can be prevented by insulating the two materials from each other. Prevention can be accomplished by proper design and operating procedures. a change to the active state will usually take place. and anodes will develop at points of low concentrations. lap joints. Both carbon brick in vessels made of common structural metals and impervious graphite in heat-exchanger applications are examples.

. the situation is further aggravated. the dissolved oxygen in the small volume of stagnated solution inside the crevice is consumed. In a neutral chloride solution. but they are less mobile than chloride ions. The metal chloride formed hydrolyzes to produce metal hydroxide and hydrochloric acid: MCl C H2 O/ MOH C HCl The nascent hydrochloric acid destroys the passive film and accelerates the rate of dissolution of the metal inside the crevice. When chloride ions are present. Table 1. where plenty of oxygen is available for reduction. the anodic dissolution is supported by the cathodic reduction of oxygen: anodic cathodic M/ MnC C neK O2 C 2H2 O C 4eK/ 4OHK As the reactions proceed. The critical crevice corrosion temperature of an alloy is the temperature at which crevice corrosion is first observed when immersed in a ferric chloride solution. However. The accumulated cations inside the crevice attract the negatively charged chloride anions from the bulk solution.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion TABLE 1.3 Critical Crevice Corrosion Temperatures in 10% Ferric Chloride Solution Alloy Type 316 Alloy 825 Type 317 Alloy 904L Alloy 220S E-Brite Alloy G Alloy 625 AL-6XN Alloy 276 Temperature (8F/8C) 27/K3 27/K3 36/2 59/15 68/20 70/21 86/30 100/38 100/38 130/55 11 If lap joints are used. this does not prevent the dissolution reaction inside the crevice because the electrons reach outside the crevice through the metal. The cathodic reduction remains restricted to the areas outside the crevice that remain cathodically protected. Hydroxide anions also migrate. A concentration cell (differential aeration) is set up between the crevice area and the area outside the crevice. In a corrosive environment. the areas inside the crevice and outside the crevice undergo corrosion in the same manner. the laps should be filled with fillet welding or a suitable caulking compound designed to prevent crevice corrosion.3 lists the critical crevice corrosion temperature of several alloys in 10% ferric chloride solution.

For example. the pit opening remains covered with the corrosion product. molybdenum. it appears as a deep. Pits may also .5 Pitting Corrosion Pitting corrosion is in itself a corrosion mechanism. the crevices caused by such joints should be closed by either welding or caulking. Vessels and tanks should be designed to provide complete drainage. Most often. but it is also a form of corrosion often associated with other types of corrosion mechanisms. whereas nickel alloys are more resistant than stainless steels. type 316 stainless steel containing 2–3% molybdenum is fairly resistant.1. Porous gaskets should be avoided. This. gives little evidence as to the extent of the damage. tiny hole in an otherwise unaffected surface. 6. The resistance of stainless steels to crevice corrosion can be improved by increasing the chromium. 4. Use an impervious gasket material. thereby preventing the buildup of solid deposits on the bottom. but not to the extent to which the depth increases. It is characterized by a highly localized loss of metal. The initiation of a pit is associated with the breakdown of the protective film on the metal surface. Reduction of crevice corrosion can be accomplished. The depth of the pit eventually leads to a thorough perforation or a massive undercut in the thickness of the metal part. Welded butt joints are preferable to bolted or riveted joints. Regular inspections and removal of deposits should be scheduled. 2. If lap joints are used. nickel. wet packing materials should be removed. Proper design.12 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Several steps can be taken to prevent and/or control crevice corrosion: 1. decreasing the chloride content. making it unusable even though a relatively small percentage of the total metal has been lost due to rusting. In the extreme case. During long shutdown periods. by reducing the temperature. 3. The gaps along the periphery of tanks mounted on a masonry platform should be closed with tar or bitumen to avoid seepage of rainwater. The width of the pit may increase with time. when possible. making it difficult to detect during inspection. or decreasing the acidity. The use of alloys resistant to crevice corrosion should be considered. along with a negligible loss in weight or absence of apparent reduction in the overall wall thickness. will control crevice corrosion. and nitrogen content. 5. Pitting may result in the perforation of a water pipe. avoiding crevices. Pitting can also cause structural failure from localized weakening effects even though there is considerable sound material remaining. 1.

and corrosion fatigue. as determined by weight loss of the specimen. from the metallic anode to a nearby cathode. or deposits of various kinds. The attack is spread over small discrete areas. Pitting may also develop on bare clean metal surfaces because of irregularities in the physical or chemical structure of the metal.1 shows how a pit forms when a break in mill scale occurs. If an appreciable attack is confined to a small area of metal acting as an anode.1 Formation of pit from break in mill scale. by providing sites of stress concentration. or any other portion of the metal surface that is cathodic to the more active metal areas. the metal loss is concentrated and may be serious. fatigue failure. Pitting corrosion is characterized by the following features: 1.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 13 assist in brittle failure. These couples cause a difference of potential that results in an electric current flowing through the water or across moist steel. If the area of attack is relatively large. However. but breaks exist in the continuity of the protective material. the pits are called shallow. environment-assisted cracking like stress corrosion cracking (SCC). the developed pits are described as deep. Figure 1. Localized dissimilar soil conditions at the surface of steel can also create conditions that promote pitting. A pitting factor of 1 represents uniform corrosion. Pits are sometimes isolated and sometimes close together. giving the area of attack a rough appearance. the damage is spread out and is usually negligible. The ratio of deepest metal penetration to average metal penetration. is known as the pitting factor. For example. mill scale. The cathode may be brass or copper. it can be expected when large areas of the surface are generally covered by mill scale. Electrolyte (water) Fe2+ (rust) Current flow Cathode (broken mill scale) Anode steel FIGURE 1. applied coatings. when the anodic area is relatively large compared with the cathodic area. When the anode area is relatively small. . The main factor that causes and accelerates pitting is electrical contact between dissimilar metals. or between what are termed concentration cells (areas of the same metal where oxygen or conductive salt concentrations in water differ).

4 Pitting Resistance Equivalent Numbers Alloy 654 31 25-6Mo Al-6XN 20Mo-6 317LN 904L 20Mo-4 317 PREN 63.51 36. Cupric. Once initiated. 3. As a general rule. Pits usually initiate on the upper surface of the horizontally placed parts and grow in the direction of gravity. the better the resistance. Conditions prevailing inside the pit make it self-propagating without any external stimulus. Most pitting is associated with halide ions (chlorides. bromides).60 19.3 (%Mo)C30(%N). These temperatures are usually determined in ferric chloride (10% FeCl3$6H2O) and an acidic mixture of chlorides and sulfates.45 46. and mercuric halides are extremely aggressive because their cations are cathodically reduced and sustain the attack.3 18.4 lists the PRENs for various austenitic stainless steels. critical crevice temperature (CCT).09 54.45 47. 7.14 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 2.08 27.0 19. Aluminum and carbon steels pit in alkaline chloride solutions.20 33. and nitrogen contents: PRENZ%CrC3.0 18. and pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN). Carbon steels are more resistant to pitting than stainless steels. the higher the PREN.96 42. and hypochlorites are particularly aggressive. The PREN is determined by the chromium.60 36. molybdenum. Performance in the area of pitting and crevice corrosion is often measured using critical pitting temperature (CPT). 6. Stagnant solution conditions lead to pitting. 5. Pitting usually requires an extended initiation period before visible pits appear. 4.81 39. ferric. Table 1. Most failure of stainless steels occurs in neutralto-acid chloride solutions.2 Alloy 316LN 316 20Cb3 348 347 331 304N 304 PREN 31. Stainless steels and aluminum and its alloys are particularly susceptable to pitting. the pit grows at an ever-increasing rate.90 27. The CPT of an alloy is the temperature of a solution at which pitting is first observed.0 . TABLE 1.26 25.

Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 15 1. corrosion rates increase with increased velocity. or waves. Turbulence is caused when the liquid flows from a larger area to a smalldiameter pipe. such as on stainless steel. temperature. When two metal surfaces are in contact and experience a very slight relative motion that results in damage to one or both surfaces. turbulence. The acceleration of attack is due to the distribution or removal of the protective surface film by mechanical forces exposing fresh metal surfaces that are anodic to the uneroded neighboring film. This corrosion usually takes the form of a pitting attack. all of which often show directionality. The attack takes the form of grooves. and prevailing cavitation conditions. presence of suspended solids. a special form of erosion corrosion. this can lead to erosion corrosion when a corrodent is present.1. An additional subset of erosion corrosion is the case of cavitation that is prevalent in pump impellers. can also cause turbulence. the attack is called “erosion corrosion. i. Erosion corrosion is affected by velocity. The attack appears as horseshoe-shaped pits with a deep undercut and the end pointing in the direction of flow. dense adherent and continuous film. At times. fretting corrosion. as in the case of fretting or corrosive wear. occurs at bends. In most metals and alloys. impingement. Impingement. direct contact of the corrodent on the metal surface. . Impingement is also encountered on the surface of impellers and turbines in areas in front of inlet pipes in tanks and in many other situations. scooped-out rounded areas. This form of attack is caused by the formation and collapse of tiny vapor bubbles near a metallic surface in the presence of a corrodent. or any obstruction to the flow inside a pipe by a foreign body. such as a carried-in pebble.. gullies. Internal deposits in the pipes. The mechanical deterioration may be aggravated by the presence of a corrodent. elbows and tees in a piping system and causes intense attack. takes place. The movement causes mechanical damage to the protective film. is more resistant than a soft brittle film. in this case by the high pressures caused by the collapse of the bubbles. as in the inlet ends of tubing in heat exchangers.e. attack may be an assembly of pits. as that on lead. but piping systems and heat exchangers are the most commonly affected. The nature of the protective film depends largely on the corrosive itself. Ultimate perforation due to thinning or progression of pits. and rupture due to failure of the thinned wall to resist the internal fluid pressure are common. horseshoe-shaped depressions. but a marked increase is experienced only when a critical velocity is reached. All equipment exposed to flowing fluid is subject to erosion corrosion.” Erosion corrosion is usually caused by an aqueous or gaseous corrodent flowing over the metal surface or impinging on it.6 Erosion Corrosion The term “erosion” applies to deterioration due to mechanical force. A hard. The protective film is again damaged. When the factors contributing to erosion accelerate the rate of corrosion of a metal.

Select a harder material 4. The minimum stress below which SCC will occur is called the threshold stress. This type of attack takes place in certain media. All metals are potentially subject to SCC. The rate of propagation can vary greatly and is affected by stress levels. aluminum. as are the metals and alloys that are inherently less corrosion resistant. temperature. As a rule. gives excellent performance under severe corrosion conditions. Properly design the piping system or the condensers 1. Soft and low-strength metals such as copper. Depending on the alloy system and corrodent combination. the cracking can be intergranular or transgranular.5% silicon. Steam carrying water condensate droplets provides an aggressive medium for corrosion of steel and cast iron piping. Stainless steels and chromium steels are resistant as a result of their tenacious surface films. The addition of nickel. Usually the metal or alloy is virtually free of corrosion over most of its surface. yet fine cracks penetrate through the surface at the points of stress.16 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Attack is further aggravated at higher temperatures and with solutions containing solids in suspension. such as carbon steels. an alternate application of stress and corrosive environment will not produce SCC. Duriron. and lead are especially susceptible to erosion corrosion. containing 14. but this may be as low as 10% of the yield stress in some systems. Corrosion alone in the absence of stress does not cause SCC. The importance of a conjoint action of corrosion and stress is reflected in the definition. The impingement of water droplets at the return bends destroys the protective oxide film and accelerates the attack on the substrate. chromium. and molybdenum further improves their performance. The stress level at which the failure occurs is well below the stress required for a mechanical failure in the absence of corrosion. Cast irons usually perform better than steel. and concentration of the corrodent. Reduce or eliminate turbulence 3.7 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) SCC is defined as the delayed failure of alloys by cracking when exposed to certain environments in the presence of static tensile stress. Stainless steels of all grades. in general. Reduce velocity 2. SCC occurs at points of stress. Alloy cast irons containing nickel and chromium exhibit better performance.1. Prevention and/or reduction of erosion corrosion can be accomplished by one or more means: 1. are resistant to erosion corrosion. solid solution alloys provide better resistance than alloys hardened by heat treatment because the latter are heterogeneous in nature. The conditions necessary for stress corrosion are: .

which are nickel-free. SCC will not occur if the part is in compression. 316L. straightening. Fatigue is triggered by a tensile stress that must approach the yield stress of the metal. Fortunately. and the high-nickel alloys are not subject to SCC. The most common grades of stainless steel (304. Sensitive metal 4. There is usually a threshold temperature below which SCC will not take place and a maximum or minimum pH value before cracking will start. Care should be taken so as to not induce a stress as the result of installation. caustic embrittlement cracking of steel in caustic solutions. or accidental denting of the component. Tensile stress 3. 347. it is difficult to detect until extensive corrosion has developed. such as type 304 stainless steel in a boiling magnesium chloride solution. The stresses may be induced by faulty installation or they may be residual stress from welding. 303. Suitable environment 2. because of the nature of the cracking. However. bending. Tensile stresses can lead to other corrosion processes. Ferritic stainless steels. cracking of cold-formed brass in ammonia environments. particularly nickel. such as the simple mechanical fatigue process. and 301) have nickel contents in the range of 7–10% and are the most susceptible to SCC. but it is recognized as a factor when the environment is believed to have accelerated the normal fatigue process. determines the sensitivity of the metal to SCC. Normally. It is important that any stresses that may have been induced during the fabrication be removed by an appropriate stress-relief operation. 316.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 17 1. An alloy with a nickel content greater than 30% is immune to SCC. 304L.5 provides partial listing of alloy systems and the environments that will cause SCC. which can lead to unexpected failure. will often initiate SCC. Corrosion fatigue is difficult to differentiate from simple mechanical fatigue. which act as stress concentration sites. In severe combinations. The design . It is not necessary to have a high concentration of corrodent to cause SCC. Table 1. whereas with low-alloy austenitic stainless steels a chloride-containing environment is necessary. Pits. extensive cracking can be generated in a matter of hours. Temperature and pH are also factors. in most industrial applications the progress of SCC is much slower. and cracking on monel in hydrofluorosilicic acid. 321. The alloy content of stainless steel. A solution containing only a few parts per million of the critical ion is all that is necessary. Examples of SCC include the cracking of austenitic stainless steels in the presence of chlorides. Appropriate temperature and pH values An ammonia environment can induce SCC in copper-containing alloys. Such systems can also have the effect of lowering the endurance limit such that fatigue will occur at a stress level below which it would normally be expected.

This is also referred to as microbial corrosion. Produce a corrosive environment 2. This activity can 1. anhydrous liquid ammonia. neutral halides. NH4Cl. The term microorganism covers a wide variety of life forms. NH4NO3. Alter the environmental composition Because this form of corrosion gives the appearance of pitting. and protozoa. Create electrolytic cells on the metal surface 3. carbonate/bicarbonate. molten salts. hydrofluoric acid. blue-green cyanobacteria. seawater. lichens. and sodium nitrate solutions.5 Alloy–Environment Combinations Causing Stress Corrosion Cracking Alloy Aluminum alloys Carbon steels Environment Air with water. acid fluoride solutions Hot acid chloride solutions. . potable waters. Alter the resistance of surface films 4. NaCl–H2O2 solutions Caustic NaOH solutions. algae. NaCl–H2O2 solutions. N2O4. fungi. Have an influence on the rate of anodic or cathodic reaction 5. it is first necessary to diagnose the presence of bacteria. acidified H2S solutions.1. This metabolic activity can directly or indirectly cause deterioration of a metal by the corrosion process. pressurized hot water containing 2 ppm dissolved oxygen H2S. seawater. amines. hot salts. high-temperature chloride solutions. nitrites Caustic alkaline solutions.18 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 1. methanol/halide Copper alloys Nickel alloys Stainless steels austenitic Austenitic (sensitized) Ferritic Martensitic Titanium alloys should also avoid stagnant areas that could lead to pitting and the initiation of stress concentration sites. IK. HCN solutions. seawater NaCl solutions. All microorganisms may be involved in the biodeterioration of metals.8 Biological Corrosion Corrosive conditions can be developed by living microorganisms as a result of their influence on anodic and cathodic reactions. hypochlorite solutions Caustic NaOH solutions Red fuming nitric acid. calcium. ammonium. including bacteria. high-purity steam. CO/CO2 solutions Ammonical solutions. concentrated caustic solutions. 1. NaOH–H2S solutions. sulfurous acid. BrK. FK Polythionic acids.

Exceptions to this rule are a few manmade materials such as highly polymerized and halogenated compounds. (Vitamin B12. They are classified as to their source of metabolic energy as follows: Energy Source Light Chemical reactors Inorganic hydrogen donators Organic hydrogen donators Carbon dioxide (cell source) Organic molecules (cell source) Classification Phototrophs Chemotrophs Lithotrophs Organotrophs Autotrophs Heterotrophs These six terms may be combined to easily describe the nutritional requirements of a bacterium. For example. trace elements are needed. Phosphorus is taken up as inorganic phosphate or as organically bound phosphoroxylated compounds. Phosphorus.g. such as phosphorus-containing sugars and lipids. Cobalt aids in the transfer of methyl groups from/to organic or inorganic molecules. mixed cultures prevail. as nutrients for SRB.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 19 Pure cultures never occur under natural conditions. is required for the electron transport system. phosphorus. bacteria are able to fix nitrogen from atmospheric nitrogen. Magnesium acts in . Of the mixed cultures. nitrogen. nucleotides). rather. Bacteria are the smallest living organisms on this planet. is involved in the methylation of heavy metals such as mercury. the accompanying organisms remove oxygen and produce simple carbon compounds. they are called microtrophs (chemolithoorganotrophs). cobalamin. if energy is derived from inorganic hydrogen donators and biomass is derived from organic molecules. For example.) Iron. amino acids. Some can only live with and others without oxygen. The other organisms support the active ones by adjusting the environmental conditions to support their growth. With the help of an enzyme called nitrogenase. in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). only a few actually become actively involved in the process of corrosion.. An important feature of microbial life is the ability to degrade any naturally occurring compound. such as acetic acid and/or lactic acid. Some can adapt to changing conditions and live either aerobically or anaerobically. is the main energy-storing compound. in the case of metal corrosion caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). There is a wide diversity with regard to their metabolisms. as Fe2C or Fe3C. where it acts as an oxidizable/reducible central atom in cytochromes of nonheme iron-sulfur proteins. Nitrogen compounds may be inorganic ammonium nitrate as well as organically bound nitrogen (e. and trace elements are needed by microorganisms. For many of the metabolic purposes. In addition to energy and carbon sources. producing ammonia that is incorporated into cell constituents.

Microbial life is possible within the range of K5 to 1108C (21 to 2308F). is responsible for the reduction of oxygen to water. Pw where Vs is the vapor pressure of the solution and Pw is the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature. Under standard conditions.90. Temperature Range Microorganism Psychrophiles Pschotrophes Mesophiles Moderate thermophiles Thermophiles Extreme thermophiles 8C K5 to 20 5 to 30 20 to 45 40 to 55 55 to 85 up to 110 8F 21 to 68 41 to 86 68 to 113 104 to 131 131 to 185 up to 230 . hygroscopic. Only gravitational and pellicular water are biologically available and can be used by microorganisms. neutrophiles. The latter are able to use bound oxygen (sulfate. hydrogen is assumed to have a redox potential of K42 mV and oxygen has a redox potential of 820 mV. Microorganisms are classified as to their ability to grow under acidic. Temperature is another important factor affecting microbial growth. Hydrogen ion concentration is another important factor affecting growth. Those organisms living with the amount of oxygen contained in the air are called aerobes. at the terminal end of the electron transport system. pellicular. neutral. Microorganisms are also classified as to the temperature range in which they thrive. carbon dioxide) or to ferment organic compounds. water is an essential requirement for microbial life and growth. as in the following table. A solid material is surrounded by three types of water. and gravitational. Requirements differ as to the amount of water needed. or alkaline conditions. Available oxygen is another factor that influences microbial growth. Microbial growth is possible under aerated as well as under totally oxygenfree conditions. Microbial growth is also affected by redox potential. being given such titles as acidophiles. Most bacteria require an aw value in excess of 0. or alkalophiles. whereas those that perform their metabolism without any trace of free oxygen are called anaerobes. Copper is an essential part of a cytachrome that. The biologically available water is usually measured as the water activity: aw Z Vs . Because life cannot exist without water. Metabolism can take place within that range.20 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals a similar manner in the chlorophyll molecule. Most microorganisms thrive in the neutral pH of 6–8.

Bacteria may produce inorganic acids. MIC has been reported in the following industrial applications: Industry Chemical processing Location of MIC Pipelines.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 21 Most of the organisms live in the mesophilic range of 20–458C (69–1108F). carbon and stainless steel piping and tanks Water-saturated clay type soils of near-neutral pH with decaying organic matter and a source of sulfate reducing bacteria Increased wear from breakdown of machinery oils and emulsions Mothballed and flooded systems. all of which may be corrosive to metallic materials. flanged joints. which corresponds to the usual temperature range of the earth. Organic coatings may be attacked by various microorganisms. oiland gas-handling systems. and aluminum–bronze cooling water pipes. leading to the corrosion of the underlying metal. 1. Destruction of protective layers. By acting as a source of hydrogen and/or through the production of hydrogen sulfide. tanks. 3.1. Hydrogen embrittlement. concrete and concrete-reinforced structures Culvert piping Aluminum integral wiring.8. bacteria-produced sulfides Heat exchangers and piping. sulfides. . Production of metabolites. and ammonia. 2. including fuel storage tanks Nuclear power generating Underground pipeline Metalworking Onshore and offshore oil and gas plants Water treatment sewage handling and treatment Highway maintenance Aviation MIC of metallic materials is not a new form of corrosion. stainless steel. microorganisms may influence hydrogen embrittlement of metals.1 Corrosion of Specific Materials Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) may occur for metallic materials in many industrial applications. after hydro-testing with natural river or well water Copper–nickel. The methods by which microorganisms increase the rate of corrosion of metals and/or their susceptibility to localized corrosion in an aqueous environment are: 1. organic acids. welded areas. particularly in environments soured by sulfate reducing. stainless steel tanks. brass.

Production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria 3. enamel. An example of this type is the evolution of cathodic hydrogen from microbially produced hydrogen sulfide. in particular.22 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 4. A concentration cell may be formed when a biofilm or bacterial growth develops heterogenerously on the metal surface. MIC can result from: 1. plastic. oxygen centration cells. Coating a buried structure with tar. it is necessary to identify the type of bacteria involved in corrosion. Production of ammonia There are many approaches that may be used to prevent or minimize MIC. Certain bacteria may convert nitrite corrosion inhibitors used to protect aluminum and aluminum alloys to nitrate and ammonia. Use of organic coatings 4. Some bacteria may tend to trap heavy metals such as copper and cadmium within their extracelluar polymeric substance. Aeration of water in a closed recirculating system reduces the activity of anerobic bacteria. or the like is often an effective means to . Production of nitric acids 5. Physical methods Before any remedial action can be taken. Microbiological methods 7. These lead to localized corrosion. Stimulation of electrochemical reactors. Modification of corrosion inhibitors. Also. the bacteriocides fail to reach the areas underneath deposits where the bacteria thrive. 5. Environment or process parameter modification 3. 6. causing the formation of ionic concentration cells. Among the choices are: 1. Cathodic protection 5. though they are not effective in all cases. the concentration of sulfuric acid may be as high as 10–12% 2. Chlorination and treatment with biocides help control populations of some bacteria. Use of biocides 6. Material change or modification 2. Formation of concentration cells at the metal surface and. Production of sulfuric acid by bacteria of the genus thiobacillus through the oxidation of various inorganic sulfur compounds. Production or organic acids 4.

1. are seriously reduced. A quick-motion effect can be produced that will allow materials to be tested for their compatibility for a specific application. 1. In most affected soils. The situation may be modified under conditions that will be optimal for the microorganisms. and particularly its ductility. in addition to the preventative methods. called “plug type. including copper compounds. is that of a simulation of biogenic attack. Plug-type attack is favored in neutral or alkaline water. it is necessary that a thorough knowledge of all of the processes and participating microorganisms be known. resulting in a reduced time span for the corrosion to become detectable. or dezincification. The nature of the environment seems to have a greater effect in determining the type of attack.9 Selective Leaching When one element of a solid alloy is removed by corrosion. The most common example is the removal of zinc from brass alloys that contain more than 15% zinc. The application of antifouling paints is probably the most effective and most widely used means of preventing biofouling in seawater. In areas where macrobiofouling may occur. Dezincification of brasses takes place in either localized areas on the metal surface. A technique that has gained importance. Inhibitors may be used in stagnating water and cutting-oil fluids.” or uniformly over the surface. In closed systems. steel pipes may be replaced by plastic pipes to avoid microbiological corrosion. Cathodic protection in combination with coatings can be used to prevent or arrest microbiological corrosion. However. Complete drainage and drying are advocated. called “layer type. high in salt content and above . fouling can be mitigated by chlorination and periodic injection of suitable biocides. The corroded part often retains its original shape and may appear undamaged except for surface tarnish.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 23 preclude the bacteria from the metal surface. Copper compounds are often used. dealloying. Uniform attack takes place in slightly acidic water. To conduct the simulation properly. these options can reduce or prevent fouling. When the zinc corrodes preferentially. Periodic cleaning of pipelines is also essential. During storage or after hydrotesting. water should not be allowed to stand for a long period of time.” Low-zinc alloys favor plug-type attack while layer-type attack is more prevalent in high-zinc alloys. its tensile strength. The approach to follow depends upon the type of bacteria present. Ships and piers are coated with specially formulated paints containing compounds toxic to the organisms. a porous residue of copper and corrosion products remains. as the released copper ions poison the growth of barnacles and other marine organisms. Periodic mechanical cleaning of surfaces of structures and inside of pipelines helps the growth of bioorganisms and the creation of crevice sites. low in salt content and at room temperature. the process is known as selective leaching.

Dezincification can be suppressed by alloying additions of tin. Removal of stagnation of corrosives. Crevice conditions under a deposit of scale or salt tend to aggravate the condition. with less than 15% zinc. is almost immune. they tend to return to their original state or to similar metallic compounds when exposed to the atmosphere. Exceptions to this are gold and platinum that are already in their metallic state. . leaving a hole. therefore. 4. Use of a more resistant alloy. Periodic removal of scales and deposits from the inside surfaces of pipelines. Red brass. Porous inorganic scale formation Brasses that contain 15% or less zinc are usually immune. Stagnant solutions. and of silicon from silicon bronzes in high-temperature steam. Selective leaching of aluminum takes place in aluminum bronze exposed to hydrofluoric acid or acid-containing chlorides. A plug of dezincified brass may fall out. Use of cathodic protection.6. or phosphorus.24 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals room temperature. Refer to Table 1. aluminum. This is the more practical approach. arsenic. These unstable metals are produced by reducing ores artificially. Cupronickels provide a better substitute in severely corrosive atmospheres. Copper– aluminum alloys containing more than 80% aluminum are particularly susceptible.2 Corrosion Mechanisms Most of the commonly used metals are unstable in the atmosphere. Other alloy systems are also susceptible to this form of corrosion. especially if acidic 3. Conditions that favor selective leaching are: 1. Corrective measures that may be taken include: 1. 2.” Iron will leach out selectively from gray iron pipe buried in soil. High temperatures 2. are other examples. particularly acidic ones. Graphite corrosion does not occur in ductile iron or malleable iron. whereas water pipe having layer-type dezincification may split open. Severe leaching of tin in tin bronzes in hot brine or steam. 1. Selective leaching of iron from gray iron is termed “graphite corrosion. 3.

2) (1. and the cathodic partial reaction 2HC C 2e/ H2 : (1.1) . acid chloride solutions Many waters High heat flux and low water velocity Soils. tungsten Chromium Carbon Copper in some acids. before being refined into useful engineering materials.and highcarbon steels Monel Nickel–molybdenum alloy Silicon bronzes Tin bronzes Environment Hydrofluoric acid.6 Combination of Alloys and Environments for Selective Leaching Alloy Aluminum Bronzes. The study of electrochemical thermodynamics and electrochemical kinetics is necessary to understand corrosion reactions. molybdenum. For most materials. hydrogen at high temperatures Hydrogen. the corrosion of zinc in an acidic medium proceeds according to the overall reaction Zn C 2HC/ Zn2C C H2 : This breaks down into the anodic partial reaction Zn/ Zn2C C 2e. Most corrosion processes are electrochemical in nature. consisting of two or more electrode reactions: the oxidation of a metal (anodic partial reaction) and the reduction of an oxidizing agent (cathodic partial reaction).Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion TABLE 1. iron. and other acids Oxygen at high temperatures High-temperature steam Hot brine. brasses Cupronickels Gray iron Gold alloys High-nickel alloys Iron–chromium alloys Medium. and sulfuric acids. For example. nickel in others Molybdenum Silicon Tin Corrosion. chromic. many waters Nitric. this means the formation of the oxides or sulfides from which they originally started when they were taken from the earth. human saliva Molten salts High-temperature oxidizing atmosphere Oxidizing atmospheres. is the process of a metal returning to the material’s thermodynamic state. by its simplest definition. steam Element Removed Aluminum Zinc Nickel Iron Copper or silver 25 Chromium.3) (1.

The stoichiometric coefficients. The overall stoichiometry of any chemical reaction can be expressed by 0 Z 3vi bi (1.4) then becomes Vcorr Z icorr nF (1. Ecorr.9) (1. The partial anodic current density at the corrosion potential is equal to the corrosion current density icorr .8) where DG0 represents the standard free enthalpy and E0 represents the standard potential of the reaction. in principle the rate may be predicted. In the absence of an external polarization. a metal in contact with an oxidizing electrolytic environment spontaneously acquires a certain potential. nF (1. If Reaction (1.26 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals The corrosion rate depends on the electrode kinetics of both partial reactions. Equation (1. According to Faraday’s law. of the products are positive and those of the reactants are negative. a linear relationship exists between the metal dissolution rate at any potential VM and the partial anodic current density for metal dissolution iaM: VM Z iaM . DG0 ZK nFE0 (1.7) where mi is the chemical potential of the participating species.4) where n is the charge number (dimensionless) that indicates the number of electrons exchanged in the dissolution reaction and F is the Faraday constant (FZ96. DG.5) The corrosion potential lies between the equilibrium potentials of the anodic and cathodic partial reactions. is DG Z 3vi mi (1. vi.485 C/mol). called the corrosion potential. the corresponding equilibrium potential Erev is given by DG ZK nFErev Under standard conditions (all activities equal to one).6) is conducted in an electrochemical cell. If all of the electrochemical parameters of the anodic and cathodic partial reactions are known. The equilibrium potential of the partial reactions is predicted by electrochemical thermodynamics. The free enthalpy of reaction. .6) where b designates the reactants and the products.

m0 2 Z 0. it is possible to H H define the standard potential of the partial reduction reaction of Equation (1.7 indicates the standard potential of selected electrode reactions.i bred.i C nHC CZiÞ : ðaH 2 (1.045 K2.10) with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode.i are both positive.67 K1.34 0. For a given reaction to take place.i bred.i appearing on the left side of the equality sign together with the free electrons.257 K0.34 K1. m0 C Z 0.i box.i (1. The standard potential of an electrode reaction thus corresponds to the overall reaction n 3vox.799 1.771 0.76 K0.7 Standard Potentials of Electrode Reactions at 258C Electrode Li CeZLi Mg2CC2eZMg Al3CC3eZAl Ti2CC2eZTi Cr2CC2eZCr Zn2CC2eZZn Cr3CC3eZCr Fe2CC2eZFe Ni2CC2eZNi Pb2CC2eZPb 2HCC2eZH2 Cu2CC2eZCu O2 C2H2OC4eZ4OH Fe3CCeZFe2C AgCCeZAg Pt 2CC2eZPt O2 C4HCC4eZ2H2O Au3CC3eZAu C (1.i and vred.63 K0.i represents the stoichiometric coefficient of the “oxidized” species with box. By setting the standard chemical potential of the solvated proton and of the molecular hydrogen equal to zero.74 K0.i appearing on the right side of the equality sign.i C H2ðPH2Z1 barÞ Z 3vred.2 1.10) corresponds to a partial reduction reaction and the stoichiometric coefficients vox.i indicates the stoichiometric coefficients of the reducing species with bred.i C ne Z 3vred. there must be a negative free energy change.126 0 0.12) E8/V K3.52 .11) Table 1.i box.44 K0. opposite to the electrons.90 K0. Equation (1. and vred.401 0. as calculated from the equation DG ZK nFE: TABLE 1.229 1.10) where vox.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 27 Electrode reactions are commonly written in the form 3vox.

14) (1.28 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals For this to occur the cell potential must be positive. In addition to estimating corrosion rates. the extent of the polarization can help predict the type and severity of corrosion. the greater the driving force of the reaction. the cell potential would remain as calculated. Fe C 2HC C 2Cl2K/ Fe2C C Cl2 C H2[ : The cell potential is calculated to be E Z Cathode half-cellKAnode half-cell EZE HC Fe KE H2 Fe2C (1. Figure 1. This change in potential is called polarization. if so. For corrosion to take place there must be a current flow and a completed circuit that is then governed by Ohm’s law (IZE/R). some current begins to flow and the potentials of both half-cells move slightly toward each other. and the metal itself. If the resistance were infinite. the potentials of each half-cell would approach each other and the rate of corrosion would be infinite. The cell potential is taken as the difference between two half-cell reactions. the reaction can take place. surface films. The intersection of the two polarization curves closely approximate the corrosion current and the combined cell potentials of the freely corroding situation. at what rate. Understanding the influence of environmental changes . A corrosion rate in terms of metal loss per unit time can be determined using Faraday’s laws.2 shows the relationship between the polarization reactions at each half-cell. The larger this potential difference. the one at the cathode minus the one at the anode. At an intermediate resistance in the circuit. As polarization increases. Other factors will determine whether or not corrosion does take place and. The resistance in the circuit is dependent on various factors.13) E Z 0KðK 0:440Þ E Z C0:440 Because the cell is positive. The corrosion density can be calculated by determining the surface area once the corrosion current is determined. corrosion decreases. If we place pure iron in hydrochloric acid. The cell potential calculated here represents the peak value for the case of two independent reactions. but there would be no corrosion. If the resistance of the circuit were zero. the chemical reaction can be expressed as Fe C 2HCl/ FeCl2 C H2[ : On the electrochemical side. including the resistivity of the media.

1 E [H2/H ] + 29 Cathodic polarization curve Potential. There are three basic causes of polarization: concentration. resistivity of the media. For example. 2H/ H2 takes place more slowly and can become a rate-controlling factor.2 Polarization of iron in acid. Concentration polarization is the effect resulting from the excess of a species that impedes the corrosion process (as in the previous hydrogen illustration).3 2H + 2e + H2 − 0. which combines with the hydrogen to form water. and potential drop. activation. Included are the effects of surface films. the corrosion rate will increase significantly. If the hydrogen is removed by bubbling oxygen through the solution. corrosion products. In the HC/H2 conversion reaction. Activation polarization is the result of a rate-controlling step within the corrosion reaction.1 Fe Ecorr Fe ++ + 2e − 0. hydrogen gas formation at the cathode can actually slow the reaction by blocking access of hydrogen ions to the cathode site. E − 0. . whereas the second step. etc. 2HC C 2e/ 2H proceeds rapidly. the first step of the process. i FIGURE 1. Potential drop is the change in voltage associated with effects of the environment and the current circuit between the anode and cathode sites. resulting in cathodic polarization and lowering the current flows and corrosion rate. thereby increasing circuit resistance.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 0. on polarization can aid in controlling corrosion. in the iron– hydrochloric acid example. or with the depletion of a species critical to the corrosion process.5 E [Fe/Fe ] ++ i Anodic polarization curve corr Current.

stresses. 10K4 mol/L. Some corrosion rates are rapid and violent. increasing the velocity of the corrodent over the surface of the metal will increase the corrosion rates when concentration polarization occurs. for example. At high potentials. However. Pourbaix diagrams are widely used in corrosion because they easily permit the identification of the predominant species at equilibrium for a given potential and pH. surface finish. increasing the velocity can actually result in lower concentration rates because the increased velocity shifts the cathodic polarization curve so that it no longer intersects the anodic polarization curve in the active corrosion region. of Zn2C. Potential/pH diagrams (Pourbaix diagrams) graphically represent the stability of a metal and its corrosion products as a function of the potential and pH of an aqueous solution. Because corrosion is an electrochemical reaction and reaction rates increase with increasing temperature. Figure 1. However. . The diagram shown takes into account the formation of zinc hydroxide. The pH is shown on the horizontal axis and the potential on the vertical axis. 10K2. In some instances. Biological growths can behave as deposits or change the underlying surface chemistry to promote corrosion. The grain size of the material plays an important role in determining how rapidly the material’s properties will deteriorate when the grain boundaries are attacked by corrosive environments. The numbers indicate the H2CO3 concentration in the moisture film. the concentration of the dissolved material must be fixed. Surface cleanliness is also a factor because deposits or films can act as initiation sites.30 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Other factors affecting corrosion include temperature. ZnO2 may possibly be formed. and of the zincate ions HZnOK and 2 ZnO2K. they are not presented in the diagram. Microstructural differences such as second phases or grain orientation will affect the manner in which the corrosion process will take. but can also influence the rate of general corrosion. while most are slow and almost imperceptible on a day-to-day basis. with passive metals. they provide no information on the rate of possible corrosion reactions. Variations within the metal surface on a microscopic level can influence the corrosion process.3 shows a simplified Pourbaix diagram for zinc. it is logical that corrosion rates will increase with increasing temperature. The severity of corrosion is affected by time. Rough surfaces or tight crevices can promote the formation of concentration cells. The broken lines indicate the domain of thermodynamic stability of water. and time. Stress is a requirement for SCC or fatigue. Corrosion rates are expressed as a factor of time. grain orientation. but because 2 the corresponding thermodynamic data are uncertain. To trace such a diagram. relative velocities between the metal and the media. being based on thermodynamic data.

8 1.6 0.6 −0.6 1. Often the corrosive environment is treated to make it less aggressive.2 1 0. and corrosion rate measurement of a specific material in the untreated and treated environments will reflect the efficacy of the treatment. Corrosion rate measurement may become necessary for the evaluation and selection of materials for a specific environment or a given definite application.4 1.8 −1 −1.2 −0. .6 −1.2 −1.3 Measuring Polarization Measurement of corrosion rate is essential for the purpose of material selection. or for the evaluation of new or old metals or alloys to determine the environments in which they are suitable.4 −1.3 Potential/pH diagram for the system ZnCO2–H2O at 778F/258C.4 0. The compatibility of a metal to its environment is a prime requirement for its reliable performance. Corrosion rate measurement is also essential in the study of the mechanisms of corrosion.4 −0.8 0.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 31 2 1.2 0 −0. 1.8 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 −2 −4 −8 − H ZnO2 2− ZnO2 Zn O2 0 −2 −4 −6 −6 −4 −2 0 Zn (OH)2 Zn++ Zn CO3 FIGURE 1.

if the iron sample is maintained at the natural corrosion potential of K0. if the potential were lowered below K0. Two methods based on electrochemical polarization are available: The Tafel extrapolation and linear polarization.5. an approximation of the corrosion current can be made. . or Tafel regions. Anodic polarization tests can be conducted with relatively simple equipment and the scans themselves can be done in a short time. It is therefore possible to measure corrosion rate by employing electrochemical techniques.4 Anodic polarization measurement apparatus. Electrochemical methods permit rapid and precise corrosion-rate measurement and may be used to measure corrosion rate in systems that cannot be visually inspected or subject to weight-loss tests. Measurement of the corrosion current while the corrosion potential is varied is possible with the apparatus shown in Figure 1. As the potential is raised.32 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Aqueous corrosion is electrochemical in nature. By using the straight line portions.2 V.4. They are extremely useful in Potentiostat V A Salt bridge Corrodent Reference electrode (Calomel) Test specimen Auxiliary electrode (Pt) FIGURE 1.2 V. of these curves. Alternatively. Most often. it is the anodic polarization behavior that is useful in understanding alloy systems in various environments. the current flow will increase and curve AB will approximate the behavior of the true anodic polarization curve. no current will flow through the auxiliary electrode. The plot of this data point in the study would equate to that of A or C in Figure 1. current measurements would result in the curve CD and approximate the nature of the cathodic polarization curve. Using the example of iron corroding in a hydrochloric acid solution.

studying the active–passive behavior that many materials exhibit. As the name suggests. The behavior of iron in nitric acid underscores the importance of recognizing the nature of passivity. this layer is composed of various chromium and/or nickel oxides that exhibit substantially different electrochemical characteristics than the underlying alloy. However. these materials can exhibit both a highly corrosion-resistant behavior and that of a material that corrodes actively. Once passivated under these conditions it can also exhibit low rates of corrosion as the nitric acid is diluted. chromium. . layer is damaged while in the aggressive environment. Alloys of these materials are also subject to this type of behavior. active corrosion of the freshly exposed surface will occur.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 33 B P o t e n t i a l Measured A C x y True Tafel region D Current. while in the same corrodent. if the passive film is disturbed. In stainless steels. In most situations where active–passive behavior occurs. Metals that commonly exhibit this type of behavior include iron. or passive. Iron is resistant to corrosion in nitric acid at concentrations around 70%. there is a thin layer at the metal surface that is more resistant to the environment than the underlying metal. aluminum. rapid corrosion will begin and repassivation will not be possible until the nitric acid concentration is raised to a sufficient level. Active–passive behavior is dependent on the material–corrodent combination and is a function of the anodic or cathodic polarization effects that occur in that specific combination. If this resistant. and nickel. titanium. The damage to this layer can be either mechanical or electrochemical in nature.5 Anodic and cathodic polarization curves. log i FIGURE 1.

The anodic polarization technique is also useful in studying the effects of variations in the environment and the benefits of alloy conditions. However. As the potential is increased further. This type of system can tolerate moderate upset conditions without the onset of accelerated corrosion. as expected. Frame 2 represents the condition that is often found perplexing when using materials that exhibit active–passive behavior.3.34 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 1. In this example. where the breakdown of the passive film occurs and the corrosion current begins to increase. the corrosion current could be very low when the material is in the passive state or very high when active corrosion begins. Passive A icrit . the curve starts out with a gradually increasing current. This is also illustrated in Figure 1. there is a dramatic polarizing effect that drops the current to a point where corrosion is essentially halted.6 Anodic polarization curve for material exhibiting active–passive behavior. the performance of a material can vary greatly with relatively minor changes in the corrodent.7. Frame 1 illustrates the case where the anodic and cathodic polarization curves intersect similar to the behavior of materials with no active–passive behavior. Even with an established anodic polarization behavior. at point A. With relatively minor changes within the system. Frame 3 typifies the condition sought when using materials in the passive state. The anode is actively corroding at a high but predictable rate.1 Anodic Polarization Active–passive behavior is schematically represented by the anodic polarization curve shown in Figure 1. resulting in a stable and low corrosion current. there is little change in current flow until the next critical stage B. Starting at the base of the plot. As Transpassive B Ep V o l t s Epp Active ipass Log i FIGURE 1. the cathodic polarization curve intersects only in the passive region.6.

There are additional influences on corrosion other than the corrodent itself. temperature can have a significant influence on the corrosion process. Biological growths can behave as deposits or change the underlying surface chemistry to promote corrosion. adding molybdenum raises the potential required for the initiation of a pitting-type attack. Rough surfaces or tight crevices can facilitate the formation of concentration cells. illustrated in Figure 1.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 35 ic ic ic FIGURE 1. The surface finish of the component also has an impact on the mode and severity of the corrosion that can occur. temperature increases can cause a shift of the curve to higher currents. However. Surface cleanliness can also be an issue with deposits or films acting as initiation sites. with passive materials. increasing the velocity of the corrodent over the surface of the metal will increase the corrosion rate. This is not surprising because it is an electrochemical reaction. When concentration polarization occurs. The presence of chloride or other strong oxidizing ions will shrink the passive region.4 Other Factors Affecting Corrosion As has been noted.7 Schematic representation of a material with active–passive behavior in different corrosive environments. 1. . as shown in Figure 1. In some instances. The relative velocities between the component and the media can have a direct effect on the corrosion rate. increasing the velocity can actually result in lower corrosion rates. the increased velocity of the media will disperse the concentrating species. and reaction rates increase with increasing temperature.9.8. Increasing chromium contents in steel expands the passive region significantly. This occurs because the increasing velocity shifts the cathodic polarization curve such that it no longer intersects the anodic polarization curve in the active corrosion region.

.9 Increased corrodent velocity can shift the cathodic polarization curve such that passive behavior can be induced. V Decreasing concentration polarization Log i FIGURE 1.8 Effects of environment and alloy content on anodic polarization behavior.36 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals V V Increasing chloride Log i Log i Increasing temperature V Increasing molybdenum V Increasing chromium Log i Log i FIGURE 1.

or controls to optimize our natural and financial resources. Schweitzer. Reference 1. Equipment is planned to have a useful service life. For corrosive environments where grain boundaries are attacked. Finally. Vols.Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion 37 Other variations within the metal surface on a microscopic level influence the corrosion process. The effect on metallic materials is very gradual and not very pronounced. Microstructural differences. A chief goal in understanding corrosion is the proper selection of materials. such as secondary phases or grain orientation. Some corrosion processes are violent and rapid. Chemistry variations in the matrix of weld deposits are also factors. Stress is a requirement for SCC or corrosion fatigue. impact the mode of corrosion and lower the energy effect for corrosion to begin. 5th ed. will affect the way corrosion manifests itself. New York: Marcel Dekker. but can also influence the rate of general corrosion. time is a factor in determining the severity of corrosion. Radiation can have an effect on a material’s mechanical properties.A. either residual or applied. equipment processes. Stresses. . the grain size of the material plays a significant role in how rapidly the material’s properties can deteriorate. Corrosion Resistance Tables. P. Corrosion rates are expressed using a time dimension.. whereas most are so slow as to be imperceptible on a dayto-day basis. 2004. 1–4.

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Geographic location is also a factor. fences. metallic corrosion products. localized forms such as pitting. bridges. Atmospheric corrosion depends not only on the moisture content present but also on the dust content and the presence of other impurities in the air. General corrosion is the predominant form encountered because of the large quantities of steel used. ships. the possibility of galvanic corrosion is somewhat 39 . depending on the specific contaminants present and the materials of construction. With the large number of outdoor structures such as buildings. and innumerable other applications exposed to the atmospheric environment. Atmospheric corrosion is a complicated electrochemical process taking place in corrosion cells consisting of base metal. Many variables influence the corrosion characteristics of an atmosphere. metals corrode at a negligible rate. which is the common electrolyte associated with atmospheric corrosion. surface electrolyte. automobiles. For example. In the absence of moisture. there is no wonder that so much attention has been given to the subject. and stress corrosion cracking may be encountered with susceptible alloys. amount of rainfall. intergranular attack. Because the available electrolyte consists only of a thin film of condensed or absorbed moisture. sulfur dioxide content. and the atmosphere. Relative humidity. hydrogen sulfide content. carbon steel parts left in the desert remain bright and tarnish-free over long periods. Because this is an electrochemical process. temperature. dust. though not a separate form of corrosion. However. an electrolyte must be present on the surface of the metal for corrosion to occur. Air temperature can also be a factor. has received considerable attention because of the staggering associated costs that result. rusting is negligible because ice is a poor conductor and does not function effectively as an electrolyte. All types of corrosion may take place. chloride content. and even the position of the exposed metal exhibit marked influence on corrosion behavior. Also.2 Atmospheric Corrosion Atmospheric corrosion. in climates where the air temperature is below the freezing point of water or of aqueous condensation on the metal surface. all of which have an effect on the condensation of moisture on the metal surface and the resulting corrosiveness. towers.

chlorine. and hydrogen bromide are produced as combustion products from the burning of chemical wastes. this cannot be relied on and galvanic corrosion must always be considered in designs for atmospheric exposures. discoloration of colored stock. arctic. in the . therefore. Surface cracking. This is seldom the case. 2. In addition to the most common contaminants previously mentioned. However. or with very dry climatic conditions. a multitude of other compounds may be formed. the more rural the area. such as urban. The burning of fossil fuels generates a large amount of sulfur dioxide that is converted to sulfuric and sulfurous acid in the presence of moisture. the chemical composition of the hazardous waste materials incinerated. and tropical (wet or dry). Depending on the impurities contained in the fossil fuel. and the combustion conditions encountered. the less will be the problem of atmospheric corrosion. Combustion of these fossil fuels and hazardous waste products should produce only carbon dioxide. Elastomeric materials may also suffer loss of elongation and other rubberlike properties.1 Atmospheric Types Because corrosion rates are affected by local conditions.40 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals minimized. In an industrial atmosphere. For all practical purposes. oxygen. Synthetic materials. However. and serious loss of tensile strength are the result of this attack. atmospheres are generally divided into the following major categories: Rural Industrial Marine Additional subdivisions. When organophosphorus compounds are incinerated. This reaction has a very low rate. hydrogen fluoride. These three weathering agents can greatly affect the properties and appearance of a large number of synthetic materials. water vapor. with little or no heavy manufacturing operations. and sunlight. and elastomers can be subject to degradation as a result of the action of ozone. all types of contamination by sulfur in the form of sulfur dioxide or hydrogen sulfide are important. Road traffic and energy production lead to the formation of NOx that may be oxidized to HNO3. Synthetic materials as well as metals are also subject to atmospheric corrosion. of main concern are the three major categories. plastics. pollutants such as hydrogen chloride. Chlorides are also a product of municipal incinerators. depending on the specific synthetic material and the conditions of exposure. and inert gas as combustion products. corrosive phosphorous compounds are produced. can also be included.

In many cases there is no “pure” rural or urban area. Because of these varying conditions. a material that is resistant to atmospheric corrosion in one area may not be satisfactory in another. In addition to the general atmospheric condition. These may be emitted from a manufacturing operation on a continuous or spasmodic basis and can result in a much more serious corrosion problem than that caused by the presence of general atmospheric pollutants. depends on the presence of an electrolyte. melting snow.Atmospheric Corrosion 41 vicinity of the emission source. For example. atmospheric corrosion is considered a discontinuous process. Because an electrolyte is not always present. The closer to the shore. The atmospheric test station at Kure Beach. North Carolina shows that steels exposed 80 feet from the ocean corrode 10–15 times faster than steels exposed 800 feet from the ocean. Corrosion takes place only . or high humidity. as well as their corrosivity to specific materials of construction being considered. Atmospheric conditions should be defined in terms of temperature. as such. there may also be specific pollutants found in a localized area. dew. humidity. there is no clear line of demarcation between these atmospheric types. In addition to these general air contaminants. the contents of HNO3 and nitrates are very low. To compound the problem. Contamination from industrial or marine areas can find its way into these areas based on the prevailing winds and other atmospheric conditions. galvanized iron is perfectly suitable for application in rural atmospheres. spills.2 Factors Affecting Atmospheric Corrosion Atmospheric corrosion is an electrochemical process and. special conditions such as cooling tower drift or spray. The corrosivity of an industrial atmosphere diminishes with increasing distance from the city. Indoor atmospheres might be free of corrosion in “clean rooms” or subject to severe corrosion. but it is not suitable when exposed to industrial atmospheres. 2. or releases of water or chemicals should not be overlooked and must be taken into account. fog. The quantity of chloride deposition from marine environment is directly proportional to the distance from the shore. as near a pickling bath in a steel mill. Marine environments are subject to chloride attack resulting from the deposition of fine droplets of crystals formed by evaporation of spray that has been carried by the wind from the sea. The antipollution regulations that have been enacted do not prevent the escape into the atmosphere of quantities of these materials sufficient to prevent corrosion problems. The usual electrolyte associated with atmospheric corrosion is water resulting from rain. the greater the deposition and corrosive effect. and contaminants.

the composition of the electrolyte. including initial exposure conditions. The actual time of wetness will vary with climatic conditions at the location. and the composition of the electrolyte film will be discussed later. 2. dew. Phase layers of water are the result of rain. or dew formed by condensation on cold metallic surfaces.42 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals during the time of wetness.1 Time of Wetness The term time of wetness refers to the length of time during which the metal surface is covered by a film of water that renders significant atmospheric corrosion possible. nature of the corrosion products formed. dew. fog. sample mass. fog. . as well as the hours of sunshine and wind speed. wind velocity. extent of sheltering. orientation. and melting snow. or wet or melting snow: Ttw Z Tad C Tph : It is difficult to distinguish experimentally between the two categories of time of wetness because there is no sharp boundary. there are other factors that affect the corrosion rate. and pollutants present (both known and unknown). factors affecting the time of wetness.2. The total time of wetness (Ttw) may be divided into the periods when the metal is moistened due to adsorption of water vapor on the surface (Taw) and the periods when the surface is covered by a phase layer of water (Tph) resulting from rain. fog. and the temperature determines the corrosion rate. It can be described by the equation: h X L KZ where tn Vk ðnÞ KZaccumulated corrosion effect tnZtime of wetness (the period with an electrolyte layer on the surface) VkZaverage corrosion rate during the individual periods of wetness. the duration and frequency of rain. the temperature of the air and the metal surface above 328F/08C. wet or melting snow. In addition to the above. Moisture on the surface of the metal resulting from high humidity of the atmosphere and the chemical and physical properties of the corrosion products produces an adsorption layer of water. It is dependent on the relative humidity of the atmosphere (being greatest when the relative humidity is R80%).

or wet or melting snow. the situation is reversed. . especially if the mass..2. absorb water from the atmosphere. 2.3 Dew Dew formation occurs when the temperature of the metal surface is below the dew point of the atmosphere. On the other 4 hand.4 Rain Rain creates even thicker layers of electrolyte on the surface than dew.2. In a strongly polluted atmosphere.1 Adsorption Layers The amount of water adsorbed on a metal surface depends on the relative humidity of the atmosphere and on the chemical and physical properties of the corrosion products. 2. when the temperature of the air increases faster than the temperature of the metal. HC and SO2K. Dew may also form when metal products are brought into warm storage after cold transport. 2. This may occur outdoors during the night. is more important.2. deposited or formed by corrosion. the third—at least in the case of steel—decreases corrosion. which indicates that the corrosive action of rain. Precipitation in the form of rain affects corrosion by giving rise to a phase layer of moisture on the material surface and by adding corrosion stimulaters in the form of. the washing effect of rain predominates. this may lead to accelerated dissolution of the protective coatings. If the pH of rainwater falls to values close to 4 or even lower. The metal surface may be wetted if hygroscopic salts.Atmospheric Corrosion 43 2. of the metal is great. The significance of the two latter processes is dependent on the ratio between the dry and wet deposition of pollutants.1. The pH value of precipitation seems to be of significance for metals whose corrosion resistance may be ascribed to a protective layer of basic carbonates or sulfates. The thickness of the water layer retained on the surface has been estimated to be approximately 100 g/m2. fog. Whereas the first two processes promote corrosion.2. or from dew formed by condensation on cold metallic surfaces. rain also washes away pollutants deposited on the surface during the preceding dry period.1.1.1. Another reason for dew formation may be the conditions in the early morning.g.2 Phase Layers Phase layers may arise from precipitation of rain. corrosion on the skyward side of steel plates is substantially lower than on the downward side. and thus the heat capacity. in this case. In a less-polluted area. as on zinc or copper. when the surface temperature may decrease by radiant heat transfer between the structure and the sky. e. In a strongly polluted atmosphere where dry deposition is considerably greater than deposition of sulfur pollutants.

other criteria seem to be valid.1–0. Under sheltered and indoor conditions.2 mm). Dust-free air is less likely to cause corrosion. and its evaporation from. The time of wetness determined by this method may not necessarily be the same as the “actual” time of wetness. the time of wetness is usually determined on the basis of meteorological measurements of temperature and relative humidity. metal oxides.1. that initiate corrosion. sulfuric acid. dust can promote corrosion by forming galvanic or differential cells that. dust is the primary air contaminant. 2.1. When the surface becomes wetted. a current starts to flow and the time of wetness is defined as the time when the cell current or the electromotive force exceeds a certain value. The settled dust may promote corrosion by absorbing sulfur dioxide and water vapor from the air. Carbonaceous particles can start the corrosion process by forming cathodes in microcells with a steel surface.2.2. In California.2. Suspended particles of carbon and carbon compounds. sodium chloride. The processes controlling the fog water chemistry appear to be condensation of water vapor on. Not even the direct electrochemical measurement of the time of wetness will give . preexisting aerosol. and other salts will be found in industrial atmospheres.44 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 2. 2. presence of corrosion products. form an electrolyte on the surface. because wetness is influenced by the type of metal. It is these materials.2–4. The time of wetness may also be measured directly with electrochemical cells. pollution of the atmosphere.5–1 mm) separated from each other by a thin insulation (0. when combined with moisture. The period when the relative humidity is 80% at temperatures 08C/328F is often used for estimating the actual time of wetness.6 Dust On a weight basis in many locations. ammonium sulfate. although they have not yet been fully clarified. The cell consists of thin metal electrodes (0. and degree of coverage against rain.5 Fog Especially high acidity and high concentrations of sulfates and nitrates can be found in fog droplets in areas of high air pollution. and scavenging of gas-phase nitric acid. usually shows good correlation with corrosion data from field tests under outdoor conditions.1. Hygroscopic salts such as chlorides or sulfates form a corrosive electrolyte on the surface.0. however. because of their hygroscopic nature. The expression for time of wetness mentioned above.7 Measurement of Time of Wetness For practical purposes. although not based on a detailed theoretical model. the pH of fog water has been found to be in the range of 2. This implies that this parameter corresponds to the kinetically decisive time periods during which corrosion proceeds. When in contact with metallic surfaces and combined with moisture.

2 Composition of Surface Electrolyte The electrolyte film on the surface will contain various species deposited from the atmosphere or originating from the corroding metal.2. 2. Values between 1000 and 2700 h/year are often reported from sites in the temperate climatic zone..2. 2. deposition mechanisms. The composition of the electrolyte is the determining factor of the corrosion process.2. road traffic. and the definition of the threshold value of current or voltage that is considered the lower limit for the time of wetness. most of the nitrogen oxides are emitted as NO. therefore.e.3 NOX Emissions of NOx originate primarily from different combustion processes.Atmospheric Corrosion 45 an unambiguous value because the result depends on. 2. oil and coal in industrial regions that can cover less than 5% of the earth’s surface. Since 1940.2. its dimensions. and they usually give lower values than calculations from meteorological data. In the following. the type of cell. 2.2. the atmospheric emission of NOx relative to SO2 (in equivalents) has increased markedly.2.2.2. and energy production. Most of the sulfur derived from the burning of fossil fuels is emitted in gaseous form as SO2. transformation reactions. and pollutants.4 Chlorides Chlorides are deposited mainly in the marine atmosphere as droplets or as crystals formed by the evaporation of spray carried by the wind from the seas. which stresses the importance of NOx emissions. 2.1 Oxygen Oxygen is readily absorbed from the air.2. the presence of corrosion products. The sulfur dioxide is oxidized on moist particles or in droplets of water to sulfuric acid.2 SOX The main part of anthropogenic SOx pollution is caused by combustion of fossil fuels. at least the outer region of the thin water film on the metal surface may be considered saturated with oxygen. i. In combustion processes. Other sources of chloride emission are coal burning and municipal . a brief survey will be presented of the origin. Both the chemical composition and the physical state of the pollutants change during their transport in the atmosphere. Most of the electrochemical techniques indicate mainly the time of wetness caused by phase layers of electrolyte. among other factors.

but it is of little importance except under extreme conditions. varying slightly with the time of day and the season of the year due to its cycle in nature. intervals between rain washings.5 CO2 Carbon dioxide occurs in the atmosphere in a concentration of 0. corrosion rate. In general. and drying conditions. Consequently. temperature is a factor influencing corrosion rates. while a highly concentrated solution may form after a long period without washing. as the temperature increases. When the air temperature falls below 328F/08C. there is a pronounced decrease in the corrosion rate that is illustrated by the low corrosion rates in the subartic and arctic regions. 2.2. temperature appears to have little or no effect on the corrosion rate.6 Concentrations of Different Species The concentrations of the various species in the electrolyte on the surface vary greatly with respect to such parameters as deposition rates. . It would be expected that the concentration in the electrolyte film will be low during a rainy period. This reduces the time of wetness that in turn reduces the corrosion rate. presence of rain shelter. the electrolyte film might freeze. the moisture film may also have a low pH value.03–0.2. In the burning of coal.46 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals incinerators. Most coals have a chloride content of 0.7% are found. most of the chlorine is emitted as gaseous HCl. Because of reaction with the metal and the corrosion products. As the temperature increases. the rate of corrosive attack will increase as a result of an increase in the rate of electrochemical and chemical reactions as well as the diffusion rate. A moisture film in contact with an atmosphere highly polluted with SOx may initially have a pH value as low as 2. an increase in temperature can cause a decrease in the corrosion rate by causing a more rapid evaporation of the surface moisture film created by rain or dew. a temperature increase will promote corrosion. During longterm exposure in a temperate climatic zone. the pH is generally on the order of 5–6.2. conversely. values of 0. 2. the solubility of oxygen and other corrosive gases in the electrolyte film is reduced.2. under constant humidity conditions. 2. In addition.05% by volume. When a steady state has been reached.2. Due to acid rain or fog. the pH value will usually increase. In highchlorine coals.15%. As freezing occurs.09–0.3 Temperature The overall effect of temperature on corrosion rates is complex. The pH of the water film is difficult to specify.

This oxide provides some degree of protection.2.2. the nature of which depends on initial exposure conditions. The more aggressive the exposure conditions. This is illustrated by the dry deposition velocity that is defined as the ratio of deposition rate of any gaseous compound and the concentration of that compound in the atmosphere. in a benign (indoor) atmosphere. zinc is more sensitive than steel. During the induction period. Sheltering from rain should be avoided. These effects will vary from one material to another. these initial periods might last only a few months.4 Initial Exposure Atmospheric corrosion rates proceed through three stages or periods: the induction period. the transition period. The final or stationary period is characterized by the surface being fully covered by corrosion product and eventually reaching constant properties with respect to chemical composition and stationary corrosion rates.2. The initial exposure conditions have a marked influence on the subsequent corrosion rate. the metal is covered with both a spontaneously formed oxide and the aqueous layer. The seasonal dependence on the concentrations of peroxide and ozone in the atmosphere might also be a contributing factor. and corrosion products can accumulate.6 Wind Velocity Wind speed and type of wind flow have a pronounced effect on the atmospheric corrosion rate.7 Nature of Corrosion Products The atmospheric corrosion rate is influenced by many parameters. Differences are explained by the fact that different materials form different corrosion products with different protective properties. The degree of shelter from particle fallout and rainfall can affect initial and ultimate corrosion rates. The design should make maximum use of exposure to the weather. During the transition period. A wide variety of structurally related corrosion products can be found on zinc. 2.5 Sheltering The design of the installation should eliminate all possible areas where water. but in highly polluted industrial areas. and the stationary period. dirt. When pockets are present. one of the more important being the formation and protective ability of the corrosion . wet conditions (caused by high relative humidity or rainfall) cause higher corrosion rates than dry conditions. which leads to corrosive conditions.” 2. For example. 2. the oxide layer transforms into a fully developed layer of corrosion products. During the third period of exposure. the time of wetness increases. During the first days of exposure. depending on the metal and the aggressiveness of the atmosphere. constant corrosion rate is established. For example.Atmospheric Corrosion 47 2.2. thus the terminology “stationary period. the shorter the two initial periods. these initial periods for steel will last for years.

one expects amorphous phases to form. phosphorus. Under these conditions. carbon steel does not have the ability to form its own protective coating except in a dry. 2. nickel. settle on the surface and form a corrosive electrolyte. or slow growth. manganese. and reprecipitation depends on the activities of the species involved. From colloid chemistry. Where the dissolution step is acid-dependent. The corrosion products formed are the composition of the metal or alloy and the contaminants present in the atmosphere. of amorphous phases may result in a transition from the amorphous to the crystalline state. The eventual thickening of the film of corrosion products can be described in a sequence of consecutive steps—dissolution. The corrosion resistance of these steels is dependent upon the climatic conditions. a thick oxide film will form that prevents further oxidation. low-alloy carbon steel results. and the specific composition of the steel. the film formed offers little or no protection. silicon. In areas having low atmospheric pollution.8 Pollutants Present One of the most important factors affecting atmospheric corrosion is the presence of specific pollutants. In areas that are highly polluted with SO2. This settled airborne dust promotes corrosion by absorbing SO2 and water vapor from the air. Upon exposure to most atmospheres. a longer period may be required to form this film. chromium. the pollution levels. or various combinations thereof are added to conventional carbon steel.48 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals products formed. Initiation of corrosion is the result of the presence of solid particles on the surface. the corrosion products may be amorphous or crystalline. Additional information regarding the weathering steels and other metals or alloys as to their resistance to atmospheric corrosion will be found in the chapter dealing with the specific material. the coordination is based on the hard and soft acid base (HSAB) principle. it is known that aging. A darkbrown to violet patina. This patina is a rust formation that is tightly adhered to the surface and cannot be wiped off. coordination. Under these conditions. In rural areas with little or no pollution. develops over this period. such as chlorides or sulfates. If the former is ratedetermining. or protective film. the degree of sheltering from the atmosphere. corrosion rates are correspondingly low. When small amounts of copper. clean atmosphere. For example. a process that may occur through slow transformation in the solid state or through the dissolution–reprecipitation process. reprecipitation. The presence of atmospheric . Depending on the rate of crystallation and the rate of formation. Even greater corrosive effects result when particles of hygroscopic salts. the weathering steels exhibit a much higher corrosion rate and loose rust particles form. These steels are known as weathering steels.2. The composition of the corrosion products depends on the participating dissolved metal ions and the access to anions solved in the aqueous layer. the corrosion rate becomes stabilized within 3–5 years.

OHK. primarily the hydroxyl radical. and may undergo a variety of chemical changes during transport in the atmosphere. and HCOOH. However. Succeeding chapters deal with the mechanisms of corrosion of these pollutants and their effects on specific materials. Typical ranges of these materials as found under outdoor and indoor conditions are given in Table 2. HCHO. A metal anode 2. This radical converts to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and O2 according to HO2 $ C HO2 $/ H2 O2 C O2 : H2O2 is highly soluble in aqueous environments and is a powerful oxidizing agent. The corrosive effect of these pollutants will be dependent on the specific material with which they come into contact. HNO3. A metal cathode . NO2. the degree to which these pollutants will affect the corrosion rate will be influenced by the other preceding factors that also have an influence on the corrosion rate. Cl2.2.1 and Table 2. and other less common pollutants. producing an end-product of HO2$ (the hydroperoxyl radical).3 Mechanisms of Atmospheric Corrosion of Metals Atmospheric corrosion takes place by means of an electrochemical process occurring in corrosion cells. However. H2S. SO2. H2O2. They may be present as the result of either natural or anthropogenic processes. and NO. H2S. chlorine-containing compounds. It has been proven that the following gaseous constituents are of significant importance in contributing to atmospheric corrosion: O2. NH3. such as the various oxides of nitrogen. such as SO2.Atmospheric Corrosion 49 pollutants. sulfur-containing compounds. OHK is generated by photoinduced dissociation of O3 (ozone) and the subsequent reaction of the electronically excited. ðl! 310 nmÞ 2. energy-rich oxygen atom O ( 0 D) and water vapor: O3 C hn/ ðO 0 DÞ C O2 Oð 0 DÞ C H2 O/ 2OH$ It is possible for the OH$ molecules to oxidize several of the species. and O3. HCl. will stimulate corrosion. A corrosion cell must have the following essential components: 1. COS. All of the species are reactive and as such have a certain average lifetime that is limited by the ability to react with atmospheric oxidizers. a large portion of the OH$ molecules are consumed through reactions with hydrocarbon molecules.

1 (K4) — — Indoor 6.0 (K5) 3.7 (2) 5. and using geometric mean values for the intervals 1.05 0.8 (K2) means 1.2 5.38 0.2–0.8 (K5) 2.4 (1) 2.036 0.4 (K7) 1.1 — — Outdoor Indoor 1.0 (K2) 1.9 (2) 1.04 — 0.4 (K2) 6.1–1.2.0 6.2 0.5 2.2 (3) 2.1 (K2) 6.8 5.1 5.8 2.8 (K1) 1.7 (K4) 1.0 2.07 0.1–30 0.9 (K3) 1.5 (K2) 1.2 1.5 (K3) 2.1 (2) 3.006 0.0 9.05–1 — 0.3 (1) Characteristics of Selected Gaseous Air Constituents Deposition Rate (ng/cm2) Outdoor 5.1 1.07 0.8 (K3) — 7.8 (K4) (K4) (K4) (K5) (K5) (K4) (K3) (K6) — 6.9 (K4) 2.2 (3) 1.50 TABLE 2.3 (K4) Gas H M(atm) O3 H2O2 SO2 H2S NO2 HNO3 NH3 HCl Cl2 HCHO HCOOH 1.9 (K3) 4.8 0.4 3.2 (K3) 2.1 Equilibrium Concentration (mM) Deposition Velocity (cm/s) Outdoor Indoor 0.1 (K1) 1.006 0.6 — 1.4 (2) 7. .2 (K6) 1.6 (K3) — 1.8!10K2.3 (K4) 4.005 0.7 (K2) (5) — (K1) (K3) (4) (1) (1) (K2) (4) (3) Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals The equilibrium solution concentration and deposition rate values were based on correlations from Table 2.5 7.7 1.4 1.4 1.3 (K5) 2.1 (K4) 1.8–2.03 0.05 0.3–2.0 2.1 6.

corrosion products. Atmospheric corrosion differs from the action that occurs in water or underground in that a plentiful supply of oxygen is always present. rather than a direct chemical attack by the elements.Atmospheric Corrosion TABLE 2. Surface imperfections. Almost any lack of homogeneity on the metal surface or in its environment may initiate attack by causing a differential in potentials that results in more or less localization of corrosion. Anodes and cathodes exist on all steel surfaces. In this case. generally related to dissolved oxygen in natural waters. oxygen will usually be present as a depolarizing agent. localized shear and torque during manufacture. but not necessarily of the same composition at the two locations In addition.08a 4–15 4–20 Indoor 3–30 5 0. The presence of contaminants such as sulfur compounds and salt particles also affects the corrosion rate. so that corrosion is apparently uniform rather than in the form of severe pitting as in soil or water. variation in the environment.18 0. grain orientation.005 10 20 Corresponding to 5 wt% HCl. Nevertheless.1–0. . It is a relatively complicated system consisting of a metal. A metallic conductor between the anode and cathode 4. and existing red iron rust will produce anodes and cathodes. the formation of insoluble films and the presence of moisture and deposits from the atmosphere become the controlling factors. For the cell to function. 3.7 1–29 3 13–259 0. mill scale. atmospheric corrosion is mainly electrochemical.001–0. lack of homogeneity of the metal.7–24 9–78 1–10 7–16 0.2 Concentration of Selected Gaseous Air Constituents (ppb) Gas O3 H2O2 SO2 H2S NO2 HNO3 NH3 HCl Cl2 HCHO HCOOH a 51 Outdoor 4–42 10–30 1–65 0.005–0.05–0. This difference in potential is mainly due to contact between dissimilar metallic conductors or differences in concentration of the solution.18–3 !0. there must be a difference in potential between the anode and cathode.3–14 0. The anodic and cathodic areas are usually quite small and close together. An electrolyte (water containing conductive salts) in contact with the anode and cathode.

If the oxide film is stable. or fog. and “wet” atmospheric corrosion that occurs when rain or other forms of bulk water are present with pollutants. it is necessary that an electrolyte be present. the corrosion rate increases sharply.1 Damp Atmospheric Corrosion (Adsorption Layers) Aqueous phase layers consist of water adsorbed on the metal surface. The corrosion rate is directly influenced by the amount of water present on the corroding surface. Wet atmospheric corrosion occurs when bulk water is present. This absorption will take place when the relative humidity exceeds the critical relative humidity. This critical relative humidity corresponds to the vapor pressure above a saturated solution of the salt present. Adsorption layers of electrolyte on the surface of the metal may also be the result of capillary condensation. if exposed to the atmosphere at room temperature with virtually no humidity present. Damp atmospheric corrosion occurs when water is present on the surface of the metal as an aqueous phase layer.52 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals surface electrolyte. two or more electrode reactions must take place: the oxidation of a metal (anodic partial reaction) and the reduction of an oxidizing agent (cathodic partial reaction). water of some form must be present. will form an oxide film. 2. Water may be absorbed from the atmosphere and wet the metal surface if hygroscopic salts are deposited or formed by corrosion. The amount formed is dependent on the relative humidity of the atmosphere and the chemical and physical properties of the corrosion products. protecting the metal. as caused in humidity. Laboratory studies have shown that the corrosion rate above the critical value sharply increases with increasing relative humidity. For atmospheric corrosion to proceed.01 1 10 100 . The value of the critical relative humidity is dependent on the specific metal and the specific metal contaminants. For the electrode reactions to take place. the growth stops and the oxide film reaches a maximum thickness of 1–5 mm. Most metals. The amount of water present on a metal surface has been roughly estimated as follows: Conditions Critical relative humidity 100% relative humidity Covered by dew Wet from rain Amount of Water (g/m2) 0. and the atmosphere.3. When the relative humidity exceeds the value at which the salt starts to absorb water and dissolve. dew. Atmospheric corrosion can fall into two categories: “damp” atmospheric corrosion that takes place in the presence of water vapor and traces of pollutants. For an electrochemical reaction to proceed. such as rain.

on monocrystalline TiO2. which have been experimentally determined by the quartz crystal microbalance method on a number of metals. At this point.1 Gaseous constituents of the atmosphere dissolve in the aqueous layers formed. The water adsorbs on electron-deficient adsorption sites. and a-Fe2O3. whereas the second and third layers are more randomly oriented and less immobile.3 for the approximate number of monolayers of water at 778F/258C and steady-state conditions. forming metal oxyhydroxides. When metal oxides are present. Relative Humidity Relative Humidity (%) 20 40 60 80 Number of Monolayers 1 1. Many different metals adsorb water in similar manners. It is also possible for water to bond in dissociated form. for instance. The dissociation of water forms a mono-molecular thick film of surface hydroxyl groups that is relatively protective and reduces the subsequent reaction rate of water. as observed. The oxygen atom bonds to the metal surface and acts as a Lewis base (donating an electron pair) because the bonding is connected with a net charge transfer from the water molecule to the surface. whereas below this value atmospheric corrosion is negligible. Reference [1] refer to Table 2. Lattice defect sites seem to facilitate dissociation.” At values above the critical relative humidity. the driving force is the formation of metal–oxygen or metal–hydroxyl bonds. The critical relative humidity varies for different metals and pollutants. water may adsorb in either dissociative or molecular form.5–2 2–5 5–10 . atmospheric corrosion rates increase appreciably. atomic oxygen. The first monolayer of water adsorbed to the hydroxylated oxide surface is highly immobile. NiO.3 Approximate Number of Water Monolayers on Different Metals vs. The exact nature of the oxyhydroxide formed seems to have only a minor influence on the water adsorption phenomena. permitting easy dissolution of the gaseous molecules such as SO2 and NO2. the relative humidity is close to the “critical relative humidity. The quantity of reversibly adsorbed water increases with relative humidity and time. In this case. and atomic hydrogen. The properties of wet atmospheric corrosion are approached when the aqueous films are greater than approximately three monolayers. The end-products formed as a result of the water adsorption are adsorbed hydroxyl. Most clean metal surfaces will permit the bonding of water in molecular form. Corrosive attack is generally found in areas where water adsorption is favored.Atmospheric Corrosion 53 Atmospheric corrosion resulting from the reaction of water vapor with a metal surface is a serious problem. TABLE 2.

the presence of pollutants.3. As the dew dries. rain. rain.3. Heavily industrialized areas have reported pH values of dew in the range of 3 or lower. Dew forms when the temperature of the metal surface falls below the dew point of the atmosphere.2 Wet Atmospheric Corrosion (Phase Layers) Wet atmospheric corrosion results from repeated wet and dry cycles. It is also common for dew to form during the early morning hours when the air temperature rises more quickly than the metal temperature. Rain creates thicker layers of electrolyte on the surface than dew. Corrosive action is caused by rain when a phase layer of moisture is formed on the metal surface.2. or snow.1 Dew Dew is an important source of atmospheric corrosion—more so than rain— and particularly under sheltered conditions. This can occur outdoors during the night when the surface temperature of the metal is lowered as a result of radiant heat transfer between the metal and the sky.2 Rain Depending on the conditions. The corrosive activity is increased when the rain washes corrosive promoters such as HC and SO2K from the air 4 (acid rain). dew is an important cause of corrosion. the concentration of contaminants in dew is higher than in rainwater. The high corrosivity of dew is a result of several factors: 1. Relatively speaking. 2. and the formation of an aqueous layer in which the atmospheric pollutants dissolve. fog. which leads to lower pH values. or snow may already contain the dissolved corrodent that then deposits on the surface. The wet cycles result from dew. 2. these contaminants remain on the surface to repeat their corrosive activity with subsequent dew formation.2. the pollutants remain in the electrolyte and continue their corrosive action. fog. Under sheltered conditions. The washing effect that occurs with rain is usually slight or negligible with dew. the dew. Rain has the ability to decrease corrosive action on the surface of the metal as a result of washing away the pollutants deposited during the preceding dry spell. rain can either increase or decrease the effects of atmospheric corrosion. Dew may also form when metal products are brought into warm storage after cold shipment. 2. .3.54 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 2. In many cases. Whether the rain will increase or decrease the corrosive action is dependent on the ratio of deposition between the dry and wet contaminants. With little or no run-off.

Dry deposition is considered to be predominant indoors or in highly polluted areas close to emission sources... or snow to be present. dew. of any gaseous compound and the concentration of the . The ability of the surface layer to accommodate the gaseous constituent (e. Dry deposition is controlled by two factors: aerodynamic processes and surface processes. 2. It is difficult to determine the relative importance of wet deposition because of the incidental nature of the precipitation. the pH of the solution. Aerodynamic processes relate to the actual depletion of the gaseous constituent in the atmosphere (e. In areas where the air is less heavily polluted. fog. resulting from increased relative humidity. type of wind flow. For wet deposition to take place.3 Fog In areas having a high degree of air pollution. precipitation of any kind is not involved. the situation is reversed and the corrosive action of the rain predominates. In those areas where dry deposition is considerably greater than wet deposition of sulfur pollutants.g.g.0 in highly contaminated areas. and the corrosion rate is reduced. high acidity and high concentrations of sulfate and nitrate can be found in fog droplets. the washing effect of the rain will dominate and the corrosive action will be decreased. Greater amounts of gaseous constituents (SO2) can be accommodated with increases in the thickness of the aqueous layer.2–4. In areas of heavy industrial pollution. in the atmospheric region adjacent to the aqueous phase.3.3 Deposit of Pollutants Atmospheric pollutants can be deposited into the aqueous layer by either wet or dry deposition. Whether or not new SO2 can be introduced into the region is dependent on the actual wind speed. and the alkalinity of the solid surface. whereas for dry deposition. 2. skyward-facing metallic surfaces benefit from rain. and shape of the sample. the corrosive action of the rain will assume a much greater importance because it will increase the corrosion rate. The dry deposition velocity is defined as the ratio of deposition rate. and the ability of the system to add new SO2 into this region. SO2) is a phenonomen of the aqueous layer.2. or surface flux. the washing effect of rain predominates. In areas having less pollution. Another factor affecting the relative corrosive rate resulting from rain is the orientation of the metal surface.3. SO2). The pH of fog water has been found to be in the range of 2. it is necessary for rain. which is a surface process.Atmospheric Corrosion 55 When the dry period deposition of pollutants is greater than the wet period deposition of surface compounds.

2. Typical ranges for dry deposition velocities onto various materials under outdoor and indoor conditions are given in Table 2. namely. are ideal absorbers of SO2 for which RsZ0. When the dissolution step is acid-dependent.. Alkaline surfaces. coordination.4 Corrosion Products One of the most important factors influencing the corrosion rate is the formation and protective ability of the corrosion products formed. Formation of the film of corrosion products take place in a sequence of consecutive steps—dissolution. the dry deposition velocity will be the combined effect of both resistances. the dry deposition velocity if dependent on the aerodynamic processes. Acids or bases with tightly held valence electrons that are not easily distorted are hard acids or bases. hard acids are preferably coordinated with hard bases and soft acids are preferably coordinated with soft bases). the actual concentration of most corrosion-stimulating gases under many conditions is not at equilibrium between the gas in the atmosphere and the same gas in the aqueous layer. coordination is based on the hard and soft acid base principle (i. However.56 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals same compound in the atmosphere. Figure 2. such as lead peroxide or triethanolamine. The specific corrosion products formed are dependent on the participating dissolved metal ions and the access to anions solved in the aqueous layer. It can be expressed as the inverse of the sum of two resistances.1 is a schematic illustration of processes occurring at the aqueous layer.1. thermodynamic considerations have been used for predicting the formation of different corrosion end-products and their stability. at highly turbulent air flow conditions RaZ0 and the dry deposition velocity is dependent only on the surface processes. and reprecipitation.e. Even so. Acids or bases having valence electrons . aerodynamic resistance and surface resistance: 1 Ra C Rs Vd Z where VdZdry deposition velocity RaZaerodynamic resistance RsZsurface resistance In general. In this case. In outdoor exposure conditions subject to wet–dry cycles.

Electrochemical reactions. Intermediate acids such as Fe2C.. that are easily polarized or removed are considered to be soft acids or bases.g. e.g. Table 2. FIGURE 2. Cu2C.. e. Such is the case in the transition from amorphous to crystalline state of basic nickel sulfates. Formation of aqueous layer. . SO2 Alt: Oxidation of atmospheric species. with the former being less corrosion-resistant than the latter. H2SO3 oxidants 2− SO4 → − H2SO4 → H+ + SO4 − + + SO 2− HSO4 → H 4 H2SO4 Stronger acidification of aqueous layer. by oxidants or catalytic action or deposition of oxidized species. Me→Men+ + ne− 1 O + H O + 2e− → 2OH−. 57 Reversible adsorption of water. H O H O H O H O H O Result Hydroxylated metal oxide. Acidification of aqueous layer.g. It is known that slow growth or aging of amorphous phases may result in a change to the crystalline state. SO2 − H2SO3 → H+ + HSO3 − + + SO 2− HSO3 → H 3 Formation of Mex(OH)z or MexOy(OH)z. 2 2 2 Deposition of atmospheric species. Based on experience with atmospheric corrosion. This process can occur through slow transformation in the solid state or through dissolution–reprecipitation processes.1 Schematic illustration of processes occurring in or at the aqueous layer. depending on the rate of crystallization and formation. The corrosion products formed may be amorphous or crystalline. Dissolution of species..Atmospheric Corrosion Process Dissociative adsorption of water. whereas soft acids such as CuC and AgC coordinate with reduced sulfur compounds.4 indicates that hard acids like Cr3C and Ti4C form oxygen-containing films. and Zn2C would be expected to coordinate with a broader range of bases. Henry's law. SO2. e.

Ni2C. Cl2. COS. The remaining constituents. contributes to the acidity of the aqueous layer. He. RS 2. oxygen. Of all the molecules involved. Ti4C Bases H2 O. due to their inability to react with metal surfaces. these make up 99. H2O2. Pb2C SO2K. OHK. H2S. Zn2C. nitrogen and the rare gases. Al3C. and the rare gases Ne.5 Specific Atmospheric Corrodents The atmospheric region closest to the earth is known as the troposphere and contains nitrogen.4 Classification of Hard and Soft Acids and Bases Hard Acids HC. and NO2. Mn2C. only oxygen plays a part in atmospheric corrosion. which are also of importance in atmospheric corrosion. SO2K. specifically the hydroxyl radical OHK and O3. HCl. CU2K 4 3 3 Intermediate Fe2C. NOK. a large portion of the hydroxyl molecules are consumed through reactions with hydrocarbon ðl! 310 nmÞ . because of its ability to accept electrons and its involvement in chemical transformations of the atmosphere. Kr.58 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 2. Oxygen. are not of significant importance to atmospheric corrosion. All species are reactive and exhibit a specific average lifetime that is limited by their ability to react with important atmospheric oxidizers. Either natural or anthropogenic processes are responsible for their presence. O2K. NH3. Water acts as an electrolyte and carbon dioxide. HNO3. and they may undergo a variety of chemical changes during their presence in the troposphere. HCHO. RSH. AgC R2S. H2S.9% by weight and of these. SO2. Other materials present in the troposphere that play a part in atmospheric corrosion are water and carbon dioxide. is particularly important to atmospheric corrosion. and HCOOH. NOK 3 2 Soft CuC. and Xe. NaC. energy-rich oxygenation O( 0 D) and water vapor: O3 C hn/ Oð 0 DÞ C O2 Oð 0 DÞ C H2 O/ 2OHK While it is possible for OHK molecules to oxidize several of the corrosionstimulating materials such as SO2. Cu2C. Other trace gases present with a total concentration of less than 10 ppm. Fe3C. The hydroxyl radical is formed by the photoinduced dissociation of ozone and the subsequent reaction of the electronically excited. Cr3C. NO2. which has a concentration of approximately 330 ppm and is highly soluble in water. are O3.

such as NH4HSO4 and (NH4)3H(SO4)2. producing the hydroperoxyl radical. particularly with ammonia that results from the biological decomposition of organic matter. . that disproportionates into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxygen (O2) according to: HO2 C HO2 / H2 O2 C O2 Hydrogen peroxide is a powerful oxidizing agent that is highly soluble in water. Depending on the environment. Once in the atmosphere. HO2. During this period. 2.1 Sulfur-Containing Compounds The most important corrosive contaminant found in industrial atmospheres is sulfur dioxide (SO2). and emission from metal. which results from the combustion of sulfurcontaining coal and oil. the sulfuric acid may be partly neutralized.5. SO2 undergoes physical and chemical state changes. the SO2 may be oxidized to sulfuric acid: SO2 C H2 O C 1 O2 / H2 SO4 2 Sulfur dioxide has a lifetime in the atmosphere of 0. This limits the distance that the SO2 may be transported to a few hundred kilometers. When this occurs. such as nitrogen or oxygen.5–2 days. and pulp and paper industries. that collides with an HSO3$ molecule and removes some of the excess energy released. In the aqueous phase: SO2 C XH2 O Z SO2 $XH2 O SO2 $XH2 O Z HSOK C H3 OC C ðXK2ÞH2 O C H2 O2 3 HSOK/ SO2K 3 4 On moist particles or in droplets of water. petrochemical. are formed. the sulfur dioxide is capable of being oxidized in one or more of the following ways: GM SO2 C OH/ HSO3 $ HSO3 $ C O2 / SO3 C HO2 $ SO3 C H2 O/ H2 SO4 where GM represents another gaseous molecule. particles containing ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and different forms of acid ammonium sulfate.Atmospheric Corrosion 59 molecules.

it is difficult to give ranges.60 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Atmospheric corrosion results from the deposition of these various materials on metal surfaces. Because this concentration can vary considerably. Impaction of sulfate particles 2. moss. and severe pollution. The amount deposited is proportional to the concentration in the atmosphere. Hydrogen sulfide can cause the tarnishing of silver and copper by the . Wet deposition a. This type of corrosion is usually confined to areas having a large population. such as volcanoes. are responsible for the emission of H2S. Under these conditions. is much less. animal shelters. Therefore. sewage plants. many structures. Deposition of the sulfur compounds can be accomplished by: 1. Different materials are subject to different deposition rates. This permits these particles to be transported a distance on the order of 1000 km. dry deposition of SO2 is considered to be the most important sulfur deposition process for the corrosion of structural metals. Dry deposition a. or swamp areas. and geothermal plants. Sulfates are deposited primarily by wet deposition and experience a lifetime of 3–5 days. and particularly on aluminum. Sulfate concentrations are usually less than SO2 concentrations close to the emission source. Order-of-magnitude deposition rates for SO2 in various types of atmospheres are as follows: Type of Atmosphere Rural Urban Industrial Deposition Rate (mg SO2/m2 day) !10 10–100 Up to 200 Another atmospheric corrosion stimulant is hydrogen sulfide (H2S). the atmospheric corrosion caused by sulfur pollutants is usually restricted to an area close to the source. the deposition rate is dependent on the concentration in the air. Natural biological sources. The primary cause of atmospheric corrosion is the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide on metallic surfaces. Removal of gas from the atmosphere by precipitation in the form of rain or fog The primary cause of atmospheric corrosion is dry deposition. garbage dumps. As previously stated. Rusty steel surfaces will adsorb SO2 quantitatively at high relative humidities. and anthropogenic sources such as pulp and paper industries. whereas the deposition on copper. The rate of dry deposition of other sulfur compounds is less than that of sulfur dioxide. catalyst converters in motor vehicles. which consists mainly of the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. Adsorption of gas (SO2) on metal surfaces b.

etc.. produce NO and NO2. the concentrations of HNO3 and nitrates in the immediate area of the emission source are low. The ratio of NO2 to NO in the atmosphere varies with time and distance from the emission source and is usually between 10 and 100.2 Nitrogen-Containing Compounds High-temperature combustion processes such as in power plants. The mechanisms by which nitrogen compounds are deposited are not completely understood. the NO is rapidly converted to NO2 according to: 2NO C O2 / 2NO2 $ At distances further from the emission source.5. vehicles. the NO may also form NO2 through the influence of ozone (O3) as follows: NO C O3 / NO2 C O2 $ The primary nitrogen pollutant near the emission source is nitrogen dioxide (NO2).Atmospheric Corrosion 61 formation of tarnish films. Nitrogen dioxide. NO may be oxidized to nitric acid according to the total reaction: 2NO C H2 O C 3 O2 / 2HNO3 $ 2 Because this reaction has a very low rate. Nitrogen dioxide can be oxidized to nitric acid according to: NO2 C OHK/ HNO3 $ In addition. whereas in the immediate area of ðl! 420 nmÞ . Hydrogen sulfide can react with OHK to form SO2 as follows: H2 S C OHK/ HS$C H2 O HS$ C 2O2 / HO2 $C SO2 2. The combustion gas produced has a much higher percentage of NO than NO2. however. by absorbing solar light and the subsequent formation of ozone through: NO2 C hn/ NO C O O C O2 / O3 plays an important part in atmospheric chemistry. Wet deposition seems to be the primary mechanism at long distances from the emission source.

5.09–0. Most coals have a chlorine content of 0. certain metal production facilities. thereby promoting any oxidation reactions. Ammonia in the aqueous phase establishes equilibrium with NHK.5.62 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals the emission source dry deposition of nitrates appears to dominate. which is highly soluble in water. which is considered to be saturated. Other important sources of chloride emission are coal burning.5 Oxygen (O2) Oxygen is a natural constituent of air and is readily absorbed from the air into a water film on the metal surface. has not yet formed.05% by volume.03–0. cleaning detergents. and cleaning detergents. such as bleaching plants in pulp and paper industries. municipal incinerators. The above percentages correspond to a concentration on the order of 10K5 mol/L when at equilibrium in the water film. Values as high as 0. emit chlorine (Cl2). this deposition decreases as the droplets and crystals are filtered off when the wind passes through vegetation or when the particles settle by gravity. Cl2 can photodissociate into chlorine radicals that react with organic compounds (RH) to form HCl: Cl2 C hn/ Cl: C Cl: RH C Cl:/ R C HCl$ 2. 2.7% have been found in high-chlorine coals. 2. NH3 4 affects the atmospheric corrosion chemistry by partly neutralizing acidifying pollutants. Ammonia (NH3) is emitted primarily from animal shelters. whereas HNO3. and fertilizer production. The combustion of these coals produces an emission of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) that is highly soluble in water and strongly acidifies the aqueous phase. and deicers and dust binders on roads. As the distance from the shore increases.15%. chloride deposition is in the form of droplets or crystals formed by evaporation of spray that has been carried by wind from the sea.4 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in the atmosphere in a concentration of 0. forming particulate ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] and acid ammonium sulfates such as NH4HSO4 and (NH4)3H(SO4)2.3 Chlorine-Containing Compounds In marine environments. Many industrial processes. which results in increased pH.5. if the pH value is 6 or lower. This concentration varies with the time of day and the season of the year. This is due to the fact that NO and NO2 have a low solubility in water. ðl! 430 nmÞ .

except for ammonia and the organic species that usually have a higher concentration indoors than outdoors. a thick oxide film forms that prevents further oxidation. carbon steel does not have the ability to form a protective coating as some other metals do. although large quantities of zinc. copper. Solid particles on the surface are responsible for the start of corrosion. adhesives. 2.7. Pollutant SO2 NO2 H2S O3 HCl Cl2 NH3 Outdoor Range (mg/m3) 3–185 20–160 1–36 10–90 0.6 Summary The concentrations of pollutants found in both indoor and outdoor atmospheres can vary greatly as a result of the type of atmosphere and/or the geographic location.3 0. and plastics. Listed below are some typical indoor and outdoor ranges of inorganic pollutants as found in the United States.7 Effects on Metals Used for Outdoor Applications Carbon steel is the most widely used metal for outdoor applications. the concentration of these stimulants is lower indoors than outdoors. and nickel-bearing alloys are also used. clean atmosphere. 2. In such an atmosphere.Atmospheric Corrosion 63 2. .2–1 7–65 0.6 Indoor Atmospheric Compounds HCHO and HCOOH are important indoor corrosion stimulants that can originate from tobacco smoke. aluminum.3–5 !5% of HCl levels except where local source exists 6–12 Indoor Range (mg/m3) 1–40 3–60 0.1 Carbon Steel Except in a dry. Metals customarily used for outdoor installations will be discussed.004–0.08–0. In general.015 10–150 2.5. combustion of biomass. It is almost impossible to provide a specific range for a specific location unless air samples are taken and analyzed. This higher level is the result of anthropogenic activity. This settled airborne dust promotes corrosion by absorbing SO2 and water vapor from the air.

darkbrown to violet in color. chromium. When chlorides are present. This is particularly true in urban or rural areas. phosphorus.2 Weathering Steels Weathering steels are steels to which small amounts of copper. a rust lighter in color forms that provides the same resistance. This protection usually takes the form of an antirust paint or other type of paint protection formulated for resistance against a specific type of contaminant known to be present in the area. Instead.64 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Even greater corrosive effects result when particles of hygroscopic salts. This patina is a tightly adhering rust formation on the surface of the steel that cannot be wiped off. a longer time may be required to form this film. plastic or metallic coatings are used. This film of loose particles offers little or no protection against continued corrosion. the dark patina does not form. To form the patina. a protective film or patina. Under these conditions. Because the formation of this film is dependent on the pollution in the air. or various combinations thereof have been added. In areas that have a high pollution level of SO2. If the steel is installed in such a manner as to be sheltered from the rain. The corrosion rate of the weathering steels will be the same as the corrosion rate of unalloyed steel when it is continuously exposed to wetness. an additional surface protection must be applied. zinc. On occasion. the protective film will not be formed. manganese. consideration must be given to the design. such as in water or soil. The design should eliminate all possible areas .7. Factors that affect the corrosion resistance of these steels are: Climatic conditions Pollution levels Degree of sheltering from the atmosphere Specific composition of the steel Exposure to most atmospheres results in a corrosion rate that becomes stabilized in 3–5 years. To protect the surface of unalloyed carbon steel. such as sulfates or chlorides. corrosion rates of the weathering steels are equivalent to those of unalloyed carbon steel. This results in a low-alloy carbon steel that has improved corrosion resistance in rural areas or in areas exhibiting relatively low pollution levels. Because the patina formed has a pleasant appearance. loose rust particles are formed with a much higher corrosion rate. settle on the surface and form a corrosive electrolyte. the weathering steels can be used without the application of any protective coating of antirust paint. such as in a marine environment. silicon. in rural areas where there may be little or no pollution. nickel. forms. Over this period. 2. a series of wet and dry periods is required. or aluminum. To receive the maximum benefit from the weathering steels.

A gray patina of corrosion products forms on the surface. The length of time required to form the patina depends on the atmosphere because the color is due to the formation of copper hydroxide compounds. steps should be taken to prevent detrimental staining effects. The shiny metal appearance of aluminum gradually disappears and becomes rough when exposed to SO2. It is important that the design utilizing aluminum eliminate rain-sheltered pockets on which dust and other pollutants may collect. the surface of the aluminum becomes covered with an amorphous oxide film that provides protection against atmospheric corrosion. When pockets are present. This anodic oxidation strengthens the oxide coating and improves its protective properties. the time of wetness increases. When exposed to . When exposed to air. If aesthetics are a consideration. It takes approximately 7 years for these compounds to form. galvanized surfaces will be attacked. the compound is a mixture of copper/hydroxide/sulfate and in marine atmospheres it is a mixture of copper/hydroxide/chloride.7.4 Aluminum Except for aluminum alloys that contain copper as a major alloying ingredient. Consequently. In urban or industrial atmospheres. and the like. Initially. and corrosion products can accumulate. during which time rusty water is produced. the patina has a dark color. The formation of the protective film will be disturbed and corrosion accelerated by the presence of these pollutants. such as coloring the masonry brown. 2.3 Zinc Galvanized steel (zinc coating of steel) is used primarily in rural or urban atmospheres for protection from atmospheric corrosion. 2. In areas where SO2 is present in any appreciable quantity. particularly that caused by SO2. Galvanizing will also resist corrosion in marine atmospheres provided that saltwater spray does not come into direct contact. 2. The design should make maximum use of exposure to the weather. While the protective film is forming. which gradually turns green.5 Copper When exposed to the atmosphere over long periods of time.7. which leads to the development of corrosive conditions.7. so that any staining will not be obvious. copper will form a coloration on the surface known as patina.Atmospheric Corrosion 65 where water. Sheltering from rain should be avoided. rusting will proceed at a relatively high rate. pavements. which in reality is a corrosion product that acts as a protective film against further corrosion. these alloys have a high resistance to weathering in most atmospheres. This rusty water may stain masonry. dirt. the original surface luster can be retained by anodizing.

The corrosion resistance of copper is the result of the formation of this patina or protective film.7. the corrosion rate is very low. 2. P. Atmospheric Degradation and Corrosion Control.A. It is not recommended to design on the basis of a sheltered exposure. When exposed to sulfur-bearing atmospheres. Reference 1. and sun and wind in drying. New York: Marcel Dekker.7. It is desirable to expose this alloy to atmospheres where the beneficial effects of rain in washing the surface. a slight tarnish is likely to develop. a smooth brown adherent film forms. Inconel alloy 600 will remain bright for many years. Copper roofs are still in existence on many castles and monumental buildings that are hundreds of years old. can be utilized. When exposed to rain.6 Nickel 200 When exposed to the atmosphere. The rate of corrosion is extremely slow but will increase as the SO2 content of the atmosphere increases. . tens or hundreds of years may be required to form the patina.7.66 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals clean or rural atmospheres. In sulfurous atmospheres. a thin corrosion film (usually a sulfate) forms dulling the surface.8 Inconel Alloy 600 In rural atmospheres. Schweitzer. 2. When exposed to marine or rural atmospheres. a thin gray-green patina forms.7 Monel Alloy 400 The corrosion of Monel is negligible in all types of atmospheres. 2. 1999.

2. Low-alloy steels are of two types: 1. in atmospheric service they 67 . Hardenable steels that offer higher strength and hardness after proper heat treatment and which contain additions of chromium or molybdenum and possibly nickel. and low cost is the primary metal used for structural applications. and nickel to form a more adherent oxide during atmospheric exposures. Therefore. these are alloys of iron and carbon. These steels were the first developed. As the term “plain carbon steel” implies.35% carbon to make them weldable. However. Weathering steels that contain small additions of copper. Steel’s Cor-Ten steel. chromium. without substantial amounts of other alloying elements. manganese is present to improve notch toughness at low temperatures.S. Tools of iron appeared about this time and an iron furnace has been found. Steel is basically an alloy of iron and carbon with the carbon content up to approximately 2 wt%. An example is U. abundance. formability. Common examples include 4130 and 4340 steels. is primarily responsible for the properties of carbon steel. Steel. are the least expensive. 3.3 Corrosion of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Smelting of iron to extract it from its ore is believed to have started around 1300 BC in Palestine. The presence of carbon. The steels discussed in this chapter contain less than 0. the ores of which are refined to produce steel.1 Corrosion Data Carbon and low-alloy steels are primarily affected by general or uniform corrosion. and have the widest range of applications. because of its strength. Iron occurs naturally in the form of various oxides.

67 Corrosion rate mpy HCI 20 10 0 22 C pH = 10 Water pH pH = 5 pH = 4 FIGURE 3. The effect is dramatic. Some organic systems are also capable of causing some severe corrosion. These localized corrosions penetrate faster than overall general corrosion.7 the corrosion rate reaches 80 mpy (2 mm/year). oxygen concentration cells. dissolved oxygen is another key variable in aqueous corrosion. In this range there is an alkaline solution of saturated ferrous hydroxide covering the steel’s surface. stagnant conditions are to be avoided when possible because they are exactly where the various forms of localized corrosion become serious. and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). this hydroxide solution has a constant pH of about 9. Figure 3. the cathodic reduction changes to the relatively rapid reduction of hydrogen ions in the acidic solution to produce hydrogen gas bubbles.5. Hydrochloric acid starts the reaction at pH 4. In dilute water solutions. the most important variable is acidity or solution pH. including pitting. The diagram is suitable for water flowing at a moderate flow rate. As shown. Under stagnant conditions the corrosion rate is lower. There is a range of pH from 5.1 shows the effect of pH on the corrosion of steel at 228C (778F) and 408C (1048F).68 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals tend to return to their oxide form by a process known as rusting. The corrosion of steel is very complex. Water is the most common solvent in everything from dilute solutions to concentrated acids and salt solutions. However. Thus. The rate-determining reaction in this corrosive range is the diffusion of oxygen through the ferrous hydroxide film to feed the electrochemical cathodic reduction of the oxygen to the hydroxyl ion. carbonic acid (dissolved carbon dioxide) initiates it at pH 5.5 to 10 where the corrosion rate is constant at about 10–12 mpy (250–305 mm/year). Different acids have different values of pH where the onset of this rapid reaction occurs. with over a dozen variables determining the rate of corrosion. At lower pH values.1 Effect of pH on the corrosion of carbon steel. . 40 30 Oxygen: 6 mL/L CO2 40 C 76 mpy @ pH = 2.5. at pH 2.

then to oxygen passivation that lowers corrosion. At 6–8 ft/s (1. In an open system. chromium. the corrosion rate increases to a maximum around 1 or 2 ft/s. The behavior of weathering low-alloy steels in aqueous corrosion tests and applications is unpredictable. the corrosion rate increases up to around 40 ft/s (12 mm/s) where the attack changes to erosion–corrosion. however. . temperature plays a major role.2 Effect of water flow velocity on the corrosion of steel.5 shows this effect. Because oxygen provides the cathodic reaction in the corrosion process. another variable affecting corrosion. a higher temperature will drive off oxygen.2 also shows the effect of roughness of the steel.8–2. a complete level of passivation. Turbulence has a similar effect.Corrosion of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels 69 The next important variable to consider is flow rate. and nickel showed superior Municipal water @ 21°C in steel tubes 50 40 Corrosion rate 30 mpy 20 10 0 Rough steel Polished steel 2 4 Flow velocity. In 1953. the temperature effect is more complicated.4 show the effects of increasing flow velocity for distilled water and seawater. Figure 3. as with other chemical reactions. phosphorus. Figure 3.1 shows the increase in corrosion from increasing temperature. This increase comes from an increase in the oxygen supplied for the oxygen reduction process occurring on the cathodic areas of the steel. At 39 ft/s the corrosion rate in distilled water at 508C (1228F) exceeds 200 mpy (5 mm/year). the corrosion rate settles at 10–15 mpy (250–380 mm/year). With corrosion.2 shows the effect of flow on the corrosion of steel from stagnant to 8 ft/s. eventually to very low levels. if there is no oxygen there will be no corrosion. With higher flow rates. Increased oxygen leads first to higher corrosion. Note that as the flow rate rises from zero. Figure 3. which is the common range of flow rates in the chemical industry. Figure 3. with the corrosion beginning to decrease around 808C (1768F) and becoming very low above 1008C (2128F). Figure 3. early tests on weathering steels containing copper. In neutral or alkaline waters. Higher flow rates then supply enough oxygen so that the adsorbed oxygen and the ferrous hydroxide layer can cover the entire steel surface. which means that any protective oxide or adsorbed layer is stripped away and bare steel is open to accelerated attack.4 m/s). ft/s 6 8 FIGURE 3.3 and Figure 3.

After 4 years immersion. . For comparison. 39 ft/s Corrosion rate mpy 300 200 100 Mild swirling 0 4 6 8 pH of solution 10 FIGURE 3. However. Cor-Ten steel showed an average corrosion rate of 2.5 mm/year) in a 0.4 Effect of seawater velocity on corrosion of steel (ambient temperature). chromium.0–1.5–4.5 M sodium sulfate solution containing 100 ppm oxygen with carbon 40 30 Corrosion rate mpy 20 10 0 0 5 10 Flow velocity. for example. corrosion resistance in immersion tests in river water at a pH of 3.70 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 400 Erosion corrosion.7 mpy (69 mm/year) with a maximum pit depth of 24 mils (360 mm). ft/s 15 FIGURE 3. low-alloy steels performed worse than carbon steel. Three alloy steels containing phosphorus. and nickel in various permutations corroded severely at 40–60 mpy (1. copper.3 Effect of pH of pure water on erosion–corrosion of steel at 508C at flow velocity of 39 ft/s.1 mpy (104 mm/year) and pitted to a maximum of 24 mils (530 mm). in the laboratory tests described above involving carbon dioxide and sodium sulfate. carbon steel corroded at an average of 4.

5 Mo 9 Cr–1 Mo 3. the TABLE 3. especially the 9% chromium steel.5 Effect of temperature on corrosion of iron in water containing dissolved oxygen.2 0.8 9. carbonic acid can be more aggressive that other acids.25 Cr–1 Mo 5 Cr–0. in this instance exceeding an order of magnitude in some cases. the alloy steels are generally more resistant than the carbon steels.3 1.3 0.5 3.6 1.1 4.7 3.1 Overall Corrosion Rate.1 2.1 5.1 4. For comparison.2 3.0 4. Again.1 1.6 3.2 Propionic Acid (200 ppm) 7 Days 1.2 0.Corrosion of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels 71 30 Closed system Corrosion 20 rate mpy 10 Open system 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Temperature. dioxide bubbling through at 258C (778F).5 1.5 1.1.5 Ni 5 Ni 9 Ni 7 Days 62 60 77 59 46 2 28 26 27 70 Days 5. This is reasonable because steels become “stainless” at the 11–13% chromium level. as in Figure 3. Table 3. The table includes results for solutions containing 200 ppm propionic acid and 200 psig carbon dioxide at 1308F (548C).8 1. 1308F (548C) (During Indicated Exposure Time). with the exception of some of the Cr–Mo steels in the propionic acid tests.5 1.5 3.7 .1.3 3. In Table 3.1 shows corrosion data for several low-alloy steels compared with carbon steels. Furthermore.1 1. mpy Carbonic Acid (200 psig) Alloy Carbon steels API J-55 API H-40 API N-80 Alloy steels 2. four carbon steels corroded at rates of only 2 mpy (50 mm/year).6 1.0 70 Days 4. Celsius 140 0 FIGURE 3.

steel can be used to handle caustic soda. and aqueous nitrite solutions.. up to approximately 75% at 2128F (1008C). In general. If small amounts of water are present. At concentrations between 90 and 95% sulfuric acid. and it is higher both near cities and near the ocean because of the higher electrical conductivity of the rain and the tendency to form soluble chlorides or sulfates that cause the removal of protective scale. the products of corrosion are either oxides or carbonates. In noncontaminated atmospheres. The large decrease in corrosion rates in carbonic acid between 7 and 70 days is attributed to the eventual formation of protective surface films that may be fragile under certain fluid flow conditions. Under these conditions. If iron contamination is permissible.72 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals higher corrosion rates for the other Cr–Mo steels in the propionic acid solution are still in a usable range for many applications. between 80 and 90% it is serviceable at room temperature.2 provides the compatibility of carbon steel with selected corrodents. Carbon steel is not normally used with hydrochloric. Carbon steel is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the presence of hydroxides. even in low concentrations. which dissolves when the surface becomes wet. This film practically prevents further corrosion. FeOOH may also form. Stress relieving should be employed to reduce caustic embrittlement. When steel is exposed to a clean. hydrogen bromide. Atmospheric corrosion of steel is a function of location. Compounds that hydrolyze to produce acids. In country air. hydrogen sulfide gas. or nitric acids. for example. carbon tetrachloride) that react with water to produce hydrochloric acid 3. this includes chlorinated hydrocarbons (e. hydrogen chloride. In industrial atmospheres. initiation of corrosion may occur at surface inclusions or MnS. A more comprehensive list will be found in Reference [1]. dry atmosphere. Inorganic corrosives dissolved and dissociated in organic solvents. the initiation of corrosion on a clean metal surface is a very slow process. the surface is covered ˚ with a 20–50-A thick oxide film consisting of a layer of Fe2O3. hydrochloric acid dissolved in methanol Table 3. carbon steel should not be used in contact with dilute acids. sulfuric acid is present. phosphoric. the presence of solid particles on the surface is a more important . steel can be used up to the boiling point. Corrosion is more rapid in industrial areas because of the presence of the acid. However. In general. and near the ocean some salt is in the air. even if the atmosphere is saturated with water vapor.g. there are four types of organic compounds that can be corrosive to carbon steel: 1. Chelating agents that take up or combine with transition elements 4. Organic acids such as acetic or formic 2. gaseous hydrogen.

all conc.Corrosion of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels TABLE 3. Diesel fuels Ethanol Ferric chloride Formaldehyde.2 Compatibility of Carbon Steel with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Aqua regia. all conc. vapors Hydrogen sulfide. weta Iodine Lactic acid Lard oil Linoleic acid Linseed oil Magnesium chloride. dil. all conc. Citric acid. dry Hydrogen sulfide. 3:1 Benzene Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Bromine gas. dry Aluminum fluoride Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide. Hydrochloric acid. Acetic acid vapors Acetone Aluminum chloride. 30% Mercuric chloride Mercuric nitrate Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Mineral oil Nitric acid Oil vegetable 8F/8C 130/54 X X 300/149 X X X 210/99 X 140/60 X X X 140/60 X X 200/93 240/116 X X X 170/77 400/204 X X X X X X 90/32 450/232 X X X X 90/32 80/27 X 100/38 200/93 200/93 100/38 100/38 X 160/71 (continued) 73 . dil Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrofluoric acid. to 50% Formic acid Glucose Green liquor Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid. moist Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.

to 30% Sulfur dioxide. Vols. wet Sulfuric acid. chromium. At concentrations below 90%. demineralized Water. Schweitzer. Rusting is rapidly initiated in SO2-polluted atmosphere. The sulfur dioxide is oxidized on moist particles or in droplets of water to sulfuric acid.2 Continued Chemical Oleum Oxalic acid. factor for the start of corrosion. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. distilled Water. and manganese. nickel. all conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 5th ed. phosphorus. They are produced by alloying carbon steel with copper. One such example is U. . such as sulfates or chlorides. Sulfur dioxide may be absorbed on steel surfaces under atmospheric conditions. Steel’s Cor-Ten steel. 30% Potassium hydroxide. Weathering steels were developed to provide protection from atmospheric corrosion.S. Perchloric acid Petrolatum Phenol Phosphoric acid Potassium chloride. 50% Propylene glycol Sodium chloride. sewage White liquor Wines Xylene 8F/8C 80/27 X X X 210/99 X 210/99 X 210/99 150/66 210/99 X X X X X X 90/32 X X 200/93 Note: The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. sea Water. high concentrations of SO2 (O10 ppm) create low pH in the surface film. salt Water. Source: From P.74 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 3. a Hydrogen embrittlement may occur depending upon conditions. 1–4. The rate of adsorption on rusty or polished steel surfaces depends on the relative humidity. silicon. that form a corrosive electrolyte on the surface.A. Of greater importance are particles of hygroscopic salts. Airborne dust that has settled on the steel surface may prompt corrosion by absorbing SO2 and water vapor from the atmosphere. sulfuric acid is corrosive to steel. New York: Marcel Dekker. 30% Sodium hydroxide.. to 90% Water. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 2004.

a longer time may be required to form this film. steel with 0.12 max 0. which it also contains. In general.20–0.30–0. the protective film will not be formed.50 0.05 max 0.Corrosion of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels 75 These low-alloy steels have improved corrosion resistance in outdoor atmospheres in rural areas. corrosion rates of the weathering steels are equivalent to those of unalloyed carbon steel.07–0. A high-strength low-alloy steel having the following composition (percentage) will corrode only half as much as steel having 0. Phosphorus.75 max 0. Factors that affect the corrosion resistance of these steels are: Climatic conditions Population levels Degree of sheltering from the atmosphere Specific composition of the steel Exposure to most atmospheres results in a corrosion rate that becomes stabilized in 3–5 years. a protective film or patina is formed that is dark-brown to violet.50–1. both of which are helpful in increasing strength and adding resistance to corrosion. or in areas having relatively low pollution levels. but has little or no favorable effect when immersed continuously in water or when exposed to severe industrial corrosive conditions. this high-strength alloy also contains notable amounts of chromium and nickel. Over this period. is another element that aids in providing protection against atmospheric corrosion. the presence of oxygen or of acidic conditions promotes the corrosion of carbon steel.50 0. The patina is a tightly adhering rust formation on the surface of the steel that cannot be wiped off. in rural areas where there is little or no pollution.32% copper: C Mn P S Si Cu Cr Ni 0. The protective action of copper and other alloying elements is due to a resistant form of oxide that forms a protective coating under atmospheric conditions.32% copper will corrode only half as much after 5 years as steel with 0. When chlorides are present. Alkaline conditions inhibit corrosion. This film of loose particles offers little or no protection against continued corrosion. Because the formation of this film is dependent on pollution in the air. In an industrial atmosphere.16 0. loose particles are formed with a much higher corrosion rate.05% copper. In areas that have a high pollution level of SO2. such as in a marine environment. .25 0. Under these conditions.55 max It will be noted that in addition to copper.

1 to 0. a rust. Several theories have been proposed regarding the mechanisms by which copper improves the corrosion resistance. such as in soil or water. The corrosion mechanism for weathering steels is similar to that of unalloyed carbon steels. the time of wetness increases. Consequently. The corrosion process may be affected in several ways by this rust layer. An increase in the copper content from 0. so that staining effects will not be obvious. water.76 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals To form a patina. pavements. lighter in color. The design should eliminate all possible areas where dirt. or aluminum. The most probable theory is that copper forms basic sulfates with low solubility that precipitate within the . When pockets are present. during which time rusty water is produced. The ground area exposed to staining can be covered with an easily exchangeable material such as gravel. and the like. If the steel is installed in such a manner as to be sheltered from the rain. This rusty water may stain masonry. Each of the alloying ingredients reacts differently to improve the resistance of weathering steels to atmospheric corrosion. The cathodic reaction may be affected by the low diffusion rate of oxygen. Copper has the most pronounced effect of any of the individual elements in decreasing the corrosion rate. steps should be taken to prevent detrimental staining effects. and corrosion products can accumulate.2–0. whereas the anodic reduction may be retarded by limiting the supply of water and corrosion-stimulating ions that can reach the surface of the steel. such as brown coloring of masonry. rusting will proceed at a relatively high rate. forms that provides the same resistance. The corrosion rate of the weathering steels will be the same as the corrosion rate of unalloyed steel when it is continuously exposed to wetness. The rust forms a more dense and compact layer on the weathering steels than on unalloyed carbon steels. this leads to the development of corrosive conditions. Instead. zinc. The design should make maximum use of exposure to weather. consideration must be given to the design. the dark patina does not form.4% decreases the corrosion rate by up to 70%. In addition. a series of wet and dry periods is required. dust. The rust layer more effectively screens the steel surface from the corrosive environments of the atmosphere. and thus eliminate their detrimental effect. the increased electrolyte resistance may also decrease the corrosion rate. the weathering steels can be used without the application of any protective coating of antirust paint. Only a slight improvement in the corrosion resistance results from an increase of copper in the range 0. Another theory is that copper ions dissolved from the base metal are able to precipitate sulfide ions originating either from sulfide inclusions in the steel or from the atmospheric pollution. One theory is that the beneficial effect is due to the formation of a surface coating of metallic copper that acts either as protection on itself or promotes anodic passivation by supporting the cathodic reaction. To achieve the maximum benefit from the weathering steels. Because the patina formed has a pleasant appearance. Sheltering from the rain should be avoided.5%. While the protective film is forming.

This layer acts as a barrier to the transport of water.3 4. Weathering steels usually contain 0.5 0. As indicated previously.8 12.4–1% whereas nickel is usually added up to 0. chromium and nickel further increase the corrosion resistance of weathering steels. hydrogen effects. and pollutants. acting as transportation barriers in the same manner as the basic sulfates previously mentioned.2 3. Chromium is usually added to a content of 0.2 36.1 1. TABLE 3. Phosphorus may form layers of insoluble phosphates in the rust. They will suffer the same types of corrosion as other low-alloy carbon steels. Carbon steel and low-alloy carbon steels can be subjected to a number of types of localized corrosion.3 Atmospheric Corrosion of Various Steels in Different Atmospheric Types Average Reduction in Thickness (mil) Atmospheric Type Urban Industrial Rural Severe marine 80 ft from ocean Exposure Time (years) 3.1%.2 28.5 7. sulfide stress cracking (SSC). Nickel is supposed to act by forming insoluble basic sulfates on pores of the rust layer.8 2.0 Carbon Steel 3.7 38.5% copper. weathering steels possess no particular advantage of corrosion protection in heavily polluted industrial atmospheres or in direct contact with corrodents.5 3. and corrosion fatigue.5 2.01 to 0. A comparison of the corrosion rates of carbon steel.3 2.8 . including SCC. By increasing the phosphorus content from less than 0. The mechanical properties of the steel are improved by both elements.0 Destroyed A242 (K11510) Cu–P Steel 1. oxygen. thereby decreasing their porosity.0 57.5 1.1 1. a copper–phosphorus low-alloy steel.4 A558 (K11430) Cr–V–Cu Steel 1.3.0 3. and a chromium–vanadium–copper low-alloy steel is shown in Table 3.5 5. Chromium appears to be more effective than nickel. Phosphorus also helps to improve the corrosion resistance of weathering steels. together with copper and phosphorus. a 20–30% improvement in the corrosion resistance of copper-bearing steels is realized. pitting.Corrosion of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels 77 pores of the rust layer.3 19. They promote the formation of a dense layer of amorphous FeOOH next to the steel surface.3 1.65%. When added in combination with copper.0 7. Chromium is enriched in the inner rust layer.0 3.2–0.4 1.5 3.1 2.5 7.

Sb. Ti. B. A suitable environment (chemicals capable of causing SCC in carbon steel and low-alloy carbon steels) 2. hydrogen sulfide gas. and Bi ions in aqueous solution. Usually. the metal or alloy is virtually free of corrosion over most of its surface. even at low concentrations include: hydroxides. Zr.2% water to the ammonia. Various grades of A517 steel contain small amounts of Cr. Alloys affected include carbon steel in storage tanks and ASTM A517 quenched and tempered steel in motor vehicle cargo tanks. Many of these chemical systems will crack steel at room temperatures. gaseous hydrogen. A tensile stress. Two such formed hydrogen atoms may combine to form a hydrogen molecule. yet fine cracks penetrate through the surface at points of stress. . Chemical species that induce SCC in carbon and low-alloy carbon steels.78 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 3. hydrogen bromide. and stress-relieving tanks or fabricating with hot formed or stress-relieved heads. aqueous nitrate solutions. sulfides act to promote the entry of the hydrogen atoms into the base metal. The conditions necessary for SCC are: 1. Ni. The majority of such molecules will form hydrogen bubbles and float away harmlessly. Appropriate temperature and pH values One advantage of carbon steel is that SCC can be prevented by relieving stress after fabrication. Mo. SSC will occur when a critical concentration of hydrogen is reached while a tensile stress exceeding a threshold level is present. gaseous chlorine. As. eliminating air contamination from ammonia systems.3 Sulfide Stress Cracking Many corrosion processes produce hydrogen ions that combine with electrons from the base metal to form hydrogen atoms. hydrogen chloride.2 Stress Corrosion Cracking Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) occurs at points of stress. carbon monoxide–carbon dioxide–water gas mixtures. However. either residual or operational 3. This cracking can be alleviated by adding 0. and Cu. Although H2S does not actively participate in the SSC reaction. MnS and MnSe inclusions in the alloy. V. a percentage of the hydrogen atoms will diffuse into the base metal and embrittle the crystalline structure. Another chemical that causes SCC in steels is anhydrous ammonia. 3.

which obviously affects buried pipelines. Below 208F (K78C). These pits are generally shallow.5 Hydrogen Damage The body-centered crystal structures of carbon and low-alloy steels are susceptible to four types of hydrogen damage. and Mo and exposed to a variety of soils for 13 years. and keeping the hardness level below 22 HRC. Cu. 3. By carefully monitoring the processing of carbon and low-alloy carbon steels. protective coatings and cathodic protection are the best means of reducing corrosion in buried pipelines. two of which are lowtemperature processes and two are high-temperature processes: Low-temperature Hydrogen blistering Hydrogen embrittlement High-temperature Decarburization Hydrogen attack The diffusion of hydrogen through steels to harm mechanical properties involves atomic or nascent hydrogen because molecular hydrogen cannot . the pitting rate is 5–45 mpy. the diffusion rate is so slow that the critical concentration is never reached. while the overall corrosion rate in the aerated splash zone is as high as 17 mpy. Temperature is also a factor. Soils will pit steels. resistivity and degree of aeration have more influence on the severity of corrosion than the alloy content of the steel. these steels will have acceptable resistance to SCC.Corrosion of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels 79 The susceptibility of carbon steels to SSC is directly related to their strength or hardness levels. the conclusion was that factors such as soil pH. The most severe SSC takes place in the temperature range of 20–1208F (K7 to 498C). the time to failure decreases rapidly for a given stress level.4 Pitting Carbon and low-alloy carbon steels may pit under flow or stagnant conditions. 3. the diffusion rate of hydrogen is so fast that the hydrogen passes through the material so quickly that the critical concentration is not reached. In any case. In one study of 10 carbon and low-alloy carbon steels containing Cr. Ni. As carbon of low-alloy carbon steel is heattreated to progressively higher levels of hardness. In seawater. Above 1208F (498C).

In closed systems like pickling operations. Figure 3. the yield strength must be below 550 MPa (80 ksi) for good resistance. arsenic compounds. electroplating. especially above 1508F (658C). Generally. hydrogen atoms may penetrate the crystal lattice and collect in fissures or cavities in the steel. misapplied cathodic protection.6 shows the Nelson diagram that depicts the limit of service conditions for carbon and alloy steels in hydrogen services. high temperature. Welding conditions should be dry and lowhydrogen filler metal should be used to minimize hydrogen embrittlement. 3.5. Alloys containing nickel or molybdenum are less susceptible.4 Hydrogen Attack High-temperature hydrogen attack refers to a reaction between hydrogen and a component of the alloy. These atoms then combine into hydrogen gas molecules. 3.3 Decarburization The hardness and strength of a steel depends on its carbon content.5. and phosphorus-containing ions.80 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals diffuse through metals. and welding. chemical inhibitors are added to the acid to reduce the hydrogen penetration. but if hydrofluoric acid or hydrogen sulfide is present.5. Common sources of atomic hydrogen include corrosion (including the acid pickling of steel). In fact. which is a more complicated metallurgical effect.2 Hydrogen Embrittlement Another harmful effect of hydrogen penetration of steel is embrittlement. the alloys are most susceptible in their highest strength levels. For low-alloy steels. 3. A loss of carbon (decarburization) lowers the tensile strength of steels and can be caused by moist hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures. moist atmospheres. If hydrogen is initially present in a steel. this embrittlement decreases with increasing service temperature. for example from electroplating. in steels.5. hydrogen embrittlement is not usually a problem in steels with yield strengths below about 1000 MPa (150 ksi). hydrogen reacts with iron carbide at high temperatures to form methane gas according to the . For example. 3. cyanides.1 Hydrogen Blistering During some acid services. In petroleum process streams. this problem is promoted by so-called hydrogen evolution poisons such as sulfides. the hydrogen can be baked out. such as acid pickling of steels. possibly involving the interaction of hydrogen atoms with the tip of an advancing crack. eventually reaching pressures of several hundred thousand atmospheres and forming blisters on the steel’s surface.

0 Cr−0. holes. Stress raisers such as notches.5 Mo Carbon steel Satisfactory 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Hydrogen partial pressure.0 Cr−0.5 Mo °C 300 600 300 FIGURE 3.25 Cr−0. psia 1.25 Cr−1. following reaction: CðFeÞ C 4HðFeÞ Z CH4 : Because methane cannot diffuse out of steel. One common example involves .Corrosion of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels 1500 81 Decarburization 1.0 Mo 600 1200 Temperature °F 900 1. the stress range required to cause fatigue failure diminishes progressively with increasing time and with the number of cycles of applied stress. cyclical stress factors. weld defects. 3.6 Schematic of hydrogen damage for low-alloy steels in hydrogen service.6 Corrosion Fatigue As the name implies. It is noteworthy that water vapor and carbon dioxide at high temperatures can also decarburize steel. it accumulates and causes fissuring and blistering. 3. For many materials. corrosion fatigue is affected by both the severity of corrosive conditions and mechanical. or corrosion pits can initiate fatigue cracks and a corrosive environment can reduce crack initiation time.5 Mo 1. Decarburization and hydrogen attack above alloy lines. thereby decreasing alloy strength and ductility. Alloy steels containing chromium and molybdenum are beneficial in such services because the carbides formed by the alloying elements are more stable than iron carbide and therefore resist hydrogen attack. bacterial colonies change the chemistry of an alloy’s surface and induce rapid corrosion.5 Mo 2.25 Cr−0.7 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Under certain conditions.

often occuring within weeks of introducing the bacteria.82 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) that produce acidic hydrogen sulfide. however. There are various treatments used to prevent or alleviate MIC. Vols. will be ineffectual if the bacteria have previously formed protective nodules as their habitat..5 at temperatures of 328F (08C) to 2128F (1008C). Corrosion Resistance Tables. This. 2004. 1–4. including the addition of biocides such as ozone or hydrogen peroxide to the water.5 m/s) because bacteria require low-flow conditions to colonize. 5th ed.A. Reference 1. There are 50–60 bacteria species believed to be associated with MIC.0 to 10. These nodules must be mechanically removed to kill the bacteria. The corrosive attack can be rapid. both aerobic and anaerobic species. Then other bacteria may act on the hydrogen sulfide and produce sulfuric acid. where the bacteria live. which is highly corrosive to steel. so the affected solutions can be quite varied. or tubereles. . These acids may be highly concentrated and cause pitting and rapid failure in the “slime” nodules. New York: Marcel Dekker. If this is not possible. Bacteria must always be assumed to be present in untreated water. One solution that suffered MIC involved dissolved polymeric organic materials and ammonium phosphate compounds. Other instances of MIC report corrosion due to the formation of acetic acid and formic acid. P. MIC is generally associated with stagnant or low-flow aqueous systems over a range of pH values from 1. so it is obvious that untreated hydrotest water should be removed from a system or vessel as soon as possible. Schweitzer. the water should be kept flowing at velocities over 5 ft/s (1.

the cast compositions are altered from the wrought alloys to improve castability. laboratory or field corrosion testing is needed. Carbon pick-up and mold reactions are just two of the factors that influence corrosion resistance. Cast coupons should be removed from larger cast pieces similar to the equipment they are to represent. silicon is added to improve fluidity when pouring the molten metal into a mold. however. and forgings. tubing. etc. In nearly all cases. of material is removed. Wrought metal is metal that has been formed into a desired shape by working (rolling. sheet. air-set sand. etc. rammed graphite. but the composition cannot be produced in the wrought form.4 Corrosion of Cast Iron and Cast Steel The corrosion resistance of a cast alloy is often different from that of a wrought equivalent—sometimes better. This includes bar. It is important for the end user to be familiar with how various components are fabricated—from castings. plate. Castings are produced by different molding processes: green sand. The corrosion resistance of most machined surfaces will be independent of the molding process provided that 1/16–1/8 in. Most available corrosion data supplied by producers or in the literature is for wrought material. The corrosion resistance of an as-cast surface is a function of the moulding process.). pouring temperature. Both as-cast and machined surfaces should be tested. Some cast alloys have high silicon and/or carbon contents for superior corrosion or abrasion resistance. resin-bonded sand. or whatever the case may be. and mold surface treatments or mold washes. investment. extruding. To make an accurate prediction of the corrosion resistance of a cast material in a specific environment. It is also true that some cast alloys can be produced with superior properties. forgings. the low ductility and high strength may make rolling and/or forging impossible. Cast and wrought alloys often behave differently in identical service conditions. bar stock. forging. Use of this data for selection of critical castings may have undesirable results. The minimum section thickness for sand-type processes should be 1 in. For example. sometimes worse. 83 . pipe.

The UNS designations start with a single letter that is followed by five numerical digits.). (2) Alloy Casting Institute (ACI).84 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals At the present time there are three designation systems commonly used for cast materials. The second letter ranges TABLE 4. they begin with either a C (for corrosion-resistant materials) or an H (for heat-resistant materials). A is for aluminum alloys. the letter is suggestive of the family of metals (e. and (3) the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). except tool steels Miscellaneous steels and ferrous alloys Low melting temperature metals and alloys Miscellaneous nonferrous metals and alloys Nickel and nickel alloys Precious metals and alloys Reactive and refractory metals and alloys Heat. In this system. etc. If possible. Where possible. They are (1) the Unified Numbering System (UNS).. Designations in the ACI system begin with two letters that are followed by two other numerical digits. The Unified Numbering System is the most widely accepted. Some also end with additional letters and/or numerical digits.and corrosion-resistant (stainless) steels Tool steels Welding filler metals Zinc and zinc alloys .1 provides the complete listing of the letter designations. Examples include: A92024 C36000 S31600 N10276 Aluminum alloy 2024 Copper alloy 360 Type 316 stainless steel Nickel alloy C276 A complete listing of all UNS members assigned to date can be found in the publication Metals and Alloys in the Unified Numbering System. common designations are used within the five numerical digits for user convenience. the metals and alloys are divided into 18 series.1 Letter Prefixes Used in UNS Prefix A C D E F G H J K L M N P R S T W Z Alloy Series Aluminum and aluminum alloys Copper and copper alloys Steels with special mechanical properties Rare earths and rate earth-like metals and alloys Cast irons Carbon and alloy steels AISI H-steels (hardenability controlled) Cast steels. C for copper alloys. N for nickel alloys.g. Table 4. Usually.

Some designations include the material type. Cu 3 Mo 2. Others are proprietary alloys developed as casting alloys.Corrosion of Cast Iron and Cast Steel 85 from A to Z.02 1.6 Designation CA15 CD4MCu CF8M CF3M CN7M CW2M CZ100 HK40 . compositional TABLE 4. Because ACI no longer exists. Maximum 0. an alloy containing 12% chromium and no nickel would begin CA.40 Other Alloying Elements. B. Alloys in-between begin with intermediate letters.5). whereas a material with 100% nickel would begin CZ.08 0.07 0. The only alloys discussed here are those covered by ASTM specifications.5 Mo 2.04 0.2. When there are no industry specifications. The maximum content is indicated by the numerical digits (percent ! 100). Nominal 12 25 19 19 21 16 0 25 Nickel. and to a lesser degree upon the chromium content. ASTM also has their own system of designations for many special carbon and alloy steel products as well as for cast iron. The presence of other alloying ingredients is indicated by additional letters. Nickel–copper alloys do not follow the scheme shown in Table 4.2. Some grades are numbered in sequence as added to a specification. Nickel– molybdenum alloys use the letter N as the beginning letter.2 Examples of ACI Designations Alloying Elements (%) Chromium. and WCC for welded carbon steel grades S.03 0. Refer to Table 4. either by the end-user or by the foundry. the more the end-user should know about the material.5 Mo 1. and others indicate a property such as strength. Examples are shown in Table 4. They use M as the first letter (examples are M35-1 and M25.3 for examples. Nominal — Mo 3. The more critical the applications. depending upon the nickel content. ASTM has adopted the system and assigns new designations as other alloys are developed.15 0. and carefully reviewed by the end-user.0 0. WCB. and any intermediate fabricators. a private specification should be developed. Use of industry specifications is not a guarantee that the required casting quality will be obtained. The UNS numbers have not been adopted for these materials because they have no relation with any common designation. Most cast alloys are derived from their wrought counterparts. the foundry. Extensive testing is required to develop a melting practice. For example. such as N7Mn and N12MV. such as WCA. Nominal — 6 10 10 29 68 100 20 Carbon.5 Mo 2. and C.

grade B Class 3 cast iron Grade 135–125: 135 min tensile. As the iron is removed. The basic types of cast irons are gray iron. so that pattern making is simplified compared to other alloys. grade C Grade LCB: low temperature welded carbon steel casting.1 Cast Irons The general term cast iron is inclusive of a number of alloys of iron. Typically. This composition describes all grades of cast irons with properties ranging from highly wear-resistant hard materials to ductile energy-absorbing alloys suitable for applications involving high-energy and shock loads. The carbon content of the alloy can be present in several different forms: graphite flakes. Most show little or no shrinkage during solidification. This process is called graphitization because the . iron carbides. cementite. use tensile strength as the main acceptance criteria. steel casting UNS Designation JO2503 JO3 F12802 None modifications for castability.86 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 4.3 Examples of ASTM and UNS Designations ASTM Designation Grade WCC: welded carbon steel casting. malleable iron. Gray cast iron has a relatively large percentage of the carbon present as graphite flakes. All of these affect corrosion resistance and casting quality. which makes them ideal for casting intricate shapes in all sizes. The gray irons have good fluidity at pouring temperatures. these alloys have carbon contents of approximately 1. graphite spheres. the reducing graphite flakes and corrosion products may form a barrier to further attack. and silicon.5–3%. as well as other gray iron ASTM specifications. 4. optimum heat treatment. and high-alloy cast irons. This results in rapid attack of the iron in even mildly corrosive environments. weld procedures.1 Gray Iron Gray iron is the most common cast iron. carbon. filler material. ductile (nodulur) iron. Graphite is essentially an inert material and is cathodic to iron. Gray iron has relatively poor toughness because of the stress concentration effect of the graphite flake tips. irregular graphite modules. and combinations of these. Gray irons are generally purchased to ASTM specifications. 4.8–4% and silicon contents of 0. etc. representing 59% of total worldwide production in 1993. 125 min yield strength. ASTM A-48 and A-126.1.

Production is similar to ductile iron with an additional alloying element such as titanium. but it is highly dependent on soil type. lead. seawater. Resistance is good in alkaline salt solutions. cadmium. and other factors. 4.1. This alters the structure of iron to produce a microstructure in which the graphite form produced during the solidification process is spheroidal instead of flake form. Acids and oxidizing salts rapidly attack gray iron. The corrosion resistance of gray iron is slightly better than carbon steel in water.2 Compacted Graphite Iron Compacted graphite iron is a relatively new type of cast iron. the part may appear unaffected. and sulfides. an appropriate innoculant such as magnesium is added. silicates. The flake form has better machineability. Gray iron is not resistant to corrosion in acid. The graphite is present as blunt flakes that are interconnected. except for certain concentrated acids where a protective film is formed.Corrosion of Cast Iron and Cast Steel 87 remaining film is often black. Gray iron is commonly used for flue-gas applications. magnesium. In the extreme case. industrial. Just prior to pouring the molten iron. . Corrosion rates in rural. Molten sulfur must be air-free and solid sulfur must be water-free. the corrosion properties of gray iron are similar to those for carbon steel. such as cyanides. Gray iron has good resistance to alkaline solutions.1. There is little difference in the corrosion resistance of compacted graphite iron and gray iron. and various atmospheric environments. such as wood and coal-fired furnaces and heat exchangers. Gray iron melting pots are commonly used for aluminum. however. and seacoast environments are generally acceptable. Compacted graphite iron retains many of the attractive casting properties of gray iron but has improved strength and ductility. drainage. carbonates. under velocity conditions the resistance of ductile iron may be slightly less than that of gray iron because it does not form the same type of film that is present in gray iron. but the loss of iron may be so severe that significant structural integrity is lost. In general. The corrosion resistance of ductile iron is comparable to that of gray iron with one exception. Gray iron is used to contain sulfur at temperatures of 350–4008F (149–2058C). such as sodium hydroxide and molten caustic soda. and zinc. but the spheroidal form yields much higher strength and ductility. Its structure is between that of gray and ductile iron. 4. The life of buried gray iron pipe is generally longer than that of steel.3 Ductile (Nodular) Iron1 Ductile iron has basically the same chemical composition as gray iron with a small chemical modification.

Under flowing conditions. abrasion-resistant. malleable iron may be inferior to gray iron. 4. iron– chromium carbides. meaning that instead of forming free graphite. The costs involved with such a long heat treatment in a controlled atmosphere furnace have become prohibitive.4 White Iron White iron solidifies with a “chilled” structure. a trademark of Inco Alloys International) . Irregularly shaped graphite nodules are formed from white iron by a heat treatment of over 8 h. Malleable iron is only available in thin sections because rapid cooling in the mold is required to form white iron. After final machining. Elongation in the hardened condition is typically about 2%. but malleable iron is declining in use for economic reasons. White irons are primarily used for abrasive applications. the carbon forms hard. White irons are very brittle. They have a flake graphite structure and mechanical properties similar to the gray irons. In general. the material is generally heat-treated to form a martensitic matrix for maximum hardness and wear resistance.88 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 4. The graphite nodules provide much better ductility than is found in gray iron. 4. there is little difference in the corrosion resistance of gray iron and malleable iron. and high-silicon cast irons.5 Malleable Iron The properties of malleable iron and ductile iron are very similar.1 Austenitic Gray Cast Irons The austenitic gray irons are gray irons with additions of nickel (and in some instances copper) to produce an austenitic matrix structure similar to the 300-series stainless steels. The only property required by the ASTM specification is the Brinell hardness. austenitic ductile. there is little difference in corrosion resistance of gray iron and white iron. Each will be discussed separately.2 High Alloy Cast Irons The high-alloy cast irons are generally divided into three groups: austenitic. In general. Some white iron contains as much as 25% chromium to permit casting thicker sections. Without the graphite flakes to hold the corrosion products in place. 4. ASTM A-47 and A-197 are the two most widely used industry specifications.1.1.2. The austenetic gray cast irons (often called Ni-Resist. The high-chromium iron has only slightly better corrosion resistance. attack continues at a constant rate rather than declining with time.

surface iron is removed. It is resistant to all concentrations of sulfuric acid up to and including the normal boiling point. 4. These alloys are extremely corrosion resistant. Types 1 and 2 are the most commonly used grades. toughness. The largest use is in hydrogen sulfidecontaining oil-field applications.4 for the compatibility of Ni-Resist alloy with selected corrodents. Table 4.2.3 High-Silicon Cast Irons High-silicon cast irons are sold under the trade name of Duriron and Durichlor 51. 4. 1% carbon.2. The corrosion resistance is similar to that of the austenitic gray iron. type 2D is the most commonly used grade. minimum tensile strength. and the balance iron. which are tradenames of the Duriron Company. nor can they withstand any substantial stressing or impact. The specification covers the chemistry. A protective sulfide film is formed that prevents excessive attack. seawater. They are similar to the austenitic gray irons except that magnesium is added just prior to pouring to produce a nodular graphite structure. and Brinell hardness.2% minimum is required for good corrosion resistance). the temperature is limited to 1808F (828C). When high-silicon cast irons are first exposed to a corrosive environment. The corrosion resistance of austenitic gray iron falls between that of gray iron and the 300-series stainless steels. Below 30%. Austenitic gray iron also resists erosion from sand often entrained in crude oil.5% being nominal (14. The copper in type 1 provides the best resistance to sulfuric acid. These alloys are particularly susceptible to thermal and mechanical shock. with 14.Corrosion of Cast Iron and Cast Steel 89 offer better corrosion resistance and wear resistance. The high-silicon irons are extremely brittle and difficult to machine.4 shows the compatibility of Ni-Resist with selected corrodents. and dilute and concentrated (unaerated) sulfuric acid. One of the main uses is in the handling of sulfuric acid. leaving behind a silicon oxide layer that is very adherent and corrosion resistant. Although several different grades are produced. It is superior to gray iron in atmospheric exposure. caustic soda (sodium hydroxide). . As a result of this nodular structure. Refer to Table 4.2 Austenitic Ductile Cast Irons These alloys are commonly called ductile Ni-Resist. Austenitic gray irons are purchased per ASTM A-436. They cannot be subjected to sudden fluctuations in temperature. These alloys contain 12–18% silicon. although those containing 2% or more chromium are superior. and high-temperature properties than the standard gray irons. higher strengths and greater ductility are produced as compared to the flake-graphite structure.

dry Ethylene glycol Ethylene oxide 8F 140 90 100 470 100 460 90 210 90 120 120 130 300 100 X 8C 60 32 38 243 38 238 32 99 32 49 49 54 149 38 X 400 90 X X X X X X X X X 204 32 460 90 210 440 300 300 170 460 90 90 300 210 200 90 90 460 X 238 32 99 227 149 149 77 238 32 32 149 99 93 32 32 238 X X (continued) . dry Carbon dioxide. 60% Ammonium persulfate. wet Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chlorine gas. 60% Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate Amyl acetate Aniline Arsenic acid Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzene Black liquor Boric acid Bromine gas Butyl acetate Calcium carbonate Calcium hydroxide Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon dioxide.4 Compatibility of Ni-Resist Alloy with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetylene Alum Aluminum hydroxide. 10% Aluminum potassium sulfate Ammonia. anhydrous Ammonium carbonate. 1% Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Ammonium nitrate.90 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 4. dry Chromic acid Cyclohexane Diethylene glycol Diphenyl Ethanol amine Ethyl acetate Ethyl chloride.

A. to 70% Sodium nitrate Sodium nitrite Sodium peroxide. Table 4. corrosion rate is less than 20 mpy.5 lists the compatibility of high-silicon iron with selected corrodents. Vols.. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 2004. dry Hydrogen sulfide. low pressure Sulfate liquors Sulfur Sulfur dioxide. leaded Gasoline. Source: From P. When 4. Corrosion Resistance Tables. natural Gasoline. unleaded Glycerine Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen chloride gas. acid mine White liquor 8F 460 210 90 90 400 400 320 460 460 90 150 160 90 170 90 90 90 90 350 100 100 90 100 120 230 210 90 X X 8C 238 99 32 32 204 204 160 238 238 32 66 71 32 77 32 32 32 32 177 38 38 32 38 49 110 99 32 91 X X X X X X X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Schweitzer. 10% Sodium silicate Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfide Steam. Hydrofluoric acid causes rapid attack. .Corrosion of Cast Iron and Cast Steel TABLE 4.5% chromium is added to the alloy. When compatible. dry Tartaric acid Tomato juice Vinegar Water. wet Isooctane Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium sulfate Methyl alcohol Methyl chloride Phosphoric acid Sodium borate Sodium hydroxide. it becomes resistant to severe chloride-containing solutions and other strongly oxidizing environments. 25% Gallic acid Gas. Incompatibility is shown by an X. dry Hydrogen sulfide. New York: Marcel Dekker. The chromium-bearing grade (Durichlor) will handle hydrochloric acid up to 808F (278C). 5th ed. 1–4.4 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ferric sulfate Ferrous sulfate Fuel oil Furfural.

10% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia.5 Compatibility of High-Silicon Irona with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. sat.92 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 4. 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F 90 200 200 260 230 120 80 80 80 80 80 90 240 200 X 8C 32 93 93 127 110 49 27 27 27 27 27 32 116 93 80 80 80 200 200 27 27 27 X 93 93 210 90 80 90 80 90 90 90 250 80 80 X X 99 32 27 32 27 32 32 32 121 27 27 X (continued) .

wet Chlorine. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. moist Bromine. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform 8F 80 80 80 120 210 90 90 80 90 90 80 80 8C 27 27 27 49 99 32 32 27 32 32 27 27 93 X 80 80 80 90 80 210 200 80 80 90 210 570 80 210 80 80 80 90 X 27 27 27 32 27 99 93 27 27 32 99 299 27 99 27 27 27 32 80 90 27 32 (continued) . dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.5 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. dry Bromine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. sat.Corrosion of Cast Iron and Cast Steel TABLE 4.

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Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 4.5 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Chlorosulfonic acid, dry Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid, 15% Citric acid, conc. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride, 5% Cupric chloride, 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride, 50% in water Ferric nitrate, 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas, dry Fluorine gas, moist Hydrobromic acid, dilute Hydrobromic acid, 20% Hydrobromic acid, 50% Hydrochloric acid, 20%b Hydrochloric acid, 38% Hydrocyanic acid, 10% Hydrofluoric acid, 30% Hydrofluoric acid, 70% Hydrofluoric acid, 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution, 10% Ketones, general Lactic acid, 25% Lactic acid, conc. Magnesium chloride, 30% Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid, 5% 8F 200 200 210 200 X 8C 93 93 99 93

80 100

27 38

80 80 80 210 90 100 X X 80 X X X X X 90 90 90 250 90 80 80 180

27 27 27 99 32 38

X

27

32 32 32 121 32 27 27 82 (continued)

Corrosion of Cast Iron and Cast Steel TABLE 4.5 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid, 20% Nitric acid, 70% Nitric acid, anhydrous Nitrous acid, conc. Oleum Perchloric acid, 10% Perchloric acid, 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid, 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide, 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide, 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride, to 30% Sodium hydroxide, 10% Sodium hydroxide, 50% Sodium hydroxide, conc. Sodium hypochlorite, 20% Sodium hypochlorite, conc. Sodium sulfide, to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid, 10% Sulfuric acid, 50% Sulfuric acid, 70% Sulfuric acid, 90% Sulfuric acid, 98% Sulfuric acid, 100% Sulfuric acid, fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 180 186 150 80 80 80 100 210 80 100 80 150 170 60 90 212 295 386 485 538 644 8C 82 86 66 27 27 27 38 99 27 38 27 66 77 16 32 100 146 197 252 281 340

95

X

X X

X X

X 80 27

The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. When compatible, corrosion rate is !20 mpy.
a b

Resistance applies to Duriron unless otherwise noted. Resistance applies only to Durichlor.

Source: From P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

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4.3 Carbon and Low-Alloy Carbon Steels
Cast carbon and low-alloy steels are widely used because of their low cost, versatile properties, and the wide range of available grades. The carbon steels are alloys of iron and carbon with manganese (!1.65%), silicon, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements in small quantities. The latter elements are present either for their desirable effects or because of the difficulty of removing them. Steel castings are generally grouped into four categories: 1. Low-carbon castings with less than 0.20% carbon. 2. Medium carbon castings with 0.20–0.50 carbon. 3. High-carbon castings with more than 0.5% carbon. 4. Low-alloy castings with alloy content less than 8%. There is no significant difference in the corrosion resistance of cast and wrought carbon and low-alloy steels. Wrought “weathering” low-alloy steels gradually form a protective rust layer after a few years of exposure to rural and urban atmospheres. These steels contain both chromium and copper and may also contain silicon, nickel, phosphorus, or other alloying elements.3 ASTM G101 is a guide for estimating the atmospheric corrosion rates of wrought weathering steels. Care should be used when utilizing these estimating methods for cast steels. The natural segregation in cast steels may produce different results. Weathering steels are of little benefit in submersed service. Cast carbon and low-alloy steels are usually protected from atmospheric corrosion by painting and/or coating systems.4 Coatings may also be used to prevent rust contamination where product purity is a requirement. Carbon and low-alloy steels are used for water, steam, air, and many other mild services. They are also resistant to many gases provided the moisture content is below the saturation point. These applications include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, sulfur dioxide, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, and nitrogen. It must be emphasized that these gases must be dry. Contamination from air and humidity will cause excessive attack and/or stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In certain corrosive environments, a protective surface layer may be formed that will prevent excessive corrosion. Examples include concentrated sulfuric acid where a ferrous sulfate film protects the steel, and concentrated hydrofluoric acid that forms a fluoride film. Extreme care must be taken, however, to prevent conditions that may damage the film and lead to extremely high corrosion rates. These conditions include high velocities, condensing water (humidity from the air), and hydrogen bubbles floating across a surface.

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Steel is used for alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. At temperatures above 1508F (668C), however, SCC and excessive corrosion may develop.5 Neutral salts, brines, and organics tend to be noncorrosive to steel. Acidic and alkaline salts are more corrosive. The NACE Corrosion Data Survey is a good reference for these applications.6 There is generally little difference in the corrosion resistance of carbon steels and low-alloy steels. In boiler feedwater, however, the Cr–Mo grades such as WC6 and WC9 offer definite advantages over WCB and WCC. The Cr–Mo grades form a more adherent iron oxide film that makes them more resistant to erosion/corrosion. Very high velocities may erode the protective film from WCB to WCC, whereas WC6 and WC9 are unaffected. When the film is removed, corrosion will proceed at a high rate until the film is reformed. Under conditions of high-velocity impingement, carbon steel may be perforated in a few months, whereas a Cr–Mo replacement will last years. Cast carbon and low-alloy steels are routinely used for hydrogen service. As temperature and hydrogen partial pressure increase, however, a phenomenon called hydrogen attack can occur. In hydrogen attack, atomic hydrogen diffuses into the steel and combines with carbon to form methane. Over time, high-pressure methane pockets are formed and structural integrity is lost.7 Following the guidelines of the American Petroleum Institute (API) will prevent this attack.8 Anhydrous ammonia is routinely handled by cast carbon and low-alloy steels. To prevent SCC, however, small amounts of water are added. Oxygen contamination should also be avoided. Other media known to cause SCC are high-temperature hydroxides, nitrates, carbonates, moist gas mixtures of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide solutions, amine solutions, and hydrogen sulfide. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) or stress relieving is a relatively inexpensive process to minimize the occurrence of SCC. NACE International committees have developed several standards and recommended practices along these lines, including MR0175, RP0472, RP0590, and 8X194.9–11

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. P.A. Schweitzer. 2003. Metallic Materials, Physical, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties, New York: Marcel Dekker. P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker. ASTM. 1993. G101 Estimating the Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Low-Allow Steels, in Metal Corrosion, Erosion and Wear, Vol. 32, Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 408–413. C.G. Munger. 1993. Marine and offshore corrosion control—past, present, and future, Materials Performance, 32:9, 37–41. R. Jones. 1986. Carbon and low-alloy steels, in Processing Industries Corrosion, B.J. Moniz and W.I. Pollack, Eds, Houston: NACE International, p. 385.

98 6. 7. 8. 9.

Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals NACE International. 1986. Corrosion Data Survey—Metals Section, 6th ed., Houston: NACE International. D. Warren. 1987. Hydrogen effects on steel, in Materials Performance, 26:1, 38–48. American Petroleum Institute. 1983. Steels for hydrogen service at elevated temperatures and pressures in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants, API Publication 941, Washington, DC: American Petroleum Institute. NACE International. 2005. Methods and controls to prevent in-service environmental cracking of carbon steel weldments in corrosive petroleum refining environments, NACE Standard RP0472-2005, Houston: NACE International. NACE International. 1996. Recommended practice for prevention, detection, and correction of deaerator cracking, NACE Standard RP0590-96, Houston: NACE International. NACE International. 1994. Materials and fabrication practices for new pressure vessels used in wet H2S refinery service, NACE Publication 8X194, Houston: NACE International.

10. 11.

5
Introduction to Stainless Steel
In all probability the most widely known and most commonly used material is stainless steel. Stainless steels are iron-based alloys containing 10.5% or more chromium. There are currently over 70 types of stainless steels. In the United States, annual stainless steel consumption is approaching 2 million metric tons. In addition to being an important factor in industrial process equipment, it also finds application in a wide variety of household items. World-wide production of stainless steel exceeds 12.1 million metric tons. The first trials of adding chromium to mild steel took place in the early 1900s. This was apparently the result of the observation that chromium-plated steel parts were highly corrosion resistant. This experiment resulted in the production of the ferritic family of stainless steels. Documentation of this class of steel began to appear in the 1920s. In 1935, the first American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications for stainless steel were published. Stainless steel is not a singular material, as the name might imply, but rather a broad group of alloys, each of which exhibits its own physical, mechanical, and corrosion resistance properties. These steels are produced both as cast alloys (Alloy Casting Institute (ACI) types) and wrought forms (American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) types). Generally, all are iron-based with 12–30% chromium, 0–22% nickel, and minor amounts of carbon, nickel, niobium, copper, molybdenum, selenium, tantalum, and titanium. They are corrosion resistant and heat resistant, noncontaminating, and easily fabricated into complex shapes.

5.1 Stainless Steel Classification
There are three general classification systems used to identify stainless steels. The first relates to metallurgical structure and places a particular stainless steel into a family of stainless steels. The other two, namely, the AISI
99

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TABLE 5.1 Ferritic Stainless Steels
AISI Type 405 409 429 430 430F 430FSe 434 436 442 UNS Designation S40500 S40900 S42900 S43000 S43020 S43023 S43400 S43600 S44200 AISI Type 446 439 444 26-1 26-3-3 29-4 29-4C 29-4-2 UNS Designation S44600 S43035 S44400 S44627 S44660 S44700 S44735 S44800

Numbering System and the Unified Numbering System (UNS) that were developed by ASTM and SAE to apply to all commercial metals and alloys, define specific alloy compositions. Table 5.1 through Table 5.3 provide a comparison between ASI and UNS designation for stainless steels. The various stainless steel alloys can be divided into seven basic families: 1. Ferritic 2. Martensitic 3. Austenitic 4. Precipitation-hardenable 5. Superferritic 6. Duplex (ferritic–austenitic) 7. Superaustenitic

5.1.1 Ferritic Family The name is derived from the analogous ferrite phase, or relatively pure iron component, of carbon steels, cooled slowly from the austenite region. The
TABLE 5.2 Martensitic Stainless Steels
AISI Type 403 410 414 416 416Se 420 UNS Designation S40300 S41000 S41400 S41600 S41623 S42000 AISI Type 420F 422 431 440A 440B 440 UNS Designation S42020 S42200 S43100 S44002 S44003 S44004

Introduction to Stainless Steel TABLE 5.3 Austenitic Stainless Steels
AISI Type 201 202 204 204L 205 209 22-18-S 18-8.8 plus 301 302 302B 303 303Se 304 304L 304N 305 UNS Designation S20100 S20200 S20400 S20403 320500 S20900 S20910 S20220 S30100 S30200 S30215 S30300 S30323 S30400 S30403 S30430 S30451 S30500 AISI Type 308 309 309S 310 310S 314 316 316L 316F 316N 317 317L 321 329 330 347 348 384

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UNS Designation S30800 S30900 S30908 S31000 S31008 S31400 S31600 S31603 S31620 S31651 S31700 S31703 S32100 S32900 N08330 S34700 S34800 S38400

ferrite phase for pure iron in the stable phase existing below 16708F (9108C). For low-carbon Cr–Fe alloys, the high-temperature austenite phase exists only up to 12% Cr; immediately beyond this composition the alloys are ferritic at all temperatures up to the melting point. Chromium readily forms an oxide that is transparent and happens to be extremely resistant to further degradation. It is less noble than iron and, when alloyed with steel, tends to form its oxide first. Gradually increasing the chromium content in steel above the 2% level steadily improves mild atmospheric corrosion resistance up to approximately 12%, where corrosion is essentially stopped. For exposure to mild wet environments, the addition of approximately 11% chromium is sufficient to prevent rusting of steel, hence the term stainless. Ferritic stainless steels are magnetic, have body-centered cubic atomic structures and possess mechanical properties similar to those of carbon steel, though they are less ductile. Continued additions of chromium will improve corrosion resistance in more severe environments, particularly in terms of resistance in oxidizing environments, at both moderate and elevated temperatures. Chromium contents in ferritic stainless steels are limited to approximately 28%. These alloys are known as 400-series stainless because they were identified with numbers beginning with 400 when AISI had the authority to designate alloy compositions. Specific members of the ferritic families will be covered in Chapter 7.

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5.1.2 Martensitic Family The name is derived from the analogous martensite phase in carbon steels. Martensite is produced by a shear-type phase transformation on cooling a steel rapidly (quenching) from the austenitic region of the phase diagram. These alloys are hardenable because of the phase transformation from bodycentered cubic to body-centered tetragonal. As with the alloy steels, this transformation is thermally controlled. The martensitic stainless steels are normally 11–13% chromium and are ferromagnetic. Because the corrosion resistance of these stainless steels is dependent upon the chromium content, and because the carbon contents are generally higher than the ferritic alloys, it is logical that they are less corrosion resistant. However, their useful corrosion resistance in mild environments coupled with their high strengths made members of the martensitic family useful for certain stainless steel applications. Details of the specific family members are covered in Chapter 9. 5.1.3 Austenitic Family The third group is named after the austenite phase, which for pure iron exists as a stable structure between 1670 and 25528F (910 and 14008C). It is the major or only phase of stainless steel at room temperature, existing as a stable or metastable structure by virtue of its austenite-forming alloy additions, notably nickel and manganese. These stainless steels have facecentered austenite structure from below 328F (08C) up to near melting temperatures. This family of stainless steel accounts for the widest usage of all the stainless steels. These materials are nonmagnetic, are not hardenable by heat treatment. They can, however, be strain hardened by cold work, have facecentered cubic structures, and possess mechanical properties similar to those of mild steels, but with better formability. The strain hardening from cold work induces a small amount of ferromagnetism. It has been established that certain elements, specifically chromium, molybdenum, and silicon, are ferrite formers. Aluminum and niobium may also act as ferrite formers depending upon the alloy system. Other elements, such as nickel, manganese, carbon, and nitrogen, tend to promote the formation of austenite. After the corrosion resistance plateau of 18% chromium is reached, the addition of approximately 8% nickel is required to cause a transition from ferritic to austenitic. This alloy is added primarily to form the austenitic structure that is very tough, formable, and weldable. An additional benefit is the increased corrosion resistance to mild corrodents. This includes adequate resistance to most foods, a wide range of organic chemicals, mild inorganic acids, and most natural environmental corrosion. The corrosion resistance of the austenitic stainless steel is further improved by the addition of molybdenum, titanium, and other elements.

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Corrosion resistance properties of undivided members of the austenitic family are discussed in Chapter 10. 5.1.4 Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steels A thermal treatment is utilized to intentionally precipitate phases, causing a strengthening of the alloy. An alloy addition of one or more of titanium, niobium, molybdenum, copper, or aluminum generates the precipitating phase. The final alloy can be solution treated because all alloying elements are in solid solution and the material is in its softest or annealed state. In this condition, the material can be formed, machined, and welded. After fabrication, the unit is exposed to an elevated temperature cycle (aging) that precipitates the desired phases to cause an increase in mechanical properties. There are three types of precipitation-hardenable (pH) stainless steels: martensitic, austenitic, and semiaustenitic. The relationship between these alloys is shown in Figure 5.1. The semiaustenitic steels are supplied as an

S17400 less Ni add Cu Cb

S17700 18−8 w/AI

S66286 more Ni add Mo Ti Austenitic

S15500 less Cr

S15700 less Cr add Mo

S45000 more Ni add Mo

S35000 less Ni add N no AI Semiaustenitic

S13800 less Cr more Ni Mo no Cu add AI Martensitic
FIGURE 5.1 Precipitation-hardening stainless steels.

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Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals

unstable austenite that is in the workable condition and must be transformed to martensite before aging. The martensitic and austenitic pH stainless steels are directly hardened by thermal treatment. These alloys possess high mechanical properties, but not as high as the low-alloy martensitic steels, in conjunction with useful corrosion resistance properties. In general, their corrosion resistance is below that of type 304 stainless steel, although certain specific alloys approach the corrosion resistance of type 316 stainless steel. The corrosion resistance properties of the individual family members will be discussed in Chapter 13. 5.1.5 Superferritic Stainless Steels During the 1970s, development efforts were directed at producing ferritic materials that could exhibit a high level of general and localized pitting resistance. The first commercially significant alloy that could meet these specifications was an alloy containing 26% chromium and 19% molybdenum. To obtain the desired corrosion resistance and acceptable fabrication characteristics, the material was electron-beam refined under a vacuum and introsuced as E-Brite alloy. Carbon plus nitrogen contents were maintained at levels below 0.020%. Other alloys were developed. The superferritic alloys exhibit excellent localized corrosion resistance. The superferritic materials alloyed with nickel exhibit improved mechanical toughness and are less sensitive to contamination from interstitial elements. However, their availability is still limited in thicknesses less than approximately 0.20 in. This is related to the formation of embrittling phases during cooling from annealing temperatures. Greater thicknesses cannot be cooled quickly enough to avoid a loss of toughness. Individual family members will be discussed in Chapter 8. 5.1.6 Duplex Stainless Steels The duplex stainless steels contain roughly 50% austenite and 50% ferrite, which provides improved corrosion resistance. These alloys contain relatively high amounts of chromium with only enough nickel and austenizers to develop 50% austenite. The duplex stainless steels contain molybdenum as an alloying ingredient that is responsible for the improved corrosion resistance in chloridic environments. Molybdenum also reduces the susceptibility to chloride pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The general corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steels is slightly greater than that of 316 stainless steels in most media. These alloys also offer higher strengths than those typically found with austenitic stainless steels. Care must be taken when selecting these alloys because the boundary between acceptable and poor performance is very sharp. They should

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not be used under conditions that operate close to the limits of their acceptability. The duplex stainless steels are not as ductile as the austenitic family of stainless steels. Welding requires more care than with the austenitic alloys due to a greater tendency towards compositional segregation and sensitivity to weld heat input. Corrosion resistance properties of each family member will be discussed in Chapter 12. 5.1.7 Superaustenitic Stainless Steels The superaustenitic stainless steels were developed to provide alloys with better resistance to localized corrosion. Included in this family of stainless steels are those that have improved pitting resistance, those that have improved crevice corrosion resistance, and those that have good general corrosion resistance to strong acids. Corrosion resistance properties of each family member will be discussed in Chapter 11.

5.2 Passivation
The corrosion resistance of the steels is the result of the passive oxide film that forms on the exposed surfaces. Under normal circumstances, this film will form immediately upon exposure to oxygen. Some fabrication processes can impede the formation of this film. To guarantee the formation of this protective layer, stainless steels are subjected to passivation treatments. The most common passivation treatments involve exposing the metal to an oxidizing acid. Nitric and nitric/hydrochloric acid mixtures find the widest usage. The nitric/hydrochloric acid mixtures are more aggressive and are used to remove the oxide scales formed during thermal treatment. This process provides two benefits. It removes the oxide scale and passivates the underlying metal. Second, the passivation process will remove any chromium-depleted layer that may have formed as the result of scale formation. For passivation treatments other than for scale removal, less aggressive acid solutions are used. The purpose of these treatments is to remove any contaminants that may be on the component’s surface that could prevent the formation of the oxide layer locally. The most common contaminant is embedded or free iron particles from forming or machining tools. A 10% nitric acid solution is effective in removing free iron. For martensitic, ferretic, and precipitation-hardening grades, a nitric acid solution inhibited with sodium dichromate is used so as not to attack the stainless steel too aggressively.

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A 1% phosphoric acid solution and 20% nitric acid solution are used for the more resistant stainless alloys.

5.3 Sanitizing
When stainless steel is to be used in food service, it requires treatment to remove bacteria or other microorganisms. It is quite common to use chlorine water or hypochlorite solution for this purpose. These solutions should be prepared using demineralized water. This process can be successful if the solution is properly drained and flushed. A conductivity test may be used on the rinse water to ensure that the discharge is substantially equivalent to the demineralized water used in formulating the sanitizing solutions. If not thoroughly rinsed, chloride pitting, crevice corrosion, or stress corrosion cracking may occur. Other, safer alternative oxidizing solutions, such as ammonium persulfate, hydrogen peroxide, dilute peracetic acid, or a citric nitrate solution, should be considered. Another possible approach is the use of a nonoxidizing biocide such as hexamethylene biguanide or other environmentally safe biocides. These are free of the hazards associated with chlorine, hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and other halogenated agents.

5.4 Preparing for Service
After fabrication is complete and the material is ready to be placed in service, it is essential that steps are taken to preserve the protective film of chromium oxide. The most common causes of problems are: Iron contamination Organic contamination Welding contamination

5.4.1 Iron Contamination Embedded iron can be removed by pickling. This is primarily an operation required on fabricated vessels. However, care must be exercised in the storage and handling of stainless steel sheet or plate to prevent the surface from becoming contaminated with embedded iron. If cleanliness on the surface is extremely important, as in pharmaceutical or food environments where product contamination would be detrimental, the sheet or plate can be ordered with a protective adhesive paper on the surface. Leaving this

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paper in place during fabrication will reduce the amount of time required for cleanup after fabrication. The sheet and plate should be stored upright, not lain on the floor. During fabrication, it is good practice to use cardboard or plastic sheets on carbon steel layout and cutting tables, forming roll aprons and rollout benches. This will go a long way towards reducing or preventing iron embedment. The use of plastic, wood, or aluminum guards on slings, hooks, and the forks of forklift trucks will further reduce the chance of iron embedding. 5.4.2 Organic Contamination Organic contamination is the result of grease, construction markings (crayon) oil, paint, adhesive tapes, sediment, and other sticky substances being allowed to remain on the stainless steel. If not removed, they may cause crevice corrosion of the stainless steel if exposed to extremely corrosive atmospheres. During fabrication, there is little that can be done to prevent this contamination from occurring. The only solution is to insure that all such deposits are removed during final cleanup. The cleanup procedures to be followed will depend somewhat on the service to which the vessel will be put. In very corrosive media, a greater degree of cleanup will be required than in relatively mild media. Good commercial practice will always include degreasing and removal of embedded iron. A complete specification for the procurement of a vessel should include the desired cleanup procedures to be followed, even if only degreasing and removal of embedded iron are required. 5.4.3 Welding Contamination In corrosive environments, corrosion will be initiated by surface imperfections in stainless steel plate. This corrosion can occur in the presence of media to which stainless steel is normally resistant. Such imperfections can be caused by: Weld splatter Welding slag from coated electrode arc strikes Welding stop points Heat tint Weld splatter produces small particles of metal that adhere to the surface, at which point the protective film is penetrated, forming minute crevices where the film has been weakened the most. If a splatter-prevention paste is applied to either side of the joint to be welded, this problem will be eliminated. Splatter will then easily wash off with the paste during cleanup.

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Whenever coated electrodes are used, there will be some slag around the welded joints. This slag is somewhat difficult to remove, but if it is not done, the small crevices formed will be points of initiation of corrosion. Arc strikes and weld stop points are more damaging to stainless steel than embedded iron because they occur in the area where the protective film has already been weakened by the heat of welding. Weld stop points create pinpoint defects in the metal, whereas arc strikes form crevice-like imperfections in or adjacent to the heat-affected zone. It is possible to avoid weld-stop defects by employing extensions at the beginning and end of a weld (runout tabs) and by beginning just before each stop point and welding over each intermediate stop point. An arc strike can be struck initially on a runout tab or on weld metal, provided that the filler metal will tolerate this. If the filler metal will not tolerate striking of an arc, then the arc must be struck adjacent to it, in it, or near the heat-affected zone when it is necessary to strike an arc between runout tabs. Heat tint results in the weakening of the protective film beneath it and can be the result of the welding of internals in a vessel or the welding of external attachments. The heat tint must be removed to prevent corrosion from taking place in the tinted area. Welding contamination removal is best accomplished using abrasive discs and flapper wheels. Although grinding has been used, this procedure tends to overheat the surface, thereby reducing its corrosion resistance. Its use should be avoided.

The property of passivity. Brearly in England was attempting to develop iron-based chromium alloys to prevent erosion and fouling in rifle barrels. Simultaneously. and had no value as structural materials. starting at a minimum of 12% chromium. Berthier found that iron alloyed with large amounts of chromium was more resistant to acids than unalloyed iron. H. but the alloys were impractical because they cracked during any metalworking operation.6 Corrosion of Stainless Steels The first mention of the corrosion resistance of various alloys that had been formulated in which chromium–iron alloys were prepared appeared in 1820 in a published report by Stodart and M. However. the maximum chromium content was below that required for passivity. In 1821 in France. brittle. was first described by Monnartz of Germany in 1908. Guillot of France produced low-carbon–chromium alloys overlapping the passive composition range. The inherent corrosion resistance of the alloys was not observed. Meanwhile. In 1904. he did not recognize the outstanding property of passivity. Although he studied the metallurgical structure and mechanical properties of the chromium–iron alloys and the chromium–iron–nickel alloys. However. Faraday. He published a detailed account of the chemical properties of the chromium–iron alloys in 1911. Benno Strauss and Edward Maurer in Germany were investigating iron–chromium–nickel compositions. However. During his experiments. the alloys were high in carbon. He observed that the 12% chromium–iron alloys did not etch with the usual nitric acid and other etching reagents. primarily because the accompanying high carbon content impaired the corrosion properties. They observed that the austenitic alloys containing 8% nickel were resistant to acid fumes. a variety of chromium–iron alloys were developed by several investigators who took advantage of the high strength and high hardness imparted by chromium. he noted their resistance to etching for metallographic examination. they narrowly missed discovering stainless steels. and that they did not rust over long periods of exposure to the atmosphere. He called these ferritic alloys “stainless steel” and recognized their possible use as cutlery materials. Strauss restored ductility when he developed an 109 . During subsequent years. Consequently.

The addition of nickel will provide improved resistance in reducing environments and to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). however. followed by a water quench that dissolved the chromium carbides. Specific corrosion problems and resistance of specific compositions will be discussed in succeeding chapters. improved corrosion resistance results. Consequently. In this chapter. There are many stainless steel compositions. Molybdenum is extremely effective in improving pitting and crevice corrosion resistance. Based on his experiments. This theory was not universally accepted.5% chromium is by the chromium addition. and 20%. In sufficient amounts. all of which have their own set of physical. if at all. a piece of bare steel immersed in a copper sulfate solution develops a flash plating of metallic copper by a process known as cementation. The general concept of passivity involves a base metal exhibiting the corrosion behavior of a more noble metal or alloy. keeping in mind that all compositions are not affected to the same degree. It should also be kept in mind that the more alloying . As more chromium is added to the alloy. Stainless steels and similar chromium-rich alloys are characterized by their passivity. This will also strengthen some precipitationhardening grades. and corrosion resistance properties. It was not until 1930 that his theory was proven electrochemically by H. copper will reduce the pitting resistance of some alloys. It is because of all of these alloying possibilities that so many types of stainless steel exist. 17. Passivation of ferrous alloys containing more than 10. They form carbides and reduce the amount of carbon available to form chromium carbide that can be deleterious to corrosion resistance. and even higher. This film is self-forming and self-healing in environments where stainless steel is resistant. For example. we discuss the various types of corrosion to which stainless steels may be susceptible. an invisible protective oxide layer is formed that prevents cementation and the steel is said to have been passivated. If the bare steel is first immersed in a strong nitric acid solution. mechanical. Monnarty postulated that the passivity in stainless steels was caused by an invisible oxide film. Stainless steels are alloys of iron to which a minimum of 11% chromium has been added to provide a passive film to resist “rusting” when the material is exposed to weather.110 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals annealing heat treatment. Chromium provides resistance to oxidizing environments such as nitric acid and also provides resistance to pitting and crevice attack.H. By the addition of copper. Nitrogen can also be added to improve corrosion resistance to pitting and crevice attack and to improve strength. Niobium and titanium are added to stabilize carbon. Other alloying ingredients are added to further improve the corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. improved resistance to general corrosion in sulfuric acid is obtained. Uhlig at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. there are stainless steels with chromium contents of 15.

The ratio of deepest metal penetration to average metal penetration.51 36. it is prudent to select the specific stainless steel composition that will meet the needs of the application.60 36.26 25. A pitting factor of 1 represents uniform corrosion. the higher the PREN. the developed pits are described as deep. it is not necessary to provide additional pitting resistance if the environment of the application does not promote pitting.3 18. Consequently. is known as the pitting factor. the attack may accelerate because of the difference in electric potential between the large area of passive surface and the active pit. For example. the better the resistance.1 Pitting Resistance Equivalent Numbers Alloy 654 31 25-6Mo Al-6XN 20Mo-6 317LN 904L 20Mo-4 317 PREN 63.Corrosion of Stainless Steels 111 elements used in the formulation. Performance in the area of pitting and crevice corrosion is often measured using critical pitting temperature (CPT). as determined by weight loss of the specimen.45 46.1 Pitting Pitting corrosion is a form of localized attack.90 27.2 Alloy 316LN 316 20Cb3 348 347 331 304N 304 PREN 31.81 39. If appreciable attack is confined to a small area of metal acting as an anode. and nitrogen contents: PREN Z %Cr C 3:3ð%MoÞ C 30ð%NÞ: Table 6. the greater will be the cost. Once started. molybdenum.96 42. 6. The PREN is determined by the chromium. such as when halide salts contact the surface.0 18. It occurs when the protective film breaks down in small isolated spots. critical crevice temperature (CCT).0 19. If the area of attack is relatively large.60 19.0 .08 27.09 54.1 lists the PREN for various stainless steels.45 47. Alloys having similar values may differ in actual service. TABLE 6.20 33. and pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN). As a general rule. the pits are called shallow.

temperature. Pitting on boldly exposed surfaces may occur in high-chloride environments. such as brackish cooling waters or marine atmospheres. its progress is very rapid and it is frequently more intense in chloride environments. In some cases. lap joints. For this reason. Wood. rubber. plastics.112 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals The CPT of an alloy is the temperature of a solution at which pitting is first observed. The CCT of an alloy is that temperature at which crevice corrosion is first observed when immersed in a ferric chloride solution.3 Stress Corrosion Cracking Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steels is caused by the combined effects of tensile stress. wax. These temperatures are usually determined in ferric chloride (10% FeCl3$6H2O) and in an acidic mixture of chlorides and sulfates. The material responsible for the crevice need not be metallic. glass. and living organisms have all been reported to cause crevice corrosion.2 Crevice Corrosion Crevice corrosion is a localized type of corrosion resulting from local differences in oxygen concentration associated with deposits on the metal surface. Once the attack begins within the crevice. the best solution to crevice corrosion is a design that eliminates crevices. asbestos. corrosion. the stainless steels containing molybdenum are often used to minimize the problem. . The critical corrosion temperatures of several alloys in 10% ferric chloride solution are as follows: Alloy Type 316 Alloy 825 Type 317 Alloy 904L Alloy 220S E-Brite Alloy G Alloy 625 Alloy 6NX Alloy 276 Temperature (8F/8C) 27/3 27/3 36/2 59/15 68/20 70/21 86/30 100/38 100/38 130/55 6. concrete. gaskets. or crevices under bolt or rivet heads where small amounts of liquid can collect and become stagnant. a tiny pinhole at the surface may have a substantial cavity beneath it. However. 6. and the presence of chlorides. analogous to a dental caries.

g. 321. Ferritic stainless steels. toughness. Alloy contents of stainless steels. and the high-nickel alloys are not subject to SCC. 316. Hydrogen stress cracking results from a cathodic reaction in service. The most common grades of stainless steel (304. and hydrogen stress cracking. 302. There is no minimum chloride concentration below . sulfuric/NaCl mixtures. polythionic acids (a mixture of H2S and SO2 in aqueous media) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in supercritical water. 304L. Their presence should warn of a possible failure. Sodium chloride usually causes SCC only between about 1208F (508C) and 3908F (2008C). The ubiquitous chloride is sodium chloride.Corrosion of Stainless Steels 113 Wet–dry or heat-transfer conditions that promote the concentration of chlorides are particularly aggressive with respect to initiating SSC. and arsenic compounds increase the likelihood of hydrogen stress cracking. An alloy with a nickel content of greater than 30% is immune to SCC. The most common agents for SCC in stainless steels are chlorides. should be considered when the potential exists for SCC. The most common form of SCC for 18-8 austenitic grades is from chloride contamination.. and 301) have nickel contents in the range of 7–10% and are the most susceptible to SCC. Cathodic protection can also cause hydrogen stress cracking of highstrength alloys in service if “overprotective. The corrosion resistance of ferritic stainless steels is improved by the increased addition of chromium and molybdenum. Sulfide ions. 303. Only ferritic stainless steels are generally immune to both hydrogen and chloride stress cracking. hot caustic solutions. but martensitic and precipitation-hardening alloys may be susceptible to both hydrogen stress cracking and chloride stress cracking. 316L. whereas ductility. Corrosion fatigue is the result of cycle loading in a corrosive environment. and weldability are improved by reducing carbon and nitrogen content. Precipitation-hardening grades (S17400 and S17700) are subject to SCC in sulfate solutions. The ferritic stainless steels. The austenitic stainless steels resist hydrogen effects. SCC can occur at room temperature and even at cryogenic temperatures in the presence of other halides (e. Other related corrosion phenomena are corrosion fatigue. determine the sensitivity of the metal to SCC. such as types 405 and 430. and. particularly nickel. phosphorus. However. there are rough correlations between pH and chloride concentration at which SCC may be anticipated. 347. delayed brittle fatigue. HCl). which are nickelfree. with simultaneous sensitization. For boldly exposed surfaces. aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulfide/NaCl. which leads to brittle failure when subsequently loaded. as found in water and atmospheric exposures. as well as in neutral or acid chlorides. Brittle fatigue is caused by hydrogen impregnation of an alloy during processing. selenium.” The use of cathodic protection (the coupling of hardenable stainless steels to lees noble metals in corrosive environments) should be done with caution.

Hot caustic can also cause SCC of 18-8 stainless steels. This is a time. welding slag. rust deposits. °F 1600 °C 900 800 0..019%C FIGURE 6.030%C 0.056%C 0.1.062%C 0. heat tints.08%C 1400 700 1200 600 1000 500 800 10 sec 1 min 10 min 1 h 10 h 100 h 1000 10.052%C 0. as frequently happens when high-pressure steam is contaminated by carryover of alkaline boiler-treating chemicals.1 Effect of carbon content on carbide precipitation. using a zinc-free and chloride-free paint system.g.000 h h 0. Extreme stress corrosion cracking (ESCC) occurs when chlorides from the atmosphere. or insulation concentrate on the surface of an 18-8 type stainless steel.114 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals which SCC will not occur if there is a possibility of concentration by evaporation or by occlusion or adsorption films adhering to the stainless surface (e. the effect is a depletion of chromium and the lowering of corrosion resistance in areas adjacent to the grain boundary. as shown in Figure 6.058%C 0. and biomasses). mill scale. water leaks.042%C 0. Carbide precipitation forms in the areas to the right of the various carbon-content curves.4 Intergranular Corrosion When austenitic stainless steels are heated or cooled through the temperature range of about 800–16508F (427–8998C). or carbide precipitation. calcareous deposits.and temperature-dependent phenomenon. ESCC is best combatted by coating vessels and piping over 4 in. 6. Called sensitization. . the chromium along grain boundaries tends to combine with carbon to form carbon carbides. Ferric ions from rusted steel flanges will aggravate the situation.

there must be a specific environment. although niobium does not have this drawback. usually 1/8–1/4 in. Second. are highly specific for this type of attack. or niobium–titanium mixtures have been added. it is possible that the entire piece of material will be sensitized. multipass welding or cross-welding can first redissolve titanium or niobium carbides and then permit chromium carbide precipitation in the fusion zone (not the heataffected zone). except in specific situations such as might occur under the influence of microbiological corrosion. These are stainless steels to which titanium. Many environments do not cause intergranular corrosion in sensitized austenitic stainless steels. niobium. as well as hot organic acids. Three problems are presented by this approach. Due to the longer times at the temperature of annealing or stress relieving. For this form of attack to occur.1). wide. sensitization can occur under prolonged heating in the critical temperature range. titanium-stabilized grades such as type 321 require a stabilizing anneal to tie up the carbon in the form of titanium carbides before welding. For all practicality. but low-chloride waters (e. the niobium carbides (as well as the titanium carbides) can be redissolved by the heat or welding. the low-carbon grades can be welded. However. Third. relieving stress in the sensitizing range. hot formed. adjacent to but slightly removed from the weld. Seawater and other high-chloride waters cause severe pitting in sensitized areas. potable water) do not.g. titanium does not transfer well across a welding arc and thus loses much of its effectiveness in multipass welding or cross-welding. If the carbon content is held close to less than 0. respectively. but in such small amounts that no significant depletion occurs. such as type 347. Consequently. This region is known as the heat-affected zone (HAZ). alloy 20Cb3. Sensitization can also be prevented by using stabilized stainless steels. First. such as sulfuric or phosphoric acid containing ferric or cupric ions and nitric acid. and even thermally stress relieved without sensitization occurring. and alloy 825.. permit the carbon to precipitate as titanium or niobium carbides during a sensitizing heat treatment. such as during service at elevated temperatures or during very prolonged thermal stress relief (refer to Figure 6. whereas the shorter times at welding temperature can result in sensitization of a band.Corrosion of Stainless Steels 115 Slowly cooling from annealing temperature. This can cause a highly localized form of intergranular corrosion known as knife-line attack (KLA). Such low-carbon grades are practically immune to weld decay. Titanium and niobium additions equal to five or ten times the carbon content. The carbon precipitation does not reduce the chromium content of the grain boundaries.30%. Acids containing oxidizing agents. Intergranular corrosion depends upon the magnitude of the sensitized material exposed and the aggressiveness of the environment to which the sensitized material is exposed. seen particularly in alloys. or welding may cause carbide precipitation. . such as acetic or formic. chromium carbide precipitation can still occur upon sensitization.

a thick oxide film forms that develops into a thicker scale. The nickel-rich type 310 alloy is less susceptible to sigma-phase formation. Most high-temperature reactions involve oxidation because oxides are common products in the many applications where air or oxygen-rich environments are present. Above 15988F (8708C). Oxidation phenomena are controlled by thermodynamic and kinetic factors. Corrosion is usually uniform in nature. service tests are recommended.116 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Intergranular attack may also occur due to mechanisms other than carbide precipitation. In general. the film will be in the form of sulfides that may also be protective. there is little risk of embrittlement. Its thermal conversion product. Alloy compositions . High-temperature corrosion is considered to be electrochemical in nature. Under extreme conditions of high temperature and corrosion. this would be any temperature above 10508F (5758C). High-temperature grades of austenitic stainless steels contain at least 12% nickel. such as type 304. in addition to scaling resistance. with the high-temperature scale formed acting as an electrolyte. the sigma phase. For the conventional austenitic grades of stainless steel. with temperatures above 16008F (8718C). Based on this. In clean atmospheres. notably gas composition and temperature. Changes in mechanical properties. except the more highly alloyed grades (O20% Cr) that will tolerate slightly higher temperatures—about 20008F (11008C) in continuous service. Alloys. at high temperatures. specifically a loss of ductility due to phase changes. Changes can occur in the nature of the surface film of stainless steel when exposed to high temperatures. the surface film may breakdown with a sudden increase in scaling. the film may be self-healing for a period of time followed by another breakdown. it usually means a temperature about 35% of the absolute melting range of a given metal or alloy (or up to 60% for some nickel. may be selectively attacked by reducing acids. For example. Depending on alloy content and environment. is selectively attacked by oxidizing acids such as nitric. if present.and cobalt-based alloys). The predominant effects are oxidation and carburization/decarburization. such as types 309 and 310 are widely used for good creep strength and ductility. 6. a protective oxide film is formed. the surface film may not be protective at all. In more aggressive environments.5 High-Temperature Corrosion The term high temperature is relative. such as hydrochloric or sulfuric. In practical terms. The ferrite phase. In an environment containing sulfur-bearing gases. also take place. at mildly elevated temperatures in an oxidizing gas. the straight chromium and austenitic varieties of stainless steel have an upper limit of about 16008F (8708C).

Under some conditions. may be oxidizing or reducing. a pitting-type phenomenon called “metal dusting” occurs.g. spalling of the protective film will permit continued oxidation. The net effect is an algebraic sum resulting from the concentrations of specific oxidizing or reducing components. are subject to catastrophic oxidation. complex gas mixtures are involved and the net result of the H2/H2O and CO/CO2 is critical. Cr2O3. Alloys containing molybdenum. A practical option for high-temperature applications are nickel-rich alloys such as alloy 800/800H. carburization of stainless steel takes place. Fully annealed wrought alloys are preferred. such as specific liquid chemical solutions. respectively. TABLE 6. Many high-temperature applications involve oxidizing conditions in which stainless steels usually perform well. In strongly carbon-reducing atmospheres (e. The oxide film that causes passivation in conventional service becomes a visible scale. Usually. High-temperature environments. rich in chromic oxide. carbon monoxide) at high temperatures. Under some conditions of environment and temperature.. or molten material in the environment. This oxide or mixed oxide provides protection against further oxidation of the substrate.Corrosion of Stainless Steels 117 are more critical in temperature ranges of 1220–15988F (650–8708C). In oxidizing atmospheres. the oxide film. based on their chromium content.2 Materials Found in Gaseous Media Oxidizing Oxygen Steam Sulfurous oxides (SO2 and SO3) Sulfur Carbon dioxide Chlorine Oxides of nitrogen Reducing Hydrogen Hydrogen sulfide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon Hydrocarbons Hydrogen chloride Ammonia . carbon may be selectively removed (decarburization). there is a selective oxidation of molybdenum with rapid loss of volatile Mo3. specifically types 316 and 317 austenitic stainless steels containing 2 and 3% molybdenum. or causing the loss of. However.2. The common species encountered in gaseous media are shown in Table 6. High-temperature reducing conditions can cause direct attack by preventing. Sigma phase may still be a problem for some nickelbased alloys in the range of 1450–17008F (770–9278C). vapors. such as steam or carbon dioxide. within specific parameters of temperature and environment. The overall nature is determined by the ratio of specific gases.

787 mm) thick were exposed on both sides.2. Sheet specimens 0.3 at 18008F (9828C) consisted of 15 min in the furnace and 5 min in air. for both nonfluctuating and intermittent service.2 Effect of chromium content on scaling resistance at 18008F (9828C).118 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 45 40 Scaling − % weight loss 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 % Chromium 20 22 24 FIGURE 6. In nonfluctuating temperature service.3 provides the maximum service temperature for several stainless steels. 310. Table 6. Steels with less than 18% chromium. (0. constant temperature conditions are not maintained. Those containing 10–20% chromium can be used up to 18008F (9828C). .031-in. Expansion and contraction differences between the base metal and the protective film (scale) during heating and cooling can cause cracking and spalling of the protective scale.3. primarily ferretic grades. are limited to temperatures below 15008F (8168C). Based on an oxidation rate of 10 mg/cm3 in 1000 h. This permits the oxidizing media to attack the exposed metal surface. In many processes. Higher nickel levels improve the spalling resistance of the austenitic stainless steels. whereas steels having chromium content of at least 25% can be used up to 20008F (10938C). This is shown in Figure 6. Typical of these latter steels are types 309. and 416. The cycling temperature conditions in Figure 6. thereby reducing stresses at the alloy–oxide interface during cooling. Nickel reduces the thermal expansion differential between the alloy and the oxide film. the oxidation resistance (scaling resistance) of stainless steel depends on the chromium content as shown in Figure 6.

and it reduces the efficacy of the prior oxide film. However. Nickel in the iron–chromium–nickel alloys will improve the resistance to carburization by lowering the solubility of carbon. reducing conditions can result from a high ratio of reducing to oxidizing species or from inherently reducing environments. Metal dusting. as such. The most common corrosive condition associated with carburization is general absorption. it forms chromium carbides that reduce the chromium matrix.3 Suggested Maximum Service Temperatures in Air Service Intermittent AISI Type 201 202 301 302 304 308 309 310 316 317 321 330 347 410 416 420 440 405 430 442 446 8F 1500 1500 1550 1600 1600 1700 1800 1900 1600 1600 1600 1900 1600 1500 1400 1350 1500 1500 1600 1900 2150 8C 815 815 845 870 870 925 980 1035 870 870 870 1035 870 815 760 735 815 815 870 1035 1175 Continuous 8F 1550 1550 1650 1700 1700 1800 2000 2100 1700 1700 1700 2100 1700 1300 1250 1150 1400 1300 1500 1800 1000 8C 845 845 900 925 925 980 1095 1150 925 925 925 1150 925 705 675 620 760 705 815 980 1095 119 As discussed previously.Corrosion of Stainless Steels TABLE 6. Chlorine in oxidizing flue . Because elements. and titanium readily form nitrides. When hot surfaces react with active nitrogen. Carburization can occur when there is an excess of carbon monoxide over carbon dioxide. but not to the same degree that silicon and chromium do. however. such as aluminum. Halogens form films on stainless alloys. where under alternating oxidizing and reducing conditions localized highcarbon areas are burned out during the oxidation period. is a more serious form of attack. Higher silicon contents will reduce the rate of carburization. is not a corrosion phenomenon. Carburization. To form a stable protective oxide film. nitriding occurs. a nickel content on the order of 35–40% is required. chromium. but their efficiency is limited because of the high volatility of metal chlorides. the integrity of the oxide film is at risk.

when subjected to mixtures of oxygen and sulfur dioxide. and they may fuse to metal surfaces. hydrogen sulfide. only a heavy tarnish. gases in air will increase the corrosion compared to air alone. Sulfur attack is more severe than oxidation. Accelerated corrosion is the result of fusion and lack of adherence. The rate of attack was largely independent of gas composition. The most corrosive forms are sulfur dioxide. The chromium content determines the resistance of stainless steel to sulfidation. % 40 30 309 20 10 310 0 0 200 400 600 Hours of cycles 800 1000 FIGURE 6. Metal sulfides melt at lower temperatures than comparable oxides. in small quantities and in various forms. The attack usually entails internal corrosion and voids. sulfides are less likely to form tenacious. In addition. with the latter two being the most aggressive. did not develop a scale.120 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 70 304 60 347 50 Weight loss. . in compositions ranging from 100% oxygen to 100% sulfur dioxide at 1100 and 16008F (593 and 8718C). Sulfur. Type 316 stainless steel. as well as surface attack. continuous protective films. accelerates corrosion in many environments. and sulfur vapor.3 Effect of nickel on scaling resistance.

whereas stabilized grades types 321 and 347 give satisfactory service up to 8328F (4448C). because of chromium dissolution related to peroxide formation. 347. °C Maximum mean temperature for oxidation resistance 1200 °F 2200 2000 1000 1800 1600 800 1400 Normal combustion atmosphere 1200 600 1000 0 4 8 16 20 12 Chromium in steel % 24 28 FIGURE 6. However. hydrogen under high pressure results in rapid corrosion. Austenitic stainless steels are readily attacked by sulfur vapors. particularly sodium and potassium hydroxides. Flue gases containing sulfur dioxide or hydrogen sulfide exhibit the same corrosiveness as most sulfur-bearing gases. nickel-based alloys containing chromium are required. as shown in Figure 6. a minimum of 17% chromium is required to obtain satisfactory corrosion resistance. and 316 in the temperature range of 1200–14008F (649–7608C). Under these conditions. 321. High corrosion rates are encountered at 10608F (5718C).4 Effect of chromium in normal combustion atmosphere. Stainless steels are not resistant to molten hydroxides. Liquid sulfur can be handled by austenitic stainless steel up to a temperature of 4008F (2048C). an increase in the chromium content will improve the corrosion resistance of the stainless steels. However. they do perform well in molten carbonates up to 9308F (5008C). Above 12908F (7008C). .4. Consequently. Corrosion rates of 1–2 mils per year (mpy) have been reported for types 304.Corrosion of Stainless Steels 121 Low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide can be handled satisfactorily in low-chromium stainless steels. Type 304 stainless steel is used for this service. Service tests must be conducted for reducing flue-gas environments.

These may or may not be reliable figures. Molten cadmium can also cause LMC of austenitic grades above 5708F (3008C). for example. Corrosion fatigue is difficult to predict because it varies with both alloy and environment.122 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals When stainless steel alloys are exposed to specific molten metals. a carbon steel nozzle or pipe section. there are potential problems of liquid metal embrittlement (LME) and liquid metal cracking (LMC) development. recommendations should be based on rates of less than 5 mpy and preferably less than 1 mpy. is not to be expected in the stainless steels. is fluctuating between an active and passive condition with a net result of so many mils per year loss. At 5708F (3008C). zinc penetrated to the matrix via a Zn–Ni compound. there is no specific environment that affects a particular alloy or alloy system. In corrosion fatigue. growing with the time exposure to the stress fluctuation. no corrosion allowance need be specified. Molten tin at 2488F (1208C) has induced LME in austenitic stainless steels. either fatigue or corrosion fatigue may ensue because of vibrations that did not damage the carbon steel. Occasional failures are experienced in applications in which austenitic stainless steel has replaced. At about 1060–13808F (570–7508C). At about 785–10608F (420–5708C).6 Corrosion Fatigue Fatigue is a phenomenon that leads to cracking of a metal under repeated or fluctuating stresses at values below the tensile strength. 6. zinc slowly eroded unstressed 18-8 stainless steel. Such fractures are progressive in nature. the fatigue limit was lowered. The many sets of corrosion data and charts found in the literature that show various corrosion rates of stainless steel in certain environments are actually indicating that the stainless alloy. under those conditions. . the fracture occurs sooner because of the combined effect of cyclic loading and corrosion at lower stress levels. 6. as found in other metals. Consequently. When a lighter gage of stainless steel replaces a heavier-walled steel section.7 Uniform Corrosion General or uniform corrosion. Under these conditions.

Incremental additions over 18% become less effective. As a further benefit to alloying with steel. it is less noble than iron and thus tends to form its oxide first. Continued additions of chromium will also continue to improve corrosion resistance in more severe environments. and elevated temperatures. Chromium additions are particularly beneficial in terms of resistance in oxidizing environments. though less ductile. whereby stainless alloy identification numbers generally begin with “S” followed by a five-digit number. Addition of chromium is the most cost-effective means of increasing the corrosion resistance of steel. For exposure to mild. and possess mechanical properties similar to those of carbon steel. Most of the old AISI designations were retained as the first three digits of the UNS number such that the old Stainless 405. wet environments the addition of about 11% chromium is sufficient to prevent “rusting” of steel components. Alloy identification is now formally handled by the Unified Numbering System (UNS). is designated UNS S40500.7 Ferritic Stainless Steel Family Chromium is a metal that readily forms an oxide that is transparent and happens to be extremely resistant to further degradation. Ferritic stainless steels are magnetic.1 lists some of the more common ferritic stainless steels. with chromium costing less than a dollar per pound. Table 7. at both moderate. Chromium contents in the ferritic stainless alloys top out around 28%. These materials are historically known as 400 series stainless as they were identified with numbers beginning with 400 when the American Institute for Iron and Steel (AISI) had the authority to designate alloy compositions. Type 430 stainless (UNS S43000) is alloyed with 18% chromium. have body-centered cubic atomic structures. a basic 12% Cr balance iron material. particularly for 123 . hence the term stainless. This is the next logical step in alloy additions because steady improvement in corrosion resistance is obtained by increasing the chromium content over 11%. Increasing the chromium content in steel gradually above about 2% improves mild atmospheric corrosion resistance steadily up to a level of about 12% where corrosion is essentially arrested.

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Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals

TABLE 7.1 Selected Ferritic Stainless Steels
Alloy S40500 S40900 S43000 S43035 S44300 S44600 C 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.05 0.12 0.07 Cr 12.0 11.0 16.5 18.0 21.0 25.5 Ni — — — — — — Mo — — — — — — N — — — 0.03 — — Other Ti-0.4 Ti-0.7 Cu-1.0 CTEa (min./in.) 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.3 Toughness (ft–lb.@8F) 75@RT bb 600 600 600 600 600 600 Density (#/in.3) 0.279 0.280 0.278 0.280 0.277 0.270

Alloy S40500 S40900 S43000 S43900 S44300 S44600

Room Temperature Yield (KSI) 40 35 45 40 50 50

Room Temperature Tensile (KSI) 70 60 74 70 90 70

Room Temperature Elong. (%) 30 30 28 30 22 25

Elevated Temperature Strength (KSI@8F)c

25@RT

2@12008 CRP 2@12008 CRP

Values are approximate.
a

Coefficient of thermal expansion for range of 72–12008F. Magnetic permeability. c CRP is stress required to produce 1% creep strain in 10,000 h.
b

aqueous corrosion. Beyond this, the highest practical level of chromium content in iron is afforded by type 446 (UNS S44600). This stainless alloy is used primarily for high-temperature oxidation resistance. Examination of the compositions of stainless types 409 and 439 introduce an additional approach to improving corrosion resistance. It also underscores the importance of carbon in stainless alloys. The role of carbon as an alloy addition to steel is primarily that of increasing strength. Increasing carbon content, because it is an interstitial element, pins the movement of atoms within the matrix, resulting in higher stresses required to cause deformation. This is also a factor in stainless steels, but increasing carbon content can have a deleterious effect on corrosion resistance. During melting and high-temperature working operations, the carbon content in stainless steel is generally in solid solution, i.e., uniformly distributed within the steel matrix, analogous to sugar in solution in warm water. As the steel cools from a temperature of around 16008F, there is a preference for the formation of a chromium carbide compound that precipitates preferentially at grain boundaries. This is somewhat analogous to the sugar-water solution as the stage where cooling has caused the sugar to crystallize and precipitate to the bottom of the container. The solubility limit of carbon in austenitic steel is illustrated in Figure 7.1. The solubility of carbon in ferrite is slightly higher.

Ferritic Stainless Steel Family
1100 1000 900 Temperature, °C 800 700 600 500 400 300 Austenite+Carbide Austenite

125

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

Weight percent carbon
FIGURE 7.1 Solubility of carbon in austenite.

Chromium carbides in themselves do not suffer from poor corrosion resistance. The detrimental effect is in the fact that chromium is depleted from the surrounding matrix. In fact, the chromium depletion can be so severe as to lower the chromium content locally to below the 11% content considered to be the minimum for stainless steel. In actuality, any depletion can be significant if the environment is severe enough to cause the depleted zone to become anodic to the matrix. In high-temperature service, even where the component is used at a temperature that will cause chromium carbide precipitation, grain boundary chromium depletion is usually not a concern. Due to diffusion of chromium from within the grain toward the grain boundary, chromium depletion at elevated temperatures is short-lived. One way to avoid the precipitation of chromium carbides is to force the precipitation of another carbide first. Two elements, titanium and niobium (columbium), are particularly effective. Titanium will tie up carbon in the ratio of about five times its weight. Niobium is more efficient, tying up about 15 times its own weight. In both types 409 and 439, titanium is used as the stabilizer. In other alloys, such as some of “superferritic” materials, both elements are used because in higher concentrations each element can produce detrimental side effects. Ferritic stainless steels offer useful resistance to mild atmospheric corrosion and most freshwaters. They will corrode with exposure to seawater atmospheres. These alloys are also useful in high-temperature situations, with 446

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Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals

exhibiting useful oxidation (scaling) resistance through about 21008F. Ferritic materials that contain more than about 18% chromium are also susceptible to an embrittlement phenomenon when exposed to temperatures in the range of 600–11008F. This is due to the formation of a secondary phase and is termed 8858 embrittlement after the temperature that causes the most rapid formation. These materials are not brittle in this temperature range but lose ductility when cooled to room temperature. Consequently, these alloys are limited to a maximum operating temperature of 6508F (3438C). Corrosion resistance is rated good, although ferritic alloys do not resist reducing acids such as hydrochloric. Mildly corrosive conditions and oxidizing media are handled satisfactorily. Type 430 finds wide application in nitric acid plants. Increasing the chromium content to 24 and 30% improves the resistance to oxidizing conditions at elevated temperatures. These alloys are useful for all types of furnace parts not subject to high stress. Because the oxidation resistance is independent of the carbon content, soft forgeable alloys that are low in carbon can be rolled into plates, shapes, and sheets. Ferretic stainless steels offer useful resistance to mild atmospheric corrosion and most fresh waters. They will corrode with exposure to seawater atmospheres.

7.1 Type 405 (S40500)
This is a nonhardenable 12% chromium stainless steel. The chemical composition is given in Table 7.2. Type 405 stainless is designed for use in the as-welded condition; however, heat treatment improves corrosion resistance.
TABLE 7.2 Chemical Composition of Ferritic Stainless Steels
Nominal Composition (%) AISI Type 405 430 430F 430(Se) 444 446 XM-27b
a

C max 0.08 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.025 0.20 0.002

Mn max 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.25 1.00 1.50 0.10

Si max 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.20

Cr 11.50–14.50 14.00–18.00 14.00–18.00 14.00–18.00 17.5–19.5 23.00–17.00 26.00

Othera 0.10–0.30 Al 0.15 S min 0.15 Se min 1.75–2.50 Mo 0.25 max N

Elements in addition to those shown are as follows: phophorus—0.06% max in type 430F and 430(Se), 0.015% in XM-27; sulfur—0.03% max in types 405, 430, 444, and 446; 0.15% min type 430F, 0.01% in XM-27; nickel—1.00% max in type 444, 0.15% in XM-27; titaniumCniobium— 0.80% max in type 444; copper—0.02% in XM-27; nitrogen—0.010% in XM-27. b E-Brite 26-1 trademark of Allegheny Ludium Industries, Inc.

Ferritic Stainless Steel Family

127

The low chromium favors less sensitivity to 8558F (4758C) embrittlement and sigma phase formation. Type 405 stainless steel is resistant to nitric acid, organic acids, and alkalies. It will be attacked by sulfuric, hydrochloric, and phosphoric acids, as well as seawater. It is resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking. Applications include heat, exchanger tubes in the refining industry and other areas where exposure may result in the 8558F (4758C) or sigma temperature range. It has an allowable maximum continuous operating temperature of 13008F (7058C) with an intermittent allowable operating temperature of 15008F (8158C).

7.2 Type 409 (S40900)
Type 409 stainless is an 11% chromium alloy stabilized with titanium. Its chemical composition will be found in Table 7.3. The material can be welded in the field, however, heat treatment improves corrosion resistance. It has a maximum allowable continuous operating temperature of 13008F (7058C) with an intermittent operating temperature of 15008F (8158C). It cannot be hardened by heat treatment. The primary application for alloy 409 is in the automotive industry as mufflers, catalytic convertors, and tail pipes. It has proven an attractive replacement for carbon steel because it combines economy and good resistance to oxidation and corrosion.

7.3 Type 430 (S43000)
This is the most widely used of the ferritic stainless steels. It combines good heat resistance and mechanical properties. The chemical composition will be
TABLE 7.3 Chemical Composition of Alloy 409 (S40900)
Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Phosphorus Sulfur Titanium Iron Weight Percent 0.08 1 1 10.5–11.751 0.5 0.045 0.045 6!%C min–0.75% max Balance

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Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals

found in Table 7.1. In continuous service, type 430 may be operated to a maximum temperature of 15008F (8158C) and 16008F (8708C) in intermittent service. However, it is subject to 8858F (4758C) embrittlement and loss of ductility at subzero temperatures. Type 430 stainless is resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking and elevated sulfide attack. Applications are found in nitric acid services, water and food processing, automobile trim, heat exchangers in petroleum and chemical processing industries, reboilers for desulfurized naphtha, heat exchangers in sour-water strippers and hydrogen plant efluent coolers. The compatibility of type 430 stainless steel with selected corrodents is provided in Table 7.4, which is taken from Reference [1]. Stainless steel type 430F is a modification of type 430. The carbon content is reduced to 0.065%, manganese to 0.80%, and silicon to 0.3/0.7%, while 0.5% molybdenum and 0.60% nickel have been added. This is an alloy used extensively in solenoid armatures and top plugs. It has also been used in solenoid coils and housings operating in corrosive environments. Type 430FR alloy has the same chemical composition as type 430F except for an increase in the silicon content to 1.00/1.50 wt%. The alloy has been used for solenoid valve magnetic core components that must combat corrosion from atmospheric fresh water and corrosive environments. This grade has a higher electrical resistivity than 430F solenoid quality, which includes eddy-current loss of the material.

7.4 Type 439L (S43035)
The composition of type 439L will be found in Table 7.5. This alloy is nonhardenable through heat treatment and has excellent ductility and weldability. It resists intergranular attack and formation of martensite in the as-welded, heat-affected zone, but is subject to 8858F (4758C) embrittlement. Alloy 439L is resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking, organic acids, alkalies, and nitric acid. It will be attacked by sulfuric, hydrochloric, and phosphoric acids, as well as seawater. Applications include heat exchangers, condensers, feed-water heaters, tube-oil coolers, and moisture-separator reheaters.

7.5 Type 444 (S44400)
Table 7.2 provides the chemical composition of this alloy. This is a low-carbon alloy with molybdenum added to improve chloride pitting resistance. It is virtually immune to chloride stress corrosion cracking. The alloy is subject to 8858F (4758C) embrittlement and loss of ductility at subzero temperatures.

Ferritic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 7.4 Compatibility of Ferritic Stainless Steels with Selected Corrodents
Type of Alloy Chemical Acetic acid, 10% Acetic acid, 50% Acetic acid, 80% Acetic acid, glacial Acetic anhydride, 90% Aluminum chloride, aqueous Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride, 10% Ammonium hydroxide, 25% Ammonium hydroxide, sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate, 5% Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate, 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia, 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Borax, 5% Boric acid Bromine gas, dry Bromine gas, moist Bromine, liquid Butyric acid Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide, dry Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride, dry Carbonic acid Chloracetic acid, 50% water Chloracetic acid 430 (8F/8C) 70/21 X 70/21 70/21 150/66 X 70/21 X 212/100 70/21 70/21 70/21 212/100 70/21 70/21 X 70/21 X 70/21 X 70/21 70/21a 70/21 70/21 70/21 70/21 200/93 200/93a X X X 200/93 200/93 X X 70/21 70/21 70/21 1600/871 212/100 X X X 444 (8F/8C) 200/93 200/93 200/93

129

XM-27 (8F/8C) 200/93 200/93 130/54 140/60 300/149 110/43

200/93

X

210/99

(continued)

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Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals

TABLE 7.4 Continued
Type of Alloy Chemical Chlorine gas, dry Chlorine gas, wet Chloroform, dry Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 50% Citric acid, 15% Citric acid, concentrated Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cupric chloride, 5% Cupric chloride, 50% Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride, 10% in water Ferric nitrate, 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas, dry Fluorine gas, moist Hydrobromic acid, dilute Hydrobromic acid, 20% Hydrobromic acid, 50% Hydrochloric acid, 20% Hydrochloric acid, 38% Hydrocyanic acid, 10% Hydrofluoric acid, 30% Hydrofluoric acid, 70% Hydrofluoric acid, 100% Iodine solution, 10% Lactic acid, 20% Lactic acid, conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Muriatic acid Nitric acid, 5% Nitric acid, 20% Nitric acid, 70% Nitric acid, anhydrous Nitrous acid, 5% Phenol Phosphoric acid, 50–80% Picric acid Silver bromide, 10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide, 10% Sodium hydroxide, 50% 430 (8F/8C) X X 70/21 70/21 X 70/21 X 70/21 70/21 X 212/100 212/100 X X 70/21 X 70/21 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 200/93 X 70/21 200/93 70/21 X 70/21 200/93 X X X 70/21a 70/21 444 (8F/8C) XM-27 (8F/8C)

200/93

120/49 X 200/93

X

80/27 75/25

X X X 200/93 200/93 200/93 200/93 200/93 X X 200/93 320/160 320/160 210/99

200/93

212/100 X

200/93 180/82 (continued)

Ferritic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 7.4 Continued
Type of Alloy Chemical Sodium hydroxide, conc. Sodium hypochlorite, 30% Sodium sulfide, to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride, 10% Sulfuric acid, 10% Sulfuric acid, 50% Sulfuric acid, 70% Sulfuric acid, 90% Sulfuric acid, 98% Sulfuric acid, 100% Sulfuric acid, fuming Sulfurous acid, 5% Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride, 20% 430 (8F/8C) 444 (8F/8C) X X X X X X X X X X X X

131

XM-27 (8F/8C) 90/32 90/32 X X X X 280/138 360/182 210/99 200/93

70/21 X X 70/21a

The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. When compatible, the corrosion rate is !20 mpy.
a

Pitting may occur.

Source: From P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

The chloride pitting resistance of this alloy is similar to that of type 316 stainless steel and superior to that of types 430 and 439L. Like all ferritic stainless steels, type 444 relies on a passive film to resist corrosion, but exhibits rather high corrosion rates when activated. This characteristic explains the abrupt transition in corrosion rates that occur at particular acid concentrations. For example, it is resistant to very dilute solutions of sulfuric acid at boiling temperature, but corrodes rapidly at higher concentrations.

TABLE 7.5 Chemical Composition of Alloy 439L (S43035)
Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nitrogen Titanium Aluminum Weight Percent 0.07 max 1.00 max 1.00 max 17.0–19.0 0.50 12!%C min 0.15 max

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Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals

The corrosion rates of type 444 in strongly concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions are also higher than those of austenitic stainless steels. The compatibility of type 444 alloy with selected corrodents will be found in Table 7.4. The data has been extracted from Reference [1]. The corrosion resistance of type 444 is generally considered equal to that of type 304. This alloy is used for heat exchangers in chemical-, petroleum-, and food-processing industries, as well as piping.

7.6 Type 446 (S44600)
Type 446 is a heat-resisting grade of ferritic stainless steel. It has a maximum temperature rating of 20008F (10958C) for continuous service and a maximum temperature rating of 21508F (11758C) for intermittent service. Table 7.2 lists the chemical composition. This nonhardenable chromium steel exhibits good resistance to reducing sulfurous gases and fuel-ash corrosion. Alloy S44600 has good general corrosion resistance in mild atmospheric environments, fresh water, mild chemicals, and mild oxidizing conditions. Applications have included furnance parts, kiln linings, and annealing boxes.

Reference
1. P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

8
Superferritic Stainless Steel Family
Ferritic stainless alloys are noted for their ability to resist chloride stress corrosion cracking, which is one of their most useful features in terms of corrosion resistance. Consequently, development efforts during the 1970s were undertaken to produce ferritic stainlesses that would also possess a high level of general and localized pitting resistance. The first significant alloy developed commercially to meet these requirements contained 26% chromium and 1% molybdenum. To obtain the desired corrosion resistance and acceptable fabrication characteristics, the material had to have very low interstitial element contents. To achieve these levels, the material was electron-beam rerefined under a vacuum. It was known as E-Brite alloy. Carbon plus nitrogen contents were maintained at levels below 0.02%. The E-Brite alloy (S44627) was termed a “superferritic” because of its high level of corrosion resistance for a ferritic material and partly because it is located so far into the ferritic zone on the Schaeffler diagram. For a period of years, the usage of this alloy grew. Finally, its benefits for the construction of pressure vessels were overshadowed by the difficult nature of fabrication and a concern over its toughness. Due to the very low level of interstitial elements, the alloy had a tendency to absorb these elements during welding processes. Increases in oxygen plus nitrogen to levels much over 100 ppm resulted in poor toughness. Even without these effects, the alloy could exhibit a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBIT) around room temperature. Other superferritic alloys were also developed. The chemical composition of selected superferritic alloys are shown in Table 8.1. These alloys exhibit excellent localized corrosion resistance. Although the superferritic materials alloyed with some nickel have improved mechanical toughness and are less sensitive to contamination from interstitial elements, their availability is still limited to thicknesses below approximately 0.200 in. This is related to the formation of embrittling phases during cooling from annealing temperatures. Section thicknesses over these levels cannot be cooled quickly enough to avoid a loss of toughness.
133

134

Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 8.1 Chemical Composition of Selected Superferritic Stainless Steels
Alloy S44627 S44660 S44800 C 0.002 0.02 0.005 Cr 26.0 26.0 29.0 Ni — 2.5 2.2 Mo 1.0 3.0 4.0 N 0.010 0.025 0.01 Other TiCCb 0.5

Values are in wt%.

8.1 Type XM-27 (S44627)
This alloy is manufactured under the trade name of E-Brite by Allegheny Ludlum Industries, Inc. It is a high-chromium alloy. Refer to Table 8.1 for the chemical composition. Compared to the 300 series of stainless steel, alloy S44627 has a high thermal conductivity and a low coefficient of thermal expansion. In general, E-Brite has good general corrosion resistance in most oxidizing acids, organic acids, and caustics. It is resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion and free from chloride stress corrosion cracking. Refer to Table 8.2 for the compatibility of alloy S44627 with selected corrodents. This alloy also resists intergranular corrosion and is approved for use in contact with foods. Applications include heat exchanger tubing, overhead condensers, reboilers, and feed heaters (petroleum refining), pulp and paper liquid heaters, organic acid heaters and condensers, and nitric acid cooler condensers.

8.2 Alloy S44660 (Sea-Cure)
Sea-Cure is a trademark of Trent Tube. It is a chromium–nickel–molybdenum superferritic alloy. The chemical composition is shown in Table 8.1. Because of its chromium, nickel, and molybdenum contents, it possesses excellent resistance to chloride-induced pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. It has better resistance than austenitic stainless steels to general corrosion in diverse conditions. Good to excellent resistance is shown to organic acids, alkalies, salts, and seawater, with good resistance shown to sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids. Sea-Cure is used in electric power plant condensers and feedwater heaters, and heat exchangers in the chemical, petrochemical, and refining applications.

Superferritic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 8.2 Compatibility of E-Brite Alloy S44627 with Selected Corrodents
Chemical Acetic acid, 10% Acetic acid, 20% Acetic acid, 50% Acetic acid, 80% Acetic acid, glacial Acetic anhydride* Ammonium chloride, 10%* Aqua regia, 3:1 Beer Beet sugar liquors Benzaldehyde* Bromine water, 1% Calcium hydroxide, 50%* Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 30% Chromic acid, 40% Chromic acid, 50% Citric acid, 10% Citric acid, 25% Copper chloride, 5% Ethylene chloride* Ferric chloride Fluosilicic acid Formic acid, 80% Hydrochloric acid Lactic acid, 80% Methylene chloride Nitric acid, 5%* Nitric acid, 10%* Nitric acid, 20%* Nitric acid, 30%* Nitric acid, 40%* Nitric acid, 50%* Nitric acid, 70%* Oxalic acid, 10% Phosphoric acid, 25–50%* Sodium chlorite Sodium hydroxide, 10% Sodium hydroxide, 15% Sodium hydroxide, 30% Sodium hydroxide, 50% Sodium hypochlorite, 30%* Stearic acid Sulfamic acid Sulfur dioxide, wet Sulfuric acid, 10% Sulfuric acid, 30–90% Sulfuric acid, 95% 8F/8C 200/93 200/93 200/93 130/54 140/60 300/149 200/93 X 160/71 120/49 210/99 80/27 210/99 130/54 90/32 80/27 X 200/93 210/99 100/38 210/99 80/27 X 210/99 X 200/93 X 310/154 310/154 320/160 320/160 200/93 200/93 200/93 X 210/99 90/32 200/93 200/93 200/93 180/82 90/32 210/99 100/38 550/293 X X 150/66 (continued)

135

136

Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 8.2 Continued
Chemical Sulfuric acid, 98% Sulfurous acid, 5%* Tartaric acid, 50% Toluene 8F/8C 280/138 210/99 210/99 210/99

The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. When compatible, corrosion rate is !2 mpy except for those marked with an *, whose corrosion rate is !20 mpy. Source: From P. A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

8.3 Alloy S44735 (29-4C)
The chemical composition of alloy 29-4C is shown in Table 8.3. This alloy has improved general corrosion resistance to chloride pitting and stress corrosion cracking in some environments. The absence of nickel reduces the cost. Applications are found in the utility industry, chemical processing equipment, household condensing furnaces, and vent pipes.

8.4 Alloy S44800 (29-4-2)
The chemical composition of alloy S44800 is shown in Table 8.1. Applications are found in chemical processing equipment and the utility industry for use in corrosive environments.

TABLE 8.3 Chemical Composition of Alloy S44735 (29-4C)
Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Phosphorus Molybdenum TitaniumCniobium Iron Weight Percent 0.03 max 0.30 max 1.0 max 28.0–30.0 1.0 0.03 3.60–4.20 6 (%CC%N): 0.045 N min Balance

Superferritic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 8.4 Chemical Composition of Alloy S44700 (29-4)
Chemical Carbon Manganese Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Silicon Copper Nitrogen Iron Weight Percent 0.010 max 0.30 max 28.0–30.0 0.15 3.50–4.20 0.02 max 0.15 0.02 Balance

137

This alloy has improved resistance to chloride pitting and stress corrosion cracking and improved general corrosion resistance in some environments.

8.5 Alloy S44700 (29-4)
This is a chromium–nickel–molybdenum alloy, with its composition shown in Table 8.4. It has excellent resistance to chloride pitting and stress corrosion cracking environments. It finds use in the chemical processing and utility industries.

Reference
1. P. A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

9. this transformation is thermally controlled. ductility. the steel is given a stress-relieving or tempering treatment. ammonia. However. having strength to 275 ksi.1 Type 410 (S41000) Type 410 stainless steel is heat treatable and is the most widely used of the martensitic stainless steels. relatively high strength. and good fatigue properties after suitable heat treatment are usually the reasons for selecting the martensitic stainless steels. Common alloys are 410. In the hardened condition.1. Its chemical composition is shown in Table 9. as indicated by the diagram in Figure 9. Moderate corrosion resistance.1. a metallurgical structure known as martensite is obtained.7%. and impact strength. These alloys are hardenable because of the phase transformation from body-centered cubic to body-centered tetragonal. lye. and other corrodents to which cutlery may be subjected.9 Martensitic Stainless Steel Family Within a certain range of compositions based on ferritic stainless steels. and alloy 440 of 17% chromium with a high carbon content. usually in the range of 300–7008F (149–3718C). As with the low-alloy steels. But the carbon content expands the g region to the extent that larger chromium contents are possible. The martensitic grades are so named because. containing 12% chromium and low carbon. 139 . the steel has very high strength and hardness. martensitic structures can be developed. when heated above the critical temperature of 16008F (8708C) and cooled rapidly. at such high strength levels they lack ductility. Tempering at 8008F (4258C) does not reduce the hardness of the part and in this condition these alloys show an exceptional resistance to fruit and vegetable acids. but to obtain optimal corrosion resistance. The martensitic stainless steels are the strongest of all stainless steels. The Fe–Cr phase diagram suggests that the maximum chromium content would be about 12.

00 0.140 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 30 Austenite Ni % + 0. changes in metallurgical structure can be expected for almost any steel or alloy. Type 410 stainless. which has been discussed previously.00 11.5 Si % + 0. and food acids. has high-strength properties with good ductility. such as air.15 1.030 1.040 0.1 Chemical Composition of Type 410 Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Iron Weight Percent 0. With time and temperature.1 Schaeffler constitutional diagram for stainless steel. which is a 12%-chromium alloy. Table 9.50 Balance . Type 410 stainless steel has a maximum operating temperature of 13008F (7058C) for continuous service. softening occurs when exposed to temperatures approaching or exceeding the original tempering temperature. Type 410 stainless steel is used where corrosion is not severe. In martensitic stainless steels. but for intermittent service may be operated at a maximum of 15008F (8158C). This phenomenon is called 8858F embrittlement.5 Mn % + 30 (C % + N %) 25 20 15 10 Martensite A+M+F M+F A+M A+F 0% 5% 40% 100% 5 0 Ferrite 0 10 20 30 40 Cr % + Mo + % 1. fresh water. has been known to display brittle tendencies after extended periods in the same temperature range.50–13. when heat treated. some chemicals.2 provides the compatibility of type 410 stainless steel with selected corrodents.5 Cb % FIGURE 9. TABLE 9. This alloy.

10% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. liquid Butadiene 8F 60 60 70 70 70 8C 16 16 21 21 21 141 210 110 90 X X 150 60 210 X X X X X X 99 43 27 66 16 99 210 230 70 210 60 90 60 60 110 210 210 60 230 210 70 230 210 130 150 130 X X 99 110 X 21 99 16 32 16 16 43 99 99 16 110 99 21 110 99 54 66 54 X X 60 X X X 16 (continued) . Ammonium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas. moist Bromine. 10%a Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Barium chloridea Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. sat. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 5% Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetatea Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium carbonate. 50% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acrylonitrile Allyl alcohol Alum Aluminum chloride. 5% Ammonium phosphate. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate. sat.2 Compatibility of Type 410 Stainless Steel with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.Martensitic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 9.

2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloridea Calcium hydroxide. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene. 10% Calcium hypochlorite Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 50% Citric acid. wet Chlorine. dry Carbon dioxide.142 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 9. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Chromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 15% Citric acid. 50% Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cupric chloride. dilute Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 30% 8F 90 60 150 210 150 210 210 60 570 570 60 570 210 60 8C 32 16 66 99 66 99 99 16 299 299 16 299 99 16 X X 60 150 X X X X X X X 16 66 210 140 90 80 210 210 X 99 60 32 27 99 99 80 90 210 60 570 X X X X X X X X X X X X 27 32 99 16 299 210 99 (continued) . dry Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloridea Carbonic acid Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. dry Fluorine gas.

Magnesium chloride. dry Methyl ethyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Schweitzer. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Source: P. 20% Nitric acid. 2004. 70% Nitric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sulfuric acid. conc. 1–4. 10% Sodium carbonate. Incompatibility is shown by an X. the corrosion rate is !20 mpy.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrofluoric acid.Martensitic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 9. 90% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid.A. . 5% Nitric acid. conc. conc. 50% Sulfuric acid.. general Lactic acid. 70% Phenola Phosphoric acid. Perchloric acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 5th ed. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 100% Sulfurous acid Toluene Trichlorocetic acid Zinc chloride 8F X X 8C 143 60 60 60 210 210 210 60 90 160 60 60 X 16 16 16 99 99 99 16 32 71 16 16 X X X X 210 60 210 210 210 210 210 60 99 16 99 99 99 99 99 16 X 210 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 99 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Perchloric acid. 10–30% Sodium chloridea Sodium hydroxide. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. a Material is subject to pitting. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. Vols. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 100% Ketones. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Sodium sulfide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. When compatible. 50% Malic acid Methyl chloride.

and mild chemical exposures. the hardenability is increased.2 Type 414 (S41400) Type 414 stainless steel is a nickel-bearing chromium stainless steel.144 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 9. Applications include high-strength nuts and bolts. The nickel addition also increases notch toughness. fresh water. the chromium content can be increased. 9.50 Balance Applications include valve and pump parts.5 for the chemical composition of type 416Se.8%) and a nitrogen content of 0. Type 410S has a lower carbon content (0. The composition is shown in Table 9.3.3 Type 416 (S41600) Type 416 stainless steel is a low-carbon-class martensitic alloy. and heat exchangers. By adding nickel. turbine parts. which leads to improved corrosion resistance.50 1. Type 416Se has selenium added to the composition and the sulfur quantity reduced to improve the machinability. Type 414 stainless steel is resistant to mild atmospheric corrosion. It has a maximum continuous operating temperature of 12508F (6758C) and an intermittent maximum operating temperature of 4008F (7608C). The chemical composition is shown in Table 9. .00 11. a free-machining variation of type 410 stainless steel. By adding nickel.60%. Type 414 can be heat treated to somewhat higher tensile and impact strengths than type 410. Refer Table 9. bushings. cutlery. fasteners. but not enough to make it austenitic at ambient temperatures. Type 410 double tempered is a quenched and double-tempered variation conforming to NACE and API specifications for parts used in hydrogen sulfide service.25–2.4.15 1.030 1.040 0. 9.00 0.50–13.3 Chemical Composition of Type 414 Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Iron Weight Percent 0.

15 min Balance These alloys exhibit useful corrosion resistance to natural food acids.040 0. Table 9.50 0.6 Chemical Composition of Type 420 Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Iron Weight Percent 0.60a Balance May be added at manufacturer’s option.060 0.15 1. 9.00–14.6 shows the TABLE 9.00–14.060 1. TABLE 9.060 1.4 Chemical Composition of Type 416 Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Silicon Chromium Molybdenum Iron a 145 Weight Percent 0.00–14.15 min 1. water.15 1. and most natural atmospheres.50 12.00 12.00 Balance .Martensitic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 9.00 0.25 0.25 0.00 12. 12%-chrome stainless steel with higher strength and wear resistance than type 410.4 Type 420 (S42000) Type 420 stainless steel is a hardenable. basic salts.030 1.5 Chemical Composition of Type 416Se Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Selenium Iron Weight Percent 0.00 0.

025 0. with high strength and toughness.7 Chemical Composition of Type 420F (S42020) Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Molybdenum Iron Weight Percent 0.25 Balance . It is hardenable and also exhibits higher strength. It exhibits good resistance to scaling and oxidation in continuous service at 12008F (6498C).25 0.00–14. 9.5 Type 422 (S42200) This alloy is designed for service temperatures to 12008F (6498C).75–1.25 0. Type 420F stainless is a free-machining version of type 420.15–0.00–13.15 min 1. molds.30 0. surgical instruments.8.00 12. and other products. Type 422 is used in steam turbines for blades and bolts. magnets.00 0. hardness. The chemical composition will be found in Table 9.146 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 9.2–0.60 Balance chemical composition.00 0. shafts. It is a highcarbon martensitic alloy whose composition is shown in Table 9.25 1.75–1.00 0.025 0.7.75 11. This alloy has been used for cutlery. and wear resistance than type 410.060 0.00 0.15 min 1.8 Chemical Composition of Type 422 Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Vanadium Tungsten Iron Weight Percent 0. valves.5–1. TABLE 9.

This alloy finds application as fasteners and fittings for structural components exposed to marine atmospheres.60–0.00 0.9 Chemical Composition of Type 431 Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Iron Weight Percent 0.00 15. TABLE 9.Martensitic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 9.00–18.030 1.75 Balance .030 1.040 0.10 Chemical Composition of Type 440A Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Molybdenum Iron Weight Percent 0.10.6 Type 431 (S43100) The addition of nickel to type 431 provides improved corrosion resistance and toughness (impact strength).040 0.00 0. and for highly stressed aircraft components.00–17.9 shows the chemical composition.50 Balance 147 9.75 1.25–2. type 440A exhibits lower toughness than type 410.00 16.20 1. The chemical composition is shown in Table 9. Because of the high carbon content.00 0. Type 440A has lower carbon content than type 440B or 440C and consequently exhibits a lower hardness but greater toughness.00 1. 9.7 Type 440A (S44002) Type 440A is a high-carbon chromium steel providing stainless properties with excellent hardness. Table 9.

95 1. type 440C has maximum hardness together with high strength and corrosion resistance. Table 9.00 0. In the hardened and stress-relieved condition. This stainless steel is used principally in bearing assemblies.12.75–0. TABLE 9.11 shows the chemical composition.95–1.030 1.12 Chemical Composition of Type 440C Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Molybdenum Iron Weight Percent 0. 9.11 Chemical Composition of Type 440B Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Molybdenum Iron Weight Percent 0.148 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 9.00 16. It also has good abrasion resistance.75 Balance 9. and similar parts. this high-carbon chromium steel attains a hardness of Rockwell C 58.00–18.030 1.00–18. intermediate between types 440A and 440C with comparable intermediate toughness. including bearing balls and races.00 0.00 16.8 Type 440B (S44003) When heat-treated. hardened balls.040 0.00 0. Type 440B has been used for cutlery.2 1.040 0.9 Type 440C (S44004) Type 440C is a high-carbon chromium steel that can attain the highest hardness (Rockwell C 60) of the 400-series stainless steels. The chemical composition is shown in Table 9.75 Balance .00 0.

low-carbon. 9. having a nominal composition as follows: Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Vanadium Iron Weight Percent 1.50 0. P. approaching that of tool steel..70 Balance Reference 1. It possesses corrosion resistance equivalent to type 440C stainless but can attain a maximum hardness of Rockwell C 64. .80 0. 2004.40–0.030 0.00 3.60 12. F6NM has a chemical composition as follows: Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Iron Weight Percent 0. Corrosion Resistance Tables. New York: Marcel Dekker.40 16. Vols.10 Alloy 440-XH This product is produced by Carpenter Technology. D2 tool steel. 5th ed. martensitic stainless with higher toughness and corrosion resistance than type 410 and superior weldability.Martensitic Stainless Steel Family 149 9.50 0. 1–4.030 0.A.00 0. high-chromium.11 13Cr-4N (F6NM) F6NM is a high-nickel.05 0.50–1.45 Balance This is a high-carbon. It has been used in oilfield applications as a replacement for type 410.35 0.60 0. corrosion-resistant alloy that can be described as either a high-hardness type 440C or a corrosion resistant.00 0. Schweitzer.00–14.30–0.50–4.

.

Compositions similar to type 304 that can form no ferrite when solidifying after welding are prone to cracking during solidification and are more difficult to hot-work. is the improved corrosion resistance to mild corrodents. The relationship between alloying elements and alloy types illustrated in the Schaeffler diagram (Figure 9. molybdenum and silicon. This includes adequate resistance to most foods. but with better formability. and weldable. The next major step in alloying additions comes from molybdenum. These materials are nonmagnetic. There are also elements that tend to promote the formation of austenite. As a result. a wide range of organic chemicals. type 304 is balanced near the austenite-ferrite boundary for another reason. the addition of about 8% nickel is required to cause a transition from ferritic to austenitic. and most natural environmental corrosion. carbon. mild inorganic chemicals. The primary benefit of this alloy addition is to achieve the austenitic structure that relative to the ferritics. although their effect is dependent on the alloy system. Nickel is used judiciously as an alloying element because its cost is substantially higher than chromium. is very tough. The most often used are nickel. the cornerstone of the austenitic alloy family. Aluminum and niobium are also ferrite formers. The AISI designation system identifies the most common of these alloys with numbers beginning with 300 and resulted in the term 300 series stainless. have face-centered cubic structures. specifically chromium. adding more nickel to the 18-8 composition offers little benefit from a corrosion standpoint and would be detrimental in other regards. formable. of course.1) is an important concept in understanding stainless steels. This element also provides excellent corrosion resistance in oxidizing 151 .10 Austenitic Stainless Steel Family This family of stainless accounts for the widest usage of all the stainless steels. are ferrite formers. manganese. However. It has been established that certain elements. After the corrosion resistance plateau of 18% chromium is reached. and possess mechanical properties similar to those of the mild steels. The added benefit. Examination of the Schaeffler diagram offers insight into the reason for the composition of type 304. and nitrogen.

1. The resulting chemistry is roughly 16% chromium. The austenitic family of stainless also prompted another approach to avoiding the effects of chromium carbide precipitation. as indicated in the adjacent diagram. It participates in strengthening the passive film that forms on the stainless steel surface along with chromium and nickel.152 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals environments. Stainless types 321 and 347 are versions of type 304 stabilized with titanium and niobium. A further increase in chromium also shifts the current in the passive region to lower levels. 10% nickel. respectively. Added directly to the 18-8 composition. It is about three times more efficient at this than chromium. A significant benefit is realized with the addition of only about 2% molybdenum.1 Effects of environment and alloy content on anodic polarization behavior. Molybdenum has the particular benefit of raising the pitting potential. Corrosion of stainless steels v v Increasing temperature Increasing chloride Log1 Log1 v Increasing molybdenum v Increasing chromium Log1 Log1 FIGURE 10. particularly in aqueous corrosion. . It lowers the potential required for the onset of passivity and raises the pitting potential. can be useful in understanding the benefits of different alloy additions. Chromium significantly increases the area of passivity. so it must be rebalanced. such as the examples in Figure 10. the alloy would contain too much ferrite. Anodic polarization studies. and 2% molybdenum. Austenitic alloys also make use of the concept of stabilization.

More recent austenitic alloys include materials such as S30815 (253MAw) and S30615 (RA85Hw). lowering the carbon could prevent sensitization. along with improvements in melting technology. Modern melting technology is also responsible for another trend in stainless metallurgy. vs. This discovery. When first introduced. extra-low carbon (ELC) grades required premiums on pricing due to higher production costs.035%. maintaining the carbon content to below about 0. As shown in Figure 9. This arrangement also permits bubbling with nitrogen gas that will dissolve as atomic nitrogen into the steel. thus leading to higher-strength materials. or other more minor alloying elements. During this process the exposed surface of the melt is protected with an inert argon atmosphere. For example. Even with alloying additions such as molybdenum to improve localized corrosion resistance to halogens. used primarily for high-temperature (above 11008F) applications due to oxidation and sulfidation resistance.1. Nitrogen acts in a fashion similar to carbon by pinning slip planes. the chromium range for type 304 was 18. The strength is enhanced by a nitrogen alloy addition. without a deleterious effect on corrosion resistance. will avoid the precipitation of harmful levels of chromium carbide. chemical analysis variations. At one time. Chemistries of the 300-series alloys are listed in Table 10. This cracking mechanism manifests itself as branched. nickel. the permissible chemistry ranges for alloying elements needed to be broad to accommodate inhomogeneity in electric furnace melts. These modifications have led to other austenitic alloys such as type 310.2. and raw material quality. An overview of these and other nonmagnetic stainless steel families is shown in Figure 10.0% and still heats were occasionally missed. AOD furnaces.08% maximum.50–0.1. Further improvements in general. are designed to permit the bubbling of the molten steel with oxygen. and high-temperature corrosion resistance are gained by additions of chromium. it is possible to maintain G3s limits on chromium to 0. S30815 is a highly oxidation-resistant material with exceptional elevated-temperature mechanical properties. molybdenum. The result is that alloys are currently being produced with 0. localized. With current technology. This mode of failure can occur when the austenitic alloy is under .Austenitic Stainless Steel Family 153 Because the amount of chromium that precipitated was proportional to the carbon content. the workhorse 304 and 316 alloys are susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This differential has essentially disappeared in the face of modern argon–oxygen decarburization (AOD) furnaces.0–20. the usual 0.75% less of an alloying element than they were just 15 years ago.5% or better. generally transgranular cracks that are so fine as to be virtually undetectable until it has progressed to catastrophic proportions. The oxidation resistance is a result of the 22% chromium content combined with a small cerium addition that helps form a tightly adherent scale. which facilitates the removal of carbon and sulfur. utilized as a final refining stage in melting. resulted in the development of the low-carbon version of many of these alloys.

00 2.10 TA 0. 317L.00 1.00–18.50–3.00–12.4 max N 0. 303(Se).00.00 Mo 5 ! C min Cb–Ta 0.50–10. 309S.00 17.20 Cb 10!C min Cb–Ta 10C min Cb–Ta 2.00–19.50 1.00 2.00 1.00–15.0 Cu 8 ! C min Cb–Ta 4.5.00 23.00 17.15 0.00 24.00 8. 309.50 4.7 Mo 1.00 1.40–7. 310X.00 1.03 0. 330.15 0.00–24.00 10.15 0. 310.00–1. 317L.15 0.00 1. 302.15 min S 0. 305.154 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 10.00 2.20% max in types 303.08 0.15 0.00 0.08 0.00 2.00–19.00–10.00 2.0 Mo 3.00–26.15 0.02 Mn Max 7.50.5 Othersa 0.00–22.00–6.00 2.00 10.00 1.00–4. 316.00–24. 304L.00 18.00 17. 316.00–20. 0.045% max in types 301.00 29.00–18.15 min Se 0.00f 1. 304N.50. 0. 317. 0.00 2. 316L.00 2. 321. .25 0.00 Mo 1.50–5. b Mn range 4.00 2.00–19.00e 1.00 17.00–12.00–18.00 1.030% max in types 201.00 8.00 8.00 20.00–20.00–3.5g 1. 314.08 0.00–26.00–4. 330.00 2.00 1.00 2.08 0.00–14. 305.08 0.00 16.08 0.00–20. 310S.00 9.75 6. g Si range 1.15% min in type 303.00.00 2.00 17. 309.50 1.00 2. and 0.00–13.00 1.00 22.00 19.08 0. 309S.00 17.25 max N 0.00 1. 304L. 304.00–15.00 18. 347.1/0.00 2.00 2.00 Mo 2.00 1.00 10.00 3.00 8.00 1.00 16.00 2.00 18. 321.00 16.0–1.00/3.00–13.00 34.00c 15.00 17.00 18. 347.0 Ni 3.00 1.00–20.00–15.12 0.06% max in types 201 and 202.00–22.00 1.00 8.00 1.00 11.00 1.25 0.00 10. 202.00–14.00–19.08 0.15 0.00 12.08 0.00 2.20 0. c Mn range 7.08 0. 302.00 1.00–14.03% max in type 205. 316N. 0.75–2.00 2.50 3.00–15. 302b. 316L. 304N.10% min in type 316D.50 Mo 2.00 2.00 17.00–15. 310. 308.00 2.00 19.00–19.00 16.00 24.00–3.00–21. 317.00 17.07 0.0 25.00 2. 314.00–10.00 16.5b 10.00 Mo 3.00–19.00 — Cr 16.00 2.03 0.00 8.00 10.1 Chemical Composition of Austenitic Stainless Steels Nominal Composition (%) AISI Type 201 202 205 301 302 302B 303 303(Se) 304 304L 304N 305 308 309 309S 310 310S 314 316 316F 316L 316N 317 317L 321 330 347 348 20Cb3 904L a C Max 0.00–37. 304.25 max N 0.00–14.00–18.75 — Si Max 1.00 11.00–19. 301.00 16.50–18.0 21.00–3.08 0. 316N.00–10.00 22.08 0.50d 2.25 0. and 316D. and 348.00 19.00–20.00–10.00–18.50 10.5 Cu Other elements in addition to those shown are as follows: phosphorus is 0.00–19.00.08 0.00 19.00 0.00–19. e Si range 2.00 17.00 9. and 348.00 2.00 Mo 3.00 9. f Si range 1.00 1. 308.00–26.32/0.16 N 2.00–12.00 1. 205.00 2.00 1.00 1.00–18. Sulfur is 0.00 8.00 12.03 0. 302B.00 18.00–20.00–13. d Mn range 14.00–8.00–22.00–12.00–10.

the nickel content could be lowered to about 5%. the nickel contents in these two alloys are in the range that tend to crack most quickly in chloride-bearing environments. Stainless type 201 was developed as a substitute for type 304 stainless.Austenitic Stainless Steel Family 155 S30400 "18. Another group of austenitic alloys is based on the substitution of manganese for nickel. The corrosion resistance of S20910 exceeds that of type 316 stainless with the additional benefit of higher mechanical properties. summarized in Figure 10.3. 10.8" S31600 Add Mo S31603 Low C S31651 Add N S31703 More Mo Low C S31726 More Ni Mo Add N S30908 More Cr/Ni S30403 Low C S30409 Add C S20200 Add Mn N Less Ni S30451 Add N S24100 More Mn N Less Ni Add Mo S32100 Add Ti S21900 More Cr Mn N08020 More Cr Ni Add Cu Cb S31008 More Cr Ni S30815 More Si Add Ce N S34700 Add Cb S30300 Add S S20910 More Cr Ni Less Mn N08904 More Mo Loss Ni N08367 More Mo Add N N08330 More Cr Ni Add Si S30500 More Ni S20161 Less Mn Add Si S30430 Add Cu FIGURE 10. This approach was first used during and shortly after World War II in response to nickel shortages. By adding about . In fact. By adding about 4% manganese and 0. It was developed as a substitute for type 304 stainless steel. such as the ferritic stainless steels. or nickel levels in excess of about 20%. Studies by Copsen. its corrosion resistance is inferior. These include Nitronic 40 (S21900) and Nitronic 50 (S20910).1 Type 201 (S20100) This is one of the alloys based on the substitution of manganese for nickel because of the shortage of nickel during and shortly after World War II. underscored the benefit of very low-nickel contents. Other alloys in this line have been developed. Although the strength of this alloy is higher than that of type 304.2 Austenitic stainless steels. stress in the presence of halogen ions at temperatures above about 1208F. Manganese has about half the austenitizing power of nickel.2% nitrogen.

3 Chloride stress cracking vs. The mechanical properties of alloy 202 improved to the same degree as type 201. It is nonmagnetic as annealed and becomes somewhat magnetic after cold work. as is the chromium and nickel content. This alloy can be cold-worked to high strength levels. nickel content. 10.2 Type 202 (S20200) Alloy type 202 is one of the series of alloys using manganese as a replacement for nickel. Although the strength of this alloy is higher than that of type 304. its corrosion resistance is inferior.3 Type 22-13-5 (S20910) This is a nitrogen-strengthened stainless alloy having the following composition: .1. The chemical composition is shown in Table 10.1. It exhibits a corrosion resistance comparable to type 301. As can be seen in Table 10. the manganese content of this alloy is greater than that of type 201. This provides improved corrosion resistance.156 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 1000 100 Time to failure 10 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 Weight percent nickel FIGURE 10.2% nitrogen. 10. 4% manganese and 0. the nickel content could be lowered to about 5%.

fasteners. It has the following composition: Carbon Manganese Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Silicon 0.00% 0.0% 5. and springs.00% This alloy finds application as aircraft hydraulic lines.” 10. Like other austenitic stainless steels.30% 0. screens. and particle-accelerator tubes.06 4.5/22. wire cloth.50/13. It has a pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of 45.00/3.00/6.50/23.50/9. S20910 under certain conditions my suffer stress corrosion cracking in hot chloride environments. and pitting environments.00% 20.03% 7. Resistance to intergranular attack in boiling 65% nitric acid and in ferric sulfate–sulfuric acid is excellent for both the annealed and sensitized conditions. pollution-control equipment. This alloy is sometimes referred to as “nitronic 50. machined. It remains nonmagnetic after severe cold work. marine hardware. and cold-worked using the same equipment and methods used for the conventional 300-series stainless steels.00% 17.20/0. Type 22-13-5 stainless steel has very good corrosion resistance in many reducing and oxidizing acids.040% 0.50% 1. Applications for this alloy has included such items as valve shafts. pumps. In particular.00% 2.00% 1.40% Balance It is superior in corrosion resistance to type 316 stainless steel with twice the yield strength. boat shafting. chlorides.00/7. heat-exchanger tubes.30% 0.50% 11.00% 0. heat exchanger parts.5. This alloy also demonstrates good resistance to sulfide stress cracking at ambient temperatures. taper pins.Austenitic Stainless Steel Family 157 Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Columbium Vanadium Nitrogen Iron 0. .030% 1. the alloy provides an excellent level of resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in seawater.10/0. it can be welded. chains. cables.50/3.4 Type 216L (S21603) This is a low-carbon alloy in which a portion of the nickel has been replaced by molybdenum.10/0.

Types 301L and 301LN find application in passenger rail cars. 10.0 2. and light rail vehicles. 10. The chemical compositions are shown in Table 10. most organic and many inorganic chemicals. it forms martensite while deforming.030 max 16. buses.030 max 16.0 max 301LN 0.20 max 5.0 0.045 max 0. Although they have a wide range of corrosion resistance.5 Type 301 (S30100) This is a nitrogen-strengthened alloy that has the ability to work-harden. extremely tough and ductile and are two of the most widely used of the chromium–nickel stainless and heatresisting steels.7 Type 303 (S30300) This is free-machining version of type 304 stainless steel for automatic machining.0–8.030 max 1.030 max 1.0 max 0. The chemical composition of type 301L (S30103) and type 301LN (S30153) are as follows.0 max 0. they are not the .0–18. most dyes. The chemical composition is shown in Table 10.8 Type 304 (S30400) Type 304 stainless steels are the most widely used of any stainless steels.0 2.0 max 10. It is corrosion resistant to atmospheric exposures.0 0. and foods. Alloy Alloying Element Carbon Chromium Manganese Nitrogen Nickel Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon 301L 0. but retains the contained strain to higher levels.1.0–8.1. As with the 200-series alloys. The chemical composition is given in Table 10.158 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 10.0–18.07–0. They are nonhardenable by heat-treating.20 5.1.6 Type 302 (S30200) Type 302 and type 302B are nonmagnetic. sterilizing solutions.045 max 0. nitric acid.

carbide precipitation can be controlled.2 for the compatibility of these alloys with selected corrodents. Type 304N has nitrogen added to the alloy. The chemical composition of various types of 304 alloys are shown in Table 10. type 308 exhibits greater tensile and yield strengths than annealed type 304. Type 304L is such an alloy.Austenitic Stainless Steel Family 159 most corrosion resistant of the austenitic stainlesses. but competent welders using good welding techniques can control the problem.1. the effect of carbide precipitation may or may not present a problem.10 Type 308 (S30800) The chemical composition of type 308 stainless steel is shown in Table 10.9 Type 305 (S30500) Type 305 stainless steel is used extensively for cold heading. They are used extensively in the handling of nitric acid. 10. If the corrodent being handled will attack through intergranular corrosion. which improves its resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion. This alloy can be used for welded sections without danger of carbide precipitation. Welding can cause this phenomenon. Refer to Table 10. These are . severe deep drawing. 10. They are applicable for continuous exposure to 20008F (10938C).11 Type 309 (S30900) Types 309 and 309S are superior heat-resisting stainless alloys. The corrosion resistance of type 308 is slightly better than that of type 304 stainless. It will be noted that this alloy has an increased chromium and nickel content over that of type 304 stainless steel. another alloy should be used. 10. Type 304 stainless steel is subject to intergranular corrosion as a result of carbide precipitation. If the carbon content of the alloy is not allowed to exceed 0.1. This alloy maintains low magnetic permeability after cold working. Types 304 and 304L stainless steels exhibit good overall corrosion resistance. Depending upon the particular corrodent being handled. The chemical composition is shown in Table 10.03%.1. In the annealed conditions. and spinning operations. A high nickel content slows workhardening. Table 305 stainless steel has the equivalent corrosion resistance of type 304 stainless steel.

and 347 Stainless Steel with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitrateb Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide 8F 200 100 200 170 170 210 220 190 100 130 210 210 220 120 210 150 80 80 210 90 200 230 8C 93 38 93 77 77 99 104 88 38 54 99 99 104 49 99 66 27 27 99 32 93 110 X X X 230 210 210 130 210 210 300 80 150 500 80 230 X X X X X X 110 99 99 54 99 99 149 27 66 260 27 110 (continued) X X X . sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 304L. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia.2 Compatibility of Types 304. 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfatea Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.160 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 10. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 40% Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium chloride.

dry Carbon dioxide.Austenitic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 10. sat. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfitec Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate. wet Chlorine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acida Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. dry Bromine gas.b Calcium hydroxide. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride 8F 210 210 210 230 210 400 90 210 150 400 8C 99 99 99 110 99 204 32 99 66 204 161 180 80 200 210 180 300 210 210 80 210 200 90 90 210 210 210 210 200 210 570 210 210 210 X X X X 82 27 93 99 82 149 99 99 27 99 93 32 32 99 99 99 99 93 99 299 99 99 99 110 210 210 200 90 210 X X X X X 43 99 99 93 32 99 (continued) . 10% Chromic acid. liquida Chlorobenzene Chloroformb Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acidb Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. moist Bromine. 10% Calcium chloridea. dry Chlorine gas.

a. Oleum 8F 210 80 210 80 210 210 160 100 80 210 210 210 470 8C 99 27 99 27 99 99 71 38 27 99 99 99 243 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 210 99 200 120 80 120 210 200 200 210 190 170 80 80 100 X X 93 49 27 49 99 93 93 99 88 77 27 27 38 (continued) X . conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc.162 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 10. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Citric acid. 10% Ketones. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfatec Cresol Cupric chloride. 25%a. conc. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate.c Lactic acid. dilute Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. general Lactic acid. 50% Manganese chloride Methyl chloridea Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 20% Hydrobromic acid.c Magnesium chloride Malic acid. 15% Citric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas.

1–4. Corrosion Resistance Tables.A. Vols. conc. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. to 50%a Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.Austenitic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 10. 5th ed. 98%c Sulfuric acid. The chemical composition is shown in Table 10. modifications of type 304 stainless steel. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. These alloys have better creep strength than the 304 alloys. 10% Sodium carbonate. the corrosion rate is !20 mpy. 90%c Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 100%c Sulfuric acid.1. conc. a b c Subject to pitting. They are resistant to corrosive action of high-sulfur . 2004.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Perchloric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide. 10% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Source: From P. 70% Phenola Phosphoric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 8C 163 560 120 300 210 210 210 210 210 210 90 210 X 293 49 149 99 99 99 99 99 99 32 99 X X X X X X X 80 80 80 90 210 100 X X X X 27 27 27 32 99 38 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Types 309 and 309S alloys have slightly better corrosion resistance than type 304 stainless steel. When compatible. 50% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. 10% Sodium hydroxide. to 30%a Sodium hydroxide. 70% Sulfuric acid. 30% Sodium chloride. 10% Perchloric acid.. New York: Marcel Dekker. Subject to stress cracking. Subject to intergranular attack (type 304). 50–80%c Picric acida Potassium bromide.

but are slightly magnetic when cold worked. furnace parts. The molybdenum substantially increases resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in systems containing chlorides and improves overall resistance to most types of corrosion in chemically reducing neutral solutions.1. citric. and heat-exchanger tubing. and lactic acids. Chemical compositions are shown in Table 10. Type 316L stainless steel is the low-carbon version of type 316 and offers the additional feature of preventing excessive intergranular precipitation of chromium carbides during welding and stress relieving. With the exception of oxidizing acids.3 provides the compatibility of types 316 and 316L stainless steel with selected corrodents. Type 316H stainless steel has a higher carbon content for better hightemperature creep properties to meet the requirements of ASME Section VIII.08% maximum carbon content offers improved resistance in welded components. such as nitric.12 Type 310 (S31000) This is an alloy for high temperatures. high-temperature containers. nitric acid. The 310 and 310S alloys have a maximum allowable temperature of 21008F (11498C) at continuous operation. the type 316 alloys will provide satisfactory resistance to corrodents handled by type 304 with the added ability to handle some that type 304 alloy cannot handle. . They may be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. these alloys are nonhardenable and nonmagnetic. It is an improvement over types 309 and 309S.13 Type 316 (S31600) These chromium–nickel grades of stainless steel have molybdenum added in the range of 2–3%. 10. The chemical composition of types 316 and 316L stainless steel are shown in Table 10.164 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals gases if they are oxidizing. but poor in reducing gases like hydrogen sulfide. In the annealed condition. Type 309S with a maximum of 0. Type 310S with 0. fire boxes. Table 10. They have excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance and good resistance to both carburizing and reducing environments. nitric– sulfuric acid mixtures. Chloride stress corrosion cracking may cause a problem under the right conditions. These alloys are excellent in resisting sulfite liquors. In general. 10. Applications include sulfur-bearing gas atmospheres. these alloys are more corrosion resistant than type 304 stainless steels. These alloys have better general corrosion resistance than type 304 and type 309.08% carbon resists corrosion in welded parts. and acetic.1.

40% Ammonium sulfate.3 Compatibility of Types 316. and 316L Stainless Steel with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitratea Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfatea Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chlorideb 8F 210 340 420 400 230 400 380 400 400 120 210 210 400 100 200 200 150 90 400 200 210 90 90 400 230 90 230 210 300 360 130 400 390 210 300 400 150 500 80 210 8C 99 171 216 204 110 204 193 204 204 49 99 99 204 38 93 93 66 32 204 93 99 32 32 204 110 32 110 99 149 182 54 204 171 99 149 204 66 260 27 99 (continued) 165 X X X X X X . 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.Austenitic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 10. sat. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 50% Acetic acid.

50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. ELC only Chloroforma Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloridea.b Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. 10% Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acida Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Carbon dioxide. moist Bromine.3 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. liquid dry Chlorobenzene. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloridea Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.166 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 10. 10%c Chromic acid. wet Chlorine. 15%c 8F 400 210 210 400 400 210 400 400 210 400 400 8C 204 99 99 204 204 99 204 204 99 204 204 400 380 400 400 210 400 60 350 205 210 210 80 350 80 210 400 400 570 200 400 570 400 350 400 400 120 260 210 400 150 X X X X X X 204 193 204 204 99 204 16 177 96 99 99 27 177 27 99 204 204 299 93 204 299 204 177 204 204 49 127 99 204 49 (continued) X .

10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 20%d Nitric acid.b Copper acetate Copper carbonate. conc. dry Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Oleum 8F 210 200 380 210 80 210 400 100 400 80 400 340 350 420 8C 99 93 193 99 27 99 204 38 204 27 204 171 177 216 167 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 210 80 250 210 300 210 250 210 350 330 350 210 270 400 110 80 80 99 27 121 99 149 99 121 99 177 166 177 99 132 204 43 27 27 (continued) X . dilute Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 15%b Citric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 5%d Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution.d Magnesium chloride.3 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromyl chloride Citric acid. conc. conc. 70%d Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid. anhydrousd Nitric acid. 10% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50%a. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% Hydrochloric acid.Austenitic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 10. 30% Methyl chloride.b. general Lactic acid. 10% Ketones. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.b Malic acid Manganese chloride.

2004. When compatible. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 98%d Sulfuric acid.3 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Perchloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite.A. 30%b Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50–80%d Picric acid Potassium bromide. the corrosion rate is !20 mpy. conc. 70% Sulfuric acid.168 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 10. fuming Sulfurous acidd Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 8C 570 400 400 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 190 210 X 299 204 204 177 177 177 177 177 177 177 88 99 X X X X X X 80 210 210 210 150 350 100 200 X X 27 99 99 99 66 177 38 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Subject to pitting. a b c Subject to stress cracking. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride. 10% Perchloric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 1–4. 100%d Sulfuric acid. 90%d Sulfuric acid. 50%a Sodium hydroxide. Subject to crevice attack. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. 10% Sulfuric acid. conc. Sodium sulfide. Source: From P. Vols. . Schweitzer.. 5th ed. to 30%a Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sulfuric acid.

The chemical composition is shown in Table 10. It has a chemical composition as follows: Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Carbon Iron 16. they may still be subject to chloride stress corrosion cracking.0/18.0/3.0% 0.1.1. Type 316N is a high-nitrogen type 316 stainless steel. The chemical composition is shown in Table 10. 10.0% 2.04/0.16% Balance Type 316LN stainless has the same high-temperature strength and ASME allowables as type 316. It is used in tubing and applications where minimum wall pressure requirements are critical. It has the following composition: Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Carbon Nitrogen Iron 16.10/0. As a result of the increased alloying elements. It has a higher strength than type 316 and greater ASME section VIII allowables. the weldability of type 316L. The alloy is .Austenitic Stainless Steel Family 169 Table UHA-21 Footnote 8.0/180% 10.0% 0.0% 2. chromium.10% Balance The corrosion resistance of type 316H stainless steel is the same as type 316 stainless steel. these alloys offer higher resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion than type 316 in various process environments encountered in the process industry. However. except after long exposure to elevated temperatures where intergranular corrosion may be more severe. and nickel than type 316. It may also be susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking.14 Type 317 (S31700) Type 317 stainless steel contains greater amounts of molybdenum.0% 10.0/15.0/14. This alloy is used in temperatures over 18328F (10008C).035% 0. Corrosion resistance is the same as type 316 and it may be susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking. The corrosion resistance is the same as type 316 stainless and may be susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking.0/3. high-nitrogen type 316 stainless. Type 316LN stainless steel is a low-carbon.

0% 4. or 304L.0% 0. high-molybdenum form of type 317. It has a composition of Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Nitrogen Carbon Iron 17.0% 13. evaporators.03% max Balance The corrosion resistance of this alloy is the same as for type 317LM with the advantage of preventing chromium carbide precipitation during welding or stress-relieving. 316L. and pulp and paper industries for heat exchangers.03% max Balance This alloy is used for flue-gas applications and other heat-exchanger tubing subject to higher-acid chlorides.0/20. petroleum. . and it has the strength of type 317 stainless. Type 317L has improved pitting resistance over that of type 316L.0% 0. Type 317LM stainless steel is a low-carbon.0/5.0/20.0% 13. The chemical composition is as follows: Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Nitrogen Carbon Iron 18. brazing and other short-term exposures to high temperatures. and condenser tubes. Type 317L stainless steel is used for welding. It is used where weldability and strength are important. The chemical composition is shown in Table 10.0/17.0/5. It may be susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking.0/17. high-nitrogen type 317 stainless steel.0% 4.1. but may still be subject to chloride stress corrosion cracking.170 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals nonmagnetic and nonhardenable in the annealed condition. Type 317L is a low-carbon version of the basic alloy that offers the additional advantage of preventing intergranular precipitation of chromium carbide during welding and stress-relieving. high-molybdenum.4.1/0. The compatibility of type 317 and type 317L stainless steel with selected corrodents is shown in Table 10. Type 317LMN is a low-carbon. Type 317 stainless steel finds application in the chemical. and the best chloride resistance of the 300-series stainless steels.1% max 0. but becomes slightly magnetic when cold worked.2% 0. It has better corrosion resistance than types 317L.

5% Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chloracetic acid. 10–40% Benzene Boric acid Bromine gas. 80% Acetic acid. dry Bromine gas. 10% Lactic acid. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 30% Nitric acid. Copper sulfate Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid.4 Compatibility of Types 317 and 317L Stainless Steel with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 20% Nitric acid. moist Bromine liquid Butyl alcohol. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Citric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50–55% Ammonium nitrate. 66% Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Acetic acid. conc. 15% Citric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Chromic acid. conc. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid.Austenitic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 10. Magnesium chloride. dry Aluminum sulfate. 50–80% Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) 150/66 232/111 232/111 240/116 240/116 70/21 70/21 X X 225/107 70/21 80/27 100/38 100/38 210/99 X X X 195/91 210/99 70/21 70/21 70/21 122/50 X 265/129 X X 210/99 210/99 70/21 70/21 X X X X X 70/21 70/21 330/166 70/21 70/21 210/99 210/99 70/21 140/60 (continued) 171 . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Aluminum chloride. 100% Iodine solution. 78% Chlorine. 20% Hydrochloric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chromic acid.

10% Sodium hydroxide. This alloy is particularly useful in high-temperature service in the carbide precipitation range and for parts heated intermittently between 800 and 16508F (428–8998C). These are known as stabilized grades. When compatible. carbon is restrained from diffusing to the grain boundaries. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Its chemical composition is shown in Table 10. This alloy has excellent weldability in the field. Sodium sulfide. Source: From P. 10. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 1–4. particularly in the presence of nitric acid. it meets the requirements of ASME Section VIII Table UHA-21. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid.4 Continued Chemical Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. high-temperature chemical process heat-exchanger tubes. and recuperator tubes. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 30% Sodium hydroxide. . and any carbon that reaches the boundary reacts with the element instead of with the chromium. 100% Sulfurous acid Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) 210/99 X 210/99 70/21 70/21 70/21 210/99 120/49 X X X X X X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 70% Sulfuric acid.A.15 Type 321 (S32100) By alloying austenitic alloys with a small amount of an element having a higher affinity for carbon than does chromium.1.5 provides the compatibility of type 321 stainless with selected corrodents. expansion joints. Footnote 8. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sodium hydrochlorite. the corrosion rate is !20 mpy. Even with the overall improved corrosion resistance it still may be susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking. 5th ed. Type 321H is a high-carbon type stainless steel with better hightemperature creep properties. 2004. conc. Type 321 stainless steel can be used with improved corrosion resistance wherever type 316 is suitable. Applications include use in exhaust manifolds.. to 50% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Type 321 is such an alloy that is stabilized by the addition of titanium. 50% Sulfuric acid. Vols. Schweitzer. Table 10. It has good weldability in the field.172 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 10.

10–40% Benzene Boric acid Bromine gas. 10% Chromic acid. 70% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrochloric acid. 80% Acetic acid. Magnesium chloride Nitric acid. 15% Citric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. dry Aluminum sulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50–80% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. conc. 10% Lactic acid. 78% Chlorine. 38% Hydrochloric acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. dry Bromine gas. moist Bromine.Austenitic Stainless Steel Family TABLE 10. 25% Lactic acid. Copper sulfate Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid. 50% Acetic acid.5 Compatibility of Type 321 Stainless Steel with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetic acid. 50% Citric acid. liquid Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chloracetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. 100% Iodine solution. 5% Nitric acid. 30% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Nitric acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Alum Aluminum chloride. conc. 50% Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) X X X X 70/21 X X X 70/21 70/21 70/21 100/38 210/99 X X X X X X 70/21 X X X X 70/21 70/21 70/21 X X X X X X X 70/21 70/21 X 70/21 210/99 210/99 X 70/21 70/21 X 70/21 70/21 (continued) 173 . liquid Chromic acid.

New York: Marcel Dekker.0/13.0/20. .5 Continued Chemical Sodium hydrochlorite.16 Type 329 (S32900) Type 329 stainless steel is listed under the austenitic stainless steels. in actuality. In addition. Schweitzer. 5th ed.5% 0.5% 4. The general corrosion resistance of type 329 stainless is slightly above that of type 316 stainless in most media. Corrosion Resistance Tables. conc.10% 4 ! Carbon min. 98% Sulfuric acid. Vols. 1–4. Sodium sulfide.04/0. the corrosion rate is !20 mpy. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. It has the following composition: Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Carbon Iron 26. Incompatibility is shown by an X. When compatible. it has good resistance to chloride stress cracking.05% Balance Type 329 stainless possesses higher strength values than those typically found in the austenitic stainlesses. 100% Sulfurous acid Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) X X 70/21 X X X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.0% 0. 0. to 50% Sulfuric acid. because the nickel content is low.0% 9. The corrosion resistance of type 321H is the same as the corrosion resistance of type 321 and may be susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking.174 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 10. it is really the basic material of duplex stainless steels. 10. 2004.A.5% 1. 20% Sodium hypochorite.. Source: From P. It has the following chemical composition: Chromium Nickel Carbon Titanium Iron 17.60% max Balance Type 321H stainless is used in applications where temperatures exceed 1008F (5388C).

17 Type 347 (S34700) Type 347 stainless steel is a columbium (niobium)-stabilized alloy.1% max tantalum) Balance . but is limited to a maximum operating temperature of 8008F (4278C).0% max Balance Type 347H has the same corrosion resistance as type 347 and may be susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking. The chemical composition is as follows: Chromium Nickel Carbon NiobiumCtantalum Iron 17.Austenitic Stainless Steel Family 175 10. high-temperature heat-exchanger tubes. expansion joints.04/0. Applications include exhaust manifolds. Being stabilized.0/20. 1. The chemical composition is as follows: Chromium Nickel Carbon ColumbiumCtantalum Iron 17/20% 9/13% 0. Type 347H is a high-carbon type 347 for better high-temperature creep properties to meet the requirements of ASME Section VIII. Its chemical composition will be found in Table 10.0/13. and recuperation tubes.01% 8!carbon min. Table UHA-21. the corrosion resistance of type 347 is equivalent to that of type 304 stainless steel and may be susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking. Footnote 8.08% 10!carbon min 1.0% max (0. Refer to Table 10. It has excellent weldability. whereas type 347 can be operated to 10008F (5388C). 10. it will resist carbide precipitation during welding and intermittent heating to 800–16508F (427–8998C) and has good high-temperature scale resistance.1.0% 0. Type 304L also offers this protection.0% 9.10%. In general.2.18 Type 348 (S34800) Type 348 stainless is the same as type 347 except that the tantalum content is restricted to a maximum of 0. This alloy is equivalent to type 304 stainless steel with the added protection against carbide precipitation.

Type 348H stainless steel is a high-carbon version of type 348 designed to provide better high-temperature creep properties and to meet the requirements of ASME Section VIII. 2004. This material is used in nuclear applications where tantalum is undesirable because of high neutron cross-section. 1–4..A. It finds application in nuclear environments at temperatures over 10008F (5388C). Table UHA-21. Schweitzer. Footnote 8. the corrosion resistance is the same as that of type 347 stainless and may be subject to chloride stress corrosion cracking.176 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals In general. where tantalum is undesirable because of high neutron cross-section. . Vols. Reference 1. 5th ed. Corrosion Resistance Tables. P. New York: Marcel Dekker.

The driving force for the development of newer superaustenitic stainless materials lay primarily in the desire for alloys with better resistance to localized corrosion. there is no chance of developing ferrite in this material. because the major constituent is iron. While alloys N08020 and N08825 177 . which have similarities with N08020 and N08330. it is truly a stainless steel. N08330 offers excellent oxidation and carburization resistance in combination with good elevated temperature mechanical properties. In a similar time frame. This superaustenitic stainless also was assigned a nickel-based UNS number (N08330). Consisting of 28% nickel and 19% chromium with additions of molybdenum and copper.1. However. The foundation for the development of this class of materials was in the development of Carpenter No. Unlike the 300-series stainless alloys. This alloy.11 Superaustenitic Family of Stainless Steel During the 1970s and into the 1980s. 20Cb-3 stainless became popular in the chemical process industry as an intermediate step between type 316 stainless and the more highly alloyed nickel-based materials. Because of the high nickel content of 20Cb-3 stainless. In particular. contains about 35% nickel and 20% chromium with an addition of silicon. it was a cost-effective way to combat chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC). HT. Superaustenitic materials are tabulated in Table 11. Development of the process to produce this material as a wrought product and later refinements in chemistry ultimately resulted in the introduction of 20Cb-3 stainless in 1965. The superaustenitic term is derived from the fact this composition plots high above the austenite–ferrite boundary on the Schaeffler diagram. 20 stainless. Other superaustenitic stainless alloys with long histories include Inconel 825 (N08825) and Inconel 800 (N08800). respectively. much attention was focused on a family of stainless alloys that came to be identified as superaustenitic. another superaustenitic alloy was introduced based on the wrought version of the heat-resistant cast alloy. this alloy was first produced as a cast material. identified as RA330 stainless. introduced in 1951. This form of cracking is particularly difficult to combat by means other than alloy selection. it received a nickel-based alloy UNS designation as UNS N08020.

1 Selected Superaustenitic Stainless Steels Alloy N08020 N08330 N08367 N08800 N08825 N08904 S31254 S31654 S35315 C 0.5 9.05 0. Ti-0.02 !1.5 bb !1.0 9.8 Cu-1. STYS represents a short-time tensile yield strength. their pitting resistance is only slightly better than that of type 316L.02 Density (#/in.02 !1. with minimal loss of general corrosion resistance and sufficient resistance to chloride SCC.5 19.3@14008 Note: Values are approximate.02 0.02 0./in.0 18.02 !1.289 0.291 0. The reduction in nickel content was beneficial as a cost-saving factor.05 CTEa (min.9 9.1 7. Mn-3.02 0.000 h.294 0. 19% chromium.5 20.0 22 35.3@13008 CRP 22@9008 STYS 5.) 8.5 25.1 9.2 Si-1. Magnetic permeability.0 Ni 33.0 24. This concept was introduced with two alloys. Ti-0.5 20. 254SMOw (UNS S31254) and Al-6XNw (UNS N08367).02 0.5.02 0.0.5 9.2 0.289 0.0 Si-1.02 !1.4 Cu-2.8.285 Alloy N08020 N08330 N08367 N08800 N08825 N08904 S31254 S31654 S35315 a Room Temperature Yield (KSI) 48 37 55 36 44 36 44 62 46 Room Temperature Tensile (KSI) 90 86 110 85 100 85 94 108 103 Room Temperature Elongation (%) 45 48 50 45 43 40 35 40 48 Toughness (ft-lb@8F) 145@K3008 240@RT 85@K3008 105@RT 70@K3008 125@RT 88@RT 130@RT 142@RT Elevated Temperature Strength (KSI@8F)c 1. The main approach to improving the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of the basic 35% nickel.4.5 6. Ce-0. which offset the tendency for the formation of s phase by the alloying addition of nitrogen.3 — N — — 0. b exhibit good general corrosion resistance to strong acids.15 Other Cu-3.1 — 3.7 Cu-0.0 32.4 9. The major .178 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 11. and 2% molybdenum alloy was to increase the molybdenum content.289 0. Among the first of the newer alloys introduced was 904L (UNS N08904). The next progression was an increase in the molybdenum content to a higher level. 6%.3) 0. Coefficient of thermal expansion for range of 72–12008F.05 Cr 19.2 Al-0.02 !1.0 25.5 19.0 20.287 0. c CRP is stress required to produce 1% creep strain in 10.0 Mo 2.2 — 6.02 0. with a boosted molybdenum content of 4% and reduced nickel content of 25%.02 !1.0 25.0 4.22 — 0.292 0.0 35.5@13008 CRP 23@7508 STYS 43@7508 (STYS) 4.287 0.5@13008 CRP 5.0 38.02 !1. Their performance in seawater or brackish water is marginal at best.02 !1.0 20.5 Cu-0.4 10.08 0.6 9.5 0.

0 .2 Pitting Resistance of Selected Alloys Alloy 654 31 825 686 625 25-6Mo A16XN 926 254SMo 20Mo6 317LN 904L 20Mo4 317 316LN 315 316 20Cb3 348 800 810 347 331 330 304 UNS S32654 N08031 N08825 N06625 N08926 N08367 N08926 S31254 N08026 S31753 N08904 N08024 S31700 S31653 S35315 S31600 N08020 S34800 N08800 N08810 S34700 N08331 N08330 S30400 Pitting Resistance Equivalent 63. bar.09 54.0 18.12 31.3.9 51.7 47.6 36.5 18.0 19. Another method used to compare the resistance of alloys to localized attack is to compare their respective CPTs and CCTs.5 27.6 21. and pitting resistance equivalent numbers (PREN).9 27. molybdenum. A PREN value in excess of 33 is considered necessary for pitting and crevice resistance to ambient seawater.2 33. These are the temperatures at which pitting and crevice attack are initiated.8 42. and nitrogen contents. and forgings. critical crevice temperature (CCT).45 45.2.0 21.45 51. the better resistance to pitting.45 46.Superaustenitic Family of Stainless Steel 179 benefit of the addition of nitrogen was the ability to produce these alloys in heavy product sections such as plate.0 50.3X%MoC30X%N. An additional benefit was derived from alloying with nitrogen in terms of increased pitting resistance.26 25. TABLE 11. Performance in the area of pitting and crevice corrosion is often measured using critical pitting temperature (CPT). As a general rule.81 39.08 29.51 36.0 19. The PREN for various austenitic stainless steels can be found in Table 11. The pitting resistance number is determined by the chromium. the higher the PREN.96 46. PRENZ%CrC3. Critical temperatures for several alloys are given in Table 11.

it has found wide application throughout the chemical process industry. machinable. The alloy’s composition is shown in Table 11. approximately 33%.3 Critical Pitting and Crevice Temperatures of Selected Alloys Critical Temperature (8F/8C) Alloy Inconel alloy 686 UNS N06059 Inconela alloy 622 UNS N06022 Alloy C-276 Alloy 625 Alloy 25-6Mo Alloy 825 UNS S31600 317LM a a Pitting Attack O185/O85 O185/O85 R185/R85 O185/O85 O185/O85 O185/O85 158/70 86/30 68/20 Crevice Attack O185/O85 O185/O85 R185/R85 O136/O58 113/44 95/35 86/30 41/5 !32/!0 36/2. heavy chemicals. For improved resistance to these types of corrosion. pharmaceuticals. The alloy also exhibits excellent resistance to sulfide stress cracking and consequently finds many applications in the oil industry. In high concentrations of chlorides. and cold formable. Table 11. and food processing equipment. This alloy finds application in the manufacture of synthetic fibers.180 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 11. . This alloy is particularly useful in the handling of sulfuric acid. 11. The resistance of 20Cb3 to chloride SCC is also increased over type 304 and type 316 stainless steels.1 Alloy 20Cb3 (N08020) This alloy was originally developed to provide improved corrosion resistance to sulfuric acid.4 contains the compatibility of alloy 20Cb3 with selected corrodents. alloy 20Cb3 is vulnerable to pitting and crevice attack. and has minimum carbide precipitation due to welding.1. It is resistant to SCC in sulfuric acid at a variety of temperatures and concentrations.5 Inconel is the trademark of Inco Alloys International. The various superaustenitic alloys are discussed in detail in the following section. Alloy 20Cb3 is weldable. the 2% molybdenum must be increased to 4 or 6% as has been done in alloy 20Mo-4 and 20Mo-6. organic chemicals. However. The alloy is stabilized with niobium and tantalum and has a high nickel content.

80% Acetic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride 8F 200 60 220 300 300 300 180 220 210 210 210 300 200 200 60 120 120 X 80 80 210 90 90 310 230 170 210 90 90 90 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 310 160 130 500 200 27 27 99 32 32 154 110 77 99 32 32 32 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 154 71 54 260 93 (continued) 8C 93 16 104 149 149 149 82 104 99 99 99 149 93 93 16 43 43 181 . aqueous Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitratea Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.Superaustenitic Family of Stainless Steel TABLE 11. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride.4 Compatibility of Type 20Cb3 Stainless Steel with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.a Ammonium fluoride. sat. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid.

10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine gas. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride.182 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 11.4 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aqua regia. sat. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. dry Bromine gas. 40% Barium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Chloroform 8F X 90 210 230 210 210 210 230 210 400 210 230 100 130 80 X 180 300 90 210 300 300 210 90 210 210 210 90 80 210 400 210 570 400 210 570 210 570 210 80 400 X 100 210 38 99 (continued) 82 149 32 99 149 149 99 32 99 99 99 32 27 99 204 99 299 204 99 299 99 299 99 27 204 32 99 110 99 99 99 110 99 204 99 110 38 54 27 8C . wet Chlorobenzene. moist Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.

40% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid 8F 130 130 140 210 210 210 100 90 X 210 210 60 X 200 80 210 210 X X 210 X 570 X X X X X X 210 190 X 80 X 100 210 300 200 160 210 210 200 210 X (continued) 38 99 149 93 71 99 99 93 99 27 99 88 299 99 93 27 99 99 99 99 16 8C 54 54 60 99 99 99 38 32 183 . 100% Iodine solution. conc. 25%a Lactic acid.Superaustenitic Family of Stainless Steel TABLE 11. dilute Hydrobromic acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cupric chloride. general Lactic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Manganese chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.4 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 15% Citric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 10% Ketones. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dry Fluorine gas.. air free Magnesium chloride Malic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.

5th ed. Source: From P. conc. 50%b Sodium hydroxide. New York: Marcel Dekker. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride.. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Schweitzer. . 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. a b Material subject to intergranular corrosion. Vols. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid. to 30%a Sodium hydroxide. fuming Sulfurous acida Toluene White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 210 210 210 80 90 110 100 110 570 210 300 210 210 90 570 210 300 300 200 90 200 X 90 200 110 120 100 300 300 210 360 210 100 210 32 93 43 49 38 149 149 99 182 99 38 99 8C 99 99 99 27 32 43 38 43 299 99 149 99 99 32 299 99 149 149 93 32 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 90% Sulfuric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 98% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. conc. Material subject to stress cracking. 2004. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. When compatible the corrosion rate is !20 mpy. 30% Sodium sulfide.4 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. 1–4. 70% Nitric acid.184 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 11. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sulfuric acid.A. 50% Sulfuric acid.

It also possesses excellent resistance to chloride SCC.2 Alloy 20Mo-4 (N08024) This alloy is similar to alloy 20Cb3 but with 4% molybdenum content instead of 2%.0 0. 20Mo-6 stainless has good resistance to general corrosion only in relatively dilute solutions.5 0.0 3. providing improved pitting and crevice corrosion resistance over alloy 20Cb3.Superaustenitic Family of Stainless Steel 185 11. Alloy 20Mo-6 is resistant to corrosion in hot chloride environments and is also resistant to oxidizing media. This alloy is highly resistant to phosphoric acid. This alloy is melted with low carbon to provide a high level of resistance to intergranular corrosion. chemical process equipment. with the exception of concentrations in the range of approximately 75–97 wt%.03 max Balance Alloy 20Mo-4 has outstanding corrosion resistance to chloride pitting and crevice corrosion with good resistance to sulfuric acid and various other acidic environments.5/1.3 Alloy 20Mo-6 (N08026) Of the three grades of alloy 20Cb3. excellent resistance is shown at 1768F (808C). The chemical composition is as follows: Chemical Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Copper Columbium Carbon Iron Weight Percent 35/40 22.5/25. 20Mo-6 has the following chemical composition: . In boiling sulfuric acid. 11.15/0. This alloy is designed for applications where better pitting and crevice corrosion resistance is required than that offered by 20Cb3. the corrosion rate becomes excessive. this offers the highest level of pitting and crevice corrosion resistance.5/5. When in contact with sulfuric acid. At approximately 10% concentration of boiling sulfuric acid.35 0. Applications include heat exchangers. both wet process-plant acid and reagent-grade concentrated phosphoric acid. and wet phosphoric acid environments.

Its high nickel and chromium contents make alloy 904L resistant to corrosion in a wide variety of both oxidizing and reducing environments. and SCC in such media as stack-gas concentrate and brackish water. 904L may be subject to stress corrosion cracking.00/37.1. At high temperatures. 11.20 5.03 0. and bleaching systems. crevice corrosion.186 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Chemical Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Silicon Manganese Phosphorus Carbon Iron Weight Percent 22. heat exchangers. Molybdenum and copper are included in the alloy for increased resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion and to general corrosion in reducing acids.1. Alloy 904L finds applications in piping systems.03/0. low-carbon. The alloy’s outstanding attributes are resistance to nonoxidizing acids. along with resistance to pitting.70 0.00/6.50 1. and carburization. Alloy 904L is especially suited for handling sulfuric acid.00 0. It is particularly useful for high-temperature applications because it does not form the embrittling sigma phase after long exposures at 1200–16008F (640–8718C). This alloy is used primarily for its oxidation resistance and strength at elevated temperatures. The chemical composition will be found in Table 11. scaling. internal oxidation. Other advantages of the alloy’s composition are sufficient nickel for resistance to chloride SCC and low carbon content for resistance to intergranular corrosion.00/26. chromium stainless steel with additives of molybdenum and copper. hot solutions at moderate concentrations represent the most corrosive conditions.00 33. High creep and rupture strengths are other factors that contribute to its performance in many other applications.5 Alloy 800 (N08800) The composition of this alloy is shown in Table 11. It resists sulfidation.4 Alloy 904L (N08904) This is a fully austenitic. . It also has excellent resistance to phosphoric acid.03 Balance 11. pollution control equipment.

Alloy 800 has excellent resistance to nitric acid at concentrations up to about 70%. Addition of molybdenum and copper gives resistance to pitting and to corrosion in reducing acid environments.1% to provide the alloy with better elevatedtemperature creep and rupture properties. 11. Alloy 825 is resistant to pure sulfuric acid solutions up to 40% by weight at boiling temperatures and at all concentrations at a maximum temperature of 1508F (608C). and oxidizing salts. Applications include superheater and reheater tubing. The chromium content of alloy 825 gives it resistance to various oxidizing environments such as nitrates. as the temperature increases. acetic. and propionic. The carbon content is maintained between 0. but not halide salts. the general corrosion resistance of alloy 800 is similar to that of other austenitic nickel–iron–chromium alloys. nitric acid solutions.05 and 0. the alloy is not widely used for aqueous service. It is solution-annealed to assure the improved creep and stress-to-rupture properties. Alloy 800 is particularly suited for the handling of hot corrosive gases such as hydrogen sulfide. In dilute solutions. alloy 800 continues to exhibit good corrosion resistance. the presence of oxidizing salts such as cupric or ferric actually reduces the corrosion rates. The stress corrosion cracking resistance of alloy 800. Alloy 800H is a controlled version of alloy 800. It is used for thermal processing applications. headers. It has limited use in hydrochloric or hydrofluoric acids. Thus. whereas other austenitic alloys are unsatisfactory for the service. alloy 800 has general resistance that falls between type 304 and type 316 stainless steels.Superaustenitic Family of Stainless Steel 187 At moderate temperatures. Table 11. Refer to Table 11. The .1 for the chemical composition of alloy 825. It resists a variety of oxidizing salts.6 Alloy 825 (N08825) Alloy 825 is very similar to alloy 800 but the composition has been modified to improve its aqueous corrosion resistance. such as sulfuric and phosphoric acid solutions. chemical and petrochemical piping. It also has good resistance to organic acids such as formic. However. is better than that of the 300 series of stainless steels and may be substituted on that basis. pigtails. Alloy 800AT is similar to alloy 800 but has higher levels of titanium and aluminum. and outlet manifolds. Applications include heat exchanger and heating-element cladding. as well as applications in the refining and heat treatment industries.5 provides the compatibility of alloy 800 with selected corrodents. The higher nickel content of alloy 825 compared to alloy 800 makes it resistant to chloride SCC. In aqueous service. and furnace tubing. while not immune.

Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfate.188 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 11. 80%a Acetic acid.b Calcium hydroxide. glaciala Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. sat. 50%a Acetic acid. 10%a Ammonium chloride. Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hypochlorite Calcium sulfate Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. sat. aqueous Aluminum fluoride. drya Butyl acetatea Butyric acid. drya Chlorine gas. 10–40% Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetatea Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium carbonate Barium sulfate Benzene Benzoic acid. 5% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. wet 8F 200 220 210 220 230 210 210 60 60 80 80 210 190 230 200 110 90 90 210 210 200 90 90 90 90 90 190 90 190 210 90 90 90 90 80 60 200 90 570 90 90 90 8C 93 104 99 104 110 99 99 16 16 27 27 99 88 110 93 43 32 32 99 99 93 32 32 32 32 32 88 32 88 99 32 32 32 32 27 16 93 32 299 32 32 32 X X X (continued) .5 Compatibility of Alloy 800 and Alloy 825 with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 10%a Acetic acid. 5% Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloridea. 5% Borax Boric acid. 5% Bromine gas.

5% Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride. 20%a Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Muriatic acida Nitric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Nitric acid. conc. 5% Nitric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Citric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 5%a Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cupric chloride. conc.a Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10%a 8F 90 90 210 210 210 90 90 80 210 210 8C 32 32 99 99 99 32 32 27 99 99 189 X X 90 90 X X X X X X X X X X X 32 32 90 60 32 16 170 170 210 90 90 60 210 90 90 90 90 90 90 200 90 90 90 90 230 X 77 77 99 32 32 16 99 32 32 32 32 32 32 93 32 32 32 32 110 (continued) . 5% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 10%a Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorideb Sodium hydroxide. 1–5% Malic acid Magnanese chloride.Superaustenitic Family of Stainless Steel TABLE 11. 100% Magnesium chloride.b Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. anhydrous Phenol Picric acid Potassium bromide. 5% Sulfuric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloridea.5 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Sodium sulfide. dry Fluorine gas. 10%a Chromic acid. 15% Citric acid.

Schweitzer. 70%a Sulfuric acid. Source: From P.A. alloy 825 may be substituted. Corrosion Resistance Tables. The compatibility of alloy 825 with selected corrodents is shown in Table 11. Alloy 825 also provides excellent resistance to corrosion by seawater. 98%a Sulfuric acid.5. fuming Sulfurous acida Zinc chloride. . making it an excellent choice for furnace components. Material subject to printing. 2004. Type 330 stainless has good strength at elevated temperatures. 100%a Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X.. and excellent resistance to carburizing and oxidizing atmospheres. Refer to Table 11. Type 330 stainless steel resists the absorption of carbon and nitrogen. It is weldable and machinable. chemical processing. good thermal stability.190 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 11. 5th ed. a b Applicable to alloy 825 only. New York: Marcel Dekker. 1–4.5 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. Vols. alloy is not fully resistant to SCC when tested in magnesium chloride. Overall. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. If localized corrosion is a problem with the 300 series stainless steels. 90%a Sulfuric acid. When compatible the corrosion rate is !20 mpy. Applications include the nuclear industry. it exhibits a good corrosion resistance. 50%a Sulfuric acid.1 for its chemical composition. 11. and pollution control systems.7 Type 330 (N08330) This is a nickel–chromium–iron alloy with the addition of silicon. 5% 8F 210 150 180 220 230 370 140 8C 99 66 82 104 110 188 60 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. This alloy has been used in low-stress applications to temperatures as high as 22508F (12308C) and has moderate creep to 16008F (8708C). but it has good resistance in neutral chloride environments.

providing resistance to intergranular corrosion in the as-welded condition.40 0.2 0.020 0. such as type 316.18/0. strength. However.6. it has proven to be resistant to a wide range of corrosive environments. and corrosion resistance are essential. The high strength and corrosion resistance of this alloy make it a better choice than more expensive nickel-based alloys in applications where excellent formability. The low carbon content of the alloy defines it as an L grade.22 0.02 0. Section 11.8 Al-6XN (N08367) Al-6XN is the registered trademark of Allegheny Ludlum Corporation and has the UNS designation of N08367.50/25. and stress cracking in high chloride concentrations and general resistance in various acid. Copper has been kept to a residual level for improved performance in seawater.75 max Balance .6 Typical and Specified Chemical Composition of Alloy Al-6XN Composition (wt%) Chemical Element Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Nitrogen Copper Iron Typical Al-6XN Alloy 0.2 Balance UNS N08367 Specification 0.03 max 2.00 0.40 20.25 0. The high alloy composition resists crevice corrosion and pitting in oxidizing chloride solutions. and salt solutions found in chemical processing and other industrial environments. weldability. that do not have the strength or corrosion resistance required to minimize life-cycle costs in certain applications.030 max 1. alkaline.0 6.5 24.00 6. TABLE 11. The corrosion resistant properties of alloy Al-6XN show exceptional resistance to pitting. Wrought alloy Al-6XN is approved by the ASME for use to 8008F (4278C) in unfired pressure vessels under the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.8.00 max 20.001 0.00/22.040 max 0. The high nickel and molybdenum contents provide improved resistance to chloride SCC.00 max 0.00/7. crevice attack. It is also a cost-effective alternative to less expensive alloys. Alloy Al-6XN was originally designed to resist seawater.00 23. Division 1. The typical and specified chemical compositions of this alloy are given in Table 11.Superaustenitic Family of Stainless Steel 191 11.

1. The alloy has a PREN of 45. 95% Sodium bisulfate. seawater. Alloy Al-6XN finds applications as chemical process vessels and pipelines.8. 45% Formic acid. acetic. service-water piping in nuclear plants. 10% Sulfuric acid. Refer to Table 11. phosphoric. reducing solutions. The material is also approved for contact with foods. and nitrogen. and foodprocessing equipment. 65% Oxalic acid. and other high-chloride process streams. 85% Sulfamic acid. pulp mill bleach plants. 80% Formic acid. 11. Its chemical makeup will be found in Table 11. 20% Phosphoric acid. distillation columns. Incompatibility is shown by an X.7 Compatibility of Al-6XN Stainless Steel with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetic acid. 50% Nitric acid. 50% Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) 210/99 217/103 220/104 220/104 194/90 241/116 210/99 210/99 158/76 210/99 X/X 122/50 86/30 210/99 210/99 Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. and formic acids can be handled at various concentrations and a variety of temperatures. 10% Nitric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. S31254 is especially suited for highchloride environments. 10% Phosphoric acid. With its high levels of chromium. power plant flue-gas scrubbers. Sulfuric. heat exchangers. nitric. 10% Sulfuric acid.9 Alloy 254SMo (S31254) This is a superaustenitic stainless steel in the 6-moly alloy family that is designed for maximum resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion. Excellent resistance is shown to oxidizing chlorides.192 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 11. the corrosion rate is !20 mpy. 60% Sulfuric acid.7 for the compatibility of alloy Al-6XN with selected corrodents. such as brackish water. 20% Acetic acid. When compatible. molybdenum. A value above 33 is considered necessary for pitting and crevice resistance to ambient seawater. condensers. and seawater corrosion. .

0–6.5–25. and pulp mill bleach systems.0 max 0. They also have higher design values than lower-strength materials.0 24. These alloys have higher mechanical properties than those of the austenitic stainless steels such as 316L. The alloy offers excellent resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion.02 max 19. TABLE 11.Superaustenitic Family of Stainless Steel 193 11.0–21. alloy 25-6Mo exhibits a corrosion rate of less than 1 mpy.0 max 0.58C).02 max 20. having a PREN of 47. In brackish and wastewater systems. especially in systems where equipment has been idle for extended periods. In saturated sodium chloride environments and pH values of 6–8.0–7.25 0.0 2. microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) can occur.0 0. and generally reducing types of bacteria.050 max Balance .0 6. even at temperatures up to boiling.010 max 0. It is also known as 1925hMo and has been assigned UNS N08926. seawater.5 6.0–26.0–21.18–0.0 24. Because of its resistance to MIC.050 max Balance UNS N08926 (wt%) 0. Alloy 25-6Mo is being used in the wastewater piping systems of power plants.5 2. Typical and specified compositions of this alloy are shown in Table 11.8–1. It is especially suited for applications in high-chloride environments such as brackish water.10 Alloy 25-6Mo (N08926) This alloy is produced by Inco International. sulfur-bearing. alloy 25-6Mo maintains a corrosion rate of less than 1 mpy and shows no pitting.030 max 0. One of the outstanding attributes of alloy 25-6Mo is its resistance to environments containing chlorides or other halides. Even under more aggressive oxidizing conditions involving sodium chlorate.8 Typical and Specified Composition of Alloy 25-6Mo Chemical Carbon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Nitrogen Copper Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Iron Alloy 25-6Mo (wt%) 0.8. The critical pitting temperature for alloy 25-6Mo is 1408F (608C) or higher while the critical crevice temperature for alloy 25-6Mo is 908F (32.010 max 0. caustic chlorides.45. A 6% molybdenum alloy offers protection from manganese-bearing.15–0.030 max 0.5–1.8 0. enabling the use of thinner sections.20 0.

11 Alloy 31 (N08031) The chemical composition of this alloy is: Chemical Carbon Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Copper Nitrogen Iron Weight Percent 0. This alloy contains 7.20 Balance With a 6.5 1.5 0.0 7.02 max 24. The high chromium content of 27% imparts superior resistance to corrosive attack by oxidizing media.45.9 Chemical Composition of Alloy 654SMo (S32654) Chemical Carbon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Nitrogen Copper Manganese Iron Weight Percent 0.5% molybdenum content.12 Alloy 654SMo (S32654) Alloy 654 has about double the strength of type 316L stainless steel. Indications are that alloy 654 is as corrosion resistant as alloy C276.194 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 11.5 3. bleach plants.0 22. alloy 31 exhibits excellent resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in neutral and acid solutions. It is intended to compete with titanium in the handling of high-chloride environments.8 0. The composition will be found in Table 11. It has PREN of 54. Alloy 654 has better resistance to localized corrosion than other superaustenitic alloys. TABLE 11.0 Balance .3 0. and other aggressive chloride environments.4% molybdenum. based on tests in filtered seawater. which provides it with a corrosion resistance associated with nickel-based alloys.02 max 31 27 6. 11.9.

75 max 0. and to mixed acids containing high concentrations of halides. Vols.000 ppm. while the low carbon content and other composition controls helps minimize grain-boundary precipitates to maintain resistance to corrosion in heat-affected zones of welded joints.0–17.0–4. 1–4. Corrosion Resistance Tables. nickel–chromium–molybdenum–tungsten alloy.0 15. SCC.02 max 0.08 max 0. The chemical composition will be found in Table 11. The high nickel and molybdenum contents provide good corrosion resistance in reducing environments. 2004. pitting. Alloy 686 has excellent resistance to mixed acids as well as reducing and oxidizing acids.Superaustenitic Family of Stainless Steel TABLE 11. New York: Marcel Dekker. .10 Chemical Composition of Alloy 686 (N06686) Chemical Chromium Molybdenum Tungsten Titanium Iron Carbon Manganese Sulfur Silicon Phosphorus Nickel Weight Percent 19.0–23.13 Inconel Alloy 686 (N06686) Inconel alloy 686 is an austenitic. Good resistance has been shown to mixed acid media having pH levels of 1 or less and chloride levels in excess of 100. P. 5th ed..25 5. while the high chromium level imparts resistance to oxidizing media. The alloy’s composition provides resistance to general corrosion. Schweitzer.0 0.01 max 0.04 max Balance 195 11.10.0 3. The ability of alloy 686 to resist pitting can be seen from its PREN of 51.A. and crevice corrosion in a broad range of aggressive environments. Reference 1.0 max 0.02–0. The molybdenum and tungsten also aid resistance to localized corrosion such as pitting.

.

and consequently corrosion resistance and toughness are reduced.25% nitrogen. replacing some nickel.15–0. resulting in the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of the austenite being improved. When welded. The original duplex stainless steels did not have nitrogen added specifically as an alloying ingredient. This nitrogen addition also improves the weldability of the stainless steel without losing any of its corrosion resistance. Nitrogen also causes austenite to form from ferrite at a higher temperature. however. By adding 0. additional research was undertaken. exhibit good general corrosion resistance because of their high chromium and molybdenum contents. this problem was made manageable through the use of nitrogen as an alloy addition.12 Duplex Stainless Steel Family The duplex stainless steels are those alloys whose microstructures are a mixture of austenite and ferrite. such as type 329 (S32900). The firstgeneration duplex stainless steels. particularly in the areas of chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and in maintaining corrosion resistance after welding. These alloys were developed to improve the corrosion resistance of the austenitic stainlesses. they have been included in the chapter on austenitic stainless steels. The introduction of argon–oxygen decarburization (AOD) technology permitted the precise and economical control of nitrogen in stainless steel. the chromium partitioning between the two phases is reduced. Although nitrogen was first used because it was an inexpensive austenite former. While these properties can be restored by a postweld heat treatment. These include improved tensile properties and pitting and crevice corrosion resistance. Because these materials do not meet all of the criteria of duplex stainless steels. allowing for restoration of an acceptable balance of austenite 197 . most of the applications of the first-generation duplexes use fully annealed material without further welding. In the 1970s. these grades lose the optimal balance of austenite and ferrite. Consequently. Duplex stainless steels have been available since the 1930s. The original duplex stainlesses developed did not meet all of the criteria desired. it was quickly found that it had other benefits.

crevice corrosion. The formation of s phase in these alloys is sufficiently rapid to have an effect on properties due to slow cooling (air) after anneal. This nitrogen enables the use of duplex grades in the as-welded condition and has created the second generation of duplex stainless steels. and molybdenum they are also susceptible to the formation of s phase. sometimes aggravated by a galvanic influence of the austenite phase. . The duplexes have better toughness than ferritic grades and higher yield strengths than the austenitics. However. This is a brittle phase that forms islands in the matrix and will affect mechanical properties and corrosion resistance due to alloy depletion. Money can be saved using thinner-walled sections for piping and vessels without sacrificing operating pressures. However. Because the duplexes have a higher yield strength than the austenitics. they are magnetic. in combination with molybdenum. they are not as ductile as the austenitic family of alloys. Due to the presence of nickel. they have a high degree of toughness along with their high strength. duplex alloys are sensitive to 8858F (4758C) embrittlement. the presence of ferrite is not an unmixed blessing. Conversely. Because the duplexes contain a large amount of ferrite. chromium. in aqueous environments particularly. Ferrite may be attacked selectively in reducing acids. The deleterious effects of s phase formation are not obvious at the elevated temperature but can become a factor at room temperature. Because the stainless steels are a mixture of austenite and ferrite. The s phase forms in the temperature range of 11008F (5938C)–16008F (8828C) and most rapidly at about 14508F (7888C). these problems can be minimized through corrosion testing and impact testing. Welding requires more care than with the austenitic alloys due to a greater tendency to compositional segregation and sensitivity to weld heat input. unlike the ferritics. A measurable effect as a result of exposure in this temperature range due to welding has been demonstrated. The duplex structure is subject to 8858F (4758C) embrittlement and has poor NDIT properties. and SCC). The duplex grades characteristically contain molybdenum and have a structure approximately 50% ferrite and 50% austenite because of the excess of ferrite-forming elements such as chromium and molybdenum. The duplex structure. Due to the high chromium contents. piping and equipment manufactured from these stainless steels using conventional wall thicknesses can be operated at higher pressures. Although more formable than the ferritic alloys. they can provide certain economic advantages. it is only logical that their physical properties would lie between the comparable properties of these microstructures. This generally limits their usage to 6008F (3138C) maximum for pressure vessels.198 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals and ferrite after a rapid thermal cycle in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) after welding. gives them improved resistance to chloride-induced corrosion (pitting. while the sigma phase produced by thermal transformation (as by heat of welding) is susceptible to attack by strong oxidizing acids. Except for temper embrittlement.

such as boiling magnesium chloride. Good weldability . Duplex stainless steels are known best for the following performance characteristics: 1. the high chromium and molybdenum contents partially offset this loss. However. To achieve the desired microstructure.5 The resistance to crevice corrosion of the duplexes is superior to the resistance of the 300-series austenitics. the duplexes are resistant to chloride SCC in chloride-containing process streams and cooling water. Like 20Cb3. In general. Lower life-cycle cost 2. the nickel content of the duplexes is below that of the austenitics. Although their corrosion resistance is good. Excellent resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion 4.5 72. and consequently they can be used in some reducing environments. the duplexes will crack.5/22. they should not be used under conditions that operate close to the limits of their acceptability. as will alloy 20Cb3.5/17. the duplexes show less resistance in these environments than do the austenitics. As a result. these stainless steels have greater pitting resistance than type 316. High resistance to SCC 3. The critical crevice corrosion temperature (CCT) of selected duplex stainless steels in 10% FeCl3$6H2O having a pH of 1 are shown below: UNS Number S32900 S31200 S31260 S32950 S31803 S32250 Temperature (8F/8C) 41/5 41/5 50/10 60/15 63. However. particularly dilute and cooler solutions. Because the nickel content is a factor for providing corrosion resistance in reducing environments. the boundary between acceptable and poor performance is sharper than with austenitic materials. They also provide an appreciably greater resistance to SCC. High resistance to erosion and general corrosion in many environments 5.Duplex Stainless Steel Family 199 The high chromium and molybdenum contents of the duplex stainless steels are particularly important in providing resistance in oxidizing environments and are also responsible for the exceptionally good pitting and crevice corrosion resistance. Very high mechanical strength 6. under very severe conditions. and several have an even greater resistance than alloy 904L. Low thermal expansion 7. especially in chloride environments.

200 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Included among the duplex stainless steels are the following: Alloy 2206 3RE60 255 44LN DP-3 2304 2507 UNS S31803 S31500 S32550 S31200 S31260 S32304 S32750 Alloy 329 7-MoPlus Z100 DP3W 45D CD4MCu U-50 UNS S32900 S32950 S32760 S32740 J93345 J93370 S32404 Of these.50–3.02 max 1. alloy 2205 demonstrates superior erosion–corrosion resistance.20 Balance .00–23.14–0. and 255 (S32550).1 Chemical Composition of Alloy 2205 Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Nitrogen Iron Weight Percent 0. chloride environments. pitting.03 max 0. Each of these alloys will be discussed in detail. coupled with the nitrogen addition.50 2. the four most commonly used are alloy 2205 (S31803).1 Alloy 2205 (S31803) Alloy 2205 exhibits an excellent combination of both strength and corrosion resistance. with roughly twice the yield strength of the standard austenitic grades. provide general corrosion. 7-MoPlus (S32950). superior to those of type 316 and 317L. Alloy 2205 resists oxidizing mineral acids and most organic acids in addition to reducing acids. 12.1. Z100 (S32760). TABLE 12. The approximate 50/50 ferrite–austenite structure provides excellent chloride pitting and SCC resistance.00 max 21. It is not subject to intergranular corrosion in the welded condition. and hydrogen sulfide.50 0.00 4. The chemical composition is shown in Table 12.00 max 0. The high chromium and molybdenum contents.03 max 2. When compared to type 316 stainless steel.50–6. and crevice corrosion resistance.

It is a twophase (duplex) alloy with approximately 45% austenite distributed within a ferrite matrix. pitting corrosion. 7-MoPlus is also subject to precipitation of sigma phase when exposed between 1250–15508F (677–8438C) for extended periods.2. boiling 85% Phosphoric acid. Because the nickel content is a factor for providing corrosion resistance in reducing environments the duplexes show less resistance in these environments than do the austenitics.1 Alloy 2205 will be attacked by hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. 1508F/668C 65% Nitric acid.9 0.1 1. boiling 30% Phosphoric acid. reboilers. The chemical composition is shown in Table 12. boiling Corrosion Rate (mpy) 0. As a result. and general corrosion in many severe environments. However. This alloy is subject to 8558F (4758C) embrittlement when exposed for extended periods of time between about 700–10008F (371–5388C). boiling 3% Sodium chloride. the high chromium and molybdenum contents partially offset the loss and consequently they can be used in some reducing environments.Duplex Stainless Steel Family 201 To achieve the desired microstructure. particularly dilute and cooler solutions.4 21 0. the boundary between acceptable and poor performance is sharper than with austenitic materials.1 0. Applications are found primarily in oil and gas field piping systems.3 4. the nickel content of the duplex is below that of the austenitics. Although their corrosion resistance is good. . 1508F/668C 10% Sulfuric acid.2 7-MoPlus (S32950) 7-MoPlus stainless steel is a trademark of Carpenter Technology. Sigma phase increases strength and hardness but decreases ductility and corrosion resistance.1 1. boiling 10% Sulfuric acid. boiling 20% Formic acid.6 0. and heat exchangers. boiling 10% Acetic acid. Alloy S32950 displays good resistance to chloride SCC. 12. boiling 45% Formic acid.2 206 1. The following corrosion rates have been reported for alloy 2205: Solution 1% Hydrochloric acid. they should not be used under conditions that operate close to the limits of their acceptability. boiling 20% Acetic acid. condensers.

00 3.3 Zeron 100 (S32760) Zeron 100 is the trademark of Weir Materials Limited of Manchester.00–29.010 max 0.50–5.202 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 12.01 max 1.50 0.00–2.00 max 24.0 0.0 6.20 1.3 details the chemical composition of Zeron 100.0 Balance .00 max 0.5–1.35 Balance The general corrosion resistance of 7-MoPlus stainless is superior to that of stainless steels such as type 304 and type 316 in many environments.0–26.3 0. It has a PREN of 40. 12. Table 12. Because of its high chromium content.3 Chemical Composition of Zeron 100 (S32760) Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Copper Nitrogen Tungsten Iron Weight Percent 0.2–0. Molybdenum extends the corrosion resistance into the less oxidizing environments.0–8.00 max 0.035 max 0.0–4.15–0.2 Chemical Composition of Type 7-MoPlus Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Nitrogen Iron Weight Percent 0.0 0. which is TABLE 12. England.0 3.03 max 2.03 max 1.5–1. it has good corrosion resistance in strongly oxidizing media such as nitric acid.03 max 0. Chromium and molybdenum impart a high level of resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion.60 max 26.

0–27. TABLE 12.03 1.25 Balance .Duplex Stainless Steel Family 203 tightly controlled by Weir Materials. resistance to erosion–corrosion and corrosion fatigue. In general.5 2. while the chemical composition of S32760 is a broad compositional range. This is a duplex alloy with austenite distributed within a ferrite matrix. 12. resistance to SCC in both chloride and sour environments.2. Intergranular corrosion is not a problem because the alloy is produced to a low carbon specification and water-quenched from solution annealing.9 1. which prevents the formation of any harmful precipitates and eliminates the risk of intergranular corrosion. Zeron 100 is a highly alloyed duplex stainless steel for use in aggressive environments. and excellent mechanical properties.50 0. This alloy has a maximum service temperature of 5008F (2608C). Resistance is also exhibited to SCC in chloride environments and process environments containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide.4 Ferralium 255 (S32550) The chemical composition of Ferralium 255 is shown in Table 12. A high resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion is also exhibited by Zeron 100. It has a PREN of 48.5 0.04 1.5–2.4.1–0.04 0.5–6.9–3. Zeron 100 is highly resistant to corrosion in a wide range of organic and inorganic acids.0 4. its properties include high resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion.4 Chemical Composition of Ferralium 255 (S32550) Stainless Steel Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Copper Nitrogen Iron Weight Percent 0.00 24. Its excellent resistance to many nonoxidizing acids is the result of the copper content.

boiling 3% Sodium chloride. with a level of resistance to chloride pitting and SCC.2 0. 1508F (668C) 10% Sulfuric acid.1 5 0. boiling 20% Formic acid. boiling 30% Phosphoric acid. boiling 10% Sulfuric acid. boiling 85% Phosphoric acid.2 0. boiling Corrosion Rate (mpy) 0. 1508F (668C) 65% Nitric acid. The following corrosion rates of Ferralium 255 have been reported: Solution 1% Hydrochloric acid.204 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ferralium exhibits good corrosion resistance to a variety of media.2 40 0. boiling 10% Acetic acid.1 0.4 .4 0.

These compounds are usually formed from iron or nickel with titanium. all alloying elements are in solid solution and the material is in its softest or annealed state. copper. These steels can attain very high strength levels. Chromium contents are in the range of 13–17%. In this condition the material can be machined. minimizing the problems associated with high temperature treatments. Strength levels of up to 260 ksi (tensile) can be achieved— exceeding even those of the martensitic stainless steels—while corrosion resistance is usually superior—approaching that of type 304 stainless steel. Ductility is similar to corresponding martensitic grades at the same strength level. These steels have been around for several decades but are now being recognized as a real alternative to the other stainless steels. The principle of precipitation hardening is that a supercooled solid solution (solutionannealed) changes its metallurgical structure on aging. After fabrication. and welded to desired configuration.e. molybdenum. The metallurgy is such that the material can be solution treated. the unit is exposed to an elevated temperature cycle (aging) that precipitates the desired phases to cause an increase in mechanical properties. and Ni3Mo. formed. aluminum. Ni3Ti. They have the good characteristics of the austenitic steels plus strength approaching that of the martensitic steels.13 Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Family This family of stainless alloys utilizes a thermal treatment to intentionally precipitate phases that cause a strengthening of the alloy. Typical compounds are Ni3Al. They reach these high strengths by precipitation of intermetallic compounds via the same mechanism as that found in aluminum alloys.. and copper. The principal advantage is that products can be fabricated in the annealed condition and then strengthened by a relatively low temperature (900–15008F/462–6208C) treatment. i. titanium. The precipitating phase is generated through an alloy addition of one or more of the following: niobium. or aluminum. molybdenum. One of the early problems 205 . Precipitation-hardening stainless steels have high strength and relatively good ductility and corrosion resistance at high temperatures.

These materials are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. and semicaustenitic. and the manufacturers proudly advertise S17400 Less Ni Add Cu + Cb S17700 18−8 with aluminum S66286 More Ni Add Mo + Ti S15500 Less Cr S15700 Less Cr Add Mo S45000 More Ni Add Mo S35000 Less Ni Add N.1. Al S13800 Less Cr More Ni. Many golf club heads are made from these steels by investment casting techniques.206 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals centered around forging difficulties. Semiaustenitic Austenitic . and must be transformed to martensite before aging. Precipitation-hardenable (PH) stainless steels are themselves divided into three alloy types: martensitic. The martensitic and semiaustenitic grades are resistant to chloride stress cracking. the general corrosion resistance is below that of type 304 stainless. but these problems have been overcome to some extent. Mo. An illustration of the relationship between these alloys is shown in Figure 13. The martensitic and austenitic PH stainless steels are directly hardened by thermal treatment. On average. the corrosion resistance of type PH 15-7 Mo alloy approaches that of type 316 stainless. austenitic. They have been considered for landing gears. which is the workable condition. Mo No Cu Add Al Martensitic FIGURE 13. The semiaustenitic stainless steels are supplied as an unstable austenitic. The PH steels find a myriad of uses in small forged parts and even in larger support members in aircraft designs. However.1 Precipitation-hardening stainless steels.

50 2.008 0. 13.00–2.50 0. Inc.10 0. good mechanical properties at temperatures up to 6008F (3168C).35 0. knives. The chemical composition is shown in Table 13. Applications also include fuel tanks.010 0.05 0. and good toughness in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in both the base metal and welds.5–13. good corrosion resistance. a martensitic precipitation-hardening stainless steel.Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Family 207 these clubs as being made from 17-4 stainless steel.2 Alloy 15-5PH (S15500) Alloy 15-5PH. is a trademark of Armco. saws. landing gear covers.5–8.010 Balance . this alloy should be considered where high strength. pump parts. 13.90–1. TABLE 13.1 Chemical Composition of Alloy PH-13-8Mo (S13800) Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Aluminum Nitrogen Iron Weight Percent 0. corrosion resistance.1 Alloy PHI3-8Mo (S13800) PH13-8Mo is a registered trademark of Armco.2. The chemical composition is shown in Table 13. toughness. Inc. 15-5PH stainless steel can be heat-treated at a variety of temperatures to develop a wide range of properties. Generally. It has a martensitic precipitation/age-hardening stainless steel capable of high strength and hardness along with good levels of resistance to both general corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). and resistance to SCC are required in a stainless steel showing minimal direction-ability in properties. shafting bolts. As supplied from the mill in condition A.1. It provides a combination of high strength.10 12. and flexible bellows type expansion joints.25 7.

208 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 13. rust gradually develops. N.50–4.C. The general level of corrosion resistance of alloy 15-5PH stainless steel is best in the fully hardened condition. 13.00 max 0. The general level of corrosion resistance of alloy 15-5PH exceeds that of types 410 and 431.15–0. and short-time.07 max 1. Alloy 17-4PH stainless steel exhibits useful mechanical properties in condition A.03 max 1. and decreases slightly as the aging temperature is increased.0–15. good toughness in both base metal and welds. When exposed to seacoast atmospheres. and is approximately equal to that of alloy-4PH.50 2. in critical applications.00 max 14.2 Chemical Composition of Alloy 15-5PH (S15500) Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Copper ColumbiumCtantalum Iron Weight Percent 0. stress-relieves the structure and may provide more reliable resistance to SCC than condition A. lowtemperature heat treatments that minimize warpage and scaling. The chemical composition will be found in Table 13. It is a martensitic-hardening stainless steel that has a combination of high strength.50–5. 17-4PH stainless steel can be heattreated at a variety of temperatures to develop a wide range of properties. good mechanical properties at temperatures up to 6008F (3168C). especially at the higher end of the temperature range. alloy 15-5PH should be used in the precipitation-hardened condition rather than in condition A. Very little rusting is experienced when exposed to 5% salt fog at 958F (358C) for a period of 500 h.04 max 0. This is similar to other precipitation-hardening stainless steels. show excellent stress corrosion resistance after 14 years of exposure.50 3. Excellent stress corrosion resistance has been exhibited by this .3.45 Balance Alloy 15-5PH in condition A exhibits useful mechanical properties. good corrosion resistance. However.3 Alloy 17-4PH (S17400) Alloy 17-4PH is a trademark of Armco. Tests at Kure Beach. Inc.50 0. As supplied from the mill in condition A. Heat-treating to the hardened condition. Condition A material has been used successfully in numerous applications.

stress-relieves the structure and may provide more reliable resistance to SCC than in condition A. However. The chemical composition is shown in Table 13.00 0.00 max 0.00–5.C. Service over 10508F (5658C) will cause overaging. depending on the temperature selected.0–17.00–5. and in the aged or coldworked condition it is martensitic (magnetic).3 Chemical Composition of Alloy 17-4PH (S17400) Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Copper ColumbiumCtantalum Iron Weight Percent 0.Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Family TABLE 13. especially at the higher end of the temperature range. crevice attack will occur when exposed to stagnant seawater for any length of time. Heat-treating to the hardened condition.45 Balance 209 alloy after 14 years of exposure at Kure Beach.15–0. It withstands attacks better than any of the standard hardenable stainless steels and is comparable to type 304 in most media. 13. . This alloy is suitable for use in pump and motor shafting. As with other stainless steels. The alloy exhibits high strength in all conditions. It is equivalent to type 304 when exposed in rural or mild atmospheres. Condition A material has been used successfully in numerous applications. Alloy 17-4PH has excellent corrosion resistance. However. A more comprehensive listing will be found in Reference [1].00 max 15. Table 13.07 max 1. when exposed in a seacoast atmosphere it will gradually develop overall light rusting and pitting in all heat-treated conditions.4 shows the compatibility of alloy 17-4PH with selected corrodents.5. In the annealed or solution-annealed condition it is austenitic (nonmagnetic). in critical applications.50 3.00 3.4 Alloy 17-7PH (S17700) This a semiaustenitic stainless steel.04 max 0. Overaging may occur at lower temperatures.03 max 1. alloy 17-4PH stainless steel should be used in the precipitationhardened condition rather than in condition A. N. provided that it is operated continuously.

20% (8F/8C) 200/93 X 110/43 110/43 90/32 X 80/27 110/43 X X 270/132 X 110/43 X 210/99 130/54 130/54 90/32 90/32 90/32 170/71 X X 210/99 130/54 110/43 130/54 110/43 110/43 130/54 X 150/66 110/43 110/43 X X X 140/66 110/43 X 150/54 210/99 210/99 230/110 150/66 X (continued) . moist Bromine liquid Butyl cellosolve Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Calcium sulfate Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Chloric acid. anhydrous Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Aniline hydrochloride Antimony trichloride Argon Arsenic acid Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Beer Beet sugar liquors Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Boric acid Bromine gas.210 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 13. glacial Acetyl chloride Acetylene Allyl alcohol Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum potassium sulfate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia. dry Bromine gas. 20% Acetic acid. dry Carbon dioxide.4 Compatibility of 17-4PH Stainless Steel with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetic acid.

75–1. New York: Marcel Dekker. 40% Chromic acid.A. 10% Heptane Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrocyanic acid Hydrogen sulfide.5 Chemical Composition of Alloy 17-7PH (S17700) Chemical Carbon Aluminum Chromium Nickel Iron Weight Percent 0.0 6.. Schweitzer. 10% Chromic acid.5–7. dry Ferric nitrate Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 50% Ethyl alcohol Ethyl chloride.0–18.5 16. 25–50% Phosphoric acid. 1–4.Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Family TABLE 13.09 max 0. 2004. 10% Phosphoric acid. wet Iodine Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium nitrate Magnesium sulfate Methylene chloride Phenol Phosphoric acid. When compatible. Incompatibility is shown by X. 70% Phthalic acid (8F/8C) X X X X X X 170/77 210/99 150/66 X 230/110 180/82 130/54 X X X X X X 140/66 130/54 130/54 130/54 130/54 200/93 200/93 200/93 X 270/132 211 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Vols.75 Balance . Source: From P. 5% Phosphoric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 5th ed. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 30% Chromic acid. the corrosion rate is less than 20 mpy.4 Continued Chemical Chlorine liquid Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. TABLE 13. dry Formic acid.

the alloy may be austenitic with formability similar to other austenitic stainless steels. in general.00–17. the alloy is resistant to chloride cracking. 13. 13.25 0.5 Alloy 350 (S35000) This is a chromium–nickel–molybdenum stainless alloy hardenable by transformation and precipitation hardening. Alloy 350 normally contains 5–10% delta-ferrite. However. to achieve optimum properties. Service over 10008F (5388C) will cause overaging.50–1. The chemical composition is shown in Table 13.11 0.6 Alloy 355 (S35500) Alloy 355 is a chromium–nickel–molybdenum stainless alloy hardenable by martensitic transformation and precipitation hardening. Unless cooled to subzero temperatures prior to aging. When heat-treated it has high strength. The alloy exhibits better corrosion resistance than other quench-hardenable martensitic stainless steels. This alloy is used where high strength and corrosion resistance at room temperatures are essential. The chemical composition is shown in Table 13. In general.00–5. TABLE 13.25 0. Other heat treatments yield a martensitic structure with high strength.6.13 Balance . Depending on the heat treatment.07–0. the corrosion resistance of alloy 350 is similar to that of type 304 stainless steel.00 2.7. the alloy may be subject to intergranular attack.00 4.212 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals In the aged condition.50–3. which aids weldability.50 16. is on a par with that of type 304 stainless steel.07–0.03 0.6 Chemical Composition of Alloy 350 (S35000) Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Nitrogen Iron Weight Percent 0.04 0. Its corrosion resistance. a complex heat treatment is required including two subzero exposures at K1008F (K738C).

00–7.05 15.Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Family TABLE 13.13 Balance 213 Overaging may occur at lower temperatures.10–0.00–16.03 1.03 0. Over-aged material is subject to intergranular corrosion.15 0.00–5. Table 13. age-hardenable stainless steel with very good corrosion resistance and moderate strength.7 Chemical Composition of Alloy 355 (S35500) Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Nitrogen Iron Weight Percent 0.00 14.75 8!%C min Balance . TABLE 13.00–16. Alloy 355 finds application where high strength is required at intermediate temperatures.50–1.25 0. custom 450 can be used in the solutionannealed condition.07–0.04 0. and is easily fabricated.00 1.00 5.00 2. A subzero treatment during heat treatment removes this susceptibility.05 2. This alloy has high strength. depending on the tempering temperature selected. 13.00 0.25–1. Unlike alloy 17-4.00 0. It is a martensitic.25 0.8 Chemical Composition of Custom 450 (S45000) Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Copper Columbium Iron Weight Percent 0. good ductility and toughness.8 contains its chemical composition.00 4.50–3.7 Custom 450 (S45000) Custom 450 is a trademark of Carpenter Technology Corp.50–1.03 0.

depending on the temperature selected. and creep rupture properties up to 13008F TABLE 13.9 Chemical Composition of Custom 455 (S45500) Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Titanium ColumbiumCtantalum Copper Molybdenum Iron Weight Percent 0.40 0. and seawater will attack custom 455.50 Balance . tensile.8 Custom 455 (S45500) Custom 455 is a registered trademark of Carpenter Technology Corp.9.9 Alloy 718 (N07718) Alloy 718 is a precipitation-hardened. Overaging may occur at lower temperatures. and corrosion resistance are required. It also resists chloride SCC.040 0.50 0. high strength. Custom 450 alloy is used in applications where type 304 is not strong enough or where type 410 is insufficiently corrosion resistant. Custom 455 should be considered when ease of fabrication.05 0.50 7. Custom 455 alloy is suitable to be used in contact with nitric acid and alkalies. 13.030 0.50 1. hydrochloric acid.80–1. such as sulfuric acid. designed to display exceptionally high yield.50–2. It is a martensitic. A single-step aging treatment develops exceptionally high yield strength with good ductility and toughness. The chemical composition is shown in Table 13. nickel-based alloy.00–12.214 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals The corrosion resistance of custom 450 stainless is similar to that of type 304 stainless steel.50 0. 13. Service over 10508F (5658C) will cause overaging.10–0. This alloy may be susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement under some conditions. Materials.50 11. Custom 455 exhibits high strength with corrosion resistance better than type 410 and approaching type 430.50 0.50–9. which is relatively soft and formable in the annealed condition. hydrofluoric acid. phosphoric acid. age-hardenable stainless steel.

and alkalies.35 0. and seawater will attack the alloy.001–0.35–0. 13.10 0. Alloy 718 is resistant to sulfuric acid. 13.015 17. This alloy is readily fabricated and has excellent resistance to post-weld cracking. and alkalies.11 Alloy X-750 (N07750) This is a precipitation-hardening alloy that is highly resistant to chemical corrosion and oxidation.00–21. Alloy NO7750 exhibits excellent properties down to cryogenic temperature . It is also satisfactory for use with salts. precipitation-hardenable stainless steel. Its chemical composition will be found in Table 13. This alloy has been used for jet engines and high-speed airframe parts.12.Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Family TABLE 13.10 Alloy A286 (S66286) Alloy A286 is an austenitic. such as wheels. brackets.85 0. organic acids.006 0.50 0.00–55.00 50. Excellent oxidation resistance is displayed up to 18008F (9528C).11.75–5. Table 13.80–3. It is also resistant to chloride SCC. Alloy A286 has excellent resistance to sulfuric and phosphoric acids and good resistance to nitric acid and organic acids.015 0.15 0. Hydrochloric. phosphoric and nitric acids.65–1.015 Balance 215 (7048C).10 shows the chemical composition. seawater.00 2.30 4. and spacers. and high-temperature bolts and fasteners. hydrofluoric. It can also be used as low as K4238F (K2538C).10 Chemical Composition of Alloy 718 (N07718) Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium NickelCcobalt Molybdenum ColumbiumCtantalum Titanium Aluminum Boron Copper Iron Weight Percent 0. The chemical composition is shown in Table 13.35 0. This alloy has been used for gas turbine components and applications requiring high strength and corrosion resistance.

and organic acids.216 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 13. heat-treating fixtures.00 1.90–2. Alloy X-750 is resistant to sulfuric.30 1.00–17.00–27.010 0. phosphoric.35 0.00 13. for example. It is also resistant to chloride SCC.00 14. salts. as high-temperature structural members for jet engine parts.00 1. hydrochloric.70 0.25–2. overaging results with a loss of strength.30 0.20 2.08 70.08 2.00 5.0–9.003–0. When exposed to temperatures above 13008F (7048C). The alloy finds applications where strength and corrosion resistance are important.00 24.05 0. Hydrofluoric and nitric acids will attack the alloy. 13.00–2. as well as alkalies.12 Pyromet Alloy 31 Pyromet alloy 31 is a trademark of Carpenter Technology Corp.0 .30 0.10–0.12 Chemical Composition of Alloy X-750 (N07750) Chemical Carbon NickelCcolumbium Chromium Manganese Sulfur Silicon Copper ColumbiumCtantalum Titanium Aluminum Iron Weight Percent 0.50 0.40–1. and forming tools. It is a precipitation-hardenable superalloy that exhibits corrosion resistance and TABLE 13.70–1.50–16.50 0. and seawater.00 0.11 Chemical Composition of Alloy A286 (S66286) Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Titanium Vanadium Aluminum Boron Iron Weight Percent 0.010 Balance and good corrosion and oxidation resistance up to 13008F (7048C).

5 1.00 Balance .5 2.25–1.00–40.00–16. It has a chemical composition as follows: Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Titanium Aluminum Columbium Boron Iron Weight Percent 0.04 0.70–1. The chemical composition is as follows: Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium Molybdenum Copper Nickel Columbium and tantalum Titanium Aluminum Boron Cobalt Iron Weight Percent 0.015 0.13 Pyromet Alloy CTX-1 Pryomet alloy CTX-1 is a trademark of Carpenter Technology Corp.50 0.50 1.0 2.20 0. Applications include hardware in coal gasification units.20 0.50 0.0075 14.75 0.20 0.005 Balance 13.015 0.50 38.5 1.50–3.00 2.20 0. a protective coating must be applied to the alloy. If exposed to atmospheric conditions above 10008F (5388C).Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Family 217 strength to 15008F (8168C).015 27.015 0. It is resistant to sour brines and hot sulfidation attack. Applications include gas turbine components and hot work dies. precipitation-hardening superalloy having a low coefficient of expansion with high strength at temperatures to 12008F (6498C).7 55.1 0.50 0.05 0. The alloy is a high-strength.

precipitation-hardenable superalloy.218 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 13. a protective coating must be applied if the alloy is to be exposed at atmospheric conditions above 10008F (5388C).50–5. Applications include gas turbine components. As with alloy CTX-1. precipitation-hardenable super-alloy that offers significant improvements over alloys CTX-1 and CTX-3 due to its combination of tensile properties and stress-rupture strength to 12008F (6498C) in the recrystallized condition combined with the use of common age-hardening treatments.25–1.25 0.012 Balance 13.015 0.50 0.75 0. high-strength.15 Pyromet Alloy CTX-909 Alloy CTX-909 is a high-strength. and good thermal fatigue resistance.00 0.50 13. As with other CTX alloys. .00 4.015 0.50 37. The alloy exhibits a low and relatively constant coefficient of thermal expansion over a broad temperature range. a protective coating is required if the alloy is exposed to atmospheric conditions above 10008F (5388C).05 0.50 1. a high hot hardness.14 Pyromet Alloy CTX-3 This is a low-expansion. It has significant improvement in notch stress-rupture strength over pyromet CTX-1. It has the following chemical composition: Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium Nickel Copper Cobalt Columbium and tantalum Titanium Aluminum Boron Iron Weight Percent 0.50 0.00–15.00–39.

16 Pyromet Alloy V-57 This is an iron-based.35 050 0.50 0. precipitation-hardening alloy for parts requiring high strength and good corrosion resistance at operating temperatures to 14008F (7608). 0.90 nom.012 Balance 13.50 2.50 1.15 0.50–28.015 0. 1.00–1. austenitic.20 0.60 nom.50 0.08 0. 14.015 0.015 0.35 0.005–0. 0.50 0.00 nom.012 Balance .06 0. it has the following composition: Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Titanium Vanadium Aluminum Boron Iron Weight Percent 0. It is produced by Carpenter Technology Corp.015 13.Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel Family 219 The chemical composition is as follows: Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium Nickel Cobalt Titanium ColumbiumCtantalum Aluminum Copper Boron Iron Weight Percent 0.00 22.50 38. Chemically.00 nom. 4.70–3.40 nom.10–0.50–16.

T. significant improvements in environmental resistance over that of the CTX alloys is realized. The alloy should be considered for applications in which other current low-expansion superalloys are presently used.220 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 13.50 25.50 0. New York: Marcel Dekker.05 0.0 29. New York: Marcel Dekker. seals.80 4. The alloy has the following composition: Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium Nickel Cobalt Titanium Columbium Aluminum Copper Boron Iron Weight Percent 0.30 0. 1993. Vols.50 0. such as compressor and exhaust casings. It is a precipitation-hardenable superalloy having an excellent combination of tensile properties and stress-rupture strength in the recrystallized condition with the use of common solution and age-hardening treatments.50 0. Corrosion Resistance Tables.015 0. and other gas turbine engine components. 1–4. G.01 Balance References 1. 2004. P.80 0.17 Thermospan Alloy Thermospan alloy is a trademark of Carpenter Technology Corp. The alloy also exhibits a low coefficient of expansion over a broad temperature range.. 2. Schweitzer.015 5.0 0. 5th ed. .A. As a result of the chromium addition. Introduction to Engineering Materials. Murray.

The compositions of many cast grades are modified relative to their wrought equivalents to take advantage of the casting process because little or no mechanical working of the cast component will be necessary. A complete listing of the letters used will be found in Table 14. Various alloy designation systems have been developed to separate the wrought alloys from the cast alloys because of the variations in compositions and the resulting variations in physical and mechanical properties. there are many alloy castings available in compositions that are not available as wrought materials. The UNS system is more commonly used for wrought materials. and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). and S is for stainless alloys. for example. The second letter in the designation ranges from A to Z. Alloy Casting Institute (ACI). In general. and S31600 for type 316 stainless steel. C is for copper alloys. 221 . C36000 for copper alloy 360. common designations are used within the five numerical digits for user convenience. improved and unique properties may be imparted to some cast alloys compared to their wrought equivalents. A is for aluminum alloys. N is for nickel alloys.1. Because of this ability to modify the alloy compositions of the cast grades. This is the result of the design freedom associated with the various casting processes. Three designation systems are presently used for the identification of alloys: Unified Numbering System (UNS).14 Cast Stainless Steel Alloys Most wrought alloy compositions are also available in an equivalent grade casting. for example. the designations begin with either a C for corrosion-resistant materials or an H for heatresistant materials. metals and alloys are divided into 18 series. Most ACI designations begin with two letters followed by two or three numerical digits. Some may also end with additional letters and/or numerical digits. the letter is suggestive of the family of metals it identifies. ACI designations are more appropriate for cast alloys because the designations are more indicative of the compositions. If possible. A92024 is for 2024 aluminum. The UNS was developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and ASTM. Under the UNS system. In addition. As much as possible. The designations start with a single letter followed by five numerical digits.

222 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 14. Nickel–copper materials use M as TABLE 14. Nominal — 6 10 10 29 68 100 20 Other Alloying Elements.1 Letter Prefixes Used in the Unified Numbering System Prefix A C D E F G H J K L M N P R S T W Z Alloy Series Aluminum and aluminum alloys Copper and copper alloys Steels with specified mechanical properties Rare earths and rare earth-like metals and alloys Cast irons Carbon and alloy steels AISI H-steels (hardenability controlled) Cast steels (except tool steels) Miscellaneous steels and ferrous alloys Low-melting metals and alloys Miscellaneous nonferrous metals and alloys Nickel and nickel alloys Precious metals and alloys Reactive and refractory metals and alloys Heat and corrosion resistant (stainless) steels Tool steels Welding filler materials Zinc and zinc alloys depending upon the nickel and.5 Mo 2.2 Examples of ACI Designations Alloying Elements (wt%) Chromium. Table 14.03 0. the chromium content.04 0. Max 0. alloys inbetween have intermediate letters.15 0. Additional letters following the numerical digits indicate the presence of other alloying ingredients. There are two groups of materials whose designations do not follow the scheme shown in Section 17 Table 2.0 0. Nominal — Mo 3. to a lesser degree.02 1. Nominal 12 25 19 19 21 16 0 25 Nickel. For example.5 Mo 2. The maximum carbon content is indicated by the numerical digits (percent!100). a corrosion resistant material with 12% chromium and no nickel begins with CA.07 0.08 0.40 .2 gives examples. Cu 3 Mo 2.5 Mo 16 — — Designation CA 15 CD 4MCu CF 8M CF 3M CN 7M CW 2M CZ 100 HK 40 Carbon. an alloy with 100% nickel begins with CZ.

Mo 2. Mechanical property isotropy 5.60 max Maximum carbon.08 max. Mo 2. Surface finish 2.03 max.03 max C 0. the system has been adopted by ASTM and appropriate ASTM committees assign designations for new cast alloys. Internal integrity 4. Unlimited freedom on design configuration 2. there are limitations—the most serious of which is variations in quality from casting to casting and foundry to foundry. Table 14. Compositional purity 3. Mo 2 C 0. Cu 3 C 0. such as N7M and N12MV. Although the ACI is no longer in existence. In addition to the UNS designations previously described. .04 max. Nickel–molybdenum alloys begin with the letter N. Production economies However.3 lists several alloys giving both ACI and UNS designations.08 max C 0.20 max C 0. there is also a series of UNS designations specifically for cast materials. Among the advantages are: 1. ASTM designations are used for many special carbon and alloy steel products and for cast iron. Castings have several advantages over wrought materials. Wide range of alloy choice 4. Minimization or elimination of machining and material waste 3. G0.07 max. Dimensional control TABLE 14. Cu 3 C 0.05% Carbon.3 ACI and UNS Designations for Stainless Steel Castings (Nominal Weight Percent) ACI CAa CBa CD 4MCu CF 8 CF 3 CF 8M CF 3M CH 20 CK 20 CN 7M HKb a b UNS — — J93370 J92600 J92500 J92900 J92800 J93402 J94202 N08007 — Cr 12 19 26 19 18 19 18 23 24 20 24 Ni (Max) 1 2 6 11 12 12 13 15 22 21 20 Other C C C 0. Mo 2 C 0.Cast Stainless Steel Alloys 223 the first letter (examples are M35-1 and M25S). Potential quality shortcomings involve: 1.20 max C 0.

It should be kept in mind that specifications for castings should be based on ACI designations. and duplex stainless steels. Hardened martensitic SSTs have poor resistance to sour environments and may crack in humid industrial atmospheres. CA15 is often replaced by a newer grade called CA6NM. nitrogen. The widely different compositions result in a range of properties. The Avesta Sheffield Corrosion Handbook is a good general reference for SSTs. A specification such as cast type 316 stainless steel should never be used because a foundry might pour just that from bar stock (to meet your specification) without regard to the proper balance of constituents. CA28MWV is also a modified 410 with improved high temperature strength. and/or other elements. . and resistance to sulfide stress cracking (SSC). precipitation-hardenable.224 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals These limitations can be overcome through application of sound foundry practices. The chromium forms a uniform. The main advantages they offer are low cost and the ability to be hardened for wear resistance. Since then. superaustenitic. varying by grade.4). they will be grouped as follows: martensitic. and are attacked by most inorganic acids. molybdenum. Cast CA15 is the modern version of the original 12%-chromium stainless steel. providing greatly improved corrosion resistance compared to carbon and low-alloy steel. and other nonsevere environments (Table 14. CA6NM is modified (with additions of nickel and molybdenum) for improved castability. To review their corrosion properties.1 14. copper. The martensitic grades are generally less corrosion-resistant than the austenitic grades. SSTs also contain varying amounts of nickel.1 Martensitic Stainless Steels Martensitic stainless steels were the original SST’s developed in the early 1990s. especially for CA6NM. as high as 60 HRC. mechanical properties. CA40F is the free machining version of 420 SST. They will quickly rust in marine and humid industrial atmospheres. austenitic. water. adherent chromium oxide film. In the quenched and fully tempered condition (usually below 25 HRC). ferritic. The martensitic grades can be heat-treated similar to the low-alloy steels to produce hardnesses. low-temperature toughness. The martensitic grades are resistant to corrosion in mild atmospheres. steam. SCC resistance is greatly improved. a range of martensitic grades have been developed. Stainless steels (SST) are ferrous alloys with a minimum of 12% chromium. They are susceptible to several forms of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) when used at high hardness levels.

0 3.03 11.20–0.25 0.9–1. In general.5–4.3 1. most ferritic SSTs are limited to use below about 6508F (3438C).00 Balance CC 50 0. ferritic TABLE 14.0–12.05 1.50 0.2 Ferritic Stainless Steels When the chemistry of stainless steel is properly balanced.00 1.04 0.5–14.04 0.04 0.50 0.40–1.04 0.50 — — Balance CA 15M 0.00 0.15 1.65 0.5 0.15–1.0 2. These alloys have very poor impact resistance compared to the cast austenitic grades.0 1. The ferritic SSTs have properties much different from those of the austenitic SSTs (see Table 14.06 1.25 0.00 1.00 Balance Maximum unless otherwise noted.2–0.5–14.00 1.00 0.0 — — Balance CA 15 0.00 1. Due to the formation of a brittle s phase at elevated temperatures.5 1.9–1.28 — — — — 11.2–0.0–30. .50 0.50 0.0 4.40 1.4 Chemical Composition of Cast Martensitic Stainless Alloys Alloy (wt%) Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Tungsten Vanadium Iron CA 6NM 0.00 0. the structure will be ferritic at room temperature just like a plain carbon steel.0 0.5–14.5 — — Balance Maximum unless otherwise indicated.04 11. some of which can be very advantageous in certain applications.5 Chemical Composition of Cast Ferritic Stainless Steels Alloy (wt%) Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium Nickel Iron CB 30 0.0 — — Balance CA 28MWV 0. 14.0 1.0 1.04 0.04 0.5 — 0.Cast Stainless Steel Alloys TABLE 14.04 18.04 11.0–21.00 0.04 26.5–14. The two most common cast ferritic SSTs are CB30 and CC50.00 1.3 Balance 225 CA 40 0.04 11.5).

226

Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals

SSTs have poor weldability. There are few instances where these materials would be preferred over an austenitic SST. CB30 is resistant to nitric acid, alkaline solutions, and many inorganic chemicals. CC50 is used for dilute sulfuric acid, mixed nitric and sulfuric acids, and various oxidizing acids. Their resistance to chloride SCC is better than austenitic SSTs due to their low nickel contents.

14.3 Austenitic Stainless Steels
The early austenitic stainless steels had compositions of approximately 18% chromium and 8% nickel, and were commonly called “18-8” SST. Austenitic SSTs have much better general corrosion resistance than the 12%-chromium SSTs (Table 14.6). While the wrought austenitic SSTs have complete austenitic structures in the annealed condition, the castings are chemically balanced to form some ferrite as they solidify. The ferrite is necessary to prevent hot cracking of the castings. While most grades contain at least 5% ferrite and weakly attract a magnet, it is not unusual for CG8M to contain as much as 30% ferrite and strongly attract a magnet. Another benefit is that the ferrite phase is resistant to SCC in some environments, and its presence can retard cracking. CF8M is the most widely used cast stainless steel. CF8M is the cast equivalent of 316. CF8M and 316 have a good balance of corrosion resistance, availability, strength, and cost. Although 304 is considered the standard wrought SST, CF8M is the standard cast SST. CF8 castings are more expensive than CF8M and should only be specified when CF8M cannot be used. Most other cast SSTs are used for specific niches where a small compositional difference gives better performance in that application. CF8M has excellent corrosion resistance in normal atmospheric conditions, including seacoast exposure. At worst, some slight staining may develop. It resists most water and brines at ambient temperature. Seawater may cause pitting corrosion particularly under low-flow or stagnant conditions, or at elevated temperatures. CF8M is used for 80–100% sulfuric acid at ambient temperature. Corrosion is reduced further under oxidizing conditions, such as small additions of nitric acid, air, or copper salts. CF8M has good resistance to phosphoric acid at all concentrations up to 1708F (778C). It is used for nitric acid up to boiling at all concentrations to 65%. CF8M resists attack by most organic acids including acetic, formic, and oxalic acids, at all concentrations at ambient temperature. It is used for citric acid at all concentrations. It is not attacked by organic solvents; however, chlorinated organics may attack CF8M, especially under condensing conditions or when water is present. CF8M resists many alkaline solutions and alkaline salts; ammonium hydroxide at all concentrations to boiling and sodium hydroxide at all concentrations up to 1508F (658C) above which SCC may occur.2

TABLE 14.6
Chemical (wt%) P Cr 26.0–30.0 12.0–21.0 17.0–21.0 17.0–21.0 18.0–21.0 18.0–21.0 18.0–21.0 12.0–21.0 18.0–21.0 18.0–21.0 15.0–18.0 16.0–18.0 18.0–21.0 20.5–23.5 18.0–21.0 20.0–23.0 22.0–26.0 23.0–27.0 9.0–13.0 10.0–13.0 12.0–15.0 19.0–22.0 3.0–4.0 — 0.05 0.05 8.0–11.0 8.0–12.0 8.0–12.0 9.0–13.0 8.0–11.0 8.0–11.0 8.0–11.0 9.0–13.0 9.0–12.0 9.0–12.0 13.0–16.0 8.0–9.0 9.0–12.0 11.5–13.5 — 0.5 0.5 2.0–3.0 0.5 0.5 — 2.0–3.0 2.0–3.0 0.5 1.75–2.25 — 1.50 1.5–3 — — — — — — — — 8 ! C Cb, 1.0 Cb 10 ! C Cba, 1.2 Cb 0.08–0.18 N 0.20–0.35 Se 0.1–0.3 Cb, 0.1–0.3 V, 0.2–0.4 N — — — Ni Mo 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 — 0.17 — 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 — 0.04 — S Other

Chemical Composition of Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels

Cast Stainless Steel Alloys

Alloy

C

Mn

Si

CE 30 CF 3 CF 3A CF 3M CF 8 CF 8A CF 20 CF 3MA CF 8M CF 8C CF 10MC CF 10SMnN CF 16F CG 6MMn

0.30 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.08 0.08 0.20 0.03 0.08 0.08 0.10 0.1 0.16 0.06

1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 7–9 1.50 4–6

2.00 2.00 2.00 1.50 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.50 2.00 2.00 1.50 3.5–4.5 2.00 —

CG 8M CG 12 CH 20 CK 20

0.08 0.12 0.20 0.20

1.50 1.50 1.50 2.00

1.50 2.00 2.00 2.00

Maximum unless otherwise specified; iron balance in all cases.

a

Minimum.

227

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Metallic chloride salts, such as ferric chloride and cupric chloride, can be very corrosive to CF8M. Above 1608F (718C), chloride can also cause SCC. The combination of chlorides, water, oxygen, and surface tensile stress can result in cracking at stresses far below the tensile strength of all austenitic SSTs. Although a threshold chloride level may exist, one is difficult to set because chlorides concentrate in pits, crevices, and under deposits until the minimum concentration is reached. One must be concerned about SCC any time a few hundred ppm chlorides is present and the temperature exceeds about 1608F (718C). SCC may develop at lower temperatures if the pH is low. Sensitization of austenitic SSTs develops from exposure to temperatures between 950 and 14508F (510 and 7888C). Chromium carbides form at the grain boundaries, leaving a zone that is chromium-depleted. In aggressive environments, the grain boundaries are corroded. This is called intergranular attack (IGA). When attack surrounds an entire grain, grain dropping occurs, resulting in extremely high rates of attack. Welding can also produce sensitization in the weld and in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In most applications, this attack can be prevented by welding with low-carbon filler material and using minimal heat input. Only the most aggressive environments will produce IGA. CF3M is the cast equivalent of 316L. It has a maximum carbon content of 0.03% vs. 0.08% for CF8M. With !0.03% carbon, sensitization is largely eliminated. CF3M can be specified for applications where IGA has been a problem. With today’s improved foundry technology, many heats of CF8M are at or near the 0.03% carbon limit. Molybdenum is added to SSTs to increase pitting resistance. Molybdenum makes the surface oxide layer tougher, so that chlorides and other pitting agents are less likely to break it down. CF3 and CF8 are the cast equivalents of 304L and 304, respectively. CF3 and CF8 contain a maximum molybdenum content of 0.5% vs. the 2–3% molybdenum of CF3M and CF8M, which sacrifices pitting resistance and general corrosion resistance in some environments. In strongly oxidizing environments, the lower molybdenum of CF8 provides superior corrosion resistance. CF3 and 304L are the standard materials in hot, concentrated nitric acid. CF8 and 304 are not generally used because they are more susceptible to IGA in nitric acid. Cast CF20 (cast equivalent of 302) is the modern version of the original 18-8 composition. CF16F (cast equivalent of 303) is a free-machining version of CF20. The lower alloy content in these grades sacrifices some corrosion resistance. The added sulfur reduces resistance further due to the galvanic effects between the matrix and the manganese sulfide inclusions. CF8C (cast equivalent of 347) contains columbium to stabilize the material against chromium carbide formation. A narrow line of attack adjacent to a weld can occur if the casting is not properly heat-treated. CF8C must be solution heat-treated at 1950–20488F (1066–11208C) and stabilized at 1598–16528F (870–9008C).3 The corrosion resistance of CF8C is about the same as that for CF3 and CF8.

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CG8M (cast equivalent of type 317) is essentially a modified CF8M. The chromium, nickel, and molybdenum contents are all increased slightly, imparting better overall corrosion and pitting resistance. CG8M is widely used in the pulp and paper industry, where it better resists the attack from pulping liquors and bleach-containing water. These applications are becoming increasingly corrosive and even higher grades of SST are often needed. CG6MMN is the cast equivalent of Nitronic 50 (trademark of Armco, Inc.). It is a nitrogen-strengthened alloy with 22% chromium, 13% nickel, 5% manganese, and 2.2% molybdenum. The material is used in place of CF8M when higher strength and/or better corrosion resistance is needed. CF10SMnN is the cast equivalent of Nitronic 60 (trademark of Armco, Inc.). It has better galling resistance than the other CF grades. The corrosion resistance is similar to CF8 but not as good in hot, nitric acid. Austenitic SST castings are purchased to three specifications. ASTM A743 and A744 are used for general applications and A351 is used for pressureretaining castings. For critical applications, additional specifications may be necessary. Items that may be addressed include filler material, interpass temperature, solution heat-treating temperature, quench method, surface condition, nondestructive examination, etc.4

14.4 Superaustenitic Stainless Steels
Austenitic SSTs with alloying element contents (particularly nickel and/or molybdenum) higher than the conventional 300-series SSTs are commonly categorized as “superaustenitic” SSTs (see Table 14.7). In some cases, they
TABLE 14.7 Chemical Composition of Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steel
Alloy (wt%) Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Copper Nitrogen Columbium Iron CD 7M 0.07 1.50 1.50 0.04 0.04 19.0–22.0 27.5–30.5 2.0–3.0 3.0–4.0 — — Balance CN 7MS 0.07 — — — — 18.0–20.0 22.0–25.0 2.5–3.0 1.5–2.0 — — Balance CK 3MCuN 0.025 — — — — 19.5–20.5 17.5–19.5 6.0–7.0 0.5–1.0 0.18–0.24 — Balance CE 3MN 0.03 — — — — 20.0–22.0 23.5–25.5 6.0–7.0 — 0.18–0.26 — — CUSMCuC 0.05 — — — — 19.5–23.5 38.0–46.0 2.50–3.50 1.50–3.50 — 0.6–1.2 —

Maximum unless otherwise noted.

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have even been classified as nickel alloys. These alloys typically contain 16–25% Cr, 30–35% Ni, Mo, and N; some also contain Cu. No single element exceeds 50%.5 The additional nickel provides added resistance to reducing environments and the additional molybdenum, copper, and nitrogen boost the resistance to pitting in chlorides. Even in the cast form, these alloys are fully austenitic, making them considerably more difficult to cast than the ferrite-containing austenitic grades. Foundry experience and expertise is critical in casting superaustenitics. CK3MCuN and CE3MN are the cast equivalents of Avesta 254SMO (trademark of Avesta AB) and AL6XN (trademark of Allegheny Ludlum, Inc.), respectively. They are part of the “6 Mo” superaustenitic family. These alloys have complete resistance to freshwater, steam, boiler feed water, atmospheric and marine environments. They also have excellent resistance to phosphoric, dilute sulfuric, and many other acids and salts. They are highly resistant to acetic, formic, and other organic acids and compounds.6 Superaustenitics are particularly suitable for high-temperature, chloridecontaining environments where pitting and SCC are common causes of failure with other SSTs. Resistance to chloride SCC extends beyond 2508F (1218C). They also have excellent resistance to sulfide stress cracking. CK3MCuN will resist pitting in 6% FeCl3 (60,000 ppm Cl) at 1048F (408C) while the conventional SSTs will pit at ambient temperature.7 In some applications, superaustenitic SSTs can be used instead of nickel-based alloys at a lower cost.8 CN7M, commonly called alloy 20, is the cast equivalent of Carpenter 20Cb3 (trademark of Carpenter Technology). This is the industry-standard alloy for sulfuric acid. CN7MS is a modified version.9 They have useful resistance over most of the sulfuric acid concentration range below 1608F (718C) and below 10% to the boiling point. They have excellent resistance to chloride SCC. Although the ASTM specifications permit up to 0.07% carbon, 0.03% maximum is recommended.10 CK3MCuN and CE3MN are superior for chloride environments. CU5MCuC is the cast version of Incoloy 825 (trademark of Inco Alloys International) although columbium is substituted for titanium. Titanium will oxidize rapidly during air melting; columbium will not. CU5MCuC has corrosion resistance and weldability similar to CN7M. It has equal corrosion resistance in sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acids, seawater, and other environments. It is also highly resistant to chloride SCC. Weld procedures for superaustenitic SSTs must be carefully developed to preserve the special corrosion properties. Heat input must be kept to a minimum, and interpass temperatures must be in the 250–3508F (121–1778C) range. Overmatching weld filler materials are generally used for weld repairs and fabrication welds.11 American Welding Society (AWS) filler metal grades NiCrMo-3, NiCrMo-7, NiCrMo-10, and NiCrMo-12 are the most commonly used grades.12,13 Welding with matching filler requires re-solution heat treatment after all welding. Autogenous welding (without filler material)

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should never be performed on these materials. AWS 320LR weld filler is normally used on CN7M.

14.5 Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels
CB7Cu-1 and CB7Cu-2 are the cast versions of 17-4PH and 15-5PH (trademarks of Armco Steel). These are high-strength, precipitationhardening, martensitic SSTs (Table 14.8). Although there are many other wrought precipitation-hardening SSTs, these are the only two cast alloys covered by ASTM specifications. Typically, these materials are cast, solution heat-treated, machined, and then aged. CB7Cu-1 is more commonly cast than CB7Cu-2. Cast CB7Cu-1 was recently added to the NACE standard MR0175 for nonpressure-containing, internal valve and pressure regulator components. It is acceptable for sour service in the H1150 DBL condition to a maximum hardness of 310 HB (30 HRC). For both alloys, the higher hardness conditions are quite susceptible to SCC. SCC resistance improves with increasing aging temperature and decreasing strength and hardness. The corrosion resistance of these alloys is similar to CF8 and 304 and better than the 400-series SSTs.14 CB7Cu-1 and CB7Cu-2 resist atmospheric attack in all but the most severe environments. They are resistant to natural water, except seawater, where pitting can be expected. They are widely used in steam, boiler feed water, condensate, and dry gases.

14.6 Duplex Stainless Steels
When the chemistry of a stainless steel is adjusted properly, both ferrite and austenite will be present at room temperature. SSTs with approximately 50% austenite and 50% ferrite are called duplex SSTs (see Table 14.9). The popularity of these materials has increased rapidly in recent years

TABLE 14.8 Cast Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
Specification and Grade ASTM A747 Grade CB7Cu-1 ASTM A747 Grade CB7Cu-2 Wrought Equivalent 17-4PH 15-5PH C Max 0.07 0.07 Cr 15.5–17.7 14–15.5 Ni 3.6–4.6 4.5–5.5 Other Elements Cu 2.5–3.2, Cb 0.15–0.35 Cu 2.5–3.2, Cb 0.15–0.35

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TABLE 14.9 Chemical Composition of Cast Duplex Stainless Steel
Alloy (wt %) Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Copper Nitrogen Tungsten Iron CD 4MCu 0.04 1.00 1.00 0.04 0.04 24.5–26.5 4.75–6.00 1.75–2.25 2.75–3.25 — — Balance CD 3MN 0.03 — — — — 21–23.5 4.5–6.5 2.5–3.5 — 0.1–0.3 — Balance CD 3MWN 0.03 — — — — 24–26 6.5–8.5 3–4 0.0–1 0.2–0.3 0.5–1 Balance Z6CNDU20.08M 0.08 — — — — 19–23 7–9 2.3 1.2 — — Balance

Maximum unless otherwise noted.

because they offer superior corrosion resistance and higher yield strength than the austenitic SSTs with a lower alloy content. Due to the formation of s phase at elevated temperatures, duplex SSTs are limited to a maximum service temperature of 5008F (2608C). The formation of s phase adversely affects both toughness and corrosion resistance. Use of s-phase formation as a hardening mechanism is occasionally done, but is not recommended. Welding of duplex alloys can also be somewhat difficult due to the potential for forming the s phase. Welding filler material containing about 1–2% more nickel than the casting is normally used when the castings will be re-solution heat-treated. Filler material with 3% additional nickel is used when castings are not re-solution heat-treated.15 Duplex stainless steels have complete resistance to freshwater, brine, steam, boiler feed water, atmospheric, and marine environments. They are particularly suitable for high-temperature, chloride-containing environments where pitting and SCC are common causes of failure with other SSTs. Duplex alloys have inherently better SCC resistance than single-phase alloys because at least one of the phases is generally resistant to cracking in a given environment. These alloys have good resistance to urea and sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids.16 They are also highly resistant to acetic, formic, and other organic acids and compounds. Alloy Z 6CNDU20.08M to French National Standard NF A 320-55 is the cast version of Uranus 50M (trademark of Creusot-Loire). It is the only cast duplex SST grade which is currently acceptable per NACE MR0175 for general use.15 Unlike other duplex SSTs, Z 6CNDU20.08M is limited to 25–40% ferrite in NACE MR0175, which means it is only a borderline “duplex” SST. Its corrosion resistance is slightly better than CF8M, but inferior to the other duplex SSTs.

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CD3MN is the cast version of wrought UNS S31803 or 2205. It is actually listed in ASTM A890 as grade 4A. This is a nonproprietary duplex SST available from many sources world-wide. With its lower alloy content compared to other duplex grades, its cost is lower, but some corrosion resistance is sacrificed. CD4MCu is a cast duplex SST that has been in use for many years. It is used for environments that are too corrosive for the commonly used austenitic SSTs or where SCC may be a problem. It is similar to wrought Ferralium 255 (trademark of Bonar Langley Alloys Ltd.). Its corrosion resistance is better than that of CF8M. CD3MWN is a new duplex recently added to ASTM. It is the wrought equivalent of Zeron 100 (trademark of Weir Materials, Ltd.). It has higher alloy content than the other duplex grades, giving corrosion resistance nearly as good as that of the superaustenitic alloys.

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. A.B. Avesta Sheffield. 1994. Sheffield Corrosion Handbook, Stockhold: Avesta Sheffield AB. ASM International. 1979. ASM Handbook, Vol. 3, 9th ed., Metals Park, OH: ASM International, pp. 78–93. W.H. Herrnstein. 1977. Structure and constitution of cast iron–chromium– nickel alloys, in Handbook of Stainless Steels, D. Peckner and I.M. Bernstein, Eds, New York: McGraw Hill, pp. 10–12. A.H. Tuthill. 1990. Practical guide for procurement of quality stainless steel castings, Materials Performance, May, 55–60. W. Grinthal, Ed. 1992. High-tech steels to the rescue, Chemical Engineering, New York (January). Allegheny Ludlum Corp. 1991. Al-6XN Alloy, Pittsburgh, PA: Allegheny Ludlum Corp. J.L. Gossett. 1994. Unpublished work, Marshalltown, IA: Fisher Controls, Inc. ´ B. Wallen. 1981. Seawater resistance of a high molybdenum stainless steel, in Proceedings of the Second BSE-NACE Corrosion Conference, Bahrain, 140–151. C. McCaul. 1991. Evaluation of intergranular corrosion susceptibility in as as-welded high alloy austenitic stainless steel casting, British Corrosion Journal, December. J.L. Gossett. 1988. New and improved, high nickel alloy castings. Paper 322, Corrosion, 88th Conference, National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Houston. R.J. Davison and J.D. Redmond. 1988. Practical guide to using 6 Mo austenitic stainless steels, Materials Performance, December, 39–43. American Welding Society. AWS A5.11, Specification for Nickel and Nickel Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal arc Welding, Miami: American Welding Society. American Welding Society. AWS A5.14, Specification for Nickel and Nickel Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods, Miami: American Welding Society. Armco, Inc. 1982. Product Data, Bulletin no. S-6d, Armco 17-4PH, Middletown, OH: Armco, Inc.

234 15. 16.

Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals J.C.M. Farrar. 1992. Welding castings of duplex stainless steel, Welding Design and Fabrication, November, 48–51. F. Dupoiron, L. Renaud, M. Verneau, and J. Charles. 1994. Industrial Applications and Experience of Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steels in Chemical Industries. Paper 386, Proceedings of Corrosion 94, Houston, TX: NACE International.

15
Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys
The nickel-based alloys show a wider range of application than any other class of alloys. These alloys are used as corrosion-resistant alloys, heating elements, controlled expansion alloys, creep-resistant alloys in turbines and jet engines, and high-temperature, corrosion-resistant alloys. The austenitic stainless steels were developed and utilized early in the 1900s, whereas the development of the nickel-based alloys did not begin until about 1930. Initially, some of the alloys were produced only as castings and later the wrought versions were developed. Since that time, there has been a steady progression of different or improved alloys emerging from the laboratories of nickel-based alloy producers. Many of these find their major usage in the high-temperature world of gas turbines and furnaces, but several are used primarily by the chemical industry for aqueous corrosion service. Historically, the use of these alloys was typically reserved for those applications where it was adjudged that nothing else would work. At one time, the primary factor in the selection of construction materials was initial cost. Very little thought was given to the possible maintenance and downtime associated with the equipment. Today, the increasing costs of maintenance and downtime have placed greater emphasis on the reliable performance of the process equipment. The annual amortized cost of the equipment over the expected life is now important with regards to the material selection. In the electrochemical series, nickel is nobler than iron but more active than copper. Reducing environments, such as dilute sulfuric acid, find nickel more corrosion-resistant than iron but not as resistant as copper or nickel– copper alloys. The nickel–molybdenum alloys are more corrosion-resistant to reducing environments than nickel or nickel–copper alloys. Although nickel can form a passive film in some environments, it is not a particularly stable film; therefore, nickel cannot generally be used in oxidizing media, such as nitric acid. When alloyed with chromium, a much improved stable passive film results, producing a greater corrosion resistance to a variety of oxidizing environments. However, these alloys are
235

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subject to attack in media containing chloride or other halides, especially if oxidizing agents are present. Corrosion will be in the form of pitting. The corrosion resistance can be improved by adding molybdenum and tungsten. One of the most important attributes of nickel with respect to the formation of corrosion-resistant alloys is its metallurgical compatibility with a number of other metals, such as copper, chromium, molybdenum, and iron. A survey of the binary phase diagrams for nickel and these other elements shows considerable solid solubility, and thus one can make alloys with a wide variety of composition. Nickel alloys are, in general, all austenitic alloys; however, they can be subject to precipitation of intermetallic and carbide phases when aged. In some alloys designed for high-temperature service, intermetallic and carbide precipitation reactions are encouraged to improve properties. However, for corrosion applications, the precipitation of second phases usually promotes corrosion attack. The problem is rarely encountered because the alloys are supplied in the annealed condition and the service temperatures rarely approach the level required for sensitization. In iron–chromium–nickel stainless steels, minimization of carbide precipitation can be achieved by lowering the carbon content to a maximum of about 0.03%. As the nickel content is increased from the nominal 8% in these alloys to that of the majority element (i.e., more that 50%), the nature of the carbide changes predominantly from M23C6 to M6C, and the carbon solubility decreases by a factor of 10. It was therefore very difficult in the past to produce an L-grade material because of the state of the art of melting. Many alloys were produced with carbon stabilizers to tie up the carbon, but with varying degrees of success. Changes in melting techniques were developed to overcome the problem. The transfer of alloys from air induction or vacuum induction melting to air-arc plus argon–oxygen decarburization has provided a means for producing nickel alloys comparable to the L grades of stainless steels. While general corrosion resistance is important, one of the major reasons that nickel-based alloys are specified for many applications is their excellent resistance to localized corrosion, such as pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. In many environments, austenitic stainless steels do not exhibit general attack but suffer from significant localized attack, resulting in excessive downtime and/or expensive repair and replacement. In general, the localized corrosion resistance of alloys is improved by the addition of molybdenum. However, molybdenum content alone does not solve the problem. For example, alloy B-2 has the highest molybdenum content (26.5%) and is not recommended for most localized corrosion service. Chromium, which is present in alloy B-2 in residual quantities, also plays an important role because the environments are normally oxidizing in nature. The nickel-based alloys are sometimes referred as superalloys. They have been defined as those possessing good high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance and are alloys of nickel, cobalt, and iron that contain

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larger amounts of chromium (25–30%) for oxidation resistance. Classifications include iron–nickel, nickel, and cobalt-based alloys. For many years, cobalt-based superalloys held the edge, but because of the precarious availability of cobalt from South Africa, the nickel-based superalloys have replaced many of the cobalt-based alloys. The physical metallurgy of these alloys is the result of the precipitation of a very fine distribution of small particles, primarily Ni3Al and Ni3Ti, which have the generic name of gamma prime in a gamma matrix. The nickel–iron alloys also have a phase in the form of a Ni3Nb compound. In actuality, the superalloys are really dispersion-hardened alloys because they achieve their strength by a fine dispersion of these compounds. Even though these compound particles are often obtained via aging or precipitation heat treatment, they do not develop the coherency strains that the true precipitation-hardening alloys do. These particles resist dislocation motion and thereby strengthen the base metal. In addition, these particles resist growth at elevated temperatures. For this reason, they have found application in the turbines and hot compartments of jet aircraft. Dispersion-hardening alloys do not overage as readily as precipitationhardening alloys. Not all nickel-based alloys are used for high-temperature applications; the monels and some solid-solution inconels are the most notable exceptions. The nickel and high-nickel alloys will be discussed individually.

15.1

Nickel 200 and Nickel 201

This family is represented by nickel alloys 200 (N0220) and 201 (N02201). The chemical composition is shown in Table 15.1. Commercially pure nickel is a white magnetic metal very similar to copper in its other physical and mechanical properties. The Curie point—the temperature at which it loses its magnetism—varies with the type and quantity of alloy additions, rising with increased iron and
TABLE 15.1 Chemical Composition of Nickel 200 and Nickel 201
Weight Percent (max) Chemical Carbon Copper Iron Nickel Silicon Titanium Nickel 200 0.1 0.25 0.4 99.2 0.15 0.1 Nickel 201 0.02 0.25 0.4 99.0 0.15 0.1

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cobalt additions and falling as copper, silicon, and most other elements are added. Nickel is also an important alloying element in other families of corrosion-resistant materials. Alloy 201 is a low-carbon version of alloy 200. Alloy 200 is subject to the formation of a grain boundary graphitic phase that tremendously reduces ductility. Consequently, nickel alloy 200 is limited to a maximum operating temperature of 6008F (3158C). For applications above this temperature, alloy 201 should be used. There are two basic pure nickel alloys, each containing a minimum of 99% nickel: alloy 200 and alloy 201. Alloy 201 is the low-carbon version of alloy 200. Alloy 200 is subject to the formation of a grain-boundary graphitic phase that reduces ductility tremendously. Consequently, nickel alloy 200 is limited to a maximum operating temperature of 6008F (3158C). For application above this temperature, alloy 201 should be used. The corrosion resistance of alloys 200 and 201 are the same. They exhibit outstanding resistance to hot alkalies, particularly caustic soda. Excellent resistance is shown at all concentrations at temperatures up to and including the molten state. Below 50%, the corrosion rates are negligible, usually being less than 0.2 mil/year (mpy) even in boiling solutions. As concentrations and temperatures increase, corrosion rates increase very slowly. Impurities in the caustic, such as chlorates and hypochlorites, will determine the corrosion rate. Nickel is not subject to stress corrosion cracking in any of the chloride salts and it exhibits excellent general resistance to nonoxidizing halides. Oxidizing acid chlorides such as ferric, cupric, and mercuric are very corrosive and should be avoided. Nickel 201 also finds application in the handling of hot, dry chlorine and hydrogen chloride gas on a continuous basis up to 10008F (5408C). The resistance is attributed to the formation of a nickel chloride film. Dry fluorine and bromine can be handled in the same manner. The resistance will decrease when moisture is present. Nickel exhibits excellent resistance to most organic acids, particularly fatty acids such as stearic and oleic, if aeration is not high. Nickel is not attacked by anhydrous ammonia or ammonium hydroxide in concentrations of 1% or less. Stronger concentrations cause rapid attack. Nickel also finds application in the handling of food and synthetic fibers because of its ability to maintain product purity. The presence of nickel ions is not detrimental to the flavor of food products and it is nontoxic. Unlike iron and copper, nickel will not discolor organic chemicals such as phenol and viscose rayon. Refer to Table 15.2 for the compatibility of nickel 200 and nickel 201 with selected corrodents. In addition to alloy 200, there are a number of alloy modifications developed for increased strength, hardness, resistance to galling, and improved corrosion resistance. Other alloys in this family are not specifically used for their corrosion resistance.

Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15.2 Compatibility of Nickel 200 and Nickel 201 with Selected Corrodents
Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid, 10% Acetic acid, 50% Acetic acid, 80% Acetic acid, glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride, aqueous Aluminum chloride, dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride, 10% Ammonium chloride, 50% Ammonium chloride, sat. Ammonium fluoride, 10% Ammonium fluoride, 25% Ammonium hydroxide, 25% Ammonium hydroxide, sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate, 30% Ammonium sulfate, 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia, 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F 200 90 90 120 170 190 100 210 210 220 190 170 300 60 90 80 210 90 190 230 170 570 210 200 320 90 210 210 300 90 210 210 210 8C 93 32 32 49 77 88 38 99 99 104 88 77 149 16 32 27 99 32 88 110 77 299 99 93 160 32 99 99 149 32 99 99 99 (continued)

239

X

X X

X

X

240

Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15.2 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid, 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas, dry Bromine gas, moist Bromine, liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide, 10% Calcium hydroxide, sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acida Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide, dry Carbon dioxide, wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid, 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas, dry Chlorine gas, wet Chlorine, liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform 8F 80 90 210 110 210 210 190 400 210 210 200 210 60 80 80 200 210 X X 140 80 210 200 90 210 210 210 200 570 210 80 210 210 200 120 210 60 27 99 93 32 99 99 99 93 290 99 27 99 99 93 49 99 (continued) 8C 27 32 99 43 99 99 88 204 99 99 93 99 16 27 27 93 99

X

X

X X

X

38% Hydrocyanic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10% Ketones. 25% Lactic acid.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 100%b Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% 8F 80 100 210 210 80 100 8C 27 38 99 99 27 38 241 X 100 80 80 210 X X X X X X 38 27 27 99 X X X X X 570 60 80 170 100 120 100 300 210 90 210 200 X X X X 290 16 27 77 38 49 38 149 99 32 99 93 X X X X X (continued) . conc. 37% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 15% Citric acid. general Lactic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 70%b Hydrofluoric acid. dilute Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. conc. 30%b Hydrofluoric acid.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.

Sodium hypochlorite. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. conc. 1–4. Source: From P. Sodium sulfide. 70% Sulfuric acid. corrosion rate is !20 mpy.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 70% Nitric acid. 10%b Sodium hydroxide. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Phenol. 90% Sulfuric acid. dry Sulfuric acid. to 30% Sodium chloride. 50% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. conc. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride. Incompatibility is shown by an X.242 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15. 10% Sulfuric acid. When compatible. Schweitzer. Vols. Material subject to stress cracking. 30% Salicyclic acid Silver bromide. 100% Sulfuric acid. . 10% Perchloric acid. to 80% 8F X X X X X 570 80 80 210 210 210 300 200 X 299 27 27 99 99 99 149 93 8C 570 X X X X X X X X X X X X 299 210 210 80 200 99 99 27 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. to 30% Sodium hydroxide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.. conc.A. sulfur-free Phosphoric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride. 50%b Sodium hydroxide. 2004. a b Material subject to pitting. Oleum Perchloric acid.

remains one of the widely used nickel alloys. It has excellent mechanical properties at subzero temperatures.3 Chemical Composition of Monel Alloys Weight Percent Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Sulfur Nickel Iron Copper Columbium Titanium 400 (N04400) 0. invented in 1905. Alloy 300 (also called by the tradename Permanickel) is a moderately precipitation-hardenable alloy containing titanium and magnesium that also possesses higher thermal and electrical conductivity. TABLE 15. its corrosion resistance is very good in reducing environments. Nickel–copper alloy 400 is a solid solution binary alloy. The alloy is readily fabricated and is virtually immune to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking in typical environments.3 max 2.2 Monel Alloy 400 (N04400) The first nickel alloy.5 max 0. although lower than that of nickel is significantly higher than that of nickel alloys containing substantial amounts of chromium or iron. but poor in oxidizing conditions.0–70.020–0.50 max Balance — — 405 (N04405) 0. combining high strength (comparable to structural steel) and toughness over a wide range with excellent resistance to many corrosive environments.2 max — 63.0 min 1.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys 243 Alloy 270 is a high-purity.8 max 0.85 . was approximately two-thirds nickel and one-third copper.0 max 0.060 63.0 2. The alloy can be used at temperatures up to 8008F (4278C) and as high as 10008F (5388C) in sulfur-free oxidizing atmospheres. producing alloy 400.0–33. Refer to Table 15.1 max 0. provides an alloy with many of the characteristics of pure nickel but improves other characteristics.0 27.15 0. Nickel–copper alloys offer somewhat higher strength than un-alloyed nickel. with no sacrifice of ductility.0 2.3–3.015 max 63.3 for the chemical composition. The present equivalent of the alloy.0 2. The alloying of 30–33% copper with nickel.2 max 2.0–70. Monel 400. Generally. low-inclusion version of alloy 200.5 max 0.50 max Balance — — K-500 (N05500) 0. Alloy 301 (also referred to by tradename Duranickel) is a precipitation-hardenable alloy containing aluminum and titanium.35–0. 15. The thermal conductivity of alloy 400.0 max 0.

as in 250 200 Atmospheric boiling point curve Air-free. 1st ed. <10 mpy Aerated.) . Schweitzer. However. New York: Marcel Dekker. It gives excellent service under high-velocity conditions. °F 150 100 Air-free.A. Water handling. (From G.1. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook.1 Isocorrosion diagram for alloy 400 in hydrofluoric acid. Monel 400 is subject to stress corrosion cracking in moist. or ammonia. <25 mpy Air-free. The influence of oxidizers is the same as for nickel.F. >20 mpy Temperature.. hydrochloric. including seawater and brackish waters. is comparatively insensitive to velocity effects. and phosphoric is improved over that of pure nickel. such as sulfuric. 1999. sulfur dioxide. aeration or the presence of oxidizing salts increases the corrosion rate. as shown in Figure 15. weight percent 90 100 FIGURE 15. <20 mpy Aerated. <1 mpy 50 Aerated. <10 mpy 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Acid concentration.244 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals The general corrosion resistance of alloy 400 in the nonoxidizing acids. is a major area of application. Hodge. and is widely used for critical parts such as bubble caps or valves that are in contact with flowing acid. Ed. wet chlorine. chromic acid. The alloy is not resistant to oxidizing media such as nitric acid.. ferric chloride. This alloy is widely used in HF alkylation. P. Alloy 400 exhibits excellent resistance to hydrofluoric acid solutions at all concentrations and temperatures. cracking is unlikely if the metal is completely immersed in the acid. aerated hydrofluoric or hydrofluorosilicic acid vapor. Again.

however. 15. springs and valve trim. pump shafts. electronic components. and condenser tubes. Alloy 400 can pit in stagnant seawater. Outdoor surfaces that are exposed to rain produce a thin gray–green patina.3 Alloy B-2 Alloy B was originally developed to resist hydrochloric acid up to the atmospheric boiling point. Refer to Table 15. Typical applications include pump shafts. a smooth brown adherent film forms. impellers. concentrated caustic. propeller shafts. The absence of chloride stress corrosion cracking is also a factor in the selection of the alloy for this service. The addition of iron to the composition improves the resistance to cavitation and erosion in condenser tube applications. oil well drill collars and instruments. because of susceptibility to intergranular attack in the heat-affected zone after welding in some environments.5. doctor blades. The corrosion resistance of this alloy is essentially the same as alloy 400. Chemical composition will be found in Table 15. Indoor exposures produce a very light tarnish that is easily removed by occasional wiping. However. and scrapers. as does nickel 200. a low-carbon variant. Because of the formation of the intermetallic phases Ni3Mo and Ni4Mo after . This alloy is different from other corrosion-resistant alloys because it does not contain chromium. Monel alloy K-500 is an age-hardenable alloy that combines the excellent corrosion resistance characteristics of alloy 400 with the added advantage of increased strength and hardness. Alloy B-2 has improved resistance to knifeline and heat-affected zone attack. and in mercury. was developed and is replacing alloy B in most applications. In sulfurous atmospheres.4. impellers.3. alloy B-2. The chemical composition is shown in Table 15. Monel alloy 405 is a higher sulfur grade in which the sulfur content is increased over that of alloy 400 to improve machinability. Molybdenum is the primary alloying element and provides significant corrosion resistance to reducing environments. A more detailed compilation will be found in Reference [6]. Alloy B-2 has excellent elevated-temperature (16508F (9008C)) mechanical properties because of the high molybdenum content and has been used for mechanical components in reducing environments and vacuum furnaces.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys 245 propellers. Alloy 400 undergoes negligible corrosion in all types of natural atmospheres. It also resists formation of grain-boundary precipitates in weld-heataffected zone. Refer to Table 15. Monel 400 exhibits stress corrosion cracking in high temperatures.3 for the chemical composition. the rates are considerably lower.

sat. Ammonium fluoride. 80% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 30% Ammonium sulfate. aqueous Aluminum chloride. sat.246 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15. 50% Acetic acid. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 170 340 80 200 200 290 190 190 400 210 210 400 200 100 80 150 90 80 210 400 190 230 170 570 400 400 8C 77 171 27 93 93 143 88 88 204 99 99 204 93 38 27 66 32 27 99 204 88 110 77 299 204 204 X X 210 400 90 300 180 400 210 350 210 210 80 210 X X X X X 99 204 32 149 82 204 99 177 99 99 27 99 (continued) X . 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium fluoride.4 Compatibility of Monel 400 with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride.

10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet Chlorine. weta Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15. dry Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. moist Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acida Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.4 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene. dry Carbon dioxide. dry Bromine gas. sat. conc. 10% Chromic acid. Copper acetate 8F 210 210 210 210 400 210 90 210 120 180 380 200 210 210 60 200 140 350 210 200 90 80 210 570 400 570 400 210 180 570 150 400 210 80 130 210 210 80 8C 99 99 99 99 204 99 32 99 49 82 193 93 99 99 16 93 60 177 99 93 32 27 99 299 204 299 204 99 82 299 66 204 99 27 54 99 99 27 (continued) 247 X X X X X X X X X X .

70% Nitric acid. 40% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 100%b Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 30%b Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Cupric chloride.248 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15.4 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 70%b Hydrofluoric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% Malic acid Manganese chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. Magnesium chloride. 20% Hydrochloric acid. general Lactic acid. conc. moist Hydrobromic acid. conc. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 70% 8F X X X X X X 8C 100 180 80 200 210 38 82 27 93 99 X X X X X X X X X 570 299 80 80 400 400 210 100 350 210 100 210 200 200 27 27 204 204 99 38 177 99 38 99 93 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X X (continued) . anhydrous Nitrous acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. dilute Hydrobromic acid. 10% Ketones. dry Fluorine gas.

Corrosion Resistance Tables.. corrosion rate is !20 mpy. 10%b Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. Material subject to stress cracking. 50% Sulfuric acid.4 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Phenol Phosphoric acid.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15. 2004. a b Not for use with carbonated beverages. to 30% Sodium hydroxide. New York: Marcel Dekker. Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Sulfuric acid.2. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. air-free Salicyclic acid Silver bromide. Source: From P. Vols. When compatible. 98% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride. 10% Sulfuric acid. long aging. conc.A. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride. conc. 1–4. 5th ed. the use of alloy B-2 in the temperature range 1110–15608F (600–8008C) is not recommended. Alloy B-2 has excellent resistance to pure sulfuric acid at all concentrations and temperatures below 60% acid and good resistance to 2128F (1008C) . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. dry Sulfuric acid. irrespective of environment. 90% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 50%b Sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide. Alloy B-2 is recommended for service in handling all concentrations of hydrochloric acid in the temperature range of 158–2128F (70–1008C) and for handling wet hydrogen chloride gas. to 80% 8F 570 210 210 80 210 210 350 300 350 210 570 80 80 X X 8C 299 99 99 27 99 99 177 149 177 99 299 27 27 249 X X X X X X X X X 300 210 170 200 X 149 99 77 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 30%. as shown in Figure 15.

0 1. It is also resistant to many chloride-bearing salts (nonoxidizing). °F 200 5 mpy (0. as shown in Figure 15. Because of its high molybdenum content. P..) . 1999. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook. The alloy is resistant to a number of phosphoric acids and numerous organic acids. and antimony chloride. such as acetic. weight percent FIGURE 15. Ed. it is highly resistant to pitting attack in most acid chloride environments.51) 150 75 100 Temperature.2 Isocorrosion diagram for alloy B-2 in hydrochloric acid. Because there is no chromium in the alloy.0 max 2.0 max Balance above 60% acid.13) 30 50 40 Concentration.250 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15. magnesium chloride. it is resistant to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking. Hodge.F.. New York: Marcel Dekker.3.0–30. °C 250 5 mpy (0.13) 5−20 mpy (0. Schweitzer.13−0. formic. 1st ed. Alloy B-2 is not recommended for elevated temperature service except in very specific circumstances.13) 100 0 10 20 0−5 mpy (0−0. and cresylic. (From G. Boiling point curve 0−5 mpy Temperature.A. Because alloy B-2 is nickel rich (approximately 70%). it 125 Corrosion rates in parentheses are in mm/year.5 Chemical Composition of Alloy B-2 Chemical Molybdenum Chromium Iron Nickel Weight Percent 26. such as aluminum chloride.

such as concentrated ammonia at 77–1408F (25–608C). A nonprotective layer of molybdenum trioxide forms and results in a heavy green oxidation scale. Stress corrosion cracking has been observed in alloy B-2 in 20% magnesium chloride solution at temperatures exceeding 5008F (2608C). In a chloride-containing environment. Alloy B-2 has virtually no corrosion resistance to oxidizing acids. Hodge. or to oxidizing salts. °F 300 Boiling point curve 50 mpy (1. oxygenated deionized water at 4008F (2048C).27) 20 mpy 20−50 150 (0.F. °C Temperature.) scales heavily at temperatures above 14008F (7608C).Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys 251 400 350 Corrosion rates in parentheses are in mm/year Over 50 mpy (Over 1. P. 1999. In some environments. cracking has been observed if the alloy was aged at 13828F (7508C) for 24 h Temperature.. The major factor limiting the use of alloy B-2 is the poor corrosion resistance in oxidizing environments.3 Isocorrosion diagram for alloy B-2 in sulfuric acid. 1% hydrogen iodide at 62–4508F (17–2308C).13) 0−5 mpy (0−0. such as ferric chloride or cupric chloride. ferric sulfate or cupric chloride.25) (0.13) 5−20 mpy . Even dissolved oxygen has sufficient oxidizing power to affect the corrosion rates for alloy B-2 in hydrochloric acid.4. Other environments in which stress corrosion cracking of this alloy has been observed. include high purity water at 3508F (1708C). such as ferric chloride. alloy B-2 has demonstrated good resistance. such as nitric and chromic. 1st ed. New York: Marcel Dekker. molten lithium at 3158F (1578C).. Oxidizing salts. Ed.13) 100 150 50 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Concentration. weight percent FIGURE 15. even when present in the parts per million range.51) mpy 5 mpy (0. and 10% hydrochloric acid at 4008F (2048C). (From G. Schweitzer.13−0.27) 200 250 200 5−10 mpy 5 mpy (0.A. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook. The presence of oxidizing salts in reducing acids must also be considered. can significantly accelerate the attack in hydrochloric or sulfuric acids as shown in Figure 15. Alloy B-2 exhibits excellent resistance to pure phosphoric acid.

PPM 400 600 800 FIGURE 15. Table 15. It exhibits exceptional fatigue strength and superior strength and . Hodge. molybdenum.) before the test.6 shows the compatibility of alloy B-2 with selected corrodents. MPY 1000 400 100 50 mpy (1.7. This alloy finds application where strength and corrosion resistance are required. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook. 1999. Reference [6] contains a more extensive listing.F.000 Corrosion rates in parentheses are in mm/year 4000 Boiling 20% HCI Boiling 30% H2SO4 Corrosion rate.4 Effect of ferric ions on corrosion rate of alloy B-2. Schweitzer. The strength of alloy 625 is primarily a solid solution effect from molybdenum and niobium (Columbian). Ni4Mo. Alloy 625 has excellent weldability.4 Alloy 625 (N06625) Alloy 625.. has been hypothesized to be the cause of the increased embrittlement. 15..A.252 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 10. is used both for its high strength and aqueous corrosion resistance. the alloy retains its strength and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. The chemical composition is shown in Table 15. Precipitation of an ordered intermetallic phase. P. and niobiumCtantalum. New York: Marcel Dekker. Ed. (From G.27) 40 10 1 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80100 200 Ferric ion concentration. also known as Inconel alloy 625. carbon. Because of its combination of chromium. 1st ed.

sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15. 10–40% Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 50% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfate.6 Compatibility of Alloy B-2 and Alloy C-276 with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Benzaldehyde Alloy B-2 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 560/293 280/138 200/93 80/27 210/99 210/99 200/93 150/66 60/16 300/149 210/99 80/27 210/99 200/93 300/149 210/99 210/99 570/299 210/99 210/99 210/99 X 80/27 340/171 210/99 570/299 210/99 X 570/299 570/299 270/132 80/27 210/99 Alloy C-276 140/60 60/16 300/149 300/149 300/149 560/293 280/138 200/93 210/99 210/99 570/299 150/66 60/16 210/99 210/99 80/27 210/99 200/93 380/193 300/149 210/99 210/99 570/299 210/99 210/99 570/299 570/299 200/93 100/38 340/171 180/82 90/32 570/299 210/99 X 570/299 210/99 270/132 210/99 (continued) 253 . sat.

10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Chlorine gas. moist Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.6 Continued Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. sat. 10% Chromic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. conc. 10% Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorine. 15% Citric acid. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid.254 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Alloy B-2 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 120/49 570/299 60/16 300/149 200/93 210/99 210/99 280/138 210/99 350/177 210/99 210/99 X 210/99 320/160 300/149 180/82 570/299 570/299 180/82 570/299 300/149 80/27 210/99 370/188 200/93 X 350/177 210/99 230/110 130/54 X 210/99 210/99 210/99 Alloy C-276 210/99 210/99 210/99 120/49 570/299 60/16 60/16 180/82 300/149 200/93 200/93 210/99 280/138 80/27 210/99 210/99 350/177 170/77 210/99 90/32 320/160 300/149 210/99 570/299 200/93 300/149 570/299 300/149 80/27 210/99 210/99 300/149 570/299 220/104 110/43 350/177 210/99 230/110 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 (continued) . Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate. dry Bromine gas.

30% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 5% Cupric chloride. dilute Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 50–80% Picric acid Alloy B-2 100/38 90/32 200/93 150/66 210/99 210/99 60/16 210/99 210/99 80/27 230/110 570/299 90/32 X X 280/138 80/27 210/99 210/99 260/127 140/60 140/60 140/60 110/43 80/27 90/32 180/82 250/121 250/121 300/149 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 200/93 90/32 X X X X X 110/43 570/299 210/99 220/104 Alloy C-276 100/38 90/32 200/93 150/66 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 80/27 230/110 570/299 90/32 280/138 150/66 570/299 90/32 90/32 150/66 90/32 210/99 200/93 210/99 80/27 180/82 100/38 210/99 210/99 300/149 210/99 210/99 90/32 210/99 200/93 90/32 210/99 160/71 200/93 80/27 X 140/60 220/104 570/299 210/99 300/149 (continued) 255 . conc. 20% Nitric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride.6 Continued Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 5% Nitric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 40% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Oleum. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. general Lactic acid. to 25% Perchloric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. moist Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Ketones. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15.

alloy 625 is resistant to mixtures of nitric-hydrofluoric acids. It has excellent resistance to chloride corrosion cracking. 70% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. When compatible.6 Continued Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Potassium bromide. 50% Sulfuric acid. corrosion rate is !20 mpy. fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride Alloy B-2 90/32 80/27 90/32 570/299 210/99 240/116 250/121 200/93 X X 210/99 210/99 570/299 210/99 230/110 290/143 190/88 280/138 290/143 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 100/38 60/16 Alloy C-276 90/32 250/121 90/32 210/99 210/99 230/110 210/99 120/49 X X 210/99 210/99 210/99 200/93 230/110 290/143 190/88 210/99 190/88 90/32 370/188 210/99 210/99 100/38 250/121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Satisfactory resistance has also been exhibited to hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. to 30% Sodium hydroxide. 98% Sulfuric acid. Resistance to aqueous solutions is good in organic acids. to 50% Stannic chloride. Schweitzer. Alloy B-2 is subject to pitting. sulfuric and hydrochloric acid at temperatures below 1508F (658C). 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide.256 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15. Although nickel-based alloys are not normally used in nitric acid service.A. Sodium sulfide. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. a b Alloy B-2 is subject to stress cracking. New York: Marcel Dekker. toughness at temperatures varying from cryogenic to 20008F (10938C). 5th ed. Sodium hypochlorite.. in which stainless steel loses its resistance. 10%a Sodium hydroxide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. as well as a variety of other applications. Vols. 2004. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. . 1–4. to 50% Stannous chlorideb Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. The niobium and tantalum stabilization makes the alloy suitable for corrosion service in the as-welded condition. 100% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. conc. Incompatibility is shown by an X.

Refer to Table 15. displays corrosion resistance similar to that of alloy 625 and superior to that of alloy 718. It is a precipitationhardenable nickel-based alloy that.40 max 0. It offers exceptional resistance to pitting. even in applications where large section size or intricate shape precludes warm or cold working. Alloy 625 has also been used in preheaters for sulfur dioxide scrubbing systems in coal-fired power plants and bottoms of electrostatic precipitators that are flushed with seawater.15 0. This alloy provides high levels of strength while maintaining corrosion resistance.00 max 3. and chlorides that are used in the production of superphosphoric acid (72% P205). The chemical composition is given in Table 15.40 max 0. the room temperature ductility is significantly reduced.10 max 5.50 max 0. in many environments. and afterburners.50 max 0.0 1. crevice corrosion.8 for the compatibility of alloy 625 with selected corrodents. after long aging in the temperature range of 1100–14008F (590–7608C). Elevated temperature applications include ducting systems. It has good strength up to about 10008F (5388C). .00 max 0. Use of this alloy has been considered in the high-temperature.7 Chemical Composition of Alloy 625 (N06625) Chemical Chromium Molybdenum Cobalt ColumbiumCtantalum Aluminum Titanium Carbon Iron Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Nickel Weight Percent 20.015 max 0. and general corrosion.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15.0 8.0–23.15–4. including commercial grades that contain fluorides.5 Custom Age 625 Plus (N07716) Custom Age 625 is a trademark of Carpenter Technology. however.015 max Balance 257 Field-operating experience has shown that alloy 625 exhibits excellent resistance to phosphoric acid solutions. 15. thrust reverser assemblies. Reference [1] contains a more extensive listing.0–10. as well as stress corrosion cracking in the age-hardened (high strength) condition. sulfates.9. gas-cooled reactor.

10%a Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate. 80% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride. sat. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid. 10–40%b Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% 8F 140 80 220 200 190 80 210 210 200 150 200 80 80 80 190 230 170 200 90 90 80 90 80 210 210 90 300 210 90 80 570 90 210 210 210 90 8C 60 27 104 93 88 27 99 99 93 66 93 27 27 27 88 110 77 93 32 32 27 32 27 99 99 32 149 99 32 27 299 32 99 99 99 32 (continued) X X X X X X X X . 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.258 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15.8 Compatibility of Alloy 600 and Alloy 625 with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid.

dry Chlorine gas. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. moist Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15. 10% Chromic acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium sulfateb Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.8 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 50% Cyclohexanol 8F 210 210 90 80 60 80 80 80 210 90 80 80 210 90 210 230 80 210 200 80 570 210 210 210 90 210 210 130 90 210 210 210 100 80 80 80 100 80 8C 99 99 32 27 16 27 27 27 99 32 27 27 99 32 99 110 27 99 93 27 299 99 99 99 32 99 99 54 32 99 99 99 38 27 27 27 38 27 (continued) 259 X X X X X X X X X . dry Bromine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. conc. 5% Cupric chloride. sat. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide.

50% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Malic acid Manganese chloride. anhydrous Nitrous acid.8 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. conc. 25% Lactic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. dilute Hydrobromic acid. 20% Nitric acid. dry Sulfuric acid. 50%a Sodium hydroxide. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. to 30% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. Sodium sulfide. 10% 8F 200 210 X X X X 8C 93 99 570 60 90 80 80 X X X X 299 16 32 27 27 120 210 90 130 210 210 210 200 90 80 X 49 99 32 54 99 99 99 93 32 27 X X X X X X 570 190 210 80 210 210 300 300 80 210 570 299 88 99 27 99 99 149 149 27 99 299 (continued) X X X X . 70% Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 100% Lactic acid. conc. Magnesium chloride. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride. moist Hydrobromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.260 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15. Sodium hypochlorite. 30% Salicyclic acid Sodium carbonate. to 30% Sodium chloride. 5% Nitric acid. 37% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.

00 1. 90% Sulfuric acid.75–4..00 59. corrosion rate is !20 mpy. Schweitzer.010 max 0. Vols. 1–4.00–1. 70% Sulfuric acid.60 0.00–22. New York: Marcel Dekker.8 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid.020 max 0.9 Chemical Composition of Custom Age 625 Plus Alloy (N07716) Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Columbium Titanium Aluminum Iron Weight Percent 0. dry 8F X X X X X X 8C 261 90 210 80 80 32 99 27 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.00–63. high-purity nuclear water TABLE 15. 2004. 98% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride.00 7.00–9. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50% Sulfuric acid.03 max 0. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 100% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available.015 max 0.20 max 19. 5th ed. a b Material is subject to stress cracking.A.35 max Balance . Material subject to pitting. When compatible. Source: From P.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15. Applications include: Deep sour gas wells Refineries Chemical process plant environments High-temperature.5 2.

and chlorine solutions. The chemical composition is given in Table 15. alloy C was often susceptible to serious intergranular corrosion attack in many oxidizing and chloride-containing environments.10 Chemical Composition of Alloy C-276 (N10276) Chemical Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Tungsten Iron Weight Percent 0. formic and acetic acids. Exceptional corrosion resistance is exhibited in the presence of phosphoric acid at all temperatures below the boiling point of phosphoric acid.5 0. chlorine. Alloy C-276 has exceptional corrosion resistance to many process materials. the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of the alloy make it an excellent choice. see Figure 15. where corrosion rates may be erratic and may reach 25 mpy. It also resists highly corrosive agents. Isocorrosion diagrams for alloy C-276 have been developed for a number of inorganic acids. as TABLE 15.08% maximum) version of Hastelloy C. and acetic anhydride. when concentrations are less than 65% by weight. except at temperatures between 2408F (1168C) and the boiling point. hypochlorite. Corrosion rates of less than 5 mpy were recorded. neutral. At concentrations above 65% by weight and up to 85%. When dealing with acid chloride salts.262 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 15.10. When used in the as-welded condition. Thus. including conditions with ion contamination. alloy C-276 can be used in most applications in the as-welded condition without suffering severe intergranular attack. including sulfuric. Alloy C-276 is extremely versatile because it possesses good resistance to both oxidizing and reducing media.5.5 . such as wet chlorine gas. Alloy C-276 was developed to overcome the corrosion problem associated with the welding of alloy C. The low carbon and silicon content of alloy C-276 prevents precipitation of continuous grain-boundary precipitates in the weld heat-affected zone. alloy C-276 displays similar corrosion rates.5 57 16 3. solvents.6 Alloy C-276 (N10276) Hastelloy alloy C-276 is a low carbon (0.01% maximum) and silicon (0. Rather than having one or two acid systems in which the corrosion resistance is exceptional. and acid chlorides. including oxidizing.01 max 0.08 max 15.5 5.

7 Alloy C-4 (N06455) Alloy C-4 was developed for improved stability relative to precipitation of both carbides and intermetallic phases. °C Temperature. New York: Marcel Dekker.27) 5−20 mpy (0.5 Isocorrosion diagram for Hastelloy C-276 in sulfuric acid.) with alloy B-2. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook... Hodge. excellent hightemperature stability is achieved to the point that the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties in the thermally-aged condition are similar to the annealed condition properties. 15. but alloy C-276 has performed quite satisfactorily in a number of chlorinedrying installations.08) 200 mpy (5.08) 50 mpy (1. The dissolved chlorine will accelerate the corrosion of alloy B-2.51−1.F. Boiling point curve Over 200 mpy (Over 5. in sulfuric acid coolers handling 98% acid from the absorption tower.11. alloy C-276 is not the optimum alloy for the process-side corrosion. Concentrated sulfuric acid is used to dry chlorine gas. Schweitzer. °F 300 150 . Temperature. weight percent 80 90 100 FIGURE 15.27−5. temperature.08) 20−50 mpy (0. and Reference [6] for a more comprehensive listing. Ed.13) 0 10 20 30 50 100 40 50 60 70 Concentration.6 for the compatibility of alloy C-276 with selected corrodents. 1999. Alloy C-276 has been indicated as a satisfactory material for scrubber construction where problems of localized attack have occurred with other alloys because of pH.27) 200 250 200 20 mpy (0. but it is excellent for the water-side corrosion and allows the use of brackish water or seawater.13) 100 150 0−5 mpy (0−0. By controlling these secondary phases. 1st ed. (From G. alloy C-276 is a good compromise material for a number of systems.A. For example. or chloride content.13−0. The chemical composition is shown in Table 15.51) 5−200 mpy (1.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys 263 400 350 Corrosion rates in parentheses are in mm/year. Refer to Table 15.51) 5 mpy (0. P.

Good to excellent resistance is exhibited in sulfuric. its main limitations are in oxidizing environments containing low amounts of halides and in environments containing nitric acid. thermochemical processing.11 Chemical Composition of Alloy C-4 (N06455) Chemical Chromium Molybdenum Titanium Iron Nickel Weight Percent 14. Alloy C-22 resists the formation of grain boundary precipitates in the weld-heat-affected zone. 15. Consequently. the thermal stability of the alloy was not sufficient to enable it to be used as a casting. or operation of process equipment in the sensitizing range. Alloy C-4 alleviates this problem because it can be subjected to temperatures in the normal sensitizing range of 1022–19948F (550–10908C) for extended periods without experiencing the severe corrosion attack that is found with the common austenitic alloys. C-4.0–16.264 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15. This sensitization can be the result of welding. seawater. Alloy C-4 offers excellent corrosion resistance to nitric acid.0 0. In addition. Consequently.0–17. and alloy 625. but in an oxidizing medium the rates are reversed.12. stress relief. Although alloy C-276 is a versatile alloy.8 Alloy C-22 (N06022) Hastelloy alloy C-22 is a versatile nickel–chromium–molybdenum alloy with better overall corrosion resistance than other nickel–chromium– molybdenum alloys.07 max 3. . alkalies. hydrochloric acid. The chemical composition is shown in Table 15. and chloride stress corrosion cracking. hydrofluoric and phosphoric acids. alloy C-4 has a slightly higher rate of corrosion than alloy C-276. salts. With the exception of iron and tungsten. including C-276. the composition of alloy C-4 and C-276 are approximately the same. improper anneal. In a strongly reducing medium.0 max Balance Examples can be taken from various chemical processing applications in which oxidizing and reducing conditions can cause serious intergranular corrosion of a sensitized (precipitated) microstructure. the corrosion resistance of the two alloys is approximately the same. such as hydrochloric acid. organic acids.0 14. it is suitable for most chemical process applications in the as-welded condition.

14. It is one of the nickel–chromium–molybdenum alloys. pollution control systems. seawater.50 max 0.5–3. and brine solutions. Alloy C-22 has exceptional resistance to a wide variety of chemical process environments. The compatibility of alloy C-22 with selected corrodents will be found in Table 15.015 max 0. but also improves the pitting resistance over that of alloy C-276.35 max Balance 265 Alloy C-22 was developed to improve the resistance to oxidizing environments. strong oxidizers such as ferric and cupric chlorides. including strong process environments.12 Chemical Composition of Alloy C-22 (N06022) Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Chromium Molybdenum Cobalt Tungsten Iron Silicon Vanadium Nickel Weight Percent 0. It has excellent resistance to oxidizing aqueous media. The chemical composition is shown in Table 15. and mixtures containing nitric or oxidizing acids with chloride ions.13. and stress corrosion cracking.5 2.5 2. Alloy C-22 has outstanding resistance to pitting. and also to improve the thermal stability sufficiently to enable it to be used as a casting. The higher chromium level in this alloy not only makes it superior in oxidizing environments containing nitric acid.010 max 20. The alloy also has outstanding resistance to both reducing and oxidizing media and because of its versatility can be used where upset conditions are likely to occur or in multipurpose plants.0 0.08 max 0.0–6. It is being used in the pulp and paper bleaching systems.5 12. such as nitric acid. and various areas in the chemical process industry. hot contaminated media (organic and inorganic). acetic anhydride.5–14. formic and acetic acids.025 max 0.9 Hastelloy Alloy C-2000 Hastelloy alloy C-2000 is a trademark of Haynes International. .Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15.0–22. including acids with oxidizing agents. wet chlorine. crevice corrosion. The areas of application of alloy C-22 are many of the same as those for alloy C-276. chlorine.5 max 2. 15.

5 2. reagent grade Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitric acidC1% HCl Nitric acidC2. cupric ions.0 16 0.2 1. In the family of nickel– chromium–molybdenum alloys.3 0.5 2 2 2.3 64 0. .266 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15.9 2.5 11 Nil 61 0.4 19 12 94 0.5% HCl Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Alloy C-2000 exhibits outstanding resistance to oxidizing media with superior resistance to reducing environments. Metallurgical stability limitations dictate that you cannot optimize both.1 0.6 11 0.4 0. such as dilute hydrochloric or sulfuric acids. such as ferric ions.1 Nil Nil Corrodent Acetic acid Ferric chloride Formic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid Phosphoric acid.5 1.3 84 400 9. however. require a high content of molybdenum plus tungsten.5 6.0 0.2 1. Reducing environments. reagent grade Phosphoric acid. or dissolved oxygen.5 10 2 5 55 85 10 65 5 5 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 50 50 50 60 70 80 Temperature (8F/8C) Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling 194/90 Boiling 194/90 Boiling Boiling 158/70 158/70 Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling 150/66 174/79 Boiling 150/66 174/79 Boiling 100/38 150/66 174/79 100/38 150/66 174/79 100/38 100/38 100/38 Average Corrosion Rate (mpy) Nil 1. Alloy C-2000 solves this dilemma. sufficient to provide resistance to reducing environments.6 3.8 5. a high chromium content is required for resistance to oxidizing media.13 Compatibility of Alloy C-22 with Selected Corrodents Weight Percent 99 10 88 1 1. with no sacrifice of metallurgical stability. A high chromium content is combined with both molybdenum and copper contents.2 33 0.

and corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy.010 max 0.1 0.00 15.00–24. The high-temperature strength and resistance to warpage and distortion provide outstanding performance as distributor plates and catalyst support grids.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15.14 Chemical Composition of Alloy C-2000 Chemical Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Chromium Molybdenum Copper Cobalt Iron Aluminum Nickel Weight Percent 0.00 max 3. seawater. Alloy X possesses a combination of high strength and excellent oxidation resistance.10 Alloy X (N06002) Alloy X is a nonmagnetic heat.00–17. organic acids.00 1.080 max 22. . Some typical uniform corrosion rates are as follows: Chemical Hydrofluoric acid Phosphoric acid Acetic acid Formic acid Chromic acid Weight Percent 20 50 75 99 88 10 Temperature (8F/8C) 174/79 Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling Corrosion Rate (mpy) 19 1 33 0. The chemical composition will be found in Table 15.01 max 0. Alloy X has excellent resistance to nitric acid. and good to excellent resistance to phosphoric and sulfuric acids.00 max 0. Its oxidation resistance is due to the formation of a complex chromium oxide spinel that provides good resistance up to temperatures of 21508F (11778C).4 44 15. salts.50 max Balance 267 Alloy C-200 also exhibits pitting resistance and crevice corrosion resistance superior to that of alloy C-276. with good resistance in hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. chloride cracking. alkalies.15.30–1.025 max 0.90 2.050 max 0. Its critical pitting temperature is 2308F (1108C) and its critical crevice temperature is 2038F (958C).

15 0. TABLE 15. Alloy 600 has excellent mechanical properties and a combination of high strength and good workability.268 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15.015 max 0.5–2. Alloy X also finds application in gas turbine components.0 max 0. is a nickel-based alloy with about 16% chromium and 7% iron that is used primarily to resist corrosive atmospheres at elevated temperatures. Unfortunately. this continuous temperature cycling eventually reduces the room temperature ductility in alloy X so that repair welding becomes difficult without solution annealing. The chemical composition will be found in Table 15.2–1.00 8.0–17.5–23.0 6. 15. and furnace hardware.0–10.11 Alloy 600 (N06600) Alloy 600. It performs well in temperatures from cryogenic to 12008F (6498C) and is readily fabricated and welded.15 Chemical Composition of Alloy X (N06002) Chemical Chromium Molybdenum Iron Tungsten Carbon Cobalt Nickel Weight Percent 20.15 max 0.0 0.5 Balance The catalyst regenerator for high density polyethylene is constructed of alloy X because high temperatures and pressures are required to revitalize the catalysts.50 max 1.5 max .0 min 14.05–0. also known as Inconel.16 Chemical Composition of Alloy 600 (N06600) Chemical Nickel Chromium Iron Carbon Copper Manganese Sulfur Silicon Weight Percent 72.0 0. afterburner components.0–20.0 17.0 0. high-temperature heat exchangers.16.0–10.

15. For this reason. the alloy should be stress-relieved prior to use and the operating stresses should be kept to a minimum. is however. it has a number of uses in nuclear reactors. high-concentration alkalies. subject to stress corrosion cracking in high-temperature.8 provides the compatibility of alloy 600 with selected corrodents.5 2 0. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.12 Alloy G (N06007) and Alloy G-3 (N06985) Alloy G is a high-nickel austenitic stainless steel having the following chemical composition: Chemical Chromium Nickel Iron Molybdenum Copper Carbon Columbium Weight Percent 22 45 20 6. making it suitable for use with acid mine waters or brass pickling solutions where alloy 400 cannot be used. Resistance to stress corrosion cracking is imparted to alloy 600 by virtue of its nickel base. Where arrangements can be made for cooling the metal surface.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys 269 Although the alloy is resistant to oxidation. Inconel. Table 15. The alloy exhibits greater resistance to sulfuric acid under oxidizing conditions than nickel 200 or alloy 400. Alloy 600 is almost entirely resistant to attack by solutions of ammonia over the complete range of temperatures and concentrations. the alloy can be used at high gas temperatures.05 max 2. Because of its resistance to corrosion in high-purity water. The addition of oxidizing salts to sulfuric acid tends to passivate alloy 600. The mode of attack is generally intergranular and therefore the attack proceeds more rapidly. The lack of molybdenum in the alloy precludes its use in applications where pitting is the primary mode of failure. the presence of sulfur in the environment can significantly increase the rate of attack.0 . alloy 600 is substituted for alloy 201 because of its improved resistance. In certain high-temperature caustic applications where sulfur is present. including steam generator tubing and primary water piping. Inconel has excellent resistance to dry halogens at elevated temperatures and has been used successfully for chlorination equipment at temperatures up to 10008F (5388C). The alloy therefore finds considerable use in handling water environments where stainless steels fail by cracking. The maximum use temperature is restricted to about 6008F (3158C).

5% for alloy G). The Columbian addition provides better resistance in highly oxidizing environments than does titanium additions. It has the following composition: . Alloy G-3 was developed with a lower carbon content than alloy G to prevent precipitation at the welds.0 max Although columbium (niobium) stabilized alloy G from formation of chromium-rich carbides in the heat-affected zones of the welds.8 44 1.0 1. Alloy G resists pitting. secondary carbide precipitation still occurred when the primary columbium carbides dissolved at high temperatures. Alloy G will resist combinations of sulfuric acid and halides.5/2. Alloy G-3 has lower carbon (0. even under the circumstances of multipass welding.0/8. 2% for alloy G).05% maximum for alloy G) and lower columbium (0.270 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Alloy G is intended for use in the as-welded condition. The corrosion resistance of alloy G-3 is about the same as that of alloy G.13 Alloy G-30 (N06030) This alloy has a higher chromium content than alloy G.015 max 0. The 2% copper addition improves the corrosion resistance of the alloy in reducing acids. Its chemical composition is as follows: Chemical Chromium Molybdenum Tungsten Iron Copper Carbon Columbium Nickel Silicon Weight Percent 22/23. which gives it a higher resistance to oxidizing environments than other alloys in this series. Refer to Table 15. Because of the nickel base. 15. such as sulfuric and phosphoric.5 6. thermal stability is much better. and various applications in the manufacture of phosphoric and sulfuric acids. and intergranular corrosion. the alloy is resistant to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking. crevice corrosion.17 for the compatibility of alloy G and alloy G-3 with selected corrodents.015% maximum vs.5 0.3% maximum vs. and the increased carbon in the matrix increases the tendency of the alloy to precipitate intermetallic phases. however.5% max 18/21 1. Applications include heat exchangers. pollution control equipment. The alloy also possesses slightly higher molybdenum (7% vs. 0.

wet Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. 3–20% Sodium dioxide. 20% Nitric acid. 3–60% Fluorosilicic acid.0/31. Incompatibility is shown by an X. wet Chlorobenzene. When compatible.30/1.17 Compatibility of Alloy G and Alloy G-3 with Selected Corrodents Chemical Ammonium chloride. 3–20% Chlorine gas. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. conc. Sodium hypochlorite. 28% Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride.0 1. . 40% Nitric acid.0/6. 10% Nitric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 30% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitrous oxide Oleum Phosphoric acid. 98% Temperature (8F/8C) 180/82 120/49 220/104 80/27 100/38 180/82 X 160/71 80/27 140/60 260/127 210/99 210/99 250/121 250/121 250/121 250/121 180/82 180/82 560/293 240/116 210/99 230/110 80/27 210/99 X 90/32 120/49 130/54 250/121 210/99 X 270/131 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.0/17. 50% Nitric acid.0/2.5 4. 50–80% Potassium chloride.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys 271 Chemical Chromium Molybdenum Tungsten Iron Copper Columbium NickelCcobalt Weight Percent 28. 10–50% Kraft liquor Lime slurry Lithium chloride.0 1.0 13. the corrosion rate is less that 20 mpy. 3–12% Hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluorosilicic acid.4 0. 10% Sulfuric acid.50 Balance TABLE 15. 10% Sodium chlorate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 30% Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium sulfate Mercury Nitric acid.5/4. conc.

and hydrofluoric acids and various oxides. and fertilizer and pesticide manufacture. To increase the localized corrosion resistance. Alloy H-9M has higher molybdenum content than alloy G-3 and higher tungsten content than alloy 625. Under these conditions. and the higher the temperature. such as nitric plus hydrofluoric and sulfuric plus nitric acids. Applications include pipe and tubing in phosphoric acid manufacture. copper has been eliminated from alloy H-9M. The alloy is also used in the evaporators of commercial wet process phosphoric manufacturing systems. In acid mixtures. sulfuric.01 M HCl. 15. the corrosion rate for alloy G-30 was 6 mpy as compared to 16 mpy for alloy G-3 and alloy 625. the better the alloy in pitting resistance.272 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Alloy G-30 possesses excellent corrosion resistance in the as-welded condition. sulfuric acid manufacture.14 Alloy H-9M This alloy can be considered as either a modification of alloy G-3 or of alloy 625. alloy G-30 shows the highest resistance of this class of alloys.15 Alloys for High-Temperature Corrosion Alloys designed to resist high-temperature corrosion are basically oxidationresistant materials because all forms of attack at elevated temperatures are TABLE 15.1% Fe2(SO4)3C0. This process contains complex mixtures of phosphoric. The purpose of the modification is to improve the localized corrosion resistance of both alloys G-3 and 625. The critical pitting temperature indicates the temperature above which pitting is observed in the solution.18. The critical pitting temperatures of these alloys in an oxidizing acidic chloride mixture are shown in Table 15. 15. .18 Critical Pitting Temperature of Alloy H-9M in Comparison to Other Alloys Alloy H-9M 625 G-3 Critical Pitting Temperature (8F/8C) 203/95 194/90 167/75 Solution 4% NaClC0.

15. The presence of approximately 18% cobalt results in more resistance to sulfidation than TABLE 15. the rate will be logarithmic. Cycling temperatures will tend to spall off the surface film.5 0. leading to a stepwise oxidation of the alloy.02 Balance . Although all high-temperature corrosion is considered oxidation.1 Hastelloy Alloy S In 1973.4 0. 15. diminishing with time. to name a few. 15.5 1. fuel ash corrosion. carburization. sulfidation. Although many of the high-nickel alloys previously discussed can be utilized at elevated temperatures. Hastelloy S was developed for gas turbine applications requiring oxidation resistance. After 10. The chemical composition will be found in Table 15.0 0. the carbon content may prevent its use in some aqueous media in the as-welded condition. The rate at which the metal oxidizes will depend on the stability of the film.2 Haynes Alloy 556 (R30556) Haynes alloy 556 exhibits useful resistance to a wide variety of hightemperature corrosive atmospheres as well as molten salts.19 Chemical Composition of Hastelloy Alloy S Chemical Chromium Molybdenum Iron Carbon Silicon Manganese Lanthanum NickelCcobalt Weight Percent 15. a protective film is formed. the alloy S welds exhibited 80% of their original ductility. Changes in the environment can have the same effect. there are some instances where the materials are not satisfactory. Consequently.5 14. there are other terms that are also encountered. As with aqueous corrosion.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys 273 considered to be oxidation.19.000 h of aging in the temperature ranges encountered in this application.15. If the film is stable and remains in place. such as oxidation–reduction. other alloys have been developed to overcome these shortcomings. good alloy stability. and it has similar corrosion resistance.01 0. and a low thermal expansion. However. Its composition is similar to that of alloys C-4 and C-276. and nitridation.

the alloy shows better resistance than alloys 800H and X. It also offers good resistance to sulfuric acid. and nitric acid. . phosphoric. alkalies.05–0.0–21.5–4.5 21.0–3. The alloy has good oxidation resistance and fabrication properties and excellent high-temperature strength. The alloy possesses the highest oxidation resistance to both static and dynamic environments among the nickel-based alloys. The alumina film also lends superior resistance to carburizing environments and complex environments containing chlorine and oxygen. 15. alloy 214 does not possess good resistance to aqueous chloride solutions.15 0. the alloy shows good resistance.5 0.0 2.20 Chemical Composition of Haynes Alloy 556 (R30556) Chemical Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Tungsten Carbon Silicon Cobalt Manganese Aluminum Tantalum Zirconium Lanthanum Nitrogen Iron Weight Percent 19. and organic acids. therefore dew point conditions must be avoided.001–0.3–1.3 Balance many nickel-based alloys.0–23.21.0 2. Typical applications include internals of municipal waste incinerators and refractory anchors in refinery tail gas burning units. However. as typical of many high-temperature alloys. Alloy 556 exhibits excellent resistance to hydrochloric.3 Alloy 214 The chemical composition of alloy 214 will be found in Table 15.00 0.25 0.5–2.1 0. The excellent oxidation resistance is the result of the tenacious aluminum oxide film that protects the metal during prolonged exposure.0–22.1–0. and chlorine stress corrosion cracking.1–0. This is a nickel-based alloy with excellent resistance to 22008F (12048C).20 shows the chemical composition of alloy 556.005 0. but it is superseded in performance by other alloys such as alloy X and 214. In chlorine-bearing oxidizing environments.274 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15.5 0. seawater. hydrofluoric acid.0 0. but not as good as alloy 214.8 16. Table 15.15. In pure oxidation. salts.2–0.

Good resistance to carburization is also displayed.0 2. and low thermal expansion.15. alkalies. This alloy exhibits resistance to nitriding. Excellent resistance is shown to phosphoric acid.10 0. Applications include radiant tubes. It is also resistant to grain coarsening at high temperatures.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys TABLE 15.02 0.0 3.4 Alloy 230 (N06230) Alloy 230 has excellent high-temperature strength and outstanding resistance to oxidizing environments up to 21008F (11508C). hydrofluoric or phosphoric acids or salts or seawater. 15. hydrochloric.0 max 0. excellent long-term thermal stability.0 14. and mesh belts for supporting chinaware being heated in a kiln.5 Trace Balance 275 Alloy 214 exhibits excellent resistance to nitric and organic acids and alkalies. salts.3 0.0 4. seawater and chloride stress corrosion cracking. Refer to Table 15. while good to TABLE 15.0 max 5. honeycomb seals in turbine engines.22 Chemical Composition of Alloy 230 (N06230) Chemical Chromium Tungsten Molybdenum Iron Cobalt Aluminum Carbon Lanthanum Boron Nickel Weight Percent 22.21 Chemical Composition of Alloy 214 Chemical Chromium Iron Aluminum Yttrium Nickel Weight Percent 16. It is not recommended for use with sulfuric. the alloy does not possess adequate resistance to sulfadizing environments. Because of its nickel matrix.0 3.22 for the chemical composition.005 Balance . organic acids. high-temperature heat exchangers.

75–3.0 2.276 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 15.0 0.0–27. The alloy has been used for dampers and refractory anchors in 13% SO2/SO3 at 18008F (9828C) and for refinery flare tips.0–16.0–47.03 max 0.0 24.25 2.008 0. it has found application as a catalyst grid support in the manufacture of nitric acid.00 2.5 Alloy RA333 (N06333) Alloy RA333 is a registered trademark of Rolled Alloys Inc.00 0. It is a highchromium.003–0.50–4.75–3.00 max 0.6 0.23 Chemical Composition of Alloy RA333 (N06333) Chemical Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Cobalt Tungsten Carbon Silicon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Iron Weight Percent 44.50–4.4–0.50 2.3–0.08 max 0.75–1. It is not suitable for use with hydrochloric acid.75–3.0 2. Other features include resistance to high-temperature TABLE 15. The chemical composition is shown in Table 15.00 2.0–9. Alloy RA333 is one of the few materials that can withstand corrosive conditions ranging from aqueous to white heat. nickel-based alloy with extreme temperature corrosion resistance and strength.50–4. Because of its nitridizing resistance and high creep strength. 15.15.75 2.03 max Balance excellent resistance is shown to sulfuric and nitric acids.24 Chemical Composition of Alloy 102 (N06102) Chemical Chromium Columbium Molybdenum Tungsten Iron Aluminum Titanium Boron Carbon Nickel Weight Percent 14.23.75 5.08 max Balance .7 0.

good resistance to sulfuric acid. It possesses excellent corrosion properties. P. and has outstanding structural stability. 5th ed. nitric.6 Alloy 102 (N06102) This is a nonmagnetic nickel–chromium-based alloy strengthened with refractory metals. seawater and chloride stress corrosion cracking. hot salt resistance.A.Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys 277 SOx. strength. Vols. and toughness. Reference 1. It has good resistance to sulfuric acid and acceptable resistance to hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids.24. Schweitzer. practical immunity to chloride ion and to polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking. and organic acids. Corrosion Resistance Tables. alkalies. 2004. New York: Marcel Dekker. 15. Alloy 102 exhibits excellent resistance to phosphoric.15. 1–4. The chemical composition is given in Table 15. and excellent oxidation and carburization resistance at elevated temperatures.. . salts. ductility.

.

a foundry must pour nickel alloys on a daily basis.4 16. Other important factors are dedicated high-alloy patterns. heat qualification using a weldability test. The most common cast grade is M35-1.1–3 16. Cl2. Nickel is used for dry halogen gases and liquids (F2. The wrought equivalent is nickel 200. Nickel-alloy castings should never be purchased using a wrought-alloy trade name. Ammonium hydroxide rapidly corrodes nickel. Other cast grades are 279 . Foundry selection is critical in obtaining high-quality. heat treating.1 Commercially Pure Nickel CZ100 is the cast commercially pure nickel grade. Its properties are not affected by heat treatment. over a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. corrosion-resistant castings. Monel has excellent resistance to organic fouling and corrosion in seawater. CZ100 has higher carbon and silicon for castability and is generally used in the as-cast condition. non destructive examination and repair welding. careful alloy selection.1). and additional specifications beyond the normal American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) requirements.2 Nickel–Copper Monel is the Inco trademark of the original nickel–copper alloy developed in the 1930s. including sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. To develop the required expertise. Items covered would include foundry qualification.16 Cast Nickel and Nickel-Based Alloys Most cast nickel-based alloys are derived from wrought alloys (Table 16. HF. and HCl) and ambient temperature hydrofluoric acid. Nickel is used for caustics. The nickel-based alloys are considerably more difficult to cast than austenitic stainless steels (SSTs). raw material restriction.

02 — W 2.5a 3.6 — — Bi 3–5.5 17–20 1a 11–14 0. Cb 1–3 Si 3.5a 3.5 Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance 20–22.05 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals a Maximum content.35 Monel 400 0.5 17–20 30–33 2–3.35 Monel 400 0.5a 11a — — Cb 3.5 12.5 8–10 5a 2a 15–17.5–4.5 50/345 — — — — 3.5 2–6 3a 3a 2a 95a Balance Balance Balance Balance Tensile — — — — — Mo Others Yield 18/125 25/170 30/205 32.5–14.07 Hastelloy B2 0.5–3.25 Inconel 600 0.15–4.5a 3. Sn 3–5 72/495 80/550 72/495 76/525 — 40/275 45/280 40/275 40/275 — Hastelloy C22 0.3 ASTM A494 Grade CZ100 ASTM A494 Grade M35-1 ASTM A494 Grade M35-2 ASTM A494 Grade M30C ASTM A494 Grade M25S 14–17 Balance Balance 20–23 300 HB min aged condition 70/485 70/485 S-Monel 0.25a 65/450 65/450 65/450 Si 2a Si 1–2.07 ASTM A494 Grade CY40 ASTM A494 Grade CW6MC ASTM A494 Grade CW2M ASTM A494 Grade CX2MW ASTM A494 Grade CW6M ASTM A494 Grade N7M ASTM A494 Grade CY5SnBiM Waukesha 88 0.06 Hastelloy C 15–17.TABLE 16.4 28/195 40/275 Inconel 625 0.02 Chlorimet 3 0.1 Minimum Strength (ksi/MPa) Cr Ni Fe 3a — — Si 1. .5/225 — 280 Cast Nickel-Based Alloys Specification and Grade Wrought Equivalent C Max Nickel 200 1 Monel 400 0.

the useful temperature range is much higher. including chloride. and hydrogen fluoride gases (no water vapor present). humid conditions. and sodium hydroxide. They are the industry standards for oxygen. Contamination by strong oxidizing species.6 16. including hydrochloric and sulfuric acids at temperatures below 1258F (528C).”7. CW2M has excellent corrosion resistance in many chemical process environments. CW12MW has been largely replaced by CW2M. except M25. In most environments. M25S is a high-silicon nickel–copper alloy with superior wear and galling resistance. chloride environments. including ammonium hydroxide. CY40 is a nickel–chromium alloy without the molybdenum content of most other nickel–chromium alloys.5 Other common uses are brine and seawater.8 The properties of the different Hastelloy alloys vary widely in specific applications. Pitting can occur in moist. and alkaline solutions. the cast version of Hastelloy C. weldability. will not cause the accelerated attack common with other alloys such as Hastelloy B2. the corrosion resistance of CY40 is poor compared to the nickel–chromium–molybdenum alloys. It is also known as S-monel (trademark of Inco Alloys). fluorine. CY40 is used in steam. and ductility are all greatly enhanced.9 AWS filler materials NiCrMo-7 or NiCrMo-10 maintain good as-welded corrosion resistance.Cast Nickel and Nickel-Based Alloys 281 M35-2 and M30C.S that does respond to heat treatment.10 CW12MW is the original Hastelloy C type of casting grade. They are also used for hydrofluoric acid. Segregation problems inherent with the alloy resulted in corrosion resistance inferior to wrought C276. and H2S. The resistance to chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) is good. seawater. is the workhorse of the group. CW2M. but is the most difficult of all to cast. The casting characteristics.3 Nickel–Chromium CY40 is the cast equivalent of Inconel 600 (trademark of Inco Alloys). 16. caustic. neutral and alkaline salts. At low concentrations. These grades are used in the as-cast condition. such as ferric and cupric ions. CW2M is resistant to most forms of SCC. Disaster can result from use of the wrong grade. Castings should not be called “Hastelloy. and salts. Corrosion resistance is excellent in organic acids. .4 Nickel–Chromium–Molybdenum Nickel–chromium–molybdenum alloys offer excellent corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties over a wide range of environments and temperatures. boiler feedwater. dry chlorine.

F. 28:1. . 463–464. high nickel alloy castings. pp. Moniz and W. B. in Proceedings of the BHRA Conference. 145–148.11 CY5SnBiM is a proprietary alloy known as Waukesha 88 (trademark of Waukesha Foundry). Kokomo. WV: Inco Alloys. J. 16. If ferric or cupric ions are present. Pollock. in Process Industries Corrosion. 1972. an Improved Nickel Base Casting Alloy for the CPI. Hoxie. It is not as corrosion-resistant as other nickel-based alloys. Gossett. Development in Valves and Actuators for Fluid Control. Houston: NACE international. UK. 15:8. Huntington. Tin and bismuth are added as solid metal lubricants for improved galling resistance. 82–85. Industrial Research and Development. It is primarily used in the food industry to prevent galling against SST. Inco Alloys. J. 1988. 1989. Nickel and nickel-base alloys. Hodge. 1978. F. WV: Inco Alloys. 1986. trademark of Duriron Co. November. Gossett. F. Specifications for obtaining high-quality. severe attack will occur. Haynes International. 40–45. New and improved. Gossett. 1973. 27:12.L. 4.I. Hastelloy C-4C. Weld repairs are prohibited. 6. Corrosion Resistance of Hastelloy Alloys.. acetic.L.G.G. 1981. 2. Cast alloy resists corrosion by hot acids and oxidizing agent.L. Materials Performance. E. pp. 11. Improved high-nickel alloy castings. 7. 44–47.C. CW6MC (cast Inconel 625). J. It is also good for sulfuric. This nickel–molybdenum alloy has excellent corrosion resistance in all concentrations and temperatures of hydrochloric acid. 25:July. 1988. it performs well in food-industry applications. Huntington. 134–154. pp. 14–18. Hodge. Some of the alloys are CX2MW (cast Hastelloy C22).G. pp. 1976. 8. Gossett. IN: Haynes International. Kirchner. 1983. 1989. 64–66. Reliable base for high nickel equipment.282 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals In addition to CW2M. 7–12. however. Hodge and R. and CW6M (Chlorimet 3. Manchester. References 1. 3. there are a number of other nickel–chromium– molybdenum casting alloys.).L. 5. Inconel 600 Bulletin. Eds. J. An improved Ni–Mo alloy for hydrochloric acid service.5 Other Nickel-Based Alloys N7M is the cast equivalent of Hastelloy B2. 10. Inco Alloys.W. high-nickel alloy castings. Materials Performance. Materials Performance. 9. however. and phosphoric acids.J. Chemical Engineering. Nickel Alloys Bulletin.

U indicates that the corrosion rate is O50 mpy and therefore not recommended for this service. Symbols used to designate specific corrosion rates are as follows: E indicates that the corrosion rate rate is !2 mpy.17 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys The corrosion tables on the following pages are arranged alphabetically according to corrodent. the symbols follow the applicable material: Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ELC Meaning Material is subject to pitting Material is subject to stress cracking Material is subject to crevice attack Applicable to alloy 825 only Material is subject to intergranular corrosion Material not to be used with carbonated beverages Corrodent must be acid free Corrodent must be acid free and the material passivated Corrodent must be alkaline Material is subject to stress cracking when corrodent is wet Corrodent must be sulfur free Material must be low carbon grade 283 . G indicates that the corrosion rate is between 2 and 20 mpy. Further information regarding the corrosion of specific materials by certain corrodents is provided by the following symbols. The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. S indicates that the corrosion rate is between 20 and 50 mpy. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. In the tables.

note that the vertical lines refer to temperatures midway between the temperatures cited (refer to example given above). 80% ˚C Metals Monel Stainless steels Type 316 ˚F ˚C E G S U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E G From the above it is seen that Monel has a corrosion rate varying with temperature as follows: !2 mpy between 60 and 1208F (E—) !20 mpy between 120 and 2108F (G—) No data beyond 2108F Type 316 stainless steel has a corrosion rate varying with temperature as follows: !2 mpy between 60 and 1008F (E—) !20 mpy between 100 and 1808F (G—) !50 mpy between 180 and 2408F (S—) O50 mpy above 2408F (U) In reading the temperature scale. Acetic acid.284 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Corrosion rate is shown as a function of temperature. The use of the temperature scale is explained by the following example. .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 285 Acetaldehyde ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 ˚F Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 G E E G G 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G G E G G 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 .

286 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Acetamide ˚C 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G G Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 ˚F Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 287 Acetic acid. 10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G U E 4 E G E E G G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

288 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Acetic acid. 20% ˚C 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G E G U E 4 E G G E G G G E E G G G G ˚F ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 ˚F Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 289 Acetic acid. 50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E G U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G E G U E 4 E G S G E E S G U G S Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

290 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Acetic acid. 80% ˚C 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G U E 4 E G G G E G G G G S S U U G E E S E U G G G ˚F ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 ˚F Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 291 Acetic acid. 99% Alloy D . glacial ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G U E 4 E G G U U E E G E G U E E ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22.

292 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Acetic anhydride ˚C 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G G G U G G G E G G S S G ˚F ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 ˚F Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 293 Acetone ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 ˚F Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D ˚F ˚C G 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 E E E E E G G 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G E E G E 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 .

dry Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .294 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Acetyl chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 295 Acrylonitrile ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

296 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Adipic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 297 Allyl alcohol ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G G E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

298 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Alum ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G G G G G G S U U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 299 Aluminum chloride. aqueous ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G U U G U U U G E E U G S U E ˚F ˚C G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

300 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Aluminum chloride. dry ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G U U G U U U G E E U G S U E ˚F ˚C G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

10% Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C . 5% Alloy C-276.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 301 Aluminum fluoride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G G E G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2.

302 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Aluminum hydroxide ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G E E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E E G G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 303 Aluminum nitrate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

304 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Aluminum sulfate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 50 − 55% Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G G G G G G G G U G U U G ˚F ˚C 1 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 305 Ammonia. anhydrous ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G E E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G E G G G G E G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

306 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ammonium bifluoride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316. 10% Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U E G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 307 Ammonium carbonate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G E G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

308 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ammonium chloride. 10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U G 1 G E 4 E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G E E E 2 E E G ˚F ˚C G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 .

50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U E E E E E G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3. 28% .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 309 Ammonium chloride.

310 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ammonium chloride. saturated ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U 1 G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G G G G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 311 Ammonium hydroxide. 10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G U G E G U G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

saturated ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G U G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .312 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ammonium hydroxide.

40% Alloy C-276.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 313 Ammonium nitrate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G G G E E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E S U U ˚F ˚C 2 E 2 E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2. 10% Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

5% Type 430 Type 444 E G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G U U E E U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276. 10% Type 316. 10% Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410.314 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ammonium persulfate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347. 10% Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

40% Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E G G G G G E G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201. 5% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347. 30% Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276. 30% Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C . 10% Alloy 600/625.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 315 Ammonium phosphate. 40% Type 316. 10% Monel 400.

316 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G G G G E G G G 1 G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 317 Ammonium sulfite ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G U E G G U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

318 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Amyl acetate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 1 G G G E 4 E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E E E E E E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 319 Amyl alcohol ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

320 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Amyl chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E E U G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 321 Aniline ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G E E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

322 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Aniline hydrochloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G U U U G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 323 Antimony trichloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U E G G G G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

324 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Aqua regia 3:1 ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U U U U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

90% Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G U G G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 325 Arsenic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825.

10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .326 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Barium carbonate.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 327 Barium chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3. 40% Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 1 G 1 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U 1 G G E E G G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

328 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Barium hydroxide ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3. 50% Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G E G G G E G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 329 Barium sulfate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

330 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Barium sulfide ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G E G S Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 331 Beet sugar liquors ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E E E E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

332 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Benzaldehyde ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 333 Benzene ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E E G G G G G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

334 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Benzene sulfonic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U U E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G U G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201. 10% Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D. 10% .

10% . 10% Alloy 600/625. 10% Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 335 Benzoic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G E G G E ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276.

336 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Benzyl alcohol ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G G G E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 337 Borax ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 5% Type 444 E G G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G E E G E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

338 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Boric acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825. 5% Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G 1 G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G G G E G E E G G E ˚F ˚C 1 G 1 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

dry ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U E 4 E E E E G E G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 339 Bromine gas.

moist ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U E U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .340 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Bromine gas.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 341 Bromine liquid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

50% E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .342 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Butadiene ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 343 Butyl acetate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G 4 E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G E G G E G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

344 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Butyl alcohol ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317. 5% Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G G G G E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 345 Butyric acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825. 5% Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G U G E E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G U S G G S G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

346 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Calcium bisulfite ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G U G U U 5 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 347 Calcium carbonate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E E G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E G G G E G E G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

348 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Calcium chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 1 G U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G U G 1. 3−20% Alloy D .4 G G E G G E G ˚F ˚C 1.2 G 2 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 349 Calcium hydroxide. 10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

350 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Calcium hydroxide. 10% Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D . 50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 351 Calcium hypochlorite ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U 1 G G U G U U E U U G U ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276. 50% Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

10% Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D.352 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Calcium sulfate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G 1 G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2. 10% Alloy C-276. 10% .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 353 Carbon bisulfide ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G S G G E S Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

354 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Carbon dioxide. dry ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E E G E E ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 355 Carbon dioxide. wet ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E G G 6 G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

356 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Carbon disulfide ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G S G G E S Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 357 Carbon monoxide ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G E E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E E E E E E E ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

2 E G U E E E E E E E G G G E ˚F ˚C G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .358 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Carbon tetrachloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430. dry Type 444 1 E G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E 1.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 359 Carbonic acid °C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U °F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G E E G E E E S Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 °F °C .

360 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Chloracetic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317. 78% Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G U G U G E E S S G S Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 361 Chlorine gas. dry ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U E 4 E G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G G G G G E G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

362 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Chlorine gas. wet ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U E U S G U ˚F ˚C U G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 363 Chlorine liquid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 S U U E G 1 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

dry Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400. dry Type 430 Type 444 E G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G ELC G G G G G G G E ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201. dry Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410.364 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Chlorobenzene ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3. 60% . dry Alloy G/G3.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 365 Chloroform ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G U E G G G E G ˚F ˚C 2 E 2 E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

366 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Chlorosulfonic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U G U G E E G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G U U G 4 G U G E E G G U G U E ˚F ˚C U 1 E 3 E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 367 Chromic acid.

368 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Chromic acid. 30% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E U S ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G U U G G U U U ˚F ˚C 1 E 3 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

40% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G U U G G U U ˚F ˚C 1 E 3 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 369 Chromic acid.

50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy A16XN Type 904L Type l7-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U S U U G U U U G G U U ˚F ˚C 1 G 3 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .370 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Chromic acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 371 Citric acid. 10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G E G G E E G G E ˚F ˚C 1 G 1 E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

372 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Citric acid. 15% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E E G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E 1 E G G E E G G E E E E E G G G E ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

25% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E E E G G E ˚F ˚C 1 G 1 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 373 Citric acid.

50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U S U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G 4 G G E E G G E ˚F ˚C 1 G 1 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .374 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Citric acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 375 Copper acetate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G S Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

10% Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G E E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G U E E G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .376 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Copper carbonate ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347. 10% Type 316.

5% Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U 4 G U G G U U G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D . 5% Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 377 Copper chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825.

378 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Copper cyanide ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G U G E G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 379 Copper sulfate °C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G °F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G S G E G S S G °F °C 5 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

380 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Cupric chloride. 5% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U G U U E G U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U U G G U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 381 Cupric chloride.

382 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Cyclohexane ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 383 Cyclohexanol °C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy A16XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G °F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 °F °C .

384 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ethyl acetate °C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G °F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G G S S G °F °C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 385 Ethyl alcohol ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E E G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

386 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ethyl chloride. dry ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 387 Ethylene glycol ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E E G G E ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

388 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ferric chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U U G G U U U U E G ˚F ˚C U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22. 10% Alloy D .

10% Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C . in water ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 389 Ferric chloride 50%. 10% Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U U U G S U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276.

10−50% − ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G E G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G U U E U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276.390 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ferric nitrate. 10% Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

4 G U G G U U G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 391 Ferrous chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U S 1.

dry ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E U G E U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G U E G G E E G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .392 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Fluorine gas.

moist ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U G E G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 393 Fluorine gas.

50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH. 10% E-Brite 26-1. 70% Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E G S U E 4 G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G G E G G G ˚F ˚C 5 E 1 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .394 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Formic acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 395 Formic acid. 80% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G S U E 4 G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G G E G G E G ˚F ˚C 5 E 1 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22 Alloy D .

396 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Heptane ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E E G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

dilute ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U U G G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 397 Hydrobromic acid.

398 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Hydrobromic acid. 20% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U U G E G U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 399 Hydrobromic acid. 50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U U G G U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

20% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U 4 G U G G E G G G U U U S U U S ˚F ˚C U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22 Alloy D .400 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Hydrochloric acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 401 Hydrochloric acid. 38% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U U E E U U S U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

402 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Hydrocyanic acid. 10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U U G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 403 Hydrofluoric acid. 30% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U G U U S U G G U 2 E U U G ˚F ˚C G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22 Alloy D 2 G .

70% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U G G U 2 E U U ˚F ˚C G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22 2 G .404 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Hydrofluoric acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 405 Hydrofluoric acid. 100% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G U U G U G G G 2 E U U G ˚F ˚C G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22 Alloy D 2 G .

406 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Hydrogen peroxide. 30% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G 7 G ˚F 8 7 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G E E G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 407 Hydrogen peroxide. 90% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G 7 E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G S S G G E E 9 G 9 E 8 E 7 E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

wet °C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 S U G °F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G U G E G U G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 °F °C .408 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Hydrogen sulfide.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 409 Iodine solution. 10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G U U G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

general ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E E G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .410 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Ketones.

5 1.5 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G E G G E G G U G E G U G G °F °C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D . 25% °C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E G U G 5 °F 1.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 411 Lactic acid.

5 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G U G G G G U G G G U G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .5 1.412 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Lactic acid. air free Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U ˚F 1. concentrated ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3.

1 – 5% Alloy A16XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U ˚F 1.2 1.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 413 Magnesium chloride. 50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825.2 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 S G G U G G E E E E G E ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

414 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Magnesium nitrate °C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G G E °F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 °F °C .

50% . 50% Alloy 600/625. to 60% Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D. 50% Alloy C-276. 5% Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G °F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G E E G E E G E °F °C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 415 Magnesium sulfate °C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825. to 60% Alloy B -2.

50% Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3.416 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Malic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347. 50% Alloy 800/825 Alloy A16XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G G G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

dry Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 417 Methyl chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316. dry Type 430 Type 444 G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E G G G G G 10 E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

418 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Methyl ethyl ketone ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 419 Methylene chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U G E G G ˚F 2 1.2 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G E E G 7 E E ˚F ˚C G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 2 2 2 .

420 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Muriatic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U 4 ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U G U E E U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

5% °C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E G G 5 °F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G E E U U E G U E E U °F °C U G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B-2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22 Alloy D .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 421 Nitric acid.

10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G G G E 5 ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G U U E G U E E U ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B-2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22 Alloy D .422 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Nitric acid.

20% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G G 5 ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G E E G G S U U U E G U U G U ˚F ˚C G S U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B-2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 423 Nitric acid.

30% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E 5 E G G E S G U U E G U G U ˚F ˚C G S U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B-2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .424 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Nitric acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 425 Nitric acid. 40% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E 5 E G G E G U U E G U U G U ˚F ˚C G S U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B-2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

426 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Nitric acid. 50% °C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G U G °F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E 5 E G G E G G G U G G U U E G U U G U °F °C G S U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B-2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 427 Nitric acid. 70% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E 5 E G G E G G G S U U E U U E U ˚F ˚C G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B-2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22 .

428 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Nitric acid. anhydrous ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U E G U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E 5 E U U U U G U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 429 Nitrous acid. 5% Type 444 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G U U U U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C . concentrated ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430.

to 40% Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 . to 25% Alloy C-276.430 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Oleum ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G E E U U G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 431 Oxalic acid. 10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E G 4 E G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G S G G G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B-2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy A16XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U G U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .432 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Perchloric acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 433 Perchloric acid. 70% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U G U G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

434 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Phenol ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 1 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E G U E G E E E E E ˚F ˚C 1 E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B-2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D 11 E .

5% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E E E G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E E E E E G E G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 435 Phosphoric acid.

436 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Phosphoric acid. 10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E E G G G S ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U S U G U E E E S U G U G S G ˚F ˚C 5 E 5 E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B-2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 437 − Phosphoric acid. 25−50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G U E G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G U S E E G S U G U S E ˚F ˚C G 5 E 5 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B-2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

50−80% − ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN.438 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Phosphoric acid. 70% Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U G G G U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G E G U E E G S G E ˚F ˚C G U G 5 E 5 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 439 Phthalic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825. 10% Alloy A16XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G 4 E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E G G G G G 5 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

440 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Picric acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

30% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825. 5% Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G G ˚F ˚C 1 G 1 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 441 Potassium bromide. air free Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

442 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Salicylic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G U E G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 443 Silver bromide. 10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U E 4 E E E E G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .

444 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Sodium carbonate. 30% . 10−30% − ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347. 30% Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D. 30% Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625. 30% Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G G G E G G E G G E E G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201.

30% Alloy B -2. to 30% Alloy C-276. to 30% Alloy 600/625. to 30% Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3.4 E E G G E E G G ˚F ˚C G G G 1 G 2 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201. to 30% Type 316. 30% Monel 400. to 30% . 30% Alloy G/G3 Alloy D.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 445 Sodium chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347. to 30% Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 1 G 1 G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G 1.

to 30% Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3. to 30% Type 316. 30% Monel 400. 30% Alloy B -2. to 30% . 30% Alloy G/G3 Alloy D.446 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Sodium chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347.4 E E G G E E G G ˚F ˚C G G G 1 G 2 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201. to 30% Alloy C-276. to 30% Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 1 G 1 G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G 1. to 30% Alloy 600/625.

15% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G G E G G 2 E G G E E G E E U G ˚F ˚C 2 E Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 447 Sodium hydroxide.

448 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Sodium hydroxide. 30% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E G G 2 E G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G U U G E E U G ˚F ˚C G G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D 2 E 2 E .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 449 Sodium hydroxide. 50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E G U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E 2 E G G 2 G G G G G G E 2 E E U E ˚F ˚C G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D 2 E 2 E .

20% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U G U S U U E U S G ˚F ˚C G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276.450 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 .

20% Alloy D . to 50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G G G G G U G G G G G E G ˚F ˚C S U 1 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 451 Sodium sulfide.

to 50% Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C .452 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Stannic chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U U U U G G U U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2. 10−50% Alloy C-276.

dry Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C . 10% Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G U E G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U E G 1 G G G G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201. dry Monel 400.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 453 Stannous chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316. 10% Alloy 800/825. dry Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625. 5% Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1. 10% Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3.

454 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Stearic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E U G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 G E U G E E G G S E ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 455 Sulfamic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316. 10% Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 ˚F ˚C . 20% Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN. 20% Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3.

wet ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E U G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G U U E U U E U ˚F ˚C G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .456 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Sulfur dioxide.

10% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U U E 4 G U G U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G S E E U S G G E ˚F ˚C G U U G S Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22 Alloy D .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 457 Sulfuric acid.

30% Alloy C-22 Alloy D .458 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Sulfuric acid. 50% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U U U E 4 G S U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U S E E U G S G E E ˚F ˚C G G G G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 459 Sulfuric acid. 70% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U U U E 4 G S U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U E G U G U U E E ˚F ˚C G S U G S U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy C-22 Alloy D .

90% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U U U U E 4 G S U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U E E U U G G U U E ˚F ˚C G U 5 G U 5 G U Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .460 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Sulfuric acid.

95% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U E U U U E 4 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U G E U U G G ˚F ˚C U G U U 5 G 5 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 461 Sulfuric acid.

98% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E E U U U G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U E 4 G G U G E U U E G ˚F ˚C U G U 5 G 5 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .462 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Sulfuric acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 463 Sulfuric acid. 100% ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U G U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U E 4 G G U U G E U U G U U G ˚F ˚C U 5 G 5 G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

fuming °C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 E U G °F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G U E G U U G Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 °F °C .464 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Sulfuric acid.

to 60% Monel 400. to 50% Alloy G/G3 Alloy D . 50% Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E G E E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E G G G G G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201. to 50% Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 465 Tartaric acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3. to 50% Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625.

466 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Toluene ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 G E G E ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 E E E E E E E E ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel and High-Nickel Alloys 467 Trichloracetic acid ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825 Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430 Type 444 U U ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U U U U G G G G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625 Monel 400 Alloy G/G3 Alloy D .

468 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Zinc chloride ˚C Stainless steels Type 304/347 Type 316 Type 317 Type 321 Alloy 20Cb3 Alloy 800/825. 5% Alloy Al6XN Type 904L Type 17-4PH E-Brite 26-1 Type 410 Type 430. to 80% Alloy G/G3 Alloy D . dry Monel 400. 20% Type 444 E U 1 G G G ˚F 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 15 26 38 49 60 71 82 93 104 116 127 138 149 160 171 182 193 204 216 227 238 249 260 271 282 293 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 U G G G G G G ˚F ˚C Nickel and highnickel alloys Nickel 200/201 Alloy B -2 Alloy C-276 Alloy 600/625.

when primative people first discovered the red metal. Today. It has excellent electrical and thermal conductivity properties. developed a fivedigit system to identify these alloys. This is referred to as blister copper and is further refined to remove other impurities. together with the American Society of Testing and Materials and the Society of Automotive Engineers. Australia. is malleable and machinable.1 along with applications for each group. The numbers C-10000 through C-79999 denote the wrought alloys whereas the cast copper and copper alloys are numbered C-80000 through C-99999. there are hundreds of copper alloys. This system is part of the unified numbering system (UNS) for metals and alloys. Each number refers to a specific alloy composition. which is suitable for many alloys. copper is still used to convey water and is a prime material for this purpose. a testimonial to copper’s durability and resistance to corrosion. As a result.5%. copper has been serving us. The remaining copper is approximately 99% pure.18 Copper and Copper Alloys Since before the dawn of history. Copper is a very useful material. These mattes are remelted in a converter where air is blown through the mattes to oxidize the remaining sulfur. A higher purity of 99. “Standard Practice for Temper 469 . The Copper Development Association. These may be found in ASTM B601. and Brazil. but has low mechanical properties. The craftsmen who built the Great Pyramid for the Egyptian Pharaoh Cheops used copper pipe to convey water to the royal bath.9% can be obtained by electrolytic refinement of the tough-pitch copper. the metal must be cold-worked or alloyed. nearly 5000 years after Cheops. To obtain strength. A remnant of this pipe was unearthed some years ago. The final “tough-pitch” copper has a purity of about 99. The UNS numbers for specific groups of wrought alloys are given in Table 18. This designation system is used throughout America. Copper sulfide concentrates are smelted to yield a matte that is a mixture of copper and iron sulfides. still in usable condition. There are more than 100 temper designations for copper and copper alloys. Copper ores found in the United States contain approximately 1% copper in the form of copper sulfide.

plumbing accessories Muntz metal. circuit breakers. screw-machine materials. radiator cores.1 Unified Numbering System for Wrought Copper and Copper Alloys UNS No. terminals C46400–C46700 Naval brass. terminals. springs. high corrosion resistance C50500 Flexible hose. architectural trim Cartridge brass. contacts Cable connectors. condenser and heat-exchanger tubes.470 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 18. resists softening when soldered Electrical components. lead frames. high fatigue resistance. leaded brasses. high machinability requirements Clock parts. marine hardware. integrated circuits General for group. marine hardware. arcing and bridging parts Terminals. superb spring qualities. gaskets. wheels Free-cutting brass. combine high strength and fatigue resistance with good machinability and wear resistance (continued) . corrosion resistance and higher strength requirements Supplied as strip for fabricating electrical connectors. valve stems. architectural sheet and trim. good formability and solderability. bellows. and gasoline Contacts. air conditioners. structural uses C48200–C48500 Free machining. electrodes. plumbing Red brass. bellows. springs. high electrical conductivity requirements Highest-conductivity coppers Electrical wire and cable Household water tubes Refrigerators. general. C14300 C15215–C16200 High-copper alloys C16200–C19199 C17000–C17300 C18000 C18200–C18300 C19400 Copper–zinc brasses C21000–C28000 C23000 C26000–C26200 C26800 Copper–zinc–lead brasses C31200–C38500 C34500 C36000 C37700 Copper–zinc–tin brasses C40400–C48600 C42500 Application General for group. switch parts Copper–tin–lead–phosphorus bronzes C53400–C53500 Leaded phosphor bronzes. screw-machine products Copper–tin–phosphorus bronzes C50100–C54200 General. relay parts Switches. ammunition. Coppers C10100–C15999 C10100–C10700 C11000 C12200 C12800 C14200. plumbing. electrical and electronic connectors and contacts Highest strength copper–beryllium alloys. electrical switches and sockets. large nuts and bolts. propeller shafts. fasteners. fuse clips General. flexible hose. diaphragms. fuse clips. hardware. gears. electrical contacts C51100 Fasteners. brazing rod General for group. gears. sheet for stamping. pinions Forging brass General.

however. forgings 471 General.2 lists the more common temper designations. four major families of bronze exist: copper–tin–phosphorus (phosphor bronze).0–99. copper–tin–nickel alloys (nickel–tin–bronzes). marine hardware General. food and beverage handling equipment. and the copper–zinc–tin alloys (tin brasses) Alloys in which the major alloying element is neither zinc nor nickel. condenser tubing Nuts. condenser tubes. silver luster. shaft tie rods. The two major subgroups in this category are the copper–nickel alloys called cupronickels and the copper–zinc–nickel alloys commonly called nickel–silvers Bronzes Miscellaneous copper–zinc alloys . combine high strength and excellent corrosion resistance Marine hardware. machine parts. this group contains the copper–zinc alloys. because zinc is the principal alloying element. bolts. strength retention at high temperatures.3% copper Alloys that have zinc as a major alloying element. wear plates. nuts. high strength fasteners. marine products Good corrosion resistance with moderately high strength. excellent corrosion resistance. they are really brasses.1 Continued UNS No. hollow-ware Designations for Copper and Copper Alloys—Wrought and Cast. valves. copper–tin–lead– phosphorus (leaded phosphor bronze). aircraft parts. Copper–aluminum bronzes C60800–C64210 C61000 C63000 Copper–silicone bronzes C64700–C66100 Copper–nickel C70100–C72950 Copper–zinc–nickel C73500–C79800 Application General. and copper–aluminum alloys (aluminum bronzes) This group contains alloys formerly known as manganese or nickel bronzes. decorative hardware.Copper and Copper Alloys TABLE 18.3% copper Alloys that contain 96. pumps. the copper–zinc–lead alloys (leaded brass). marine shafts. properties similar to aluminum bronzes.” Table 18. bolts. Wrought copper and copper alloys can be divided into the following groups: Coppers High copper alloys Brasses Metal that has a minimum copper content of 99. excellent weldability. hydraulic fluid lines.

it is used primarily in electrical or electronic applications such as bus bars.4 gives the chemical composition of some of the coppers used in corrosion applications.3.472 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 18. condensers. switches. Alloying reduces the thermal conductivity. wires. cadmium. singly or in combination. boron. unlike most metals. the thermal conductivity of many copper alloys increase. an alloy must contain a minimum of 99. Copper alloys are used primarily for room-temperature applications. 18. Table 18. it also finds many applications in corrosive environments. and bismuth may be present. As temperatures increase. copper alloys to a large extent attain their mechanical properties through different amounts of cold work. The main exceptions are the copper–beryllium alloys (the highest-strength copper alloys). The approximate maximum temperature limits for a selection of alloys are listed in Table 18. Heat-transfer applications are the exception. and other heattransfer devices take advantage of the high thermal conductivity of copper and its alloys. Most copper alloys can be used to K3288F (K2008C). Applications such as heat exchangers. and transfer components. and some copper–chromium alloys. . waveguides.1 Coppers To be classified as a copper. manganese. Elements such as silver. the aluminum bronzes.2 Temper Designations of Wrought Copper and Copper Alloys Tempers H00–H14 H50–H90 HR01–HR50 HT04–HT08 M01–M45 010–082 0S005–0S200 TD00–TD04 TH01–TH04 Description Degree of cold work: 1/8 hard to super spring Cold-work tempers based on manufacturing process Cold-worked and stress-relieved tempers Cold-rolled and thermal-strengthened tempers As manufactured tempers Annealed tempers to meet specific mechanical properties Annealed tempers to meet prescribed grain sizes Solution-treated and cold-worked tempers Cold-worked and precipitation-hardened tempers For the most part. nickel. antimony. The physical properties of copper that are of the most interest are the electrical and thermal conductivities. arsenic. Because copper is a noble metal. sulfur. lead. phosphorus. zirconium. tellurium.3% copper. The aluminum bronzes are the second highest-strength copper alloy group. Because of the good electrical properties of copper.

relatively impervious films with low solubility that provide corrosion protection. Copper is not corroded by perfectly dry ammonia. Copper is also subject to attack by turbulently flowing solutions. the pre-dominant cathode reaction is the reduction of oxygen to form hydroxide ions. the film will not be disturbed. corrosion can be severe. If the water velocity is limited to 4–5 ft/s. e. oxygen or other oxidizing agents are necessary for corrosion to take place.Copper and Copper Alloys TABLE 18. CN or MHA.3 Maximum Allowable Operating Temperature of Wrought Copper Alloys Maximum Operating Temperature Alloy Coppers Phosphorus deoxidized copper Copper–beryllium Copper–chromium Silicon bronze Aluminum bronze (7–9% aluminum) Cartridge red brass Naval brass Muntz metal Leaded brass Manganese brass Phosphor bronze (9% tin) Cupronickel (5–10% nickel) Cupronickel (20–30% nickel) Nickel–silvers Cu–Cd bearing alloys 8F 176 248 482 662 392 572 392 302 356 212 356 320 302 392 392 392 8C 80 120 250 350 200 300 200 150 180 100 180 160 150 200 200 200 473 Copper itself is inherently corrosion resistant.. It is noble to hydrogen in the emf series and thermodynamically stable with no tendency to corrode in water and in nonoxidizing acids that are free of dissolved oxygen. Most of the corrosion products formed on copper and copper alloys produce adherent. Copper finds many applications in the handling of seawater and/or fresh water. With copper and its alloys. is dependent upon the surface oxide film that forms. Alkaline salts. but it may be rapidly corroded by moist ammonia and ammonium hydroxide solutions. even though the metal may be resistant to the solution in a stagnant condition. Sodium and potassium hydroxide solutions can be handled at room temperature by copper in all concentrations. High-velocity water will disturb the film. such as sodium . The corrosion resistance of copper. whereas carbonic acid or organic acids that are present in some fresh waters and soils will dissolve the film. when in contact with fresh water or seawater. Therefore.g. oxygen must diffuse through this film. For corrosion to continue. In oxidizing acids or in aerated solutions of ions that form copper complexes. Either situation leads to an appreciably high corrosion rate.

004 Pb C13000 99. flashing. Cieslewiez.085 0.025 0.050 Ni. .003 Bi.040 0.004 Pb 0. 0. gradually turning green.15–0. the compound is a mixture of copper/hydroxide chloride...A.003 0. These same properties plus their resistance to engine coolants have made copper suitable for use as radiators. 2nd ed. Copper and copper alloys. 1998. but are less corrosive. copper is used in many architectural applications such as building fronts.90 99. 0. When exposed to the atmosphere over long periods of time.027 0.474 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 18. the length of time required to form this coloration is dependent upon the atmosphere.88 Ag Minimum P As Sb Te Other 0. carbonate.50 Except for Ag and when shown as a range. In addition to their corrosion resistance. sodium phosphate. in an urban or industrial atmosphere. gutters. 0.95 99. In marine atmospheres.012 0.005 0. Schweitzer. roofing.4 Chemical Composition of Coppers: Maximuma Composition (%) Copper UNS No.40 0.015–0.027 0.012 0. particularly in the brewing and distilling operations.M. Pure copper is immune to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). or sodium silicate act like the hydroxides.88 0. The coppers are resistant to urban. Because the coloration is given by copper hydroxide products. alloys of copper containing more than 15% zinc are particularly subject to this type of corrosion. New York: Marcel Dekker. Ed. the protective film that forms is initially dark in color.004–0. Source: From J. and industrial atmospheres. For this reason. it is a mixture of copper/hydroxide/sulfate. their good thermal conductivity properties make the coppers ideal for use in solar panels and related tubing and piping used in solar energy conversion. C10200 C10300 C10400 C10800 C11000 C11300 C12000 C12200 C12500 Cu 99.012 0.003 Bi. P.050 Ni. 0. downspouts.003 0. and screening.90 99.90 99.025 C14200 a 99.95 99.015–0.001–0.95 99. However. Large amounts of copper are also used in the beverage industry.005–0. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook.012 0.90 99. marine.95 99. This corrosion product is known as patina.040 0.

18. High-velocity aerated waters and aqueous solutions 4. Reference [2] provides a more detailed listing. CuðNH3 Þ2C. Table 18. Machinability is improved by the addition of lead. phosphoric acid. . Seawater 2. The corrosion resistance of the high-copper alloys is approximately the same as that of the coppers. Oxidizing acids such as nitric and hot concentrated sulfuric acid. ferric sulfate. 4 forms. substituted ammonia compounds (amines) are also corrosive 3. Atmospheric exposure The coppers are not resistant to 1.) 5. 18. tin. and aluminum. Hydrogen sulfide and similar sulfur compounds The compatibility of copper with selected corrodents is shown in Table 18.5. Other alloying ingredients include lead. Ammonium hydroxide (plus oxygen)—a complex ion.4% iron added to improve corrosion resistance.2 High-Copper Alloys Wrought high-copper alloys contain a minimum of 96% copper. Deaerated hot or cold dilute sulfuric acid. and aerated nonoxidizing acids (including carbonic acid) 2.6 lists the chemical composition of some of the high-copper alloys.3 Copper–Zinc Alloys (Brasses) The principal alloying ingredient of the brasses is zinc. and other nonoxidizing acids 4. hot or cold 3. the coppers are resistant to 1. etc.Copper and Copper Alloys 475 In general. Strength and dealloying resistance is increased by the addition of approximately 1% tin. which does not improve corrosion resistance. It is used in seam-welded condenser tubing in desalting services. Alloy C-19400 is basically copper that has about 2. Freshwaters. acetic acid. Highcopper alloys are used primarily for electrical and electronic applications. These alloys are used in corrosion service when mechanical strength is needed in addition to corrosion resistance. Oxidizing heavy-metal salts (ferric chloride.

Aluminum Bronze. Ammonium fluoride. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia.5 Compatibility of Copper. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Copper X 100/38 X X X 80/27 140/60 X 80/27 80/27 90/32 90/32 60/16 X 60/16 X 90/32 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X 90/32 X X X X 90/32 80/27 80/27 X 80/27 X 80/27 80/27 80/27 Aluminum Bronze X 60/16 X X X 90/32 90/32 60/16 90/32 90/32 60/16 X 90/32 X X X 90/32 X X X X X X X X 90/32 X X X 90/32 90/32 90/32 X X 90/32 80/27 X Red Brass X X X X X X 220/104 X 210/99 90/32 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 400/204 90/32 80/27 X X X 90/32 80/27 80/27 (continued) . Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Acetic acid. and Red Brass with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. sat. 80% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride.476 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 18.

moist Bromine. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.Copper and Copper Alloys TABLE 18. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic add.5 Continued Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. wet Chlorine. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Carbon dioxide. sat. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Bromine gas. 15% Copper 80/27 X 80/27 100/38 80/27 80/27 X 80/27 100/38 60/16 X 80/27 80/27 80/27 80/27 60/16 80/27 80/27 X 210/99 210/99 210/99 X 80/27 X 80/27 90/32 90/32 80/27 210/99 80/27 80/27 X X 210/99 X 90/32 80/27 X X X 210/99 Aluminum Bronze 60/16 X 90/32 80/27 90/32 90/32 90/32 90/32 X X X 90/32 90/32 X X X X 80/27 60/16 X X X 90/32 90/32 60/16 90/32 X 60/16 80/27 90/32 X 60/16 90/32 X X X 90/32 477 Red Brass 210/99 X 210/99 210/99 90/32 210/99 210/99 X 80/27 X 80/27 300/149 90/32 210/99 80/27 X 80/27 X 80/27 210/99 X X 80/27 X X 570/299 X X 570/299 180/82 210/99 210/99 X 570/299 X 210/99 80/27 X X X X (continued) . 50% Citric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Benzoic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid.

general Lactic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 20% Nitric acid. conc. conc. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. Oleum Perchloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Copper X 90/32 90/32 X X X X 80/27 80/27 100/38 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Aluminum Bronze X X X X X 80/27 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 90/32 X 90/32 90/32 X 60/16 X X X X X X Red Brass X X X X X 80/27 80/27 210/99 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 100/38 90/32 90/32 X 210/99 210/99 210/99 X X X X X X (continued) 90/32 300/149 X X 90/32 80/27 90/32 X X X X X 80/27 . 38% Hydrocyanic acid. dry Fluorine gas. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. moist Hydrobromic acid.478 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 18. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.5 Continued Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Citric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cupric chloride. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 10% Ketones. dilute Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride.

When compatible. The latter. 50% Sodium hydroxide. conc. The protective surface film is stabilized by the addition of aluminum..Copper and Copper Alloys TABLE 18. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. Source: From P. 100% Sulfuric acid.7 for the chemical composition of selected brasses. The zinc constituent may be deposited in place as an insoluble compound or carried away from the brass as a soluble salt. Sodium sulfide. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride.5 Continued Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Perchloric acid. 5th ed. 2004. 50% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. Vols. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. conc.A. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sodium hydroxide. The corrosion can take place uniformly or locally. Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Corrosion Resistance Tables. called plug-type . fuming Sulfurous acid Toulene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride Copper X X X 80/27 90/32 X 120/49 210/99 210/99 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 210/99 80/27 X Aluminum Bronze X X X 479 Red Brass X 570/299 X X 210/99 60/16 60/16 60/16 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 90/32 X X 90/32 210/99 210/99 X X 80/27 X X X X 200/93 X X X X X X 90/32 210/99 80/27 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Schweitzer. 1–4. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. corrosion rate is !20 mpy. Refer to Table 18. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Brass alloys of copper can be subject to dealloying (dezincification). to 30% Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. a type of corrosion in which the brass dissolves as an alloy and the copper constituent redeposits from solution onto the surface of the brass as a metal in a porous form.

0 min 0.10 0. Also available in cast form as copper alloy UNS C81540.7 — — 0.00 1.20 0. MCCo: 0.04 0.20 — — — a b c Unless shown as a range or minimum.6–1..03 Balance Balance Balance Balance 96. Copper and copper alloys.15 — — — — — 0..00 — — — — — — — 0.A.20 0.60 max.6 High Copper Alloys: Maximuma Composition (%) Co Be Pb Zn b b b UNS No. Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Source: From J. 2nd ed. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook.015–0. Cieslewicz.60 — — 0.480 TABLE 18.20 0.20 0.20 min.1–2.4 — — 0.7 min 97.05–0. Ed.8–1.20 — — 0.5 — — — — — 0. New York: Marcel Dekker.2 2. Schweitzer.01–0.M.20–0. . NiCFeC Co: 0.6 2.8–2.79 1.20 0. 1998. P Cu Fe Ni Sn Si Al b b b b b b C17000 C17200 C17300 C18000c C19000 C19400 — — — 1. P.8–2.

As stated previously.10%) of arsenic. The former. is more apt to occur in acidic environments. It is possible to remove these stresses by heating the metal to a high enough temperature so that the metal recrystallizes. is prone to take place in alkaline. or slightly acidic environments. The corrosion resistance of red brass is basically the same as that of copper. Brass alloys containing in excess of 15% zinc are subject to SCC. The leaded brasses (C31200 through C38500) have improved machinability as a result of the addition of lead. These same alloys are generally more corrosion resistant than high-zinc-bearing alloys. neutral. In addition. tin. or aluminum Brasses containing !15% zinc Aluminum bronzes Nickel–silvers Phosphor bronzes Silicon bronzes Phosphorized copper Commercially pure copper Cupronickels Good resistance High resistant Residual stresses remaining in the metal. Their dealloying resistance is due to the presence of tin. Relative resistance of the various copper alloys to SCC is as follows1: Low resistance Intermediate resistance Brasses containing O15% zinc Brasses containing O15% zinc and small amounts of lead.5. can also lead to SCC. Brass alloys containing less than 15% zinc are resistant to dealloying. called layer-type dealloying. or phosphorus are added to further increase the dealloying resistance. alloys containing less than 15% zinc resist dealloying. the amount of ammonia present need not be great.Copper and Copper Alloys 481 dealloying. The high-zinc brasses. These alloys find application as marine hardware and propeller shafts and for structural use. C28000. . A stressrelieving anneal at a lower temperature can also be carried out that will not substantially change the mechanical properties. Admiralty brasses (44300 through 44500) and naval brasses (C46400 through C46700) find use in petroleum refinery operations because of their resistance to dry hydrogen sulfide and sulfides in general. As long as other factors are present. antimony. as a result of cold forming. Alloying elements such as tin and arsenic inhibit this type of corrosion. Alloy C23000 is commonly used for piping. such as C27000. Moist ammonia in the presence of air will cause SCC of copper alloys. Refer to Table 18. and C46400 are more resistant to sulfides than the low-zinc brasses. minor amounts (usually less than 0. Red brass (C23000) is a typical alloy in this group that contains 15% zinc. C44300. They are also more resistant to SCC than the high-zinc alloys.

20 0.20 0.20 0.50–1.06 0.0–79.30 0.07 0.02–0. 2nd ed.0–62.02–0.10 0.50–1.0–73.2 0.02 — — 0.0 70.8–1.02–0.10 0. Cu Pb C27000 C28000 C44300 C44400 C44500 C46400 C46500 C46600 C46700 C68700 63.07 0.0–63.10 0.5 59.0 0.07 0.02–0. Cieslewicz.482 TABLE 18. 1988.10 0.0–73.07 a Unless shown as a range..10 As 0. Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Source: From J.0 76.M.20 0.10 0. Ed.07 0. New York: Marcel Dekker..02–0.0 70.10 As Copper–Zinc Alloys: Maximuma Composition (%) UNS No.5 0.0 0.07 0.0–62.0 — — — — — 0.0 0.50–1. Copper and copper alloy.10 — — — 0.02–0.0–62.02–0.8–1. P.8–1.50–1.0–62.10 As 0.0–68. Schweitzer.2 0.0 0.10 Sb — 0.0 59.10 — Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance Balance Zn Sn P Other — — 0.06 0.06 0.8–2.0 59. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook.10 Sb — — 0.7 Fe Al — — — — — — — — — 1.0–73.0 59.A.0 59.2 0.0 70. .

05 3.10 0.0–11.5–4. pump casings.0–9. Copper artifacts recovered from sunken ships have been identifiable. During the early 1900s. and in many cases usable. Their main application is in water service for such items as valves.03–0. .8 Wrought Copper–Tin Alloys: Maximuma Composition (%) Copper Alloy UNS No. Items such as statues. The ability of copper to withstand the corrosive effects of salt and brackish water is well known.35 0. thereby testifying to the corrosion resistance of these materials.2–5. Table 18.30 0.05 0.0 9.05 0.35 0.10 0.8 and Table 18.5 P 0. etc. Alloys that contain more than 5% tin are especially resistant to impingement attack. C-51000 C-51100 C-52100 C-52400 C-54400 a Cu Rem Rem Rem Rem Rem Pb 0.20 0. usually less than 0. valve components.0 3. It was originally added to give strength to copper while maintaining corrosion resistance of the base metal. phosphorus is always present in small amounts. many of the artifacts produced during that age are still in existence. They are available in both wrought and cast form.5–4.5 Zn 0.4 Copper–Tin Alloys Copper–Tin alloys are known as tin bronzes or phosphor bronzes. As it developed. The two oxides are complementary and often give the alloy TABLE 18.10 0. These alloys are probably the oldest alloys known. 18.9 7.5 Copper–Aluminum Alloys These alloys are commonly referred to as aluminum bronzes.9 list the principal tin bronzes used for corrosion engineering.20 1. bells.5–4.30 0.35 0. Because of their corrosion resistance in stagnant waters.10 Sn 4.Copper and Copper Alloys 483 18.10 0. In general. aluminum was added to copper as an alloying ingredient. vases. after hundreds of years under the sea.01–0.03–0. Even today.8 3.5 Fe 0.50 Unless shown as a range.5% because of its use as an oxidizer.05 0.03–0. the aluminum bronzes were more resistant to direct chemical attack because aluminum oxide plus copper oxide was formed. the tin bronzes are noted for their high strength.35 0. having been the bronzes of the Bronze Age. and swords have survived hundreds of years of exposure to a wide variety of environments. Although tin is the principal alloying ingredient. they also find wide application in fire protection systems.03–0.5–4.

05 0.05 0.0 14.0–5.0–2.0–7.5–9.25 0.0 3.0 76.8 4.0 86.5–6.5 0.0 4.0 0.0–89. Mn 0.0 0.15 0.05 Copper Alloy UNS No.5 9.0–11.0–3.15 0.5 S 0.0–89.08 0.b Composition (%) Pb 0.0 1.0 86.9 Cast Copper–Tin Alloys: Maximuma.0–2.5–6.0 8.30 0.0 75. .0005% aluminum and 0.0–11.0–5.5 0.0 9.0 1.0–92.15 Zn Fe Sb Ni 1.0–90.08 0.30 1.05 0.05 1.05 P 0.0 6.0–16.0005% silicon.5–6.20 0.0 1.0–18.25 0.15 0.5 5.08 0.20%.10 3.0–79.0–11.05 0.0 78.55 0.0 1.20 0.05 0.0 0.8 1.5 1.0 5.0–89.50 0.5–79.4 0.0 7.3–7.0 a b Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals c Unless shown as a range.8 0. In addition to the alloying ingredients shown each alloy also contains 0.25 0.5 85.25 0.8 0.0 13.484 TABLE 18. Cu Sn C-90300 C-90500 C-92200 C-93700 C-93800 C-93900 C-94700c 86.0 1.05 0.20 0.

5 for the compatibility of aluminum–bronze with selected corrodents. As the aluminum content is increased. Alkalies. tin. Table 18. Refer to Table 18. manganese. The presence of an oxidizing agent controls their resistance. or C61400. and C63000. The alloys most important for corrosion resistance are those containing 10 and 30% nickel. When dealloying does occur. it is in conditions of low pH and high temperature. Aluminum bronzes are resistant to nonoxidizing mineral acids such as phosphoric and sulfuric. with nickel as the principal alloying ingredient. depending on the aluminum content. Dealloying is rarely seen in all alpha. nickel.Copper and Copper Alloys 485 superior corrosion resistance. These alloys are also resistant to many organic acids such as acetic. and the heat treatment. The aluminum content is primarily responsible for the microstructure of these bronzes. C61400. niobium is added. Alloy C61300 is used to fabricate vessels to handle acetic acid because its good corrosion resistance. other constituents appear in the microstructure. and seawaters for cooling—particularly alloys C61300. Iron present in small microprecipitates can be detrimental to corrosion resistance. The possibility of copper pickup by the finished product may limit their use. and other elements.10 lists the alloys generally used for corrosion resistance. manganese. An iron-rich intermetallic compound is generally formed when iron is added.11 lists these wrought alloys. and heat conductivity make it a good choice for acetic acid processing. Table 18. formic. single-phase alloys such as UNS C60800.6 Copper–Nickel Alloys The copper–nickels are single-phase solution alloys. They may be beta. citric. 18. alpha– gamma eutectoid. . very low in concentration. whereas the addition of nickel above 2% tends to introduce an additional kappa phase. strength. Such a pickup may discolor the product even though it is very. Iron improves the impingement resistance of these alloys. silicon. C61300. or a combination. A single-phase alpha structure is present in alloys containing approximately 8% aluminum. silicon. Aluminum bronzes have progressed from simple copper–aluminum alloys to more complex alloys with the addition of iron. such as sodium and potassium hydroxides can also be handled by aluminum–bronze alloys. and niobium may be added. Aluminum bronzes are also used as condenser tube sheets in both fossil fuel and nuclear power plants to handle fresh. To aid weldability. the cooling rate from solidification. brackish. and lactic. if it is in solid solution. Iron.

2–89.0–4.5 2.0 82.5 6..0 3.20 — — — 0.0 75.M.0 9.05 0.02 Pb — — 0.25 0. New York: Marcel Dekker.02 — 0.0 1.3 8.25 0.0–85.5 — 0.5–9.6–92.5 — 0. 1988.50 — — — 0. Cu Al Fe C60800 92.0 0.0 8.5 0.0–92.486 TABLE 18.0–93.5–1.015 Pb 0.9–91.0–4. Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Source: From J.5 6. Copper and copper alloys.0 2.0–8.0–5.10 — — 0. Ed.50 2. 2nd ed.5 0.0–8.5 3.01 Pb 0.5 Mn Si Sn Zn — 0.5–94.0–11.0–3.5 86.01 Pb 0. .5 78. Cieslewicz. P.8 5.5 89.02 Pb a Unless shown as a range.010 C61000 C61300 C61400 C61500 C61800 C62300 C63000 C63200 90. 0.0–8.0–6.5–11.10 Ni — — — 0.20–0.25 As.20 0.5 4. Schweitzer.50 1.0–5.8–2.2 — 1.10 Pb 0.30 — Other Wrought Copper–Aluminum Alloys: Maximuma Composition (%) UNS No.10 — 0.0 4.0 7.0–5.15 — 1.9–84.20 — 0..A.0 88.5–11.0–90.10 0.10 0. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook.60 0.02–0.5–3.02 Pb 0.10 — — 0.0 88.0 8.7–8.10 0.5 6.

eventually dropping as low as 0.08–0.7 0. It therefore protects the alloy against further attack after it has formed. Zn 1. Sulfides as low as 0.0 max 1. However. Exposed to seawater.0 max Pb 0. copper–nickel does. the copper–nickel oxide film is firmly bonded to the underlying metal and is nearly insoluble in seawater.0 29.8 0. Recommended velocities for continuous service are as follows: Pipe Size (in.05 max.) %3 4–8 with short radius bends R4–8 with long radius bends R8 Velocity (ft/s) 5 6. Zr 0.0 max 0. Zn 1.007 ppm in seawater can induce pitting in both . alloy 706 forms a thin but tightly adhering oxide film on its surface.0 29. C70600 C71500 C71900 Cu Balance Balance Balance Ni 9. the copper–nickels’ corrosion rate will decrease with time.05 max.0 Other 487 Pb 0. Ti 0.0 Fe 1.40–0. Velocitydependent erosion corrosion is often associated with turbulance and entrained particles.0 max Cr 2.08 Of the several commercial copper–nickel alloys available. Algae and bromades.0–32.05 mpy after several years of service. simply will not grow on alloy 706.0–2. In the absence of turbulance. in fact. It is also used in many desalting plants. neither corroding appreciably nor becoming encrusted with growth. To the extent that this film forms. Initial corrosion rates may be in the range of less than 1. alloy C70600 offers the best combination of properties for marine applications and has the broadest application in seawater service.25 max Mn 1. Alloy 706 piping therefore remains clean and smooth.Copper and Copper Alloys TABLE 18.2. “corrode” in marine environments.5 11 14 Alloy C71500 finds use in many of the same applications as alloy C70600.6–3.2. the most common forms of marine biofouling.5 mpy.0–11.02–0. Flow velocities play an important part in seawater corrosion.5–1. Alloy 706 has been used aboard ships for seawater distribution and shipboard fire protection.0–1.0–33. as would be the case in a properly designed piping system. Another important advantage of the oxide film developed on alloy 706 is that it is an extremely poor medium for the adherence and growth of marine life forms.11 Chemical Composition of Wrought Cupronickels (%) UNS No.

There is. As with other metals.7 Copper–Beryllium Alloys These alloys are also known as berryllium bronze. 18. Copper casting possesses some advantages over wrought copper in that the casting process permits greater latitude in alloying because hot. Alloy C71900 is a cupronickel to which chromium has been added.488 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals alloys. the composition of the cast copper alloys varies from that of the wrought alloys. pitting. This alloy also has improved resistance to impingement. The chemical composition of the more common alloys are given in Table 18. and fasteners in the cold-worked state. Temper designations that define metallurgical condition. The chromium addition strengthens the alloy by spinodal decomposition. They find application in seawater with the higher-strength. and organics.8. It was developed for naval use. In many applications. but rather for that characteristic plus one or more other properties.5 ksi for C71500 to 45 ksi for C71900. diaphragms. and both alloys are highly susceptible to accelerated corrosion as the sulfide concentration exceeds 0. Copper alloys are not normally selected because of their corrosion resistance alone. Although not used in these environments because of cost. 18. Commercially pure copper alloys are not normally cast. able to be heat treated to exceptionally high strength levels—on the order of 155 ksi. This increases the yield strength from 20. Only 2 wt% berryllium is required to achieve this strength level. some sacrifice in general corrosion resistance. Of all the copper alloys. 18.8 Cast Copper Alloys The UNS designations for cast copper alloys consist of numbers C80000 through C99999. higher-hardness materials used under . They are the strongest of the copper-based alloys. heat treatment. electrical switch contacts. alkalies. however. Applications include springs. The copper–nickels are highly resistant to SCC. and/or casting method further describe the alloy. they are resistant to nonoxidizing acids. neutral salts.01 ppm. and crevice corrosion under stagnant or low-velocity conditions. This is particularly true relative to the use of lead as an alloying ingredient.12. conductivity may be the deciding factor. they are the most resistant to SCC in ammonia and ammoniacal environments.and cold-working properties are not important.1 Corrosion Resistance The brasses are the most useful of the copper alloys.

1 — Pb Al Si Fe Mn Ni — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4 4 10 30 Cb — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1 UNS No.TABLE 18.5 — — — — — — 3 4 4 4 1.9 — — — — 3 3 2.5 7 — — — — — — — — — 4 6 1.12 Copper and Copper Alloys Chemical Composition of Cast Copper Alloys (wt%) Sn 5 1 1 — — 1 — — 8 10 6 7 — — — — — — — — — 3 3 1.5 1 — — — — — — — — — 0.5 1 5 3 1 — — — — — — — 1.5 — — — — — — 9 11 11 9 — — — — — — — 3 3 4 — — — — — — — — 0.5 68 5 24 36 27 21 5 — 14 4 2 4 3 — — — — — — 489 . ASTM Specification Cu Zn C83600 C85200 C85800 C86200 C86300 C87200 C87300 C87800 C90300 C90500 C92200 C92300 C95200 C95400 C95500 C95800 C96200 C96400 B584 B584 B176 B584 B584 B584 B584 B176 B584 8584 B61 B584 B184 B148 B148 B148 B369 6369 85 72 61 63 61 89 95 87 88 88 85 83 88 85 81 81 87.

New York: Marcel Dekker. and copper–tin (tin bronze) are the main cast bronze alloys. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook. Oxidizing acids and metallic salts will cause attack. although red brass is superior to copper for handling hard water. and provides excellent resistance to impingement corrosion. Schweitzer. and organic acids. organics (such as ethylene glycol and formaldehyde). In general. In the presence of highpressure steam. Vols. increases the tensile properties. phosphoric. and sulfuric acids can be handled. The next major group of the copper alloys are the bronzes that. . J. and cold concentrated sulfuric acid. 1988..A.. Aluminum bronzes are susceptible to SCC in moist ammonia. Dilute hydrochloric. 2. Copper and copper alloys. The final group of copper alloys are the copper–nickel (cupronickels) alloys. brass has less corrosion resistance in aqueous solutions than other copper alloys. Cieslewicz.. The addition of 8–10% tin provides good resistance to impingement attack. but decreases the resistance to seasoncracking in ammonia (refer to the section on dezincification under wrought copper alloys). are very similar to the brasses. copper–silicon (silicon bronze). and SCC of all the copper alloys. They exhibit the best resistance to corrosion. The brasses also find application in boric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. The corrosion rates are affected less by oxygen and carbon dioxide contents than with other copper alloys. They are almost as resistant as Monel to caustic soda. Alloys having more than 8% aluminum should be heat treated because it improves corrosion resistance and toughness. They are among the best alloys for seawater service and are immune to season cracking.M. 2004. cold and hot dilute sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 1–4.490 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals high-velocity and turbulent conditions. P. silicon bronze is susceptible to embrittlement. Schweitzer. impingement. They are resistant to many nonoxidizing acids. Tin bronze has good resistance to flowing seawater and some nonoxidizing acids (except hydrochloric acid). 2nd ed. from a corrosion standpoint. Silicon bronze has approximately the same corrosion resistance as copper. neutral salts (such as magnesium chloride and barium chloride). They have better resistance to SCC than the common brasses. 5th ed. but better mechanical properties and superior weldability. The addition of aluminum to the bronzes improves resistance to high-temperature oxidation.A. Copper–aluminum (aluminum bronze). but has less resistance to corrosion from sulfur compounds. The addition of zinc improves the resistance to sulfur compounds. P. Ed. Silicon bronzes can handle cold dilute hydrochloric acid. Tin bronze is less susceptible to SCC than brass. References 1.

The energy required for recycling is about 5% of that required for electrolytic reduction of aluminum oxide. and other materials. and bar forms. as a structural metal. foods. and axles. The increased cost of extraction will be offset substantially by increased recycling of aluminum. of which 75% is composed of recycled metal. it will still be economically feasible. Their salts are nontoxic—allowing applications with beverages. Metallic aluminum is very thermodynamically active and seeks to return to the natural oxidized state through the process of corrosion. In strength-to-density ratio (i. and stampings. the relative position of aluminum will increase. corrosion resistance. Aluminum alloys are produced in the usual flat-rolled sheet and plate. Beverage cans alone consume approximately 1. shafts.7 g/cm3 density compared to 7. comprising approximately 8%. which saves 95% of the energy required for extraction. they are also white or colorless—permitting applications with chemical and other materials without discoloration—and are not 491 . and pharmaceuticals. It is always present in a combined form.e. The aluminum alloys possess a high resistance to corrosion by most atmospheres and waters. forgings. of which bauxite is the primary ore. Aluminum is second to iron in terms of production and consumption and is the most important metal of commerce in the United States. rod. the specific strength).83 g/cm3 for iron). As the resources of other metals are depleted further. Aluminum. Even though such extraction may be more expensive than from bauxite. Approximately 18 million tons of aluminum are produced each year by the electrolytic reduction of aluminum oxide. ease of fabrication. aluminum alloys have approximately three times that of structural steel and are roughly equivalent to the strength of steels used in gears. has the advantages of light weight (2. Aluminum can be extracted from many resources. wire. and appearance. in tube.5 million tons. they are readily fabricated and joined by most of the commonly used methods. In addition to being low in cost and having a high strength-to-weight ratio.19 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Aluminum is one of the most prevalent metallic elements in the solid portion of the earth’s crust.. as well as castings. many chemicals. usually a hydrated oxide. and by any new smelting processes that require less energy.

high reflectivity. as shown in Table 19. Al–Zn–Mg–Mn.1 Wrought Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Designation Series Designation 1XXX 2XXX 3XXX 4XXX 5XXX 6XXX 7XXX Alloying Materials 99. Al–Mg–Mn Al–Mg–Si.1.492 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals damaging to the ecology. Al–Mg–Si–Mn. The zero in the 10XX grade indicates that the aluminum is essentially of commercial purity. high thermal conductivity. Al–Cu–Mg–Si Al–Mn. Cu Al–Zn. Al–Zn–Mg. The last two digits serve only to identify the different alloys in the group and have no numerical significance.0% Copper Manganese Silicon Magnesium Magnesium and silicon Zinc Other elements Unused series TABLE 19. Al–Mg–Si. and noncatalytic action. Al–Zn–Mg–Cu . Other desirable properties of aluminum and its alloys include a high electrical conductivity. Al–Cu–Mg. 19. They are also nonmagnetic.1. In the 2XXX–7XXX alloy groups.1 is based on the major alloying ingredient as shown below: Series Designation 1XXX 2XXX 3XXX 4XXX 5XXX 6XXX 7XXX 8XXX 9XXX Major Alloying Ingredient AluminumR99. the second digit indicates the purity of the aluminum used to manufacture this particular grade. Al–Cu–Mg–Li. the second digit indicates an alloy modification. the alloy is the original alloy. while second digits of 1–9 indicate special control of one or more individual impurity elements. In the 1XXX group. Al–Mn–Mg Al–Si Al–Mg. These alloy numbers and their respective tempers are covered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard H35.9% min Al Al–Cu. while numbers 1–9 are assigned consecutively as the original alloy becomes modified. The classification shown in Table 19. If the second digit is zero.1 Classifications and Designations Wrought aluminum and aluminum alloys are classified based on their major alloying element via a four-digit numbering system.

Aluminum alloys are hardened and strengthened by either deformation at room temperature. or by an aging heat treatment designated by the letter T. is also used for aluminum. excluding ingots.2 Aluminum Association Designation System and UNS Equivalencies for Aluminum Alloys Aluminum Association Designation 1050 1080 1100 1200 2014 2024 3003 3004 4043 4047 5005 5052 5464 6061 6063 6463 7005 7050 7075 UNS Designation A91050 A91080 A91100 A91200 A92014 A92024 A93003 A93004 A94043 A94047 A95005 A95052 A95464 A96061 A96063 A96463 A97005 A97050 A97075 493 The Unified Numbering System (UNS). and designated by the letter H. as used for other metals.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys TABLE 19. When a wrought alloy is annealed to attain its softest condition. A comparison for selected aluminum alloys between the Aluminum Association designation and the UNS designation is shown in Table 19. 19. If the product has been shaped without any attempt to control the amount of hardening.2. . the letter O is used in the temper designation. the letter F (as-fabricated) is used for the temper designation. The letter W is used for the solution-treated (as-quenched) condition.2 Temper Designations The Aluminum Association has adopted a temper designation system that is used for all product forms. referred to as strain hardening. The strain-hardened and heat-treated conditions are further subdivided according to the degree of strain hardening and the type of heat treating (called aging).

4 Heat-Treated Subdivisions Temper designations are shown as follows: T1 Cooled from an elevated process temperature and aged (natural aging) at ambient temperature to a substantially stable condition. and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition. Typical tempers are H22. As before a second digit is used to indicate the degree of strain hardness remaining after stabilization. H34. H24. cold worked. 19.3. H36. which is attained by approximately 35% reduction in area at room temperatures. This designation applies only to those alloys that.2 H2X—Strain-Hardened and Partially Annealed The second digit indicates tempers ranging from quarter hard to full hard obtained by partial annealing of a room-worked material. At this temperature. This is produced at about 75% reduction in area at room temperature. The highest number represents the highest hardness and strength. unless stabilized. and H28. 19. Solution heat treatment involves heating the product to an elevated temperature. 19. again the highest number relating to the highest hardness and strength. A product strained to about half maximum strain hardening is designated by H14. gradually age-soften at room temperature.494 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 19.3 Strain-Hardened Subdivisions 19.3 H3X—Strain-Hardened and Stabilized Alloys whose mechanical properties have been stabilized by a lowtemperature heat treatment or as a result of heat introduced during fabrication are included in the H3X series. and H38. as in the H1X series. This is . H26. T3 Solution heat treated. usually in the 932–10228F (500–5508C) range. cold worked and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition.3. Typical designations are H32. T2 Cooled from an elevated-temperature forming process. the alloy becomes a single-phase solid solution that is cooled rapidly (quenched) so that a second phase does not form.3. Full strain hardening is represented by H18.1 H1X—Strain-Hardened Only The second digit indicates the degree of strain hardening.

or from the use of scrap metal in recycling. Consequently. artificially aged. cold worked. elements such as bismuth and titanium are added. from pickup from ceramic furnace linings. which is an unstable condition. properties for this condition will not be found in the handbooks. and artificially aged. magnesium. T5 Cooled from an elevated-temperature forming process and artificially aged (holding for a specific time a temperature above the ambient temperature). are included in this designation. For aluminum to be considered as “unalloyed. while chromium. Products that have been aged beyond the point of maximum strength to provide some special characteristics. Practically all commercial products are composed of aluminum alloys. formability. To assist in the smelting process. stability at elevated temperature.00 to 99. Most unalloyed specifications range from 99. their uses. and zirconium are added for grain control during solidification of large ingots. etc.” it must have a minimum content of 99. There are three types of composition listings in use. This is used in discussing the generic types of alloys. The aging process is usually maintained until maximum or near-maximum strength is achieved.5 Chemical Composition The word aluminum can be misleading because it is used for both the pure metal and for the alloys. and zinc are added to impart properties such as strength. 19.75% minimum aluminum. etc. First. nickel.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 495 designated as the W condition. The usual impurity elements are listed as the . intentional alloying elements are defined with allowable ranges. such as improved corrosion resistance or ease of forming. T7 Solution heat treated and overaged. or target. T6 Solution heat treated and artificially aged. Some unintentional impurities are present from trace elements contained in the ore. In these limits. manganese. T8 Solution heat-treated. T9 Cooled from an elevated-temperature forming process. and cold worked. composition of the alloy.00% of aluminum. Elements such as copper. T4 Solution heat treated and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition. there is the nominal. Second are the alloy limits registered with the Aluminum Association that are the specification limits against which alloys are produced.

3. The presence of second-phase particles is normal and they can be seen and identified by metallographic examination. as shown in Table 19. but not necessarily near the midpoint if the range is wide. and (3) a precipitation or aging treatment. The nominal chemical composition of representative aluminum wrought alloys are given in Table 19. and a non-heattreatable alloy (3004) are shown in Table 19. The third listing consists of the elements actually present as found in an analyzed sample. the intentioned elements must be within the prescribed ranges.05% each” level with the total less than 0.10%. with the less pure levels being less expensive and the higher purity levels improving a specific property. It should be recognized that. as shown in Table 19. either naturally at ambient temperature or. (2) quenching to retain them in solid solution. toughness is improved. Each trace element cannot exceed a specified “each” amount and the total of all trace elements cannot exceed the slightly higher “total” amount.15%. Many elements combine with one another and with aluminum to produce intermetallic compounds that are either soluble or insoluble in the aluminum matrix.3. copper in alloy 2024 can be skewed to a high content (sample 2) to improve strength or low content to improve toughness (sample 3). A high resistance to general corrosion is exhibited by all of the non-heattreatable alloys. Rare trace elements are grouped into an “each other” category. Specified impurity elements must be at or below the maximum limit. Every sample will not contain all of the impurity elements. 6XXX. Because of this. Alloys of the 1XXX series have relatively low strength. Alloys of the 3XXX series have the same desirable properties as those of the 1XXX series but . Examples of all three types of these compositions for unalloyed aluminum (1160). a heat-treatable alloy (2024). 4XXX. but usually well below the allowed limit. 3XXX. strengthening is achieved by strain hardening that may be augmented by solid-solution and dispersion hardening. For example. more commonly. The producer will target for the nominal composition when the allowable range is only about 0. It is important to know that other metallic elements are present and necessary for desired properties.5% points or less. some impurity elements will be present. There are two types of wrought alloys: non-heat-treatable of the 1XXX. artificially at 240–3808F (115–1958C) to precipitate these elements in an optimum size and distribution. Strengthening is produced in the heat-treatable type by (1) a solution heat treatment at 800–10508F (400–5658C) to dissolve soluble alloying elements. In the non-heat-treatable type. Designations for these treatments have been discussed previously. Certain alloys are produced in several levels of purity. selection is usually based on other factors. Individual nonspecified impurities should be less than the “0. For example.3. and 7XXX series. and 6XXX series and heat-treatable of the 2XXX. but some amount of iron and silicon are usually present except in ultrarefined pure aluminum.4.496 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals maximum amount allowed. When the melt is analyzed. when the iron and silicon levels are both less than 0.

77 1.10 — — — — — 0.25 4.40 3.00 0.020 0.4 — 0.9 0.00 0.12 2024 sample 3 0.00 0.25 — — 0.25 1.03 0.03 0.25 0.TABLE 19.05 0.05 0.15 0.15 Nominal (target) chemical composition of wrought alloys (%)a 1160 (99.25 0.05 0.8–4.30–0.5 — — — — — — 0.40 0.040%) 2024 — 4.030 1. all other elements 0. impurity elements are the maximum tolerable.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.77 0. 497 .03 0.05 0.025 0.45 1.9 3004 0.70 0.03 1.8–1.080 0.42 3004 sample 4 0. Remainder is aluminum.00 0.000 0.02 0.3 0. Aluminum and trace impurities constitute remainder.10 4.25 a b c Aluminum and normal impurities constitute remainder.00 0.8 0.5 Analysis of aluminum samples alloying elements present (%)c 0.00 1.00 0.6 3004 — 1.2–1.30 0.03 2024 0.05 0.03 0.0–1. Alloying elements shown as a required range.61 0.6% min Al.05 0.32 2024 sample 2 0.00 — 0.00 0.00 0.55 0.00 0.3 Comparison of Composition Listings of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Others Mn Mg Zn Cr Ni Ti Each Total Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Alloy Si Fe Cu 1.2 — 1.35 0.0 Registered chemical composition limits of wrought alloys (%)b 1160 0.100 1160 sample 1 0.

6 0.8 0.3 4.7 0.28 2. they exhibit a better resistance in slightly alkaline solutions than that of any other aluminum alloy.45 0.10 0.4 7005 7050 7075 a 1.2 2. it is largely retained in solution at lower temperatures.0 0.4 Nominal Chemical Compositions of Representative Aluminum Wrought Alloys Percent of Alloying Elements Alloy Si Cu Mn Mg Cr Zn Ti V Zr Non-heat-treatable alloys 1060 99. but the amount is low enough that the alloys still behave more like those with manganese alone than like the stronger Ak–Mg alloys of the 5XXX series.5 6.0 0. .4 6.5 0.12 0.14 Cladding for Alclad products.5 1. These alloys are widely used because of their high as-welded strength when welded with a compatible 5XXX series filler wire.4 2.4 4.50% min Al 3003 0. when dissolved at an elevated temperature.50 1.8 2219 2024 6061 0.13 0.498 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 19. Magnesium is one of the most soluble elements in aluminum and.8 0.6 0. with higher strength.7 5.30 0.5 2. In addition.06 0.00% min Al 1350 99.20 0.04 0.1 4.18 0. Alloys of the 5XXX series have the same high resistance to general corrosion as the other non-heat-treatable alloys in most environments.7 1. Alloys of the 4XXX series are low-strength alloys used for brazing and welding products and for a cladding in architectural products. Magnesium added to some alloys in this series provides additional strength. It produces considerable solution hardening.6 6063 0.0 4.6 0.2 5.25 0.60% min Al 1100 99.8 0.23 4.45 1.2 0.4 0. The strongest non-heat-treatable alloys are those of the 5XXX series.2 1.15 0.3 1. Additional strength is produced by strain hardening. even though its equilibrium solubility is greatly exceeded. and in most products they are more economical than alloys of the 1XXX and 3XXX series in terms of strength per unit cost.12 3004 5052 5454 5456 5083 5086 7072a Heat-treatable alloys 2014 0.12 0.0 2.15 1.

have a high resistance to corrosion by many chemicals. 19. ketones. even though they are resistant to each compound alone. some aluminum alloys are corroded severely in mixtures of carbon tetrachloride and methyl alcohol. equal to or approaching that of the non-heat-treatable alloys. They are also resistant to highly polymerized compounds. bromine. with most halide salts. pure aluminum has the greatest corrosion resistance. and salts with pH outside the passive range of 4–9. Aluminum alloys are not compatible with most inorganic acids. within their passive range of pH 4–9 in aqueous solutions. bases. The principal type of corrosion encountered is pitting . For example. which do not contain copper as a major alloying ingredient. They are also resistant to most organic acids. alcohols. commonly copper and chloride. Carbon tetrachloride also exhibits this behavior. It should be noted that the compatibility of aluminum alloys with mixtures of organic compounds cannot always be predicted from their compatibility with each of the compounds. Ions of halides and reducible metals. Caution should be exercised in using data for pure organic compounds to predict performance of the alloys with commercial grades that may contain contaminants. All other heat-treatable alloys have a lower resistance to general corrosion. These alloys. except when these compounds are nearly dry and near their boiling points. Regardless of environment. under conditions at which most alloys are polarized to their pitting potentials. other sulfur-containing compounds. A high resistance to corrosion is also exhibited by alloys of the 7XXX series that do not contain copper as an alloying ingredient. esters. Aluminum alloys are most resistant to organic compounds halogenated with chlorine. The two most frequently used alloys are 3003 and 3004. hydrocarbons. mercaptans.6 General Corrosion Resistance All of the non-heat-treatable alloys have a high degree of corrosion resistance.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 499 Of the heat-treatable alloys. and iodine. The 3XXX series of alloys are not susceptible to the more drastic forms of localized corrosion. pitting is not a problem. followed by the non-heat-treatable alloys. They are compatible with dry salts of most inorganic chemicals and. In most other solutions where conditions are less likely to occur that will polarize the alloys to these potentials. those of the 6XXX series exhibit a high resistance to general corrosion. and phenols. and finally the heattreatable alloys. frequently have been found to be the cause of excessive corrosion of aluminum alloys in commercial grades of organic chemicals that would not have been predicted from their resistance to pure compounds. and nitro compounds. Aluminum alloys are resistant to a wide variety of organic compounds including most aldehydes. ethers.

as long as oxygen and the corrosive electrolyte can still migrate to the bottom. followed by the 5XXX and then the 3XXX alloys. Large quantities of aluminum are used for household cooking utensils and for the commercial handling and processing of foods. however.5.500 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals corrosion. Pitting corrosion occurs in all environments and on all alloys. 19. only the smallest amount of corrosion can be tolerated.1b). Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) usually is present in the solution within pits and the concentration increases as corrosion progresses or during drying in environments that are alternatively wet and dry. However. further penetration of that pit is stifled.05%. This plot provides a reasonable estimate of the rate at which perforation would occur in aluminum. lacquers and plastic laminated coatings are applied to the alloys. A few isolated deep pits have a small effect on the reduction in cross-section. the rate of pitting rapidly diminishes and becomes self-limiting. and cans are used for the packaging of foods and beverages.7 Pitting Corrosion The oxide film is never completely uniform and is heterogeneous on heattreatable alloys. In most environments.1a illustrates this self-limiting effect of pitting corrosion. Pits can initiate relatively quickly and grow to a limiting depth. Pits begin somewhat hemispherical in shape. For most applications. Figure 19. With a low copper content of !0. The chloride ion is known to facilitate breakdown of the aluminum oxide. a . that the loss in strength caused by the pitting corrosion occurs at a different rate (Figure 19.5 for the compatibility of aluminum with selected corrodents. so the bottom of corrosion pits and cracks often will not repassivate and stop corroding. new corrosion pits initiate at other sites and corrosion continues. Alloys containing copper are the least resistant to pitting corrosion. foil laminated to plastics. Aluminum and aluminum alloys such as foil. but at a reduced rate. Note. Reference 1 provides a more detailed listing. This leads to local film breakdown and the initiation of localized pitting corrosion. Microcracks in the oxide occur from rapid temperature excursions or from the metal being stressed. The rationale behind this difference follows. Pure aluminum is the most resistant. A saturated AlCl3 solution has a pH of about 3. but the corrosion follows the grain morphology. including industrial and seacoast atmospheres and immersion in seawater. At this point. Because of the long periods of exposure. so that the initial reduction in strength and load-carrying ability is less pronounced than is the depth of penetration. at which mass transport no longer provides sufficient oxygen and the corroding species. Refer to Table 19. Therefore pitting in aluminum is not necessarily a smooth attack and pits can be significant stress risers. 3003 and 3004 alloys are almost as resistant as pure aluminum. Eventually.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Anilinea Antimony trichloride Aqua regia.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys TABLE 19. 10% Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium fluoride.5 Compatibility of Aluminum Alloys with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 50% Acetic acid. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. sat. 30% Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate 8F 360 340 110 130 90 210 350 500 210 210 150 110 60 60 120 80 110 350 8C 182 171 43 54 32 99 177 260 99 99 66 43 16 16 49 27 43 177 501 X X X X X X X X X X 350 350 350 350 170 350 170 90 350 X X X 177 177 177 177 77 177 77 32 177 180 210 X X X X 82 99 (continued) . dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid.

wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chromic acid. dry Chlorosulfonic acid.502 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 19. dry Chlorine gas. dry Bromine gas.5 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfatea Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Chromic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 15% 8F 120 210 400 110 100 60 210 110 110 210 90 180 140 100 X X X X X 8C 49 99 204 43 38 16 99 43 43 99 32 82 60 38 X X X X X X 170 90 210 300 210 570 170 210 570 80 210 210 150 170 170 200 100 210 210 X X X X 77 32 99 149 99 299 77 99 299 27 99 99 66 77 77 93 38 99 99 (continued) . moist Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride. 10% Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. sat. 10% Benzoic acid. 20% Calcium hydroxide.

5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys TABLE 19. 5% Nitric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Phenol 8F 70 X X X X X X X 8C 21 503 150 180 110 100 66 81 43 38 470 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 243 100 38 100 80 100 210 150 150 X X X X X X X X X 38 27 38 99 66 66 90 100 210 32 38 99 (continued) . Copper acetate Copper carbonate. 10% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. conc. general Lactic acid.5 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Citric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10% Ketones. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dilute Hydrobromic acid. conc. 25% Lactic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.b Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Nitric acid.

50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Corrosion Resistance Tables.1). 20% Sodium hypochlorite. like a highway road sign. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 98% Sulfuric acid. . When compatible. 1–4. conc. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. the corrosion rate is !20 mpy. 5th ed. exposed surface. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2004. occurs on both surfaces at approximately equal rates and the effect is additive. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride. corrosion occurs only on the outer. corrosion will probably occur at different rates on the inner and outer surfaces. 90% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. corrosion on a freely exposed object. 30%a Salicylic acid Silver bromide. For many structures. Sodium hypochlorite..A. Vols. a b Material subject to pitting. Likewise. new sites of corrosion continually occur. conc.504 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 19. Source: From P. 50% Sulfuric acid. Material subject to intergranular corrosion. Sodium sulfide. 10% Sulfuric acid.5 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Phosphoric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 100% Sulfuric acid. dry Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. Without any protection. Incompatibility is shown by an X. For tubes and containers. significant reduction in cross-section occurs and the effect on strength is noticeable. hence the self-stopping effect on loss in strength is less abrupt than on the depth of perforation (compare parts a and b in Figure 19. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 210 80 130 X 8C 99 27 54 80 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 27 90 370 210 100 32 188 99 38 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. New York: Marcel Dekker.

7. In such a case. Both curves show the self-stopping nature of pitting corrosion of aluminum but at different rates of change. (Courtesy of Alcoa Technical Center.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 250 Maximum depth of pitting (μm) 505 200 150 100 50 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 (a) 10 Loss ultimate tensile strength (%) Years of exposure in seacoast atmosphere 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 (b) Years of exposure in seacoast atmosphere FIGURE 19. a fatigue crack will propagate more rapidly in metal that has .1 Plots of maximum depth of pitting corrosion on 1000 and 3003 alloy sheet and the percent loss in strength resulting from exposure to seacoast atmosphere at Point Judith. A few isolated deep pits can be very significant if they occur at the location of high fatigue stress. Rhode Island. Marsha Egbert.) The effect on corrosion fatigue is still different and more complicated. once initiated. pits act as local stress risers and can greatly reduce the number of cycles required to initiate a fatigue crack. However. Mild general pitting over the entire surface is unlikely to produce such an effect. The rationale behind the difference is discussed in Section 19.

sometimes called intercrystalline corrosion) occurs to some extent in all heat-treated products and is often related to copper-depleted regions. Finally. Corrosion is limited to the immediate grain boundary region and may not be visible to the naked eye. it was possible to produce large particles of the stoichiometric precipitates CuAl3 and CuMgAl3 so that their corrosion potentials could be measured. or anodic precipitates at the grain boundary region. Also. but how the corrosion might affect the critical design properties.1 Mechanism of Intergranular Corrosion in 2XXX Alloys Intergranular corrosion in 2XXX alloys is essentially galvanic corrosion of the very narrow.3 19. but the sharper tips of IGC are considerably greater stress risers than corrosion pits. IGC commonly occurs in 2XXX-T3 and T4 alloys that are not quenched rapidly enough to keep all of the solute elements in solid solution. especially in 6XXX-T6 products exposed to atmospheres. frequently initiate and grow from pits. IGC will penetrate more quickly than pitting corrosion. showing that significant potential differences of as much as . driven by the relatively larger cathodic area of the copper-rich grain matrix. microscopic studies of corrosion in situ have shown that the more severe modes of corrosion. reaches a self-limiting depth due to limited transport of oxygen and corroding species down the narrow corrosion path. A simple laboratory test to determine the susceptibility to IGC of heattreatable alloys is contained in Reference [2]. Therefore. anodic copper-depleted regions at the grain margins. Both types of corrosion have an adverse effect on fatigue life.8. general corrosion. the designer needs to consider not only the rate at which corrosion occurs.65% copper. too. IGC also is prevalent in the peak strength T6 tempers. In the 2XXX system. IGC begins to spread laterally over the entire surface. such as SCC.506 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals been weakened by overall.2 is a plot of the corrosion potential of the various materials as a function of copper content. although pitting is regarded as the least damaging form of corrosion. However.8 Intergranular Corrosion Intergranular corrosion (IGC. care must be taken in relating the results obtained to the performance to be expected in other environments. 19. Figure 19. but it. as opposed to pitting corrosion that often remains confined to discrete sites. When depth of penetration ceases. corrosion potential measurements4 were conducted on high-purity aluminum and various binary Al–Cu alloys up to and beyond the limit of solid solubility of 5.

Figure 19. each being surrounded by a ring of copper-depleted aluminum.68 −0. plus the two stoichiometric precipitates. .64 Corrosion potential.15 V can exist between pure aluminum and AlC4% (or more) dissolved copper. Note that the addition of copper raises the corrosion potential of pure aluminum by about 0. the grain boundary is no longer a preferred site for corrosion.76 −0.3 is a schematic presentation of this condition.80 −0.14 V.8 wt% Cu 40 50 60 CuAl2 54.88 −0. but in the form of a string of circular pits that gradually progressed outward into the copper-rich grain. corrosion still initiated at the boundary.2 Plot of corrosion potentials of pure aluminum and binary aluminum plus copper alloys. The depleted zone is very narrow.56 −0.1 m or less in width. incoherent.72 −0. At this point. Marsha Egbert. resulting in a much slower rate of penetration.92 −0.60 −0. When 2XXX alloys are slowly quenched. This results in the most adverse galvanic situation of a small anode and a relatively large cathode. and corrosion reverts to general pitting.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 507 Cathodic −0. The binary alloys were fully solution heat treated and quenched as rapidly as possible to retain the maximum amount of copper in solid solution. (volt) −0.5 Corrosion was confined to the copper-depleted zone and proceeded rapidly down this zone. Further aging past peak strength (as in 2XXX-T8-type tempers) produced many fine incoherent precipitates throughout the grains.) 0.84 −0. copper-rich precipitates form at the grain boundary. large. After the sheet was aged to the peak strength. creating a copper-depleted zone in the grain margins.1 wt% Cu FIGURE 19. (Courtesy of Alcoa Technical Center.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Weight percent copper 8 CuMgAl2 44. Thin foils of 2024 prepared from sheet given a slow quench to a T42-type temper were immersed for a few seconds in the solution given in Reference [2] and then examined by transmission electron microscopy.96 Anodic −1. typically 0.

Colvin. Precipitation of the very-high-coppercontent precipitates on the boundary causes a copper-depleted zone on either side of the boundary. Edward L. resulting in a high driving force for rapid intergranular corrosion.24 V could exist between pure aluminum . However. the anodic copper-depleted zone is small in area compared with the area of the cathodic grain matrix.508 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Copper depleted zone Copper rich grain boundary precipitate Grain boundary Copper rich matrix Copper depleted zone Copper rich matrix FIGURE 19. Furthermore. so that a potential difference of as much as 0.2 Mechanism of Intergranular Corrosion in 7XXX Alloys The mechanism of intergranular corrosion in 7XXX alloys is believed to be analogous to that in 2XXX alloys. but it has not been studied in as great detail because most of the precipitate phases cannot be grown to a sufficient size to be analyzed. (Courtesy of Alcoa Technical Center.) 19.3 Schematic of grain boundary region in a 2XXX alloy.8.12 V. addition of zinc and the dissolution of the MgZn2 phase both shift the potential of these alloys in the anodic direction. The difference in the electrochemical potentials of the copper-depleted zone and the copper-rich matrix form a strong galvanic cell with a potential difference of about 0.

and zinc as alloying elements. 489–498 of Reference [6]. Exfoliation is a very deleterious form of corrosion because the splitting off of uncorroded metal rapidly reduces load-carrying ability. Resistance to SCC is highest for stressing parallel to the longitudinal direction of grains and lowest for stressing across the minimum thickness of grains. if not completely eliminated. Coatings can delay exfoliation. a susceptible grain boundary condition.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 509 and the alloys. This is discussed in more detail on pp. by cathodic protection. so the rate of corrosion is not selflimiting. SCC of an aluminum alloy in a susceptible temper is determined by the magnitude and duration of a tensile stress acting on its surface. 19. such as deicing salts or a seacoast atmosphere. The process of SCC can be retarded greatly. The most damaging natural environments are those with high chloride ion content. 19. Metallurgical treatment of these alloys can improve or prevent SCC in aluminum alloys. Exfoliation requires elongated (pancake-shaped) grains. it propagates internally. parallel to the surface of the metal. but the best procedure is use of a resistant temper. Overaging to the various T7 tempers produces semicoherent or incoherent precipitates throughout the grains and reduces the driving force for localized intergranular corrosion. causing a depleted zone that creates a galvanic cell between the narrow depleted zone and the zinc/magnesium-rich grains. magnesium. silicon. Exfoliation generally proceeds at a nearly linear rate. precipitation occurs first at grain boundaries. and a relatively severe environment.10 Stress Corrosion Cracking Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is experienced only in aluminum alloys having appreciable amounts of copper. The entrapped corrosion product is about five times as voluminous as the metal consumed. The splitting action continually exposes film-free metal. The presence or absence of an applied stress has no significant effect. depleting the regions adjacent to them of these ingredients. Again. This produces an internal stress that splits off the overlying layers of metal hence the name exfoliation. The cracking is normally intergranular and may be produced whenever alloying ingredients precipitate along grain boundaries. . This condition exists in both the as-quenched W temper and the peak-strength T6 temper.9 Exfoliation Corrosion When intergranular corrosion occurs in a product with a highly oriented grain structure.

and in products thick enough for stressing in all directions. The worm tracks slow down with time but appear to propagate most quickly on copper-containing alloys. e. filiform corrosion is primarily a cosmetic problem. Faying surfaces that will form a crevice are often painted prior to assembly. or a foil moisture barrier on insulation board or on foil-laminated paper packaging. it is corrosion that initiates in the narrow opening between two fastened parts. Tempers have been developed to provide a very high resistance to SCC in the other three alloy series. On thicker painted sheet.510 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Therefore. in wrought alloys having an elongated grain structure. Initiation occurs at a break in the coating.g. collect pollutants. resistance to SCC in the short transverse direction may be the controlling factor in applying these alloys. and adherence all are important factors that determine whether this form of corrosion will occur. It results in the blistering of the coating in a “worm track” pattern. When crevices cannot be eliminated. 19.05 mm or thinner) and foil (defined as %0. cracking will not occur. Crevices exclude oxygen. Crevices aggravate corrosion because they cause a chemical environment different from that on freely exposed surfaces.15 mm in thickness). and 7XXX series that make them subject to SCC. as for aircraft or automobiles.12 Crevice Corrosion Crevice corrosion is not truly a separate form of corrosion. retain moisture. thickness. water or water vapor must be present. 6XXX. Filiform corrosion is always shallow in depth and causes loss of product integrity only when it occurs on thin sheet (about 0. Rather. otherwise. surface cleanliness. 19. and concentrate corrosion products. underneath a pliable coating. The automotive industry has reported that a “hot wax dip” can effectively seal crevices.11 Filiform Corrosion Filiform corrosion occurs on the surface of aluminum. For SCC to take place. proper design to promote drainage and sealing of edges to prevent ingress of moisture is the best protection. coating flexibility. . 5XXX. Sufficient amounts of alloying elements are present in wrought alloys of the 2XXX. Special treatment can cause SCC in the 6XXX series. The presence of halides will accelerate cracking further.. food containers. but it causes loss of paint adhesion and can act as a site for initiation of pitting or other forms of corrosion. but cracking has never been experienced in commercial alloys. Preparation of the metal surface for coating. such as a fastener edge or a scratch.

Design prevention measures include the use of laminate material that does not absorb moisture and the sealing of edges. Some aerosol-type fungicides required for international shipment in wood containers can be particularly corrosive.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 511 19. cloth. therefore. Neither aluminum nor cadmium corrode sacrificially in a galvanic cell because they have nearly the same electrode potential.7 Properly dried (kilned) wood is much more compatible.g. but rather early initiation and aggravation of corrosion occurring beneath a hygroscopic attachment or insert.14 Galvanic Relations The galvanic series of aluminum alloys and other metals representative of their electrochemical behavior in seawater and in most natural waters and atmospheres is shown in Table 19.. Only magnesium and zinc are more anodic and corrode to protect aluminum. When in contact with other metals. affect electrode potential only when they are in solid solution. the two metals polarize highly. Aluminum may be used in contact with stainless steel and chromium in atmospheric and other mild environments with only a slight increase of corrosion. The effect of alloying elements in determining the position of aluminum alloys in the series is shown in Figure 19. This reduces the current density on the aluminum. freshly cut wood contains over 50% moisture and organic acids that can be quite corrosive.4.13 Poultice Corrosion Poultice corrosion is not a separate form of corrosion. aluminum and its alloys become the anode in galvanic cells with most metals and corrode sacrificially to protect them. In these environments. depending on the species. In this regard. paints and other coatings may be applied to both the aluminum and cathodic metal or . Contact with copper and its alloys should be avoided because of the low degree of polarization of these metals. These elements. the additional corrosion current impressed into the aluminum in the galvanic cell is small. The degree to which aluminum is polarized in a galvanic cell will determine the degree to which aluminum corrodes when coupled to a more cathodic metal. or wood to a single layer of aluminum or a multilayered laminate. As can be seen in Table 19. 19. soil) on ledges and the like. Periodic cleaning and drying are good preventative measures. Wood treated against disease and insects may contain chemicals that can leach out and be corrosive. An unintentional poultice is the gradual collection of hygroscopic particulate matter (e. the ratio of exposed aluminum to that of the more cathodic metal should be kept as high as possible. To minimize corrosion.6. primarily copper and zinc.6. This could be lamination of paper.

5086 5454 5456. 19.85 K0.O-F (PM). but never applied to only the aluminum because it is very difficult to apply and maintain free of defects.84 K0.83 K0. 3004. T4 295.512 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 19. T4 2024-T3.02 V with quenching rate.73 Measured in an aqueous solution of 53 g of NaCl and 3 g of H2O2 per liter at 258C.15 Reduction of Ions of Other Metals by Aluminum Metals most commonly encountered are copper.81 K0.20 K0. nickel. and tin. Therefore. mercury. lead.96 K1. 443.O-F (SC) 1060.O-T4 (SC or PM) 295.70 K0.10 K1. Galvanic corrosion is reduced in any solution when the cathodic reactant is removed. the corrosion rate of aluminum coupled to copper in seawater is reduced greatly when the seawater is deaerated.55 K0.O-T6 (SC or PM) 2219-T6.82 K0.6 Electrode Potentials of Representative Aluminum Alloys and Other Metals Aluminum Alloy or other Metala Chromium Nickel Silver Stainless steel (300 series) Copper Tin Lead Mild carbon steel 2219-T3.08 K0.01 to 0.79 K0.78 K0.18 to K0. 1350. 7050-T73. a The potential of an aluminum alloy is the same in all tempers wherever the temper is not designated.O-T4 (SC or PM) 355.64b K0.09 K0.80 K0.87 K0. 7075-T6.O-T6 (SC or PM).c 7075-T73b 5052. 6063-T6.58 K0. 0. 3003.69b K0. cadmium 1100. to the cathodic metal alone. 6061-T6.49 K0.b 443.86 K0. 2024-T8. 5083 7072 Zinc Magnesium Potential (V) C0. 355. 6061-T4 2024-T6 2219-T8.40 K0. 356. cobalt. b The potential varies G0. This is because the aluminum is less likely to be polarized to its pitting potential.1 N calomel reference electrode.O-T6 (SC or PM) 2014-T6. The corrosive action is twofold because a chemical equivalent .07 K0. Cathodic metals in nonhalide salt solutions usually corrode aluminum to a lesser degree than in solutions of halide salts.71 K0.

H. in Corrosion and Corrosion Engineering. (From E. New York: Marcel Dekker. This results from the amalgamation of mercury with aluminum. progresses for long periods because the aluminum in . Ed. A threshold concentration of 0.) of aluminum is oxidized for each equivalent of ion reduced. the corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy is reduced because the alloys reduce the copper ions in any corrosion product from them. Rainwater entering aluminum gutters from roofs with copper flashing is a common source of copper ions.94 −0.90 −0. 1988. mercury. can be severely damaging to aluminum.78 −0. If more than 0. Hunsicker. wt% FIGURE 19.4 Effect of alloying elements on the electrode potential of aluminum.98 Anodic −1.82 −0.A. Aluminum alloys. once started..74 −0. Whenever stress is present. P.66 −0. whether reduced from its ions or introduced directly in the metallic form.10 Zn Mg Solid solution In excess of solid solution Si Mn 513 Cu Potential-volts (N/10 Calomel scale) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Added element.02 ppm of copper is generally accepted for the reduction of copper ion.02 −1.25% copper is present as an alloying ingredient. In alkaline solutions they are less of a concern because of their greatly reduced solubilities.06 −1.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys −0. Acidic solutions with reducible metallic ions are of greatest concern.70 Cathodic −0.. which.86 −0.Y. but galvanic cells are set up because the metal reduced from the ions plates onto the aluminum. 2nd ed. Hollingsworth and H. Schweitzer.

the depth of attack decreases to a low rate. Corrosion of these alloys in seawater is primarily of the pitting type. but not to as low a rate. and 5XXX series exhibit excellent resistance to high-purity water.514 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals the amalgam oxidizes immediately in the presence of water. Any concentration in a solution of more than a few parts per billion is susceptible to attack. The loss in strength also decreases in the same manner after the initial period. The presence of carbon dioxide or oxygen dissolved in the water does not appreciably affect the corrosion resistance of these alloys. after which pickup of aluminum by water becomes negligible.16 Weathering Aluminum alloys. neither is the corrosion resistance affected by the chemicals added to the water to minimize the corrosion of steel because of the presence of these gasses. have a high resistance to weathering in most atmospheres. producing a protective oxide film on the alloys within a few days. After an initial period of exposure.17 Waters (General) Wrought alloys of the 1XXX. 3XXX. their resistance being greater in neutral or slightly alkaline waters and less in acidic waters. Under no circumstances should metallic mercury be allowed to come into contact with aluminum. (2) non-heat-treatable alloys tend to be more . The rates of pitting usually range from 3 to 6 mm/year during the first year and from 0. Resistance to corrosion by seawater is also high. 19. 19. General corrosion is minimal. except those containing copper as a major alloying element. continuously regenerating the mercury. These same alloys are also resistant to many natural waters. When first exposed.8 to 1. (1) pure aluminum is more corrosion-resistant than alloys.5 mm/year averaged over a 10-year period. This “self-limiting” characteristic of corrosive attack during weathering also occurs with aluminum alloys in many other environments. a slight reaction takes place. The lower rate for the longer period indicates the tendency of older pits to become inactive. regardless of environment.18 Relative Resistance of Aluminum and Alloys As explained earlier. Alloys of the 5XXX series have the highest resistance to seawater and are widely used for marine applications. 19.

19. The severe seacoast effect. followed by production equipment and containers for chemicals. The higher strength 5XXX alloys and the 6XXX alloys have sufficient inherent resistance to corrosion that they can be used without any protective . For example. incurring continual wave spray. is seen only within 0. which has a lower nominal copper of only 4. however. The corrosive effect is very dependent on prevailing wind direction and roughness of surf action. The two sites are in close priminity and were shown in a single aerial photograph. usually by a clear lacquer or an anodized coating. Panama.3% copper is used only in artificially aged tempers. Outdoor atmospheres are classified as seacoast. The 3XXX alloys and low-magnesium-content 5XXX alloys are too low in strength to be considered as structural alloys. but 2219-T851 or T87 has essentially the same resistance as 2024-T851 and T86.19 Atmospheric Weathering The majority of aluminum products are used in what would be considered an outdoor atmosphere. located 25 and 250 m from the shoreline. and rural.5 miles) of the shoreline. further alloying has little effect. Therefore.4%. alloy 2219 with a nominal 6. If one wants to retain a shiny metallic surface in seacoast atmosphere. and the seacoast effect will be greatly diminished at distances of 3–8 km (2–5 miles) from the shore. except for alloys and tempers that incur exfoliation. after the solid solubility limit of an element is exceeded. it is worthwhile to conclude with a review the relative resistance of alloys on that basis. Differences have been reported between the two beach test sites at Kure Beach. which control how far inland actual salt mist will be carried.1 Seacoast Atmosphere Seacoast atmosphere is by far the most damaging natural atmosphere for aluminum alloys. was much greater than at the “coastal” site located about 50 m from the shoreline. However.9 An even greater corrosion rate difference of approximately 9:2 was reported at two seashore sites at Fort Sherman. even pure aluminum and all alloys will have to be protected. North Carolina. Aluminum products are used extensively in natural atmospheres. urban or industrial. and (3) the resistance to corrosion tends to decrease as alloying content increases. Waters are probably the next most frequent natural environment. It is recommended that protection be provided to prevent perforation of such thin products. 19. Therefore. they are usually used as thin sheet or tubing. 19.9 Corrosion of specimens exposed on the “breakwater” site. Corrosion of aluminum is self-limiting in all of these environments and the rate of corrosion becomes very slow within 5 years.8 km (0.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 515 resistant than heat-treatable alloys.

will provide usable corrosion resistance in urban/industrial environments. urban/industrial environments do not cause exfoliation and the need for protection is to (1) retain aesthetic appearance. This is particularly true if they are used in relatively thick sections. and possibly various NXO gases.2 Urban or Industrial Atmospheres Close proximity to a factory emitting specific chemical fumes can be a problem if these condense on the aluminum surface as highly acidic or basic electrolytes. even if they are susceptible only to pitting corrosion. Choice of alloy. such as Pittsburgh. . is generally made on other engineering requirements.15 mm. a notable example being a Reynolds test site in the greater Chicago area. or SCC. These alloys will darken and show slight roughening but can survive 20 or more years exposure without appreciable degradation. the need for protection depends primarily on two things: (1) the desire to retain a pleasing appearance and (2) whether the application is fatigue-critical. at least with appropriate protective measures.12 However.516 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals coating. Cities using a large amount of sodium chloride (rock salt) for snow removal may approach the corrosivity of the seacoast during the winter months. For exfoliation and SCC-resistant tempers. cities. about 12 mm or more. and pitting corrosion will appreciably roughen the surface to a maximum depth of about 0. plus cost and availability. but the loss in residual tensile strength and load-carrying ability will be neglible. therefore. For non-fatigue-critical. masonry. A noted example is the performance in U. (2) prevent pitting perforation of thin parts. Almost all of the aluminum alloys. This type of atmosphere is definitely less corrosive to aluminum and aluminum alloys than is seacoast atmosphere. A few highly urban areas are capable of causing exfoliation. have been found capable of causing increased susceptibility to SCC. Likewise. However. exfoliation. in which case the depth of pitting corrosion might be a sufficient stress riser to initiate a fatigue crack. This discoloration problem is not limited to aluminum and occurs on other metals. like Los Angeles.10 The 2XXX and 7XXX alloys should never be used in seacoast atmosphere in tempers that are susceptible to IGC.10 An aesthetic problem is the gradual darkening and eventual blackening that occurs if there is no regulation on smoke emissions. and (3) avoid failure by SCC. for the most part. for which the amount of corrosion should be slight enough to cause neglible loss on load-carrying strength. before and after smoke control regulations. weathering will darken and stain the surface. thin products should be afforded protection against perforation. structural applications using products of about 12 mm or more in thickness.19. Even 2024-T351 plate has not exfoliated after long periods in such environments. urban/industrial atmospheres usually are regarded as atmospheres that are high in CO and CO2.11 Other cities with high NXO gases. and stone.10 19. sulfates and sulfites.S.

but then the packaging helps retain moisture and prevent drying. Staining is usually a problem on products with bright surfaces. Staining occurs to some extent on heat-treated alloys stored in warehouses. The wheels were delivered toward the end of a day and left overnight in an unheated truck trailer. particularly in the ability to cause staining and darkening of the surface. It has not resulted in the more severe forms of corrosion. This problem is aggravated if the products are packaged such that moisture can condense on the aluminum surfaces. for example. but not at a different plant location. 19. A manufacturer of polished highway trailers made of 5454-H34 sheet incurred dark-brown staining from rainfall on trailers stored outdoors at one plant location. However. dissolve in the condensed vapor. such as pure aluminum foil bonded to insulation board. were held in place with plastic “shrink” wrap that was not an air-tight envelope.19. etc. and have actually occurred on the more resistant materials. local problems do occur.4 Indoor Atmosphere Indoor air is relatively benign. Metallographers frequently store polished metallographic mounts of aluminum specimens in sealed desiccators for weeks without any staining occurring. were once considered as virtually noncorrosive for aluminum alloys. Also. such as the ASTM test site at Pennsylvania State College. However. resulting in a conducting electrolyte.3 Rural Atmosphere Rural sites.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 517 19.19. filiform corrosion. provided that the temperature is relatively constant (no marked. The beverage cans and truck wheels. humid days. and other surface corrosion can be a serious problem on products stored indoors in unheated buildings or tractor trailers. This has increased the corrosivity of many rural areas. Another critical indoor atmosphere corrosion occurrence is that normal humidity. and polished 6061-T6 truck wheels. in the typical 40–55% relative humidity human “comfort zone. especially SO2. The problem is condensation on the metal during cool nights after warm. but this has not been a serious problem because these products already have a dark heat-treated film on them. Airborne pollutants. rapid cool-down) and particularly if the air is dehumidified.” can be a sufficient electrolyte to cause SCC in highly susceptible low-copper . airborne pollution from coal-burning power plants located upwind result in acid rainfall over a widespread area. The wrap acted to prevent circulation and retard drying. 5182 ends on soft-drink cans. in recent years. Staining. often on all surfaces. heat-treated plate and bar stored in distributor warehouses are usually subsequently machined. Serious staining problems can occur quickly and surprisingly. The adverse effect of acid rain increasing corrosion in rural areas has been considerably more pronounced on steel than on aluminum alloys. Waxing the trailers or coating them with a silicone-based hydrophobic solution was necessary to prevent this staining.

If this water subsequently comes into contact with bare aluminum. Distilled. Some special planning is necessary if multiple metals will be present in a water-handling system. The Alclad “waster” pipe section scavenges the copper ions from the flowing solution and is replaced periodically as it becomes appreciably corroded. this is now well known and these highly susceptible alloys are no longer produced.g. Therefore. and steam condensate are readily handled by aluminum systems. soft water. The biggest corrosion concern in freshwaters is perforation by pitting. situated so that it can be readily replaced. Any corrosion that occurs is usually in the form of pitting that follows a decreasing rate curve. Aluminum and the 3XXX. One method of handling this is to use a section of Alclad pipe as a heavymetal trap at the start of the aluminum piping. particularly since rainfall has become more acidic. Problems usually occur because of cathodic ions entering the solution upstream of the aluminum. the industry switched to alloy 6010 and then to alloy 6013 for higher strength and better dent resistance. Alloy 6061-T6 is well suited to water situations and is the preferred metal of construction in most sanitary water treatment plants. Appreciable rate test investigations were made during the 1950–1970 period. localized pitting. Subsequently. then considerable protection must be provided. Aluminum canoes were original made of 6061-T9 (cold-rolled after aging to increase strength). deionized. Fortunately.518 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals or copper-free 7XXX alloys. so that a corrosion rate can be . For example. especially if acidic.20 Waters (Specific) The heat-treatable 2XXX and 7XXX aluminum alloys are not suited for use in waters. will dissolve copper. one wants to experimentally establish the maximum depth of pitting. the corrosion of a brass pump ahead of aluminum piping. 5XXX. such as 7079-T651. usually as a function of time. Another example of the same ion effect of this sort have been encountered with the use of copper roof flashing and bare aluminum rain gutters. The fungicides used often contain copper or other heavy metals that will adversely affect aluminum and cause severe. Care must be taken in treatments to prevent algae growth and the like in small ponds and lagoons.. 19.20. If they are required for their strength or other engineering properties. e.1 Freshwaters Soft waters have the least effect on aluminum alloys. 19. in contrast to their effect on iron and copper. and 6XXX aluminum alloys have good resistance to most natural waters. the copper will plate out to form local galvanic cells.

and others] have established that the rate of pitting again follows a cube-root curve and becomes self-limiting with time. Since the scanning electron microscope (SEM) became available. Tests on pilings and pipe exposed above and below water have shown that increased pitting sometimes occurs at the waterline and in the splash zone. investigators have sometimes exposed a tensile or fatigue specimen that is pre-corroded and then tested to failure by tension or by fatigue. harbor piers. the alloys of choice have been the high-magnesium 5XXX alloys and the 6XXX alloys. Florida have exposed identical specimens by continuous total immersion and by intermittent immersion during high tide. Tests in the St. Depth of pitting cannot be measured visually and must be determined microscopically by a skilled microscopist. The time to penetration can then be calculated by the formula: t2Zt1(d2/d1)3. For strength reasons. Either method inherently causes failure at the site of the deepest surface flaw. off-shore rigs. Early on. both of which are readily welded and have good weld strengths. This requires the use of multiple samples and several metallographic sections from each sample to ensure a good assessment of the maximum depth. where di is the maximum pit depth at time ti. This most likely is the result of increased oxygen content near the surface.3 Piping Applications Another important use of aluminum has been the use of 3003 and 3004 piping in handling of seawater for desalinization plants and high-purity . Thick 5456-H116 plate has been used for cryogenic tanks on compressed natural gas (CNG) tankers.20. 19. SEM examination of the fractured faces can then accurately measure the maximum depth of pitting. The continuously immersed specimens tended to develop fewer but deeper sites of corrosion. Seawater tends to cause somewhat deeper pitting than does freshwater. Many of the newer naval vessels now use aluminum superstructures for lighter weight and increased speed.20.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 519 determined. early tests [8. plus concentration effects due to partial drying in the splash zone. 19. James River Estuary in the Chesapeake Bay and in Lake Maracaibo.2 Seawater Aluminum has been used appreciably in seawater as ships. Venezuela indicate that brackish water with lower salinity has about the same corrosiveness as seawater.15. The significant conclusion from the cube-root curve is that doubling the thickness increases the time to perforation by a factor of 8. and retainment walls. However. Tests at Miami.14. Goddard13 showed in several hundred tests that pitting of aluminum in freshwater followed a cube-root curve: di Z Kti1=3 . Analysis of the measured pit depth data by extreme-value analysis can provide further confidence in the predicted maximum depth of penetration.

as listed in Table 19. 3XXX.520 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals water for cooling ion atomic energy plants. which is metallurgically bonded to one or both surfaces of the core alloy. Pure aluminum.X 6XXX. air conditioners. Any corrosion that takes place progresses only to the cladding-core interface. and automotive radiators.22 Cast Aluminum There is no single commercial designation system for aluminum castings.7. The most widely used system is that of the Aluminum Association. TABLE 19.X 8XXX.X 9XXX.9% minimum aluminum Aluminum plus copper Aluminum plus silicon plus magnesium Aluminum plus silicon plus copper Aluminum plus silicon plus copper plus magnesium Aluminum plus silicon Aluminum plus magnesium Currently unused Aluminum plus zinc Aluminum plus tin Currently unused 4XXX. usually representing 10% or less of the total thickness.X Alloy System 99. 19. These products consist of a core alloy and a more anodic cladding alloy.X . and lower magnesium 5XXX alloy tubing have also been used extensively for various cooling applications on both the commercial and residential scale. then spreads laterally as a result of the cathodic protection provided by the core of the cladding. The predicted life of the tubes can be extended through the use of Alclad tubing. It consists of a four-digit numbering system incorporating a decimal point to separate the third and fourth digits.X 3XXX. Examples are heat exchangers.7 Designation of Aluminum Castings Series 1XXX.X 7XXX. The first digit identifies the alloy group.X 5XXX.X 2XXX. 19.21 Alclad Products Alclad products are used where perforation of a product cannot be tolerated.

0 5.5 380. Because of their low strength.X castings are the most prevalent because of their superior casting characteristics.3 0.0 1. but are difficult to cast.X series of the aluminumCcopper alloys were the first type of casting alloys used commercially and are still used.7 Ni Zn Alloys not normally heat treated 360. they may be used in both the F and fully strengthened T tempers. The 4XXX. The 5XXX.8 4. They are produced in both as-cast (F) tempers and heat-treated tempers T5–T7.X series is assigned to pure aluminum.0 0.5 1.0 357. They provide reasonably good corrosion resistance but low to medium strength. but a few in which a considerable amount of alloying elements are retained in solution during casting may not be thermally treated after casting.5 2.5 Alloys normally heat treated 295. They provide medium to high strength.3 356. in which strengthening is produced primarily by constituents of insoluble or undissolved alloying elements.0 12. However.0 0.5 443. these alloys are usually cast with integral steel stiffeners. corresponding to the same type of wrought alloys where strengthening is produced by dissolution of soluble alloying elements and their subsequent precipitation.0 7.5 4.5 3. Besides ingot. The 1XXX.0 9.X castings provide the highest resistance to corrosion and good machinability and weldability. The 3XXX.3 514.0 8.5 336. the only major commercial use of pure aluminum castings is electrical conductor parts such as collector rings and bus bars. thus.0 7.0 355.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 521 Aluminum castings are of two types: heat-treatable. Tempers of heat-treatable casting alloys are designated by an F. Alloys of the heattreatable type are usually thermally treated subsequent to their casting.0 6.0 710.X alloys provide the best combination of strength and corrosion resistance.0 0.0 0.5 .8 Nominal Chemical Compositions of Representative Aluminum Casting Alloys Alloying Elements (%) Alloy Si Cu Mg 0. they have low to medium strength TABLE 19. and non–heat-treatable.0 1. These alloys are the least corrosion resistant and can be susceptible to SCC in the maximum strength of T6 temper.0 5. The 2XXX.5 0.

B. Ed. 8. Lifka. 2004.S.E. 5.O. 469–512. 513.0. Aluminum.O. Standard practice for evaluating intergranular corrosion resistance of heat treatable aluminum alloys by immersion in sodium chlorideChydrogen peroxide solution. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Metallic Corrosion. and 414. copper is the alloying element most deleterious for general corrosion resistance.C. D. Vols. P. Houston: NACE International. 4. References 1. Washington. Brown. Standard practice for measurement of corrosion potentials of aluminum alloys. Stress corrosion mechanisms for aluminum alloys. Robinson. 102. Sprowls.H. Required properties are the ability to carry high compressive loads and good fatigue resistance.X castings were designed for bearings and bushings in internal combustion engines. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Hunger. They are difficult to cast and are limited to simple shapes. 5th ed. 7-CO-R87-TTO-003. Aluminum Association. pp. ASTM. E. Downs III and E. Nominal chemical compositions of representative aluminum alloys are shown in Table 19. Corrosion resistance decreases as the copper content of the alloy increases.W. Panama and Kure Beach. in Corrosion and Corrosion Engineering. 12: 1255–1261. 6. 2. Comparative Corrosion Evaluation: Fort Sherman. G69. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.A.. Alloys such as 356. 1987. 1994.R. Schweitzer. Mechanism of corrosion of 2024 alloy as revealed by electron microscopy. Baker. New York: Marcel Dekker.522 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals and are difficult to cast.0.A. pp. They have medium to good resistance to corrosion and high melting points. The 7XXX. 03. ASTM. being limited to sand castings or simple permanent mold shapes. and seacoast atmospheres.02:470–472. North Carolina. The 8XXX. Aluminum Association.W.Y. TTC Report No. as well as in wrought products. 1–4. Sprowls and R. Frank.L.. Localized Corrosion. Houston: NACE International. In castings. 1988. 5th ed. 1984. Hollingsworth and H. D. Guidelines for the Use of Aluminum with Food and Chemicals. G110.H.X castings find limited applications. in International Conference of Fundamental Aspects of Stress-Corrosion Cracking. P. 03. ASTM Special Publication 516. 9. 1989.. and D.8. 2nd ed. M. 1969..A. Schweitzer. G. Hunsicker. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Cause of Metal Failure. B. 1994. TECOM Project No. 120–144. 1972. 1963. . New York: Marcel Dekker. G. 7. 10. Corrosion of aluminum alloy plate in rural industrial. 8910001.0 that do not contain copper as an alloying ingredient have a high resistance to general corrosion comparable to that of non–heat-treatable wrought alloys. Aluminum alloys. Significance of intergranular corrosion of high strength aluminum alloy products. Lifka and D. 3.02:265–267.

12. .P. H. Ketchum and E. 14–23. pp. Jemks. Wright. 52: 91.W. ASTM STP 866 Laboratory Corrosion Tests and Standards. Corrosion. Developing an accelerated test: Problems and pitfalls. 1944. Goddard. 14. Brown. R. T. 1985.H. Aluminum. SCC resistant aluminum alloy 7075-T73 performance in various environments.Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 11. 1960. 13. 13: 481.J.J. and I. Goddard. Means and R. Canadian Journal of Engineering.H. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials. Lifka. 12: 750–752. 1977. 1957. 15.E. 38: 167.P. Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. 523 S. H. Jankowsky. B.B.

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5 g/cm3. a low density (4. In spite of this. or copper. medical prostheses.20 Titanium Titanium is the ninth most abundant element on earth and the fourth most abundant metal. coupled with decreased maintenance requirements and longer life expectancy in many applications. Most of the widely used casting alloys are based on the traditional wrought compositions. as consumption has increased and new technologies have been developed to reduce the high cost. specifically: 1. Metallurgists have separated titanium alloys into categories according to the phases present. However. Commercially pure or modified titanium 2. its widespread use has been somewhat limited by its cost. Beta alloys 525 . chemical processing equipment. Alpha and near alpha alloys 3. nickel. Thinner sections.1. which are commonly employed as alloys used to resist corrosion. The titanium alloys. little use was made of titanium until the commercialization of the Kroll process about 1950 that made titanium sponge available. Applications for some of the more popular alloys are shown in Table 20. are not separated into wrought and cast categories. marine vehicles. Alpha–beta alloys 4. Increasing usage has been found in automotive applications.000 psi). and sporting goods. and high tensile strength (60. At the present time—it is competitive with nickel-based alloys. usage has increased and will probably continue to increase further. Although having the advantages of being highly corrosion-resistant in oxidizing environments. permit titanium equipment installations to be cost-effective despite a higher initial cost. It is more plentiful than chromium. pulp and paper industry. unlike other nonferrous alloys. approximately 60% that of steel).

and 4 are available that contain more or less iron and oxygen. ASTM grade 2. If better formability or higher strength is required. TABLE 20. where mechanical properties were the primary consideration. heat exchangers. and high performance automotive components Golf club heads. ASTM grades 1. 3. this discussion of the titanium alloys will be limited to those used for their corrosion resistance properties. and orthodontic applicances Airframe and turbines 20.526 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 20. During this period. corrosion resistance is the most important property. unalloyed titanium is the single alloy most often used for corrosion resistance. Has high fracture toughness Aerospace industry. and chlorine cells Chemical processing and handling equipment. medical prostheses. Used in hot brines.2. In industrial applications.2 Titanium Alloys Used for Corrosion Resistance Alloy Ti-50A Ti-6A1-4V Ti–Pd Ti-Code 12 ASTM Grade 2 5 7 12 UNS Designation R-50400 R-56400 R-52400 R-53400 Composition Unalloyed titanium Titanium–aluminum–vanadium alloy Titanium–palladium alloy Titanium–nickel–molybdenum alloy . Consequently. The four primary titanium alloys used industrially for corrosion resistance are shown in Table 20. Has high degree of immunity to attack by most mineral acids and chlorides. chemical pumps. however. springs. and working tools Aircraft fasteners.1 Applications of Titanium Alloys Alloy ASTM grade 12 UNS R53400 ASTM grade 9 UNS R56320 UNS R54210 UNS R56210 TI 6211 and UNS R56400 ASTM grade 5 UNS R56400 UNS R58030 UNS R54810 Applications Chemical process industries.1 Alloys The primary initial applications of titanium were in the aerospace industry. marine equipment. many titanium alloys were developed for these applications. auto parts. and organic compounds Cryogenic applications Marine vehicle hulls. boiling seawater.

max Iron. sheet.05 0.25 — — — 0. and 4 cover unalloyed titanium. max Hydrogen.015 0.5 — — — Remainder Ti–Pd (ASTM Grade 7) 0. max Carbon.5–6.03 0. as shown in Table 20.5–4. The chemical composition of unalloyed titanium grades and titanium alloys are covered by ASTM specifications.25 — — — — — Remainder Ti–6Al–4V a (ASTM Grade 5) 0. This alloy.03 0.03 0. compared with unalloyed titanium.015 0. Grade 12 is a lower-cost alternative for grades 7 and 11 and is suitable for some applications.10 0. These alloys are all available in various product forms covered by ASTM specifications.3 Chemical Composition of Titanium Alloys Ti-50Aa (ASTM Grade 2) 0.08 0. The general properties of titanium alloys are shown in Table 20.20 5. 2.2–0.10 0.4 0.015 0.5. Grade 2 is most often used for corrosion resistance.6–0.4 ASTM Titanium Specifications ASTM B 265-76 ASTM B 337-76 ASTM B 338-76 ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM B 348-76 B 363-76 B 367-69 B 381-76 Titanium and titanium alloy strip.25 — — 0.Titanium TABLE 20.25 — — Remainder 527 Element Nitrogen. Grade 7 alloy.015 0.10 0.30 0. The palladium of alloys 7 and 11 has been replaced with 0.9 Remainder Timet designation. ASTM grades 1.4. Table 20. 3. as grade 11.3 lists the compositions of representative grades. and plate Seamless and welded titanium and titanium alloy pipe Seamless and welded titanium and titanium alloy tubes for condensers and heat exchangers Titanium and titanium alloy bars and billets Seamless and welded unalloyed titanium welding fittings (1974) Titanium and titanium alloy castings Titanium and titanium alloy forgings . grades 3 and 4 possess higher strength.30 0.3% molybdenum. Its corrosion resistance is inferior to the unalloyed grades. max Aluminum Vanadium Palladium Molybdenum Nickel Titanium a Ti-Code 12 a (ASTM Grade 12) 0. max Oxygen. Grade 1 possesses better ductility but lower strength.8% nickel and 0. possesses an improved corrosion resistance.30 0. Grade 5 is an alloy having high strength and toughness and is a generalpurpose alloy finding numerous applications in the aerospace industry.75 3. is used for improved formability.12–0. TABLE 20.40 0.

R50250 R50400 R50550 R52400 R52250 — R53400 R56320 — R56400 Properties Ductility. The oxide film of titanium is very stable. should be avoided because the protective film may not be regenerated if damaged. For some metals.2 Types of Corrosion Titanium. accelerated corrosion attack occurs. this can occur at velocities as low as 2–3 ft/s. in the absence of a source of oxygen. most notable of which is hydrofluoric acid. .528 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 20. but at lower cost Reasonable strength and improved crevice corrosion resistance: lower cost Medium strength and superior pressure code design allowances Same as grade 9 but with improved resistance to reducing acids and crevice corrosion High strength and toughness 20. is subject to corrosion in certain environments. titanium is capable of healing ruptures in this film almost instantly in any environment where a trace of moisture or oxygen is present. This film forms instantly when a fresh surface is exposed to air or moisture. like any other metal. Additions of alloying elements to titanium affect the corrosion resistance because these elements alter the composition of the oxide film. After this takes place.5 General Properties of Titanium Alloys ASTM Grade 1 (CP) 2 (CP) 3 (CP) 7 and 11 16 12 9 18 5 CP. and is attacked by only a few substances. Numerous corrosion–erosion tests have been conducted and all have shown that titanium has outstanding resistance to this form of corrosion. Anhydrous conditions. lower strength Good balance of moderate strength and ductility Moderate strength Improved resistance to reducing acids and superior crevice corrosion resistance Resistance similar to grade 7. Because of its strong affinity for oxygen. chemically pure. The corrosion resistance of titanium is the result of a stable. strongly adherent oxide film. UNS No. This is known as erosion–corrosion. though relatively thin. The protective oxide film of most metals is subject to being swept away above a critical water velocity. protective. The critical velocity for titanium in seawater is in excess of 90 ft/s.

However. Acidic conditions that cause the oxide films to be unstable may also result in embrittlement under conditions in which hydrogen is generated on the titanium surface. In any event. . select two metals that are close in the galvanic series. if the temperature exceeds 1708F (778C) hydriding can cause embrittlement. if surface hydride films form they are not detrimental. titanium will be the cathodic member of any galvanic couple. particularly sulfuric and hydrochloric acid solutions.2 Galvanic Corrosion The coupling of titanium with dissimilar metals usually does not accelerate the corrosion of titanium.e. hydrogen will be evolved on the surface of the titanium..2. If this is not practical. However. contain enough impurities in the form of ferric ions. For most environments.Titanium 529 20. As a result of this. above 1708F (758C). The severity of this kind of attack can be expressed by a corrosion rate. Hydrogen absorption has been observed in alkaline solutions at temperatures above the boiling point.2. this type of corrosion is most frequently encountered in hot. acts as an effective barrier to penetration by hydrogen.. 20. The surest way to avoid problems with galvanic corrosion is to construct equipment of a single metal. cupric ions. It may accelerate the corrosion of the other member of the couple. embrittlement can occur under conditions that allow hydrogen to enter titanium and exceed the concentration needed to form a hydride phase (about 100–150 ppm). proportional to the galvanic current flow.6 for compatibility of titanium with selected corrodents. reducing acid solutions. to allow hydrogen to diffuse into the titanium. but in most cases the titanium will be unaffected.2. the critical parts should be constructed of titanium because it is not usually attacked. Refer to Table 20. Many process streams. Otherwise.1 General Corrosion General corrosion is characterized by a uniform attack over the entire exposed surface of the metal. in most cases. it appears that embrittlement occurs only if the temperature is sufficiently high. The exception is in reducing environments where titanium does not passivate. oxidizing agents and certain multivalent metal ions have the ability to passivate the titanium.3 Hydrogen Embrittlement The oxide film on titanium. In environments where titanium would be subject to this type of corrosion. titanium has a potential similar to aluminum and will undergo accelerated corrosion when coupled to more noble metals. With titanium. etc. 20. This may result in the formation of surface hydride films that are generally stable and cause no problems. i. to passivate titanium and give trouble-free service. Under these conditions. If contact of dissimilar metals with titanium is necessary.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate. 10% Ammonium sulfate. sat. 3:1 Titanium 300/104 260/127 260/127 260/127 260/127 280/138 190/88 210/99 450/232 200/93 200/93 10% 310/154 200/93 80/27 190/88 200/93 210/99 200/93 210/99 190/88 203/93 90/32 80/27 80/27 210/99 210/99 80/27 210/99 210/99 210/99 200/93 210/99 110/43 80/27 Zirconium 250/121 220/104 230/110 230/110 230/110 250/121 190/88 80/27 210/93 200/93 200/93 210/99 40% 200/93 37% 210/99 X 200/93 210/99 100/38 210/99 220/104 X X 210/99 210/99 210/99 220/104 210/99 210/99 210/99 200/93 210/99 210/99 X Tantalum 90/32 302/150 302/150 302/150 302/150 302/150 302/150 80/27 210/99 210/99 300/149 90/32 302/150 302/150 X 100/38 80/27 302/150 200/93 302/150 302/150 302/150 X X 302/150 302/150 210/99 90/32 302/150 302/150 90/32 210/99 302/150 320/160 302/150 210/99 210/99 302/150 (continued) . 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium fluoride.6 Compatibility of Titanium. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. sat. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. and Tantalum with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid.530 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 20. 50% Acetic acid. Zirconium. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid.

Titanium TABLE 20. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorine. 25% Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. sat. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas.6 Continued Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Barium carbonate Barium chloride. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. moist Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Titanium 80/27 210/99 210/99 210/99 90/32 100/38 230/110 400/204 210/99 190/88 210/99 X 190/88 X 210/99 200/93 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 230/110 140/60 310/154 210/99 230/110 200/93 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 90/32 80/27 210/99 300/149 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 X 390/199 200/93 210/99 Zirconium 210/99 210/99 200/93 210/99 90/32 210/99 230/110 210/99 400/204 210/99 210/99 X 60/16 60/16 210/99 200/93 210/99 210/99 90/32 230/110 210/99 210/99 210/99 200/93 210/99 210/99 410/210 531 Tantalum 90/32 210/99 302/150 210/99 90/32 210/99 230/110 210/99 210/99 210/99 230/110 X 300/149 302/150 302/150 570/299 80/27 80/27 80/27 210/99 302/150 80/27 230/110 210/99 302/150 302/150 302/150 302/150 80/27 210/99 300/149 210/99 310/154 300/149 210/99 302/150 300/149 210/99 210/99 302/150 460/238 570/299 300/149 300/149 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 90/32 X X 200/93 210/99 (continued) . wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. dry Bromine gas. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide.

conc. conc. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 20% Titanium 210/99 210/99 210/99 60/16 210/99 180/82 80/27 200/93 90/32 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 280/138 210/99 300/149 210/09 90/32 210/99 X X 90/32 200/93 200/93 X X X X X 100/38 90/32 90/32 210/99 300/149 300/149 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 200/93 X 360/182 400/204 Zirconium 210/99 210/99 210/99 180/82 200/93 X X 210/99 X 190/88 350/177 210/99 X X 210/99 X X 80/27 X X 300/149 140/60 X X X Tantalum 210/99 302/150 302/150 210/99 302/150 302/150 300/149 300/149 300/149 300/149 300/149 300/149 90/32 260/127 90/32 302/150 302/150 210/99 210/99 X X 302/150 302/150 302/150 302/150 302/150 X X X 302/150 302/150 300/149 302/150 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 210/99 302/150 302/150 302/150 300/149 300/149 210/99 210/99 210/99 200/93 500/260 500/260 (continued) . 10% Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 15% Citric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Ketones. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.532 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 20. general Lactic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dilute Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 5–20% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.6 Continued Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 5% Nitric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid.

A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. . The presence of as little as 2% moisture effectively prevents the absorption of molecular hydrogen up to a temperature as high as 6008F (3158C). 70% Sulfuric acid.A. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Perchloric acid. Gaseous hydrogen has had no embrittlement effects on titanium.6 Continued Maximum Temperature (8F/8C) Chemical Nitric acid. This may reduce the ability of the titanium to resist erosion. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride Titanium 390/199 210/99 X X 90/32 X 90/32 200/93 90/32 210/99 210/99 210/99 200/93 200/93 200/93 210/99 210/99 90/32 X X X X X X 170/77 210/99 X Zirconium 500/260 90/32 533 Tantalum 302/150 302/150 300/149 X 302/150 302/150 302/150 302/150 200/93 90/32 210/99 90/32 210/99 302/150 X X X 302/150 302/150 210/99 300/149 210/99 302/150 302/150 302/150 302/150 302/150 300/149 X 300/149 300/149 300/149 300/149 210/99 210/99 210/99 180/82 200/93 210/99 250/151 210/99 200/93 210/99 100/38 X 210/99 300/149 300/149 210/99 X X 370/188 80/27 X 250/121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. conc. 5th ed.Titanium TABLE 20. conc. resulting in a higher corrosion rate. 98% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. Sodium sulfide. Sodium hypochlorite. When compatible. 1–4. to 10% Stannic chloride. 50% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. conc.. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. anhydrous Nitrous acid. corrosion rate is !20 mpy. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Oleum Perchloric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 90% Sulfuric acid. 2004. Vols. 20% Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid. Source: From P. 10% Sodium hydroxide.

1 Effect of temperature and pH on crevice corrosion of grade 2 unalloyed titanium in saturated brine. forming small amounts of hydrochloric acid.3 show the relationship for grade 7 (Ti–Pd) and grade 12 alloys.C. but in the restricted volume of the crevice it can reduce the pH of the solution to a value as low as 1. Consequently.4 Crevice Corrosion Crevice corrosion of titanium is most often observed in bromide. Note the improved resistance to crevice corrosion of these alloys compared to that of unalloyed grade 2. This reaction is very slow at first..) . Consequently.1 shows the relationship between the temperature and pH of saturated brine at which corrosive attack initiates on grade 2. The crevice corrosion resistance can be improved by alloying titanium with elements such as nickel.A. 2nd ed. NewYork: Marcel Dekker.534 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 20. Ed. This reduces the potential still further until corrosion becomes severe.2 and Figure 20. iodide.2. Schweitzer. Schweitzer. molybdenum. As a result. the potential of the metal in the crevice becomes more negative than the metal exposed to the bulk solution. (°F) 500 600 FIGURE 20.. grade 12 and the titanium–palladium alloys are more resistant to crevice corrosion than unalloyed titanium. or palladium. Covington and P. 14 12 10 pH 8 6 4 2 0 Crevice corrosion No hydrogen pickup or corrosion Hydrogen pickup and weight loss 100 200 300 400 Temperature. Dissolved oxygen or other oxidizing agents present in the solution are depleted in the restricted volume of solution in the crevice. Figure 20. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook. Titanium chlorides formed in the crevice are unstable and tend to hydrolyze. The resulting current will cause metal to dissolve at the anode. Figure 20. and sulfate solutions. P. (From L. 1989.A. an electrolytic cell is formed with the metal in the crevice acting as the anode and the metal outside the crevice acting as the cathode.

Schweitzer. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook. (°F) 500 600 FIGURE 20. 1989.Titanium 14 12 10 pH 8 6 4 2 0 100 No hydrogen pickup or corrosion Hydrogen pickup and weight loss 535 Crevice corrosion 200 300 400 Temperature. P. Ed.C.2 Effect of temperature and pH on crevice corrosion of grade 7 titanium alloy in NaCl brine. P.A. 2nd ed.. (°F) 500 600 FIGURE 20. 2nd ed.) .. NewYork: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer.A. (From L.A.3 Effect of temperature and pH on crevice corrosion of grade 12 titanium alloy in saturated NaCl brine. Ed. (From L.A.C. Covington and P.. NewYork: Marcel Dekker.. Schweitzer. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook. Schweitzer.) 14 12 10 pH 8 6 4 2 0 100 Hydrogen pickup and weight loss No hydrogen pickup or corrosion Crevice corrosion 200 300 400 Temperature. Covington and P. 1989.

titanium offers excellent resistance in oxidizing environments and poor resistance in reducing environments.2% are susceptible to cracking in absolute methanol and higher alcohols. Titanium is attacked rapidly by dry chlorine gas. 20. and hypochlorites (refer to Table 20. TABLE 20. Approximately 1% water is required under static conditions at room temperature. The presence of water in the excess of 2% will inhibit stress cracking in alcohols and red-fuming nitric acid. At 3928F (2008C).5 Stress Corrosion Cracking Titanium grades 1 and 2 (unalloyed) with oxygen contents of less than 0. Titanium is also resistant to steam up to temperatures as high as 6008F (3158C) and pressures up to 2000 psi. chlorinated brines. 12–15% sodium chloride.5% water is required.2. red-fuming nitric acid. and 1% sodium hydroxide Temperature (8F/8C) 50/10 70/21 70–75/21–24 150–200/66–93 Test Duration (days) 203 170 204 72 Corrosion Rate (mpy) !0. Titanium has replaced copper-based alloys that were corroding in the presence of sulfides.7 Corrosion of Titanium in Hypochlorite Solutions Environment 17% Hypochlorous acid with free chlorine and chlorine monoxide 16% Sodium hypochlorite 18–20% Calcium hypochlorite 1.7). including highly polluted seawater.1 Pitting — None None None . If the moisture is low enough. approximately 1. certain liquid metals such as cadmium and possibly mercury. the titanium can ignite and burn.1 !0. It is as resistant to corrosion by wet steam as the 18Cr–8Ni stainless steels. Titanium should not be used in contact with these media under anhydrous conditions.3 Corrosion Resistance In general. as well as stainless steels that were suffering from pitting and SCC caused by chlorides.1 Nil !0. at temperatures up to the boiling point.536 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 20. Titanium is immune to corrosion in all natural waters.5–4% Sodium hypochlorite. and nitrogen tetraoxide. Cracking tendencies are increased when halides are present. It has excellent resistance to moist chlorine gas.

10 shows a similar effect of ferric ion in passivating titanium against corrosion by a 10 wt% hydrochloric acid solution. hydrogen embrittlement of the titanium is a consideration.2 2.Titanium TABLE 20.8. Titanium is attacked by reducing environments such as hydrochloric.70 5.9 29.15 4.3 537 Titanium offers excellent resistance to oxidizing acids such as nitric and chromic acids.2 1. Only a few organic acids are known to attack titanium: these are hot.54 1.4 2. chlorine.4 578 759 1331 2410 Unalloyed.32 3. and Table 20.40 Ti–Pd 0.1 3. When the temperature is high in an anhydrous environment and the organic compound dissociates. it is not recommended for use in red-fuming nitric acid. particularly if the water content is below 1. nitrate.5% and the nitrogen dioxide content is above 2.1 0. Titanium generally shows good corrosion resistance to organic compounds.9 shows a similar comparison in sulfuric acid.5%.0 0. TABLE 20. Ti-50A 252 440 713 945 1197 2047 . or other oxidizing species serves to passivate titanium and reduce the corrosion rate in acids.8 14. Titanium is also quite resistant to oxidizing organic acids. Table 20. The presence of dissolved oxygen. (mpy) H2SO4 (wt%) 0.6 35. and phosphoric acids.15 Alloy Ti-50A Ti-Code 12 Ti–Pd Ti-50A Ti-Code 12 Ti–Pd No FeCl3 740 606 3 843 1083 6 2 g/L FeCl3 0.9 Corrosion Rates of Titanium Alloys in Boiling H2SO4. Pyrophoric reactions have occurred in this environment. concentrated trichloroacetic acid.62 2.15 4. sulfuric. nonaerated formic acid.32 4. However. hot oxalic acid. and solutions of sulfamic acid. The effects of ferric ion on passivating unalloyed titanium grade 12 and grade 7 (Ti–Pd alloy) are shown in Table 20. chromate. Many organic compounds are absorbed on titanium surfaces and act as inhibitors.8 Ti-Code 12 0.16 2.08 1.32 3.1 0.3 0.8 Effect of Ferric Chloride Inhibitor on Corrosion in Boiling HCl Corrosion Rate (mpy) HCl (wt%) 3.

New York: Marcel Dekker. 2004. lactic. carbolic.538 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 20. 1989. . tartaric. 2.A. Schweitzer. and tannic acids.A. Ed. Covington and P. in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook.A. 5th ed. L.. Titanium. 1–4. 2nd ed. It also exhibits good resistance to citric. References 1.5 g/L CuSO4 Temperature (8F) Boiling Boiling 212 212 Corrosion Rate (mpy) O2360 8 O2360 O2 Titanium is resistant to acetic acid.. Vols. P. P.C. New York: Marcel Dekker. stearic. and adipic acid. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistance Tables. terephthalic acid.. Schweitzer.10 Effect of Inhibitors on Acid Corrosion of Titanium Environment 10% 10% 10% 10% HCl HCl C16 g/L FeCl3 H2SO4 H2SO4 C2.

Its chemical inertness in highly corrosive chemical environments is remarkably similar to that of glass. 3.020 in thick. considerable progress has been made using fabrication techniques that reduce the requirement for the highcost tantalum material.e. Consequently. and their use has permitted optimization of mechanical designs without loss * Adapted with permission from M. Schussler and C. 2. The metal has excellent ductility and strength properties. the better service life obtained with tantalum because of lower corrosion rates frequently makes its use cost-effective despite higher initial costs.015–0. Pokross. Alloys.. In comparison to other corrosion-resistant metals such as Duriron. yet it has a number of advantages in comparison to glass. 2nd ed.. 1985. tantalum is almost free of such problems. titanium. Tantalum has a high thermal conductivity. use of thin-walled tubing. are significantly stronger than the base metal.21 Tantalum* Tantalum has a unique place as a material of construction in the chemical industry since its first application in the 1940s. 1. In recent years. 539 . which approach those of mild steel. overall heat transfer coefficients for heat exchanger designs are correspondingly higher than for glass or glass-lined equipment. or stainless steels. North Chicago: Fansteel. It can be readily fabricated using normal metalworking techniques. Corrosion Data Survey of Tantalum. Whereas nonmetallics are often susceptible to mechanical damage or breakage. that may cause leakage and contaminate the process stream with debris. particularly tantalum–tungsten. For example. typically 0. as well as other nonmetallics such as graphite or fluorocarbons. is standard engineering practice. Tantalum is resistant to impact damage and thermal shock. i. about 50 times that of glass.

spinnerettes. nozzles. Even if the installed cost of a tantalum unit is higher than that of a competitive material of construction. in the case of fluoride ion. orifices. spargers. rupture diaphragms. when the tantalum conductor is electrolytically anodized and the part is processed to add a counterelectrode. In galvanic couples in which tantalum is the cathode.1 The Oxide Film—A Protective Barrier On exposure to oxidizing or slightly anodic conditions.3 Tantalum’s extraordinary corrosion immunity indicates that this passivating oxide has the broadest range of stability with regard to chemical attack or thermal breakdown. Chemicals or conditions that attack tantalum. a reliable capacitor or rectifier device is produced that is capable of withstanding high voltage potential without breakdown. or use of loose linings backed by lower cost steel. Tantalum has been used in the chemical and allied industries for a variety of equipment. by both resistance welding and explosive bonding. valves and piping. the metal loses its corrosion resistance dramatically. this disadvantage is often offset by longer service life.540 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals of corrosion resistance. has given the same reliability as unsupported solid tantalum designs at much lower cost. impervious. less frequent repair and maintenance. by forming a complex TaF2K ion. passive layer of tantalum oxide. nascent (or atomic) hydrogen forms and is absorbed by the tantalum. are those that penetrate or dissolve this oxide film. flow control regulators. condensers. even at a temperature as low as 258C. Cathodic protection is discussed later in this chapter. cladding. the formation of this thin oxide film is also used in electronics for the manufacture of tantalum rectifiers and capacitors.2. Even this effect has a positive side in that the limiting conditions for applicability can be readily defined. Tantalum occupies a position toward the electropositive end of the electromotive force table. Therefore. Product quality improvements may also result from better process reliability and by reduced contamination from corrosion byproducts. including both bayonet and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. In chemical equipment. thermowells. when in contact with most other metals. such as hydrofluoric acid. In these applications. tantalum forms a thin. thereby causing hydrogen embrittlement. Because tantalum oxide has a high dielectric constant. caution must be taken to electrically isolate tantalum from other metals or otherwise protect it from becoming cathodic. 21.1 is a listing of a number of typical process applications for tantalum equipment. absorbers. . Under conditions 5 where the oxide layer is lost. Also. Table 21. tantalum becomes cathodic. and repair kits for glass or glass-lined vessels. and fewer process interruptions.

recovery Nitration. pure Chloral Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chromic acid Ethyl ether Ethylene dichloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fuming nitric acid Recovery of byproduct acid Halogens. bromine. condensers Bayonet heaters. except fluorine Chlorine. purification. chlorine burners. absorbers Heat exchangers Bayonet heaters Condensers Bayonet heaters Condensers Multiple bayonet heaters.1 Uses for Tantalum Chemical Equipment Product Amino acids Ammonium chloride. pickling Purification from chlorine and organics HCl absorption Brine cooling Chlorinator. iodine generators and recovery system Production. regulators. recovery Hydrochloric acid Hydroiodic acid Hydrogen peroxide Isopropyl alcohol Magnesium chloride Monosodium glutamate Nitric acid Nitroglycerin Generation and recovery Hydrolysis Concentration of sulfuric acid Concentration Glutamic hydrochloride production Distillation. condensers Heat exchangers Bayonet heaters. condensers Heat exchangers Bayonet heaters Heat exchangers Complete plants. pickling tank coils Boilers. condensers. thermowells Heat exchangers. gas coolers. sulfuric acid concentrator Distillation Distillation Equipment Bayonet heaters. strippers. HCl absorption Electroplating Heating alcohol reactor Chlorination Reactor. condensers Absorbers Heat exchangers Condensers. absorbers. heat exchangers Bayonet heaters. thermowells Remarks 541 High pressure Bromine. pure Aqua regia Process or Operation Digesting proteins in hydrochloric acid Concentration before crystallizing Ore dissolving.Tantalum TABLE 21. thermowells Heat exchangers. nitric acid recovery (continued) . condensers Condensers.

21. Tantalum is resistant to hydrogen peroxide in all concentrations. 1985.98 MPa or 577 psia). electrode supports Bayonet heaters. recovery Cleaning and degreasing Chlorination Bayonet heaters. hydrolysis Phosphoric acid Concentration Tantalum equipment used in Raschig process Tantalum cannot be used if fluorine content exceeds 10 ppm Phosgene Rayon Generation Viscose process Sulfuric acid Trisodium phosphate Vinyl chloride Concentration. 21. Corrosion Data Survey of Tantalum. condensers Bayonet heaters. recovery Equipment Coils. except hydrofluoric. For equipment exposed to boiler waters or condensates. No failures have been reported for exposure to steam condensate. the alkalinity should be controlled.2.1 Water Tantalum is not attacked by hot or cold deionized.1 Continued Product Perchloric acid Persulfuric acid Process or Operation Generation. hypochlorous.542 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 21. the reaction is negligibly slow. The pH should be less than nine.2. tantalum is immune to attack by almost all acids under normal conditions. spinnerette cups. or seawater. coils Anhydrous HCl plants Source: Adapted from M. It is also resistant to mine waters that are often acidic. 2nd ed. aqua regia. thermowells Bayonet heaters Bayonet heaters. condensers Bayonet heaters. water vapor is decomposed by tantalum with absorption of oxygen and evolution of hydrogen. Schussler and C. HCl absorbers Bayonet heaters Remarks Phenol Chlorination. Tantalum is not attacked by such acids as sulfuric. perchloric. Pokross. and the metal is considered resistant to saturated steam below 2508C (3.2 Effect of Specific Corrosive Agents 21. hydrochloric. fresh water. .2 Acids Like glass. concentration Electrolysis. nitric.. Chicago: Fansteel. It has been reported that at 11278C. At 9278C and below.

1 through Figure 21. such as formic. °C 200 No data are available in this area test tantalum up to about 260°C 543 At 190°C penetration is less than 150 1 mpy for tantalum at all concentrations 100 50 0 0 10 Normal boiling point The superiority of tantalum in this area becomes more pronounced with increasing temperature and concentration Tantalum can be readily used in this area of temperature and concentrations 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Concentration. even at room temperature. by hydrofluoric acid and free sulfur trioxide. oxalic.2 Corrosion resistance of tantalum in phosphoric acid at various concentrations and temperatures.) hydrobromic.1 Corrosion resistance of tantalum in sulfuric acid at various concentrations and temperatures. It is attacked. It is not attacked by organic acids. Corrosion Data. and phenol. (From General Technologies Corporation. acetic. Tantalum.. lactic.Tantalum 350 300 250 Temperature. Schussler and C. or phosphoric when free of fluoride ion. Comparative Charts and Coating Characteristics. Corrosion Data Survey of Tantalum. 2nd ed. °C 150 100 50 0 0 FIGURE 21. monochloracetic. wt% 70 80 90 100 200 Temperature. wt% FIGURE 21. Chicago: Fansteel. (From M. Pokross. 1985.) .4 outline 250 Test tantalum for use in this area of temperature and concentration In this area the corrosion rate of tantalum is still less than 1 mpy Normal boiling point The superiority of tantalum in this area becomes more pronounced with increasing temperature & concentration Tantalum can be readily used in this area of temperature and concentrations 10 20 30 40 50 60 Concentration. The charts displayed in Figure 21.

A subsidiary of cities service corporation. and zirconium in various acid environments. Comparative Charts and Coating Characteristics. °C 149 Normal boiling point 93 38 Tantalum can be readily used in this area of temperature and concentration 0 0 10 20 30 40 Concentration.4 Corrosion resistance of tantalum in nitric acid at various concentrations and temperatures. wt% 25 30 35 FIGURE 21. Tantalum.) the corrosion resistance of tantalum to sulfuric. niobium. (From General Technologies Corporation. titanium. °C Normal boiling point 100 50 Tantalum can be readily used in this area of temperatures and concentrations 0 0 5 10 15 20 Concentration.3 Corrosion resistance of tantalum in hydrochloric acid at various concentrations and temperatures. Tantalum. A subsidiary of cities service corporation. phosphoric.544 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Tantalum may embrittle in this area penetration rates are still less than 15 mpy 150 Test to tantalum in this range of temperatures and acid concentrations Temperature. 204 Penetration rate for Tantalum is less than 1 mpy at 190°C for all concentrations Temperature. respectively. hydrochloric. Corrosion Data. wt% 50 60 70 FIGURE 21. (From General Technologies Corporation. and nitric acids. Corrosion Data. Comparative Charts and Coating Characteristics.2 compares the corrosion rates of tantalum. as a function of temperature and acid concentration.) . Table 21.

00000 0. 50% H2SO4.2 and Figure 21.00000 Niobium 0.5. 18% HCl.00000 0.05 0. 21. The presence of chloride. even in the weld areas.03 Became brittle.5 698 Not tested 0.0 0.00000 0. chromates.02b 0.00000 0.2.18 0. 98% H2SO4. 1985.2 Corrosion Resistance of Tantalum and Other Metals to Acids Temperature (8C) 19–26 19–26 110 19–26 19–26 50–60 95–100 19–26 19–26 145 175 200 250 19–26 19–26 Test period (days) 36 36 7 36 35 1 4 35 36 30 30 30 6 36 36 Corrosion Rate. 98% H2SO4.8 Very soluble Not tested Not tested Not tested 6. A slow. The corrosion rate and the amount of hydrogen absorbed decrease when an oxidizer such as nitric acid or hydrogen peroxide is added to sulfuric acid.09 0. Dilute acid has no effect even at boiling temperature. as show in Figure 21. 2nd ed.02 0.00000 Very soluble Very soluble Not tested Not tested Not tested 0.00000 0.00000 0. tantalum shows excellent resistance to corrosion to reagent grade phosphoric acid at all concentrations below .75 0. Embrittlement occurs when the hydrogen content of the metal exceeds 100 ppm.00000 0..2 Phosphoric Acid As shown in Figure 21.75 0. 98% H3PO4.12 4b 0. Corrosion Data Survey of Tantalum. Source: From M. nitric acid.02 180b Not tested Not tested Not tested 0. the attack is uniform.5. at temperatures above 2008C. conc. Fuming sulfuric acid (oleum) attacks the metal much more rapidly.2.21 Not tested Not tested 2.00000 0.00000 0.02 1. uniform attack by concentrated acid begins at about 1758C. the corrosion rate of tantalum and the amount of hydrogen absorption increase with temperature and concentration. 1 HNO3$2HCl 1 HNO3$2HCl H2SO4.00000 0. so that the life of tantalum exposed to strong acid can be accurately predicted. HCl. 10% a b c Titanium 4. Uneven corrosion.2. but tantalum can be used successfully at a temperature as high as 2008C with 98% acid.42c a 545 Solution HCl. 0.Tantalum TABLE 21. 20% H2SO4. 85% FeCl3.08 18. HNO3.00000 Very soluble Very soluble 0. 98% H2SO4.1 Sulfuric Acid Tantalum is highly resistant to corrosion by sulfuric acid in all concentrations to about 98%.00000 0. Tarnished. 21. Grain boundary pitting does not occur.00000 Zirconium 0.5 29. conc.1 46.00000 0. Schussler and C. Pokross.01 1.4 However. Chicago: Fansteel. Although no instances of hydrogen embrittlement in commercial practice using tantalum equipment have been reported.2. or ethyl alcohol does not increase the corrosion rate in sulfuric acid. conc. (mpy) Tantalum 0.02 Not tested 0.00000 0. 98% H2SO4.

corrosion of the tantalum may occur. 21. alternate materials of construction becomes more evident as temperature and concentration of the acid increase. some . and corrosion tests should be run to verify suitability. The superiority of tantalum vs. if the acid contains more than a few ppm of fluoride. At concentrations above 30% at 1908C. as is frequently the case with commercial acid.5 Corrosion rates calculated from the tests were on the order of 6–20!10K3 mpy or 0. Electrochemical Society. In sealed capsule tests.3 Hydrochloric Acid Figure 21.°C 200 250 FIGURE 21. Taylor.5 Corrosion rate of tantalum in fuming sulfuric acid. the curve shows the boiling point. Tantalum: its resistance to corrosion.6 As previously.7 corrosion rates were less than 10 mpy at 1908C and concentrations below 30% and less than 50 mpy for 37% acid.3 gives data on the corrosion resistance of tantalum to aqueous acid over the concentration range 0–37% and temperatures to 1908C. indicating good corrosion resistance. (From D.2.2.546 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 15 Corrosion rate. 1956.508!10K3 mm/y. and the metal is resistant at all conditions at or below the boiling point. the corrosion resistance of tantalum in a vapor–liquid mixture from the system H3PO4–KCl–H2O containing 60–250 ppm fluoride has been investigated at 1208C and atmospheric pressure. In one study.2. concentrated sulfuric acid and 85% phosphoric acid.) 85% and temperatures under 1908C. mpy 10 5 Fuming H2SO4 Conc. However. The boiling point of the acid as a function of concentration is also shown in Figure 21. Presented at the Chicago Section.152–0. May 4. H2SO4 0 85% H3PO4 0 50 150 100 Temperature.F.

the corrosion rate is less than 0. when the metal is undergoing pickling. although this tendency was not noted at or below the boiling point. For acid at temperatures below the boiling point.2.2.5% fluoride ion at temperatures of about 608C for 2. Corrosion rates were measured on tantalum exposed to concentrated sulfuric acid in the temperature range of 200–2708C with additions of 90% nitric acid and 10% hydrochloric. with the rate of attack ranging from slow for dilute acid to rapid for concentrated solutions.5 Hydrofluoric Acid Hydrofluoric acid is the only good solvent for tantalum. 21. Again. embrittlement does not occur. as the acid concentration and temperature increases.6 Acid Mixtures and Other Acids Over the temperature ranges commonly used for dissolution processes. tantalum has been advantageously and successfully used for years in handling fuming nitric acid at conditions up to 800 psig and 3158C in chemical process equipment. 21.2. For example.Tantalum 547 hydrogen embrittlement was detected. hydrogen peroxide.9 The corrosion rate was reduced by a factor of 3 compared to that for sulfuric acid alone.8 the solution contained 40% CrO3 and 0. in one test.02 mpy. the superiority of tantalum becomes increasingly evident. however.4). for instance. The rate of hydrogen absorption in dilute hydrofluoric acid may be greatly reduced if the tantalum is made the anode in an electrolytic cell by impressing 2–10 V on the material in the cell. When sufficient nitric acid is present. The addition of hydrochloric acid alone reduced the rate only slightly. the corrosion rate was the same as when both acids were added.2. When nitric acid was added alone to the sulfuric.4 Nitric Acid Tantalum is inert to nitric acid solutions in all concentrations and at all temperatures to boiling (Figure 21. Attack on tantalum does not occur even in chromium plating baths containing fluorides. Use of tantalum under these conditions would normally not be economical. as stainless steels will perform adequately.2. The rate of dissolution can be accelerated by the addition of nitric acid. Tantalum is resistant to anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas to at least 2508C. and/or other oxidizing agents. For example.2. . and the presence of chlorides in the acid does not reduce its resistance to corrosion. 21. tantalum is inert to acid solvents such as aqua regia and chromic acid “cleaning solution” (H2SO4CK2Cr2O7).015 mpy. Embrittlement of the metal by absorption of nascent hydrogen can occur.5 months and the sample showed a corrosion rate of 0. Complex ion formation between chromium and fluoride is thought to explain the reduced fluoride activity. which simulates the conditions for a wet incineration process.

Organics. Bone and tissue do not recede from tantalum.2. Furthermore. pit-type corrosion is rarely observed with tantalum. or the reaction product. nor do the anhydrous acid gases. fused sodium or potassium hydrosulfate dissolve tantalum.3 Alkali Salts. methyl halide. and wire gauze for abdominal muscle support in hernia surgery.548 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Thus the oxidizing effect of nitric acid apparently helps to stabilize the protective tantalum oxide film on the metal. SOCl2. It was concluded that the strong corrosive attack of mixtures of methanol and halogens on tantalum depended on the formation of a haloformic acid intermediate.10 This observation is unusual because tantalum is unattacked by either methanol. even at somewhat higher temperature. One other exception is worthy of note. alkaloids. Tantalum is attacked. and this biocompatibility makes it an attractive material for body and dental implants. ketones. Tantalum has been used as anode baskets in a number of silver cyanide barrel platers for several years of service life even though the solutions were quite alkaline and contained free potassium hydroxide. or hydrobromic. the superior strength and rigidity of stainless steel and titanium and the castability of high-cobalt alloys have led to their greater use for prosthetic devices. It is fairly resistant to dilute alkaline solutions. Tantalum has nevertheless been used for bone replacement and repair.11 . In one long-term exposure in a paper mill. However. the halogens alone. alcohols. and Other Media Although solutions of sodium and potassium hydroxide do not dissolve tantalum. such as ferric chloride.8 Most organic compounds. have no effect on tantalum. tantalum exhibited no attack in a solution having a pH of 10. Mixtures of anhydrous methanol with chlorine. even at room temperature. bromine. and chlorine oxides. hydrogen sulfide. Other inorganic acids. they tend to destroy the metal by forming successive layers of surface scale.8 21. Tantalum is completely inert to body fluids and tissues. however. Tantalum is not attacked by dry salts or salt solutions at any temperature or concentration unless hydrofluoric acid is liberated when the salt is dissolved or strong alkali is present. salts. methylsulfuric. SO2. Salts which form acidic solutions. The rate of attack is accelerated by both increasing temperature and concentration. and esters. have no effect on tantalum. for cranial repair plates. do not corrode tantalum. or iodine cause a pit-type corrosion on tantalum at 658C. suture wire. by strong alkali and is dissolved by molten or fused caustic. The tantalum is protected by the positive voltage of the cell itself and remains bright and ductile. phosphorous chlorides. It should be noted that damage to tantalum chemical equipment has occurred unexpectedly when strong alkaline solutions were used for cleaning. including acids. such as sulfamic. Specific exceptions should be made for chemicals that may hydrolyze to free fluoride ion or contain (or liberate) sulfur trioxide or strong alkali. However.

then catastrophically. hardness. the transition occurs almost immediately. but at 12508C. at elevated temperatures on the order of at least 8008C. .13 MPa). there is only slight attack on the metal by liquid selenides and tellurides of the rare earths and uranium in the range 1300–21008C.8 Since 1 at% corresponds to 892 ppm. the oxidation shows a pronounced increase in rate with pressure above 0. as measured by weight gain.2. and tellurium at comparable temperatures.10–4. however. boron. Ta2O5. 21. The conversion of tantalum into oxide has been shown to occur by nucleation and growth of platelets along the {100} planes of the body-centered metal. with a transformation to linear rate after a period of time. At 3008C.%) of oxygen in tantalum increases electrical resistivity.12 The reaction is initially parabolic. it tarnishes after 24 h exposure.4 Gases 21. temperature in air. selenium.5 atm (0. Figure 21.1 Oxygen and Air 8. Figure 21. tantalum oxidizes rapidly and catastrophically. In like manner. The rate. Tantalum also reacts with vapors of phosphorus. Unlike tantalum–oxygen reactions. the metal oxidizes linearly for a short time. but also decreases the time before the reaction changes from parabolic to linear behavior.7 demonstrates the solubility of oxygen in tantalum. At 5008C. reduction in area. and resistance to corrosion in hydrofluoric acid. The kinetics of oxidation of tantalum in pure oxygen have been studied at temperatures up to 14008C and at pressures ranging from less than 1 to over 40 atm (0.Tantalum 549 At red heat tantalum reacts with sulfur or hydrogen sulfide to form tantalum sulfide (Ta2S4).6 is a plot of weight gain vs. Increasing the temperature not only increases the rate of oxidation. In contrast. the effect of very small contents of oxygen is evident. magnetic susceptibility. Above about 5008C and pressures from 10 mm Hg to 600 psi (1333 Pa to 4. the white oxide. At lower temperatures the metal is completely inert. At 13008C and 1 atm oxygen pressure.4. tantalum–air reactions do not exhibit catastrophic oxidation at temperatures as high as 14008C. Tantalum is quite stable in air at 2508C and below. although the rate of oxidation is generally somewhat lower in air than in oxygen. increases rapidly at higher temperatures.12 The kinetics of the reaction of tantalum with air may be considered an extension of the reaction with oxygen because tantalum forms oxides preferentially over nitrides. and tantalum is considered a satisfactory material for handling these intermetallic compounds. The presence of a few atomic percent (at.2. and modulus of elasticity but decreases elongation. tensile strength. begins to form. From 600 to 8008C. and silicon to form the corresponding binary compounds.05 MPa).05 MPa). as determined by an x-ray technique. tantalum powder or shavings react with elemental carbon.

13 21.10 0. Another investigator14 found.4.2 Nitrogen It has been reported12 that tantalum dissolves 4 at% (3120 ppm) nitrogen at 10008C. Provide a protective coating to inhibit oxygen attack. Although Ta2O5 forms thin. aluminides. 2. May 4.) Oxygen attack is usually viewed as the primary mechanism for failure of tantalum at low loads and elevated temperature. most attempts to protect tantalum against gas corrosion at high temperature have aimed at imparting resistance to the base metal. 1956.30 Gain in weight. Tantalum: its resistance to corrosion. Form a denser.550 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 0. Presented at the Chicago Section. mg/cm2-day 0.2. and solubility decreases rapidly with decreasing temperature. Consequently. more adherent oxide film by alloy additions to the tantalum to alter and modify the oxide phase. (From D. Electrochemical Society. protective films below 5008C. Coatings include silicides. Taylor.6 Corrosion rate of tantalum in air as a function of temperature. and others.20 0. adherent. at higher temperatures the film becomes flaky and tends to spall. °C 400 450 FIGURE 21.05 0 200 250 300 350 Temperature. that in the . Two approaches have been used to improve the oxidation resistance of tantalum: 1.15 0.25 0.F. using resistance measurements.35 0. noble metals.

is linear with reciprocal temperature. it can absorb 740 times its own volume at red heat. (From F.3 Hydrogen Tantalum dissolves a considerable amount of hydrogen at comparatively low temperatures.8.M. Reaction with common gases. Epremian. it loses .T. However.. Tantalum containing more than 150 volumes of hydrogen loses its ductility. in Columbium and Tantalum. F. When metal containing absorbed hydrogen is heated to about 8008C or more in high vacuum.4 FIGURE 21.1 0.E. platelet-shaped particles.) temperature range 1600–20008C more than 7 at% nitrogen dissolves in tantalum and forms a homogeneous solid solution. 21. Absorption of hydrogen is accompanied by an expansion of the body-centered crystal lattice. Sisco and E. when such a saturated. high-nitrogen solid solution is cooled. One investigator suggests that a plot of cubic rate constants. 1963. with the solubility decreasing rapidly with temperature.12 but at lower temperatures the data suggest that the reaction does not obey the parabolic rate law. fine particles of nitride precipitate as elongated. The kinetics are “parabolic” above 6008C.8. New York: Wiley. °C 1000 600 200 0 0.4. although showing considerable scatter.2 Oxygen.15 At pressures between 87 mm Hg and atmospheric. The effect of temperature on the rate of nitridation between 500 and 8508C is shown in Figure 21.12 The maximum solubility is 50 at%. wt% 0. Bacon and P. Although tantalum does not react rapidly with hydrogen below 2508C.3 0. Eds.2. Moanfeldt. the reaction with nitrogen appears to be pressure-independent.7 Solubility of oxygen in tantalum.11 Atomic or nascent hydrogen can be absorbed by tantalum even at room temperature.Tantalum 1800 551 1400 Temperature.

Transactions of the American Institute of Mining. the presence of hydrogen increases the hardness and electrical resistivity. and density of tantalum.F.) .9 exhibits 18 16 14 Weight gain. Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers. 586–599. 188. Gulbransen and K. min 100 FIGURE 21.F. Gulbransen and K. 188. Andrews. μg/cm2 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 −2 0 10 20 30 40 Time.552 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 160 Weight gain.8 Effect of temperature between 500 and 8508C on reaction of tantalum with nitrogen. annealing or degassing at 8008C or higher restores the metal to its original condition. strength. Figure 21.A. 1952.9 Effect of temperature between 350 and 5008C on reaction of tantalum with hydrogen. If permanent damage to the metal has not occurred during the lattice expansion. (From E. 1952. μg/cm2 850°C 120 800°C 80 750°C 40 700°C 600°C 500°C 120 140 0 0 20 40 60 80 Time. (From E. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining.) all of its hydrogen. Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers. In addition to decreasing the ductility. 586–599. Andrews.A. min 50 60 375°C 350°C 70 500°C 400°C 450°C FIGURE 21.

Addition of a selected oxidizing agent. and. the passivating oxide film. such hydrogen embrittlement rather than the uniform corrosion is the main concern. e. 2. or immediately heals. consequently.16 It should be noted that between 4508C and 5408C. 4. For applications of pure tantalum in aggressive acids at high temperature. even though the corrosion resistance of platinum is not good in concentrated hydrochloric acid at high temperatures.12 Above 5408C. the positive temperature dependence is resumed. which is exposed to ground. Cathodic protection of the tantalum surface by contacting with a noble metal such as platinum. corresponding to . rhodium. Although stray voltages may be transient. the insulated tantalum may be connected to the positive pole of a DC source (about 15 V) while the other pole is connected to some other metallic part. in concentrated HCl at 1908C. Contact of the metal with tantalum is made by riveting or welding a small spot of the noble metal to the surface. such as mild steel. the corrosion rate of both the tantalum and platinum have been found to be negligible.g. probably corresponding to a hydride phase transformation. For additional protection. gold. the effect of absorbed hydrogen is cumulative in its effect on producing embrittlement.17 Several methods have been proposed to reduce hydrogen embrittlement of tantalum: 1. Thus a 20-V film will be about 300–340 A thick. variable ground voltages. Because of the presence of stray currents. Under these conditions. the oxidizer prevents attack on. the reaction exhibits a negative temperature dependence. tantalum became the cathode in the galvanic cell so created.. rhenium. and others. It has been suggested that thicker anodic films. Anodizing the tantalum. tantalum may become a cathode in the system. such as sulfuric. leakages. For example. absorb and become embrittled by atomic (nascent) hydrogen in the electrolytic cell. to a mineral acid solution. The presence of stray currents can result from induction from adjacent lines. Failures due to hydrogen embrittlement have occurred in some severe aqueous acid media in applications where tantalum was or became electrically coupled to a less noble metal. and ruthenium).Tantalum 553 isothermal weight gain curves for the reaction of tantalum and hydrogen between 350 and 5008C. which has a low hydrogen overvoltage and is electrochemically cathodic to tantalum in the same environment (other candidates are palladium. as is evident in the figure. 3. Apparently. Complete electrical insulation of tantalum from all metals in the system. nitric acid or nitrate. When tantalum is anodized.7. the oxide film ˚ increases thickness about 15–17 A/V as the formation voltage is 18 ˚ slowly increased. both tantalum and platinum are mutually benefited by the galvanic contact. Thus.

4.4. so that with 3% water vapor.4. Alloying.8 21. Chlorine begins to attack tantalum at about 2508C. Tantalum has been used as a getter in vacuum tubes to absorb residual gases at temperatures of 650–10008C. Substitutional alloying is another method of improving the resistance of tantalum to hydrogen embrittlement. react with tantalum at some elevated temperature. 21. may also be helpful in eliminating hydrogen embrittlement. the weight gain is 6.8 21. tantalum reacts at temperatures between 1700 and 25008C to form tantalum carbide. which converts to Ta2O5 when exposed to oxygen. The presence of water vapor sharply decreases the corrosion by chlorine.19 With hydrocarbons such as benzene or naphthalene. .2. and iodine up to 1508C.7 21.7 mg/cm2 and in 60 days about 50 mg/cm2.4. 5. Fast dissolution and absorption of N2O occurred at K568C. The rate of N2O absorption was independent of the pressure of the nitrous oxide.2.2. Small alloy additions of about 1–3% of molybdenum or rhenium substantially decrease the corrosion rate and hydrogen embrittlement of tantalum in concentrated sulfuric acid at 2508C. it is expected that oxygen-containing gases.12 In 10 days. but thereafter the rate increases rapidly with temperature. accompanied by N2 evolution. The reaction is rapid at 4508C and occurs instantly at 5008C.4 Halogens Fluorine attacks tantalum at room temperature. forming the respective tantalum bromide or iodide. At 11008C. Some incorporation of N2O also occurred.6 Nitrogen Monoxide and Nitrous Oxide Below about 11258C. the reaction rate of NO (as a 5% mixture in argon) with tantalum cannot be detected.81 MPa) pressure and 5008C. such as SO2.554 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals such a thickness or greater.5 Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide Tantalum reacts with dry carbon dioxide at 8 atm (0. The metal is inert to wet or dry chlorine. and NO2.2. tantalum is useful to temperatures up to 4008C. tantalum reacts instantaneously with carbon dioxide to form Ta2O5 and with carbon monoxide at about the same temperature to form TaO. bromine.7 Other Gases Although there are few data.4.8 The oxidation by nitrous oxide (N2O) on an evaporated film of tantalum has been studied19 over the temperature range K56–2008C. Bromine and iodine attack tantalum at about 3008C.

3% Mn Bi–10% U–0. 2nd ed. Pokross. NR. S. Chicago: Fansteel. Source: From M. V. The specific effects of a number of liquid metal systems on tantalum are described in the following. variable depending on temperature and concentration. especially in nuclear reactors and power generation systems.3 Effects of Molten Metals on Tantalum Media Aluminum Antimony Bismuth Calcium Gallium Lead Lithium Magnesium Mercury Potassium Sodium Sodium–potassium alloys Tin Uranium Zinc Mg–37% Th Bi–(5–10%) U Bi–5% U–0.5 Liquid Metals Tantalum and tantalum-based alloys exhibit good resistance to many liquid metals.Tantalum 555 Pure helium and argon do not react with tantalum. Pu–Co–Ce alloys Remarks Forms Al3Ta — — — — — — — — — — — — — — In He In He In He In He Failed Failed Failed — — — — — Temperature (8C) Molten To 1000 To 900 Molten To 450 To 1000 To 1000 To 1150 To 600 To 900 To 900 To 900 — — To 500 To 800 To 1100 To 1050 To 1160 To 1000 To 900 To 900 1800–2000 1800–2000 1800–2000 1800–2000 To 650 Code NR NR E E E E E E E E E E V V E/V S S S S NR NR NR S S S S V E. Er–Sb intermetallic Cpd. TABLE 21. La–Sb intermetallic Cpd. 21. satisfactory (no or little attack). Because liquid metals are good candidates as coolants and heat-transfer fluids. tantalum is a promising material of construction for liquid metal containment. Corrosion Data Survey of Tantalum. Schussler and C.5% Mn Al–18% Th–6% U U–10% Fe U–Cr (eutectic) Y–Sb intermetallic Cpd. These gases are used as inert “cover” gases for arc-melting and welding the metal. 1985.3 even to high temperature (11008C) in the absence of oxygen or nitrogen. not resistant. no attack. as shown in Table 21.2. Y–Bi intermetallic Cpd.. .

but causes some intergranular attack above this temperature.2.21. lithium penetrated the metal. respectively.8 21.5.6 21.2.8 mils was reduced to 5.2. when oxygen of the tantalum exceeded a threshold level. with the depth of attack and the number of affected boundaries increasing with oxygen concentration.2.2 Antimony Antimony vapor is said to severely attack tantalum at temperatures of 10008C and higher.8 21.6 Gallium Tantalum resists molten gallium to 4508C but is attack at temperatures above 6008C.4 Calcium Tantalum is only slightly attacked at 12008C. No decrease in stress-rupture life was observed when tests were conducted in molten lead at 8168C.20 21.5.7 21.5.5.2.2.5.22 In static capsule tests conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 6008C.5.7. 21.7.23 Penetration was confined to grain boundaries at low oxygen levels. The mechanism involved the formation of a ternary oxide on the grain boundaries and preferred crystallographic planes and proceeded as the corrosion product became wedged into the boundaries.3 Bismuth The liquid has little action on tantalum below 10008C.5 Cesium Refluxing capsule tests indicated surface dissolution and severe attack on tantalum after 720 h at 982 and 13718C.2.5.2.5. the rate of attack being less than 1 mpy. A crucible with a wall thickness of 5.3 mils after 12 days exposure at 12008C. the same tests with Ta–10% W alloy exposed at 11508C for 528 h showed no mass transfer or attack. .1 Aluminum Molten aluminum reacts rapidly with tantalum to form the stable intermetallic compound Al3Ta.8 Lithium Tantalum has good resistance to molten lithium up to 10008C as long as the oxygen content of the tantalum is below 200 ppm. At higher concentrations transgranular attack also occurred.7 Lead Tantalum is very resistant to molten lead at temperatures up to 10008C. 21.556 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 21.21 In contrast.

10 Mercury In static tests. The mechanism was believed to be the formation of the ternary oxide phase. When the tantalum specimens themselves contained oxygen above a certain threshold level.8 21.2.5. and 10008C in static capsule tests.12 Silver Tantalum is only slightly attacked by silver at 12008C. The threshold concentrations for intergranular attack at 600. extensive intergranular and transgranular attack of the tantalum by sodium was found.5.26 Thus. Other studies have shown that tantalum alloys that contain an oxygengettering element (e.13 Sodium When free of oxygen. if oxygen is unavailable. 800. corrosion cannot occur by the formation and dissolution of a complex oxide.5. sealed capsules of tantalum two-thirds filled with .24. 21.24 Refluxing capsule tests showed no attack up to 7608C.g. Posttest evaluation of the loop showed no corrosion. and 1000 ppm oxygen.9 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys Tantalum is not attacked by molten magnesium at 11508C. and 10008C were 500. as is the situation when the getter element reacts with oxygen to form a stable oxide. The excellent corrosion resistance of tantalum to mercury was further verified in a two-phase natural circulation loop test that ran for 19.25 As the oxygen concentration in the potassium increased. hafnium or zirconium) exhibit no corrosion.2.975 h with a boiling temperature of 6498C and a superheat temperature of 7048C.. In an instance where the oxygen content of the tantalum was 390 ppm before exposure.5. neither sodium nor sodium–potassium alloy has any appreciable effect on tantalum.5.2. the amount of tantalum found in the potassium after the tests also increased. The results suggested the formation of an unidentified ternary oxide phase that is either nonadherent or dissolved when the recovered potassium was analyzed. 800.Tantalum 557 21. respectively.6 Oxygen contamination of the sodium (or alloy) causes an increase in corrosion with slight weight loss in flowing liquid metal.8 mil. 21. and intergranular as well as transgranular attack was observed.2.11 Potassium The compatibility of tantalum and potassium was studied at 600. tantalum showed good resistance to mercury to temperatures of 6008C.7 Sodium does not alloy with tantalum. A tantalum crucible tested at this temperature for 35 days showed a loss in wall thickness of 0.2. potassium penetrated the tantalum. 700. 21. In another test.

8 The maintenance of an oxide film on the tantalum surface may explain the latter result. attack below this temperature is significant.558 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals reactor grade sodium showed no corrosion with the tantalum remaining bright and shiny after exposure at 8508C for 5 h.2. A tantalum crucible with a wall thickness of 0.06 in. which is chemically similar to polonium.2. tantalum was the most satisfactory from the standpoints of fabricability and long-term corrosion resistance. However.4 provides a listing of materials to which tantalum is completely inert up to at least 3028F (1508C). and no corrosion was noted in dynamic tests for 28 days with a thermal gradient between 700 and 8408C. Extensive tests on components for molten metal fuel reactors have demonstrated that tantalum is a satisfactory material for several thousand hours of service in liquid-metal environments.16 Uranium and Plutonium Alloys Short-term tests indicated that the practical upper limit for tantalum as a container for uranium is about 14508C. However. The corrosion rates of tantalum in selected media is shown in Table 21. 21.6 provides the temperature at which various media attack tantalum.8 21.6 General Corrosion Data Refer to Table 20. Tantalum corroded at rates up to 2!10K2 mph during the initial 100–200 h of exposure.27 21. 21. an industrial zinc producer has observed excellent corrosion resistance at 5008C.5.5.7 21.6 Other investigations have shown that tantalum is not attacked by uranium–magnesium and plutonium–magnesium alloys at 11508C. Table 21. Of the materials tested. Table 21.6 for the compatibility of tantalum with selected corrodents.14 Tellurium Corrosion of candidate materials for stills to separate radioactive polonium210 from bismuth by distillation at temperatures of 450–9508C has been investigated.5.28 Tellurium.2.5. was completely corroded after 50 h at 12758C.20. and the rate decreased to less than 2!10K3 mph for 400 h for concentrations of tellurium of less than 30% in bismuth. was used as a nonradioactive simulant. the 63% thorium–37% magnesium eutectic had no appreciable effect on tantalum at 10008C.2.15 Thorium–Magnesium In static tests.2.5.17 Zinc It is reported that molten zinc attacks tantalum at significant rates at temperatures above 4508C. .

wet or dry Chloroacetic acid Chrome-plating solutions Chromic acid Citric acid Cleaning solutions Copper salts Ethyl sulfate Ethylene dibromide Fatty acids Ferric chloride Ferrous sulfate Foodstuffs Formaldehyde Formic acid Fruit products Hydriodic acid (continued) 559 . water and brine Chlorine. wet or dry Butyric acid Calcium bisulfate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide Calcium hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Carbon dioxide Chloric acid Chlorinated hydrocarbons Chlorine oxides Chlorine. mineral (except HF) Acid salts Air Alcohols Aluminum chloride Aluminum sulfate Amines Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate Amyl acetate Amyl chloride Aqua regia Barium hydroxide Body fluids Bromine.4 Materials to which Tantalum is Completely Inert.Tantalum TABLE 21. up to at Least 3028F (1508C) Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acids.

560 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 21. !4 ppm F Phosphorus Phosphorus chlorides Phosphorus oxychloride Phthalic anhydride Potassium chloride Potassium dichromate Potassium iodide. aqueous Sodium bromide Sodium chlorate Sodium chloride Sodium hypochlorite Sodium nitrate Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfite Sugar Sulfamic acid Sulfur Sulfur dioxide Sulfuric acid. iodine Potassium nitrate Refrigerants Silver nitrate Sodium bisulfate. industrial fuming Nitric oxides Nitrogen Nitrosyl chloride Nitrous oxides Organic chlorides Oxalic acid Oxygen Perchloric acid Petroleum products Phenols Phosphoric acid.4 Continued Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen iodide Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen sulfide Iodine Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid Magnesium chloride Magnesium sulfate Mercury salts Methyl sulfuric acid Milk Mineral oils Motor fuels Nitric acid. under 98% Water .

wet H2O Cl2 sat.5 Corrosion Rates of Tantalum in Selected Media Temperature Medium Acetic acid AlCl3 (10% solution) NH4Cl (10% solution) HCl 20% Conc.7 1 Rapid Rapid 561 21. For example.1 Nil 0. The major alloying addition used commercially is tungsten. alloys have been developed for application-specific property improvements. 40% (8C) 100 100 100 21 100 21 100 100 170 25 100 25 25 25 50 100 200 250 23 70 25 75 25 25 21 96 21 100 100 80 25 (8F) 212 212 212 70 212 70 212 212 338 76 212 76 76 76 122 212 392 482 73 158 78 167 76 76 70 205 70 212 212 176 76 Corrosion rate (mpy) Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 1 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 3 Rapid 0. a tantalum–40% niobium–0. which gives significant improvement in . 85% H2SO4 10% 40% 98% 98% 98% 98% 98% H2SO4 fuming (15% SO3) Aqua regia Chlorine. Sea Oxalic acid NaOH 5% 10% 40% HF. However.5% tungsten alloy has been used as a cost reduction in less demanding environments.3 Corrosion Resistance of Tantalum-Based Alloys Most of the foregoing has concerned the corrosion resistance of unalloyed tantalum.5 Rapid Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 0. HNO3 20% 70% 65% H3PO4. The alloy is thought to be somewhat less corrosion-resistant than pure tantalum but suitable in some media.Tantalum TABLE 21.

98% State Gas Aqueous Gas Gas Gas Aqueous Gas Aqueous Gas Aqueous Aqueous Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Aqueous Gas Aqueous Aqueous Aqueous Aqueous Molten Molten Aqueous Remarks At temperatures over 5728F (3008C) At pH O 9. reacts at high temperatures H2SO4 (oleum) (over 98% H2SO4) Sulfuric trioxide Water Fuming Gas Aqueous . solution Oxygen H3PO4. 10% NaOH Sodium pyrosulfate H2SO4. especially at temperatures over 7528F (4008C) At temperatures over 7528F (4008C) At temperatures over 6628F (3508C) At all temperatures At temperatures over 5728F (3008C) At temperatures over 5728F (3008C) At temperatures of about 2128F (1008C) At temperatures over 6628F (3508C) Corrodes at temperatures over 3568F (1808C). 25% Hydrocarbons HCl 25% HF Hydrogen HBr HCl HF Iodine Nitrogen Oxalic acid. wet Fluorides. lower concentrations begin to corrode at higher temperatures Corrodes at all temperatures At all temperatures Corrodes at pHO9.6 Temperatures at Which Various Media Attack Tantalum Medium Air Alkaline solutions Ammonia Bromine Chlorine. at higher temperatures for lower concentrations Corrodes at moderate temperatures depending on concentration Corrodes at moderate temperatures depending on concentration Corrodes at about 2128F (1008C) Dissolves metal rapidly over 6088F (3208C) Dissolves metal rapidly over 7528F (4008C) Begins to corrode at temperatures over 3478F (1758C). 85% Potassium carbonate Sodium carbonate NaOH. acid media Fluorine HBr. moderate temperature. some corrosion Pits at high temperature and pressures At temperatures over 5728F (3008C) At temperatures over 4828F (2508C) All temperatures and concentrations At all temperatures Begins to corrode at temperatures over 3748F (1908C) React at temperatures around 27328F (15008C) Begins to corrode at temperatures over 3748F (1908C) Corrodes at all temperatures and pressures Causes embrittlement.562 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 21. sat.

such as hafnium. μm/year 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Re W Zr Mo Hf H2SO4 250°C 563 Nb 0 2 4 6 At% 8 10 FIGURE 21. additions of tungsten reduced the corrosion rate and hydrogen absorption.17 As noted. Ta–Mo and Ta–Re alloys have shown promise in reducing the tendency for hydrogen embrittlement. Werkstoffe and Korrosion. Specimens were run for recrystallized powder metallurgical (P/M) tantalum and for both pure electron-beam-melted metal and Ta–2. but molybdenum and rhenium were more effective.3. 1984.5% Walloy. Figure 21. fabricability. 37–46. increased the corrosion rate.) strength without detracting from the base metal’s corrosion resistance. M.1 Tantalum–Tungsten Alloys Samples of several tantalum and alloy strips were exposed for selected times in concentrated (95. and weldability.10 Influence of solvents on the Corrosion rate of tantalum exposed for 3 days to 95% H2SO4 at 2508C. and A. Deruyttere. Ta–2. . as indicated previously. Brabers. 35. At 2008C. this alloy has yield strength of about twice that of pure tantalum. indicating that the strengthening effects are increased at higher temperature.Tantalum 1600 1400 1200 Corrosion rate.5% W alloy had about 50% higher tensile strength than the pure metal yet retains excellent ductility. (From L. Gypen. Furthermore. For example. 21.10 compares corrosion data for a number of binary substitutional alloys tested in 95% H2SO4 at 2508C for 3 days. Additions of niobium and vanadium had only a slight influence whereas lower valence elements.5–98%) sulfuric acid at temperatures ranging from 1758C– 2008C.A.

Pokross.5% W alloy are compared in Figure 21.5% W alloy in both concentrated (37–38%) hydrochloric acid for 24 h at 1008C and in 70% nitric acid for 3 days TABLE 21.564 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Both of the latter compositions were run in as-rolled. 1985.11. . at 1010 cycles. Tests also run on weldments in concentrated sulfuric acid up to the boiling point indicate no selective corrosion of the weld metal or in the heat-affected zone.96 0. where higher temperatures may be required. Other corrosion tests for the Ta–2.5% W Ta. EB melted Ta. the fatigue stress to have no failure is about 12% higher for the alloy.5% W Ta–2. and fully recrystallized conditions.189 0. requires knowledge of the fatigue properties in specific corrosion environments. there are no significant differences depending on the condition of the metal (i. there is an advantage in using the alloys.5% W Ta–2. such as pump impellers.5% W Ta.5% W Ta–5% W Ta–10% W Metallurgical Condition Recrystallized Recrystallized Recrystallized As-rolled Stress-relieved Recrystallized As-rolled Recrystallized As-rolled Stress-relieved Recrystallized Recrystallized Recrystallized Recrystallized Recrystallized Recrystallized Recrystallized Test Temperature (8C) 175 175 175 181 181 181 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 200 200 Exposure (days) 60 60 60 7 7 7 3 3 3 3 3 32 32 32 13 13 13 Corrosion Rate (mpy) 0. EB melted Ta. An experimental program was developed to provide high-frequency fatigue data to guide the design of equipment to pump sulfuric acid at 1508C.5% W Ta–2. EB melted Ta–2.229 0. and. stress-relieved. rolled..98 Source: From M.104 0. 2nd ed. the tantalum–tungsten alloys have equivalent corrosion resistance to the unalloyed metal.5% W composition.72 0.e.12. It is concluded that at temperatures of 1758C and lower..29 The results of the tests for both unalloyed and Ta–2.24 1. Corrosion Data Survey of Tantalum.18 2. In special cases. Schussler and C.087 0. P/W Ta—2.34 1.7. with the optimum corresponding to the Ta–2. under the test conditions.24 2. Chicago: Fansteel.5% W Ta–2. The average corrosion rates in mpy per side are summarized in Table 21.27 1. P/M Ta–2.5% W Ta–2.087 0. Data showing the effect of tungsten content on corrosion rate for the electron-beam-melted compositions are depicted in Figure 21.7 Corrosion Rates for Tantalum Materials Exposed to Concentrated Sulfuric Acid at 175–2008C Material Ta.217 0. Furthermore. EB melted Ta.5% W Ta–2. or fully recrystallized). annealed.19 0.15 1.17 0. The design of dynamic equipment.

Rudy.L.) .11 Corrosion rates for tantalum–tungsten alloys exposed to concentrated sulfuric acid at 1818C and 2088C as a function of tungsten content. (From A.F. (From M. ksi 14 13 12 11 10 106 Tantalum 107 108 109 1010 1011 Cycles to failure FIGURE 21. 2nd ed. MD: Hydronautics. 1985. Technical Report 7242-1. % 8 10 12 FIGURE 21.5 565 2. Laurel. Corrosion Data Survey of Tantalum. 1973. Inc. Chicago: Fansteel.0 Corrosion rate.2 kHz Test mode: Axial completely reveresed (R=1) loading Tantalum-2 1/2% W Alternations stress amplitude..5 181°C 0 0 2 4 6 Tungsten.5 208°C 1. Conn and S. Schussler and C.Tantalum 2. High frequency fatigue tests of tantalum in sulfuric acid at 1508C. Pokross.0 0.12 Comparison of fatigue response of tantalum and Ta–2.5% alloy in 80% sulfuric acid at 1508C.) 16 15 Note: Environment: 80% by weight sulfuric acid 150°C (302°F) Test frequency: 14. mpy 1.

20% HF at 208C.5% W alloy is at least as resistant to acid media as the unalloyed metal. the corrosion rates were comparable. where the corrosion rate was about 50% higher for the alloy than for unalloyed tantalum. a maximum in corrosion rate was obtained at about 60 at% tantalum. but showed a marked increase in yield strength. In the hydroxide. In 5% NaOH solution at 1008C. 21. for which its improved physical properties are desired. the tantalum– tungsten alloy system exhibits the relatively low corrosion rates associated with tungsten as long as the tungsten content is at least 20%. Ta–10% W is often used in valves as a hard plug in combination with a softer tantalum seat. Tantalum–10% W. below which corrosion rates increase markedly. Corrosion tests were conducted on this alloy in several environments. and a mixture with 1 part KOH and 3 parts K3Fe(CN)6. the rate of attack was three times that . is even harder and stronger than lower alloys but is appreciably harder to fabricate.8. A maximum in electrical resistivity was found at the same composition. alloys exhibit little improvement over tantalum. In acid media. Although the corrosive attack was small for all cases.566 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals at 1988C have given corrosion rates of 0. because of its higher tungsten content. Researchers in other tests have found that both tantalum and substitutional alloys became hydrogen-embrittled in concentrated hydrochloric acid at 1508C.3.30 For example. The corrosion resistance of a series of tantalum–tungsten alloys was also studied in 50% KOH at 308C and 808C. The pure tantalum did not fail prematurely. although there was little difference in the corrosion rates between the alloy and pure metal.2 Tantalum–Molybdenum Alloys Corrosion resistance was studied on a series of tantalum–molybdenum solid solution alloys. as long as the alloy contained at least 50 at% tantalum. 21. the Ta–10% W alloy failed by premature embrittlement. At a slightly lower temperature of 2058C. such as pump and valve parts.3 Tantalum–Niobium Alloys Corrosion rates for Ta–Nb alloys run in hot and cold hydrochloric and sulfuric acids increased roughly in proportion to the niobium content of the alloy. For example. and hydrogen during exposure.3. even though a Ta–5% Nb alloy showed excellent resistance under all test conditions. nitrogen. This alloy has been used in some applications. the corrosion rates for the alloy were comparable to pure tantalum except in concentrated H2SO4 (70–90% concentration) at 2308C. The results of corrosion tests run for 500 h in both concentrated sulfuric and hydrochloric acids are shown in Table 21. or perhaps slightly more resistant in strong acids near the boiling point. In the hydroxide–ferrocyanide mixture.17 The conclusion has been made that the Ta–2. the corrosion resistance of tantalum was retained. attributable to pickup of interstitial oxygen.04 mpy or less. In 20% HF.

000 0.000 0.008 0. Comparative Charts and Coating Characteristics.018 0.3.010 0.000 — 0.4 100.009 0.4 Tantalum–Titanium Alloys Dilution of tantalum with titanium is promising for the possibility of providing an alloy with corrosion resistance almost comparable to tantalum in some selected environments at a lower cost. The .8 91.017 0. 21.0 Solutions saturated with oxygen.7 All of these materials showed excellent behavior with corrosion rates less than 1 mpy and no hydrogen embrittlement. and. Ternary alloys with additions of zirconium. HCl (37%) 0.000 0. Other data have been reported for corrosion tests of binary Ta–Nb alloys and ternary alloys based on the Ta–Nb system.000 0.008 0. the alloys rich in titanium corroded at high rate while the tantalumrich materials tend to approach the resistance of pure tantalum.010 0. The alloys containing 60% or more tantalum appeared promising for boiling 70% H2SO4.0 61. A subsidiary of cities service corporation. and vanadium did not offer advantages either in alloy fabricability or lowered corrosion resistance.8 Corrosion Rates of Tantalum–Molybdenum Alloys in Concentrated Sulfuric and Hydrochloric Acids at 1508C Average Corrosion Rate (mg/cm2-day) Tantalum in Molybdenum (at%) 0 10.000 0.2 71.1 20. Tantalum. in 70% sulfuric at 1658C.0 40.000 0.5 82. Corrosion Data.009 0.1 30. Corrosion tests in 10–70% nitric acid at the boiling point and at 1908C (in sealed glass tubes) were conducted on alloys ranging from pure tantalum to Ta–90Ti.010 0.009 0.Tantalum TABLE 21. on a volume basis. but also the density of alloy compositions is lowered corresponding to the titanium content.000 567 for unalloyed tantalum. H2SO4 (98%) 0. Source: From General Technologies Corporation.31 Tests were carried out in 75% sulfuric acid at room temperature and 1858C. hafnium.000 Conc. and in 20% hydrochloric acid. Not only is the cost of titanium less. a media to which titanium is not resistant. less alloy weight is required.0 50. Conc.000 0. chromium. In hydrochloric acid solutions at 1908C.018 0.

. Electrochemical Society. D. Vol. 665–666.A.T. F. 1982. 1966. Tantalum and tantalum compounds. Chicago: Fansteel. Taylor. 1963. 1985. 1957. M. F. C.D. Rare Metals Handbook. Wang and R. 22. New York: Wiley. C. Vehlow and H. No. Stern and C.5 Other Alloys It has been observed that the presence of a small amount of iron or nickel. 12. Diekmann and U. Corrosion Data Survey Tantalum. Vol. pp. J.F. Werkstoffe Korrosion. 10. 5. Chelius. and R. 12: 695–698.C. 1961. Bacon and P. Tantalum. 1959. Quarter August.g.8 Galvanic action as well as chemical attack is undoubtedly involved.F. A subsidiary of cities service corporation. 6. Tantalum–Niobium International Study Center Bulletin.M. and A. Moanfeldt. Hampel. pp. Epremian. 13. Schor. 1961. 2nd ed. 14.T. 57–59. 78. F. 9. Presented at International Corrosion Congress. Ogden. Air Force Technical Report WADD-TR-59-13. Use of refractory metals in corrosive environment service.. U.R. 2.T. Austria.E. Tests in hot. Eds. E. Geisert. Sisco and E. 1994. 1963. Metals Handbook: Surface Cleaning. Epremian. Sisco and E. W.R. 541–565. 22:1. A. Corrosion Data. Corrosion and electrochemical behavior. Comparative Charts and Coating Characteristics. New investigations of the tantalum–nitrogen system. Presented at the Chicago Section. 1981.M. 3rd ed.. Jaffee. 5. makes that site subject to the same acid attack as would be experienced for iron or nickel alone. Pokross. 1956. concentrated sulfuric acid led to similar conclusions... New York: Wiley. Vromen.T. Gramberg. W. May 4. Tantalum as a construction material in the chemical industry. 15. in Proceedings of the 3rd Plansee Seminar. Schmidt. Taylor. F. Alon. 1983. Corrosion resistance of Ta to mixtures of phosphoric acid and potassium chloride at 1208C. 7. 1–6. General Technologies Corporation. September 6. and Coating. Reutte. Albrecht. Tantalum. e. Seghezzi. J. OH: American Society for Metals. 2nd ed.3.568 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals tendency to hydrogen embrittlement increased with acid concentration and titanium content.D. Rabald. Corrosion. Bishop. Mater. Holden. 21. Reaction with common gases. in Columbium and Tantalum. Klopp. Finishing. 1958. M. 3. Eds. Metals Park. . M. 8.. F.I. References 1. H. in Tantalum and Columbium. H.S. D. New York: Wiley. Oxidation-resistant coatings for tantalum. New York: Reinhold. Webster. Tantalum: its resistance to corrosion.. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 11. H. 4.F. Schussler and C. in a tantalum weld. 9th ed. Eng. Tantalum corrosion under wet incineration conditions: Influence of the dosing components and study of welded specimens.

and niobium films by oxygen and nitrous oxide. Saleh and H. 1977. L. New York: Plenum Press. 1968. Cr. Corrosion.M. 1953. 35: 656–662. March 9–13. 1967. 1:3: 285. J. Oxidation of titanium. High frequency fatigue tests of tantalum in sulfuric acid at 1508C. E. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers.F. Technical Report 7242-1. Matloob. Andrews. Brabers. Effect of oxygen on the compatibility of tantalum and potassium. Gulbransen and K. 18. 1974. Proceedings of the 10th Plansee Seminar—1981. R. Refractory Metal Alloys Metallurgy and Technology. Corrosion of metals by liquid bismuth–tellurium solutions. Liquid Metals. 1973. 1973. Phy. Corrosion. Ni. Weeks. Oak Rigde. Heilberger. 28:10. DC: Atomic Energy Commission. and R. Klueh. Corrosion resistance of tantalum base alloys. Chicago. M.L. 23. L. Rudy.A. Deruyttere. 1974.J.E.F. Battelle Columbus Laboratories. 20. 21. 1950. Ti. Vermilyea. R. Department of the Navy. Elimination of hydrogen embrittlement in tantalum by substitutional alloying. Revised version of paper presented at the 20th Conference. Washington. J. E. Chem. 76: 2486–2489. A. Klueh. Cybulskis. Co. pp.A.A. Hoffman and R. 29. 30. D. Innsbruck: Verlagsanstalt Tyrolia. Review of Metals Technology. Space-power-system material compatibility tests of selected refractory metal alloys with boiling potassium. Miller. 17. The kinetics of formation and structure of anodic oxide films on tantalum. Moss. R. Liquidus curves and corrosion of Fe. 1959. New York: Academic Press. OH: Metals and Ceramics Information Center. Columbus. and A.R. 1952. 1984. 360–367. 569 27. Scheurmann.A. Laurel. Conn and S. 19. 31. J. Symposium on Alkali Metal Coolants-Corrosion Studies and Systems Operating Experience. E. 24. Ta. Tantalum and Columbium. Liquid Metals Handbook. TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Cb. Harrison. W. Vienna. . Aldinger. 26. Effect of oxygen on the corrosion of niobium and tantalum by liquid lithium. 1973.A. J. Inc. 1972. 22. and T.L. National Association of Corrosion Engineers.K. Acta Metallurgica. Werkstoffe Corrosion. The compatibility of refractory metals with liquid metals. Lupton and F. 101–130. MD: Hydronautics. 75–82.L. D. 188: 586–599.. Zr in 500–7508C mercury. G.L. Report ORNL-TM-4069. 1973. Possible substitutes for tantalum in chemical plant handling mineral acids. V. J. C. 25. 29:2.Tantalum 16. Fink. Rosenblum. Gypen.C.. Interaction of refractories and reactor materials with sodium. 28. Austria. Kanne.M.W. 1981. tantalum.M. Nuclear Technol. Kumar. P. Blomquist. Miller. 35: 37–46.R.

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development work on zirconium was initiated at the U. Holland. Kroll had already developed a production process for titanium by the reduction of titanium tetrachloride with magnesium in an inert atmosphere before 1940. was combined with hafnium. Klaproth. Oregon under Dr. Pomerance of Oak Ridge found that zirconium. When 571 .S. and transparency to thermal neutrons needed for the nuclear reaction. as occurring in nature. resistance to irradiation damage. in 1789. a suitable structural metal should have good high-temperature corrosion resistance. In 1945. In 1945. About the time of Kroll’s work. The cost was more than $300 per pound.1 Introduction Zirconium. Dr. For this application.22. ductile metal in Einhoven. van Arkel and de Boer developed the iodide decomposition process to make a pure. The “iodide crystal bar” process continues to be used today as a method of purifying titanium. It was the hafnium that gave the zirconium the high level of neutron absorption. the metal itself was not isolated until 1824. was identified by the German chemist. Dr. and hafnium. Kroll’s technical direction. impure metal powder by the reduction of potassium fluorozirconate with potassium. A similar process for zirconium was developed in 1947 as a pilot plant with a weekly capacity of 60 pounds of zirconium sponge. several groups of scientists and engineers investigated zirconium and other metals for use in nuclear reactors. Kaufman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Dr. However. Bureau of Mines in Albany. There was a renewed interest in developing a process that could produce a large quantity of zirconium at a much lower cost. only a few hundred pounds of zirconium was produced in the United States. atomic number 40 and atomic weight 91. Zirconium was regarded as an exotic metal. One hundred years later. even though it is slow and expensive.22 Zirconium 22. when Berzelius produced a brittle. In the 1940s. zirconium.

NRC Metals. since the limiting factor for zircaloy-2 in a reactor was determined to be its absorption of hydrogen during corrosion in high-temperature water. nickel. and nuclear power plants were on the horizon.S. zirconium was found to have a very low thermal neutron absorption cross-section. which was recommended for the Nautilus reactor. decided to choose zirconium for the naval reactor. zircaloy-2. This decision had stimulated an avenue of R&D programs to advance zirconium technology in production. Nevertheless. Test results revealed the beneficial effects of iron. The Nautilus got underway on January 17. By 1952. Activities on zircaloy-1 were stopped. Navy Nuclear Propulsion Program. Included was one ingot in which a small amount of stainless steel had accidentally been added. and applications. Developmental work continued. as the U. 1954. property information. This was a finding of great importance. Congress had authorized several nuclear submarines by the mid-1950s.12% Fe–0.5% Sn alloy was named zircaloy-1. but some disagree. Bettis Atomic Power Lab already had an active program of corrosion tests for a number of zirconium-based alloys. Various alloy development programs were established in the early 1950s to examine the effects of adding various elements to zirconium. The chemical process industry began to use zirconium by taking advantage of its . Zr/Hf separation. An urgent search for a new alloy was begun. fabrication.1% Cr–0.572 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals the hafnium was removed. Quickly. This could be achieved by developing commercial sources. This marked the beginning of a new era. There is a controversy on the effect of nickel. Independent discoveries by Battelle Memorial Institute and Iowa State College revealed that tin proved most beneficial. This abnormal behavior was attributed to the presence of minor impurities. which included Carborundum Metals. both zircaloys are important materials for nuclear technology. the effect of nitrogen on the corrosion characteristics was very pronounced. Demand for zirconium was on the rise. Fortunately. who directed the U.S. The Zr–2. and Wah Chang. It was found that highly or commercially pure zirconium was not ideal because of its inconsistent corrosion and oxidation resistance in hightemperature water and steam. Bettis eventually discovered that replacing nickel with iron produced an alloy that cut hydrogen absorption in half. was developed and specified for the Nautilus reactor in August 1952. 1955.S. data showed that zircaloy-1 had an increasing rate of corrosion over time. and chromium. Navy programs. Only Wah Chang (now Teledyne Wah Chang) remains as the most experienced zirconium producer. At once Admiral Rickover. That reactor generated power on December 30.05% Ni. Some believe that the nickel addition improves zirconium’s corrosion resistance. This alloy was named zircaloy-4. zirconium became available outside the U. the Zr–1. Activities in developing applications for zirconium were booming. In particular. Wah Chang was contracted to provide zirconium at a price just less than $10 per pound in April 1956. National Distillers Products.5% Sn–0. In 1958. The production cost for zirconium needed to be lowered.

The supply of zirconium will not be a problem in developing any application for this metal and its alloys. Zirconium is useful as a getter because of its ability to combine with gases at elevated temperatures. To the contrary. The Zr–1% Nb alloy also is used in the Soviet Union for pressurized water and steam service. Nuclear grades of zirconium alloys are virtually free of hafnium (not greater than 100 ppm). copper-. aluminum-. chromium. Zirconium is an engineering material and should no longer bear an exotic image. there is the presence of some niobium-rich b particles. magnesium-. with a total alloy content of 0. such as nickel. In fact. Nonnuclear grades of . This alloy is strong and heat-treatable. Additional information is available in References [1–3]. copper. corrosion-resistant zirconium alloys.2 General Characteristics Zirconium and its alloys can be classified into two major categories: nuclear and nonnuclear.5%.Zirconium 573 excellent resistance to a broad range of corrosives. Zirconium is more abundant than many common metals. in niobium-containing alloys. There was a widespread effort to develop strong. But by 1965. The most important source for zirconium is zircon (ZrO$SiO2). zirconium is superconductive at low temperatures and is used to make superconductive magnets. lead. the Ozhennite alloys were developed in the Soviet Union for use in pressurized water and stream. the force of neutron economy had made zirconium alloys the predominant cladding material for water-cooled reactors. plants use more than 200 tons of zirconium in chemical equipment. Researchers at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. stainless steel was used to clad the uranium dioxide fuel for the first-generation reactors.5% Nb alloy. zinc. zirconium has found some medical applications. which appears in several regions throughout the world in the form of beach sand.5–1. 22.. molybdenum-. Also. and titaniumbased alloys. took a lead from the Russians’ zirconium–niobium alloys and developed the Zr–2. zirconium is plentiful and is ranked nineteenth in abundance of the chemical elements occurring in the earth’s crust. These alloys contain tin. They are based on the a structure with dilute additions of solid solution strengthening and a-stabilizing elements like oxygen and tin. In the nuclear industry. They all have low alloy contents. i. Thanks to its remarkable corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Moreover. Along with niobium. certain chemical process. and niobium. zirconium is often stated as a rare metal. and cobalt. and in stitches for brain operations.e. in surgical tools and instruments. the cost of zirconium has been stable for many years and is competitive with other high-performance materials. iron. Zirconium is highly beneficial as an alloying element for iron-. It is used either in a cold-worked condition or a quenched-and-aged condition. nickel. One of the major differences between nuclear and nonnuclear zirconium alloys is in their hafnium content. Noticeably. However.

S. sheets. agitators. evaporators. foils. tanks. grayish white. a few comments can be made. forgings. As a result.5% hafnium. zirconium has a low coefficient of thermal expansion. The source of hafnium comes as the byproduct in the production of zirconium. favoring equipment that requires a close tolerance. The coefficient of thermal expansion of zirconium is about two-thirds that of titanium. zirconium’s density is considerably lower than those of ironand nickel-based stainless alloys. Only requirements for nonnuclear materials are given in Table 22. Hafnium is a neutron absorber but zirconium is not. guide tubes. although their nuclear properties are markedly different. reactors.3 and Table 22. However. A listing of the physical properties of zirconium is given in Table 22. tubes. hafnium is a valuable metal for many applications.1 Physical Properties Zirconium is a lustrous. Hafnium has chemical and metallurgical properties similar to those of zirconium. Bars are used for nuclear fuel-rod end plugs.4. wires.2. piping systems.2 Mechanical Properties Zirconium ores contain a few percent of its sister element. condensors. about one-third that of type 316 stainless steel (S. ductile metal. First. Moreover. Zirconium products of various types are available for nonnuclear applications. However. Consequently. The majority of nuclear-grade material is tubing that is used for nuclear fuel-rod claddings. there are nuclear and nonnuclear grades of zirconium and zirconium alloys. and ferrule spacer grids. water channels. Flat materials.574 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals zirconium alloys may contain up to 4. and packings for use in the chemical process industries. zirconium has high thermal conductivity that is more than 30% better than those of stainless alloys. pipes. They include ingots. These properties make zirconium very fabricable for constructing compact. Second.2.1. Third. bars. Some commercially available grades of zirconium and its alloys are listed in Table 22. such as sheets and plates. The nonnuclear grades of zirconium alloys are also low in hafnium content. pumps. are used for spacer grids.). 22. plates. Hafnium has an enormous effect on zirconium’s nuclear properties but has little effect on its mechanical and chemical properties. the counterparts of nuclear and nonnuclear grades of zirconium alloys are interchangeable in mechanical properties. specification requirements for nuclear materials are more extensive than those for nonnuclear materials. and about onehalf that of Monel. efficient equipment. They are used to construct highly corrosionresistant equipment. and castings. valves. 22.2. columns. and channel boxes for nuclear fuel bundles. It can be seen that Zr 705 is the . The presence of hafnium in zirconium does not significantly influence mechanical properties other than the thermal neutron cross-section. pressure tubes. hafnium. such as the exchangers.

510 0.60–1.0 39.0 97 5./h-ft2-8F W/m–K Specific heat [btu/lb/8F(32–2128F) Vapor pressure (mm Hg) 20008C (36328F) 36008C (65128F) Electrical resistivity [m–cm at 208C (688F)] Temperature coefficient of resistivity per 8C 208C (688F) Latent heat of fusion (cal/g) Latent heat of vaporization (cal/g) Mechanical Modulus of elasticity 106 psi GPa Shear modulus 106 psi GPa Poisson’s ratio (ambient temperature) Body-centered cubic (above 8548C) Hexagonal-close-packedC body-centered cubic (below 8548C) 18408C (33448F) 43808C (79168F) 6.35 .7 0.62 0.80–0.3 ! 10–6 10 17.90 6.067 — — 55.1 0.0 34 0.Zirconium TABLE 22.0 — — — 14.01 900.640 0.1 Typical Physical and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Grades 702 and 705 Properties Physical Atomic number Atomic weight Atomic radius ˚ A (zero charge) ˚ A (C4 charge) Density (g/cm3 at 208C) (lb/in.25 36 0.4 99 5.3) Crystal structure a phase Zr 702 40 91.22 1.4 1550 14.235 Hexagonal close-packed (below 8658C) Body-centered cubic (above 8658C) — — — — 6.240 Zr 705 575 b phase aCb phase Melting point Boiling point Coefficient of thermal expansion per 8C 258C (738F) Thermal conductivity (300–800K) btu-ft.068 0.33 18528C (33658F) 43778C (79108F) 5.0044 60.89 ! 10–6 13 22 0.

80 — — 2.16 0.2 max — — — — — — 0.40–2.5 95.18 0.70 — 0.5 95.18 0.24 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 0.5 4.07–0.TABLE 22.28–0.03–0.08 — 2.010 — Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals Nuclear grades Zircaloy-2 (R60802) Zircaloy-4 (R60804) Zr-2.0 2.5 4.0 Fe Cr Ni FeD CrDNi O (max) — — — 0.2 max 0.0–3.0–3.2–0.05–0.5 — 1.20–1.20–1.70 — 0.37 — 0.0 — — .010 1.2 max 0.4 0.2 97.5 4.38 — 0.5Nb (R60901) Chemical grades Zr702 (R60702) Zt704 (R60704) Zr705 (R60705) Zr706 (R60706) 99.2 Composition (%) Nb FeDCr — 0.0–2.07–0.13 — 0.5 4.) ZrDHf (min) Hf (max) Sn — 0.20 0.15 0.16 576 Commercially Available Grades of Zirconium Alloys Alloy Design (UNS no.18–0.010 1.18–0.

protective oxide film on its surface. zirconium reacts with oxygen at ambient temperature and below to form an adherent. Many engineering metals. allows zirconium to form protective oxide films even in highly reducing media. It forms very few compounds in which its valence is other than 4.2. Also. as evidenced by its redox potential of K1. Additional typical property data are given in Table 22. Under these conditions. T is the thickness of the bend-test specimen. As a result. common metals and alloys may form subordinate oxides or other compounds of low or no protective capability. such as hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid. In an oxygen-containing medium. zirconium is a highly corrosion-resistant metal. This film is self-healing and protects the base metal from chemical and mechanical attack at temperatures to 3508C. For example. and titanium. chromium. produce metal ions of a variable valency. Zr 706 has been developed for severe-forming applications by lowering the oxygen content of Zr 705. An ideal catalyst should not have any reduction in its own mass. It has a strong affinity for oxygen. Moreover.2% Offset). Ions of a variable valency are the common decomposition catalysts for hydrogen peroxide. zirconium is predominantly quadrivalent in its oxides and many other compounds. % (MPa) 207 240 380 345 Minimum Elongation 16 14 16 20 Bend Test Radiusa 5T 5T 3T 2. Uniquely. zirconium can maintain the stability of certain chemicals. such as iron.2. along with high oxygen affinity.3 Chemical and Corrosion Properties Zirconium is highly reactive.5 and in Figure 22. strongest one with an excellent fabricability.53 V vs. .5 T Alloy Zr 702 Zr 704 Zr 705 Zr 706 a Bend tests are not applicable to material more than 4. ZrCl4 is used as a catalyst in such reactions as the cracking of petroleum and polymerization of ethylene. This is an important requirement in many applications. nickel.3 577 Nonnuclear Minimum ASTM Requirements for the Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Alloys Minimum Tensile Strength (MPa) 380 414 552 510 Minimum Yield Strength (0. such as hydrogen peroxide. 22. The chemistry of zirconium is characterized by the difficulty of achieving an oxidation state less than 4. Furthermore. the normal hydrogen electrode at 258C.Zirconium TABLE 22.1 and Figure 22. metal ions of a constant valency imply their stability. This character.75 mm thick.

578 TABLE 22. Filler material shall not be used in the manufacture of welded tube. Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals b 85% joint efficiency was used to determine the allowable stress value for welded tube.4 Maximum Allowable Stress in Tension for Metal Temperature not Exceeding 8C (MPa) 40 95 150 260 205 315 370 Minimum Yield Strength (MPa) ASME Mechanical Requirements for Zr 702 and ZR 705 Used for Unfired Pressure Vesselsa Tensile Strength (MPa) Material Form and Condition ASME Specification Number Alloy Grade SB 551 SB 523 SB 523 Flat-rolled products Seamless tubing Welded tubingb Forgings 359 552 359 552 359 552 359 552 359 552 76 115 76 115 65 97 76 115 76 115 64 98 64 98 55 83 64 98 64 98 48 86 48 86 41 73 48 86 48 86 42 78 42 78 36 66 42 78 42 78 207 379 207 379 207 379 207 379 207 379 90 138 90 138 77 117 90 138 90 138 SB 493 Bar SB 550 702 705 702 705 702 705 702 705 702 705 41 72 41 72 35 59 41 72 41 72 33 62 33 62 28 52 33 62 33 62 a Readers should get the current version for possible revisions. .

°F 500 (73) 400 (58) 300 (44) 200 (29) 100 (14) 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Ultimate tensile strength Elongation 60 Elongation. Consequently. % 50 40 30 Yield strength 20 10 100 200 300 Temperature. depending on their valence state. °F 600 (87) 500 (73) Stress. and (c) Zr 705. °F 600 (87) 500 (73) Stress. such as hydrofluoric acid. % 400 (58) 300 (44) Yield strength 200 (29) 100 (14) 0 0 100 200 300 Temperature. MPa (ksi) 400 (58) 300 (44) 200 (29) 100 (14) 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Ultimate tensile strength Yield strength 40 30 Elongation 20 10 100 200 300 Temperature. concentrated sulfuric acid. . °C 400 0 (a) Temperature. Most transition metals produce ions of different colors. zirconium is not suitable or needs protective measures for handling these media.5% Nb (aged 4 h at 5668C) Smooth 145 283 290 Notched 55 55 55 579 Another advantage is that zirconium ions are colorless. temperature curves for zirconium alloys (a) Zr 702. MPa (ksi) Elongation. Protective oxide films are difficult to form on zirconium’s surface in a few media.Zirconium TABLE 22. Temperature.1 Tensile properties vs. °C 400 Elongation 40 30 20 10 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Ultimate tensile strength Elongation.5 The 107 Fatigue Limits for Zirconium Alloys Fatigue Limit (MPa) Alloy Iodide Zr Zircaloys or Zr 705 (annealed 2 h at 7328C) Zr–2. °C 400 0 (b) Stress. (b) Zr 704. % Temperature. This is important when the color stability of products is a major concern. and oxidizing chloride solutions. MPa (ksi) (c) FIGURE 22.

The oxidation rate of unalloyed zirconium increases markedly when nitrogen and carbon concentrations Stress.or hydrogen-charged coolant at temperatures from 280 to 3008C. ksi Stress. 22.4. ksi . MPa 150°C 260°C 425°C 100 100 10 10 10−6 (b) 10−5 10−4 Strain.01 40°C Stress.01 FIGURE 22. Most passive metals form protective oxide films in aqueous solutions only when the solutions are somewhat oxidizing. Zirconium has a great capability for taking oxygen from water for the formation of protective oxide film. This capability is not weakened even when zirconium is in a highly reducing medium. stress curves for zirconium alloys (a) Zr 702 and (b) Zr 705.5 This behavior is related to variations in the impurity content in the metal. Consequently. MPa 10 10 10−6 (a) 10−3 10−5 10−4 Strain.1 Water and Steam Zirconium has excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance in water and steam at temperatures exceeding 3008C.2 Maximum creep rate vs. Nitrogen and carbon impurities are particularly harmful. However. %/h 10−3 0.3. %/h 10−3 0.580 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 10−3 Room temperature 95°C 315°C 205°C 100 370°C 100 Stress.2. zirconium is uniquely suitable for nuclear applications because water-cooled reactors operate with oxygen. corrosion and oxidation of unalloyed zirconium in hightemperature water and steam were found to be irregular.

6 22.3. and Zr–1Nb are the most important ones developed for nuclear applications because they are more reliable and predictable for use in hot water and steam in addition to being stronger. hydrogen pickup for zircaloy-4 is about 25% of theoretical. pH.Zirconium 581 exceed 40 and 300 ppm. Furthermore. pitting. however. Unlike the white. Laboratory tests were performed on Zr 702 and Zr 704 in boiling seawater for 275 days and in 2008C seawater for 29 days. zircaloy-4. Both variations are intended for reducing hydrogen pickup with little effect on corrosion resistance in reactor operation.5 Also. A tightly adherent oxide film forms on this alloy at a rate that is at first quasi-cubic. the corrosion resistance of Zr–2. such as pressure tubes in the primary loops of some reactors. Oregon for up to 129 days. no attack was found beneath the marine organisms or within the crevices. on unalloyed zirconium. brackish water. respectively. zircaloy-2 has an improved character in oxide formation at elevated temperatures.4 Zr–2.2. No cracking was observed during the test period. In addition.5Nb can be substantially improved by heat treatments. As compared to unalloyed zirconium.2 Salt Water Zirconium has excellent corrosion resistance to seawater. of Zr 702.4. hydrogen pickup is greatly reduced when dissolved oxygen is present in the medium. and sulfur-containing organisms. Both alloys were resistant to general corrosion. or less than half that of zircaloy-2. All welded and nonwelded specimens exhibited nil corrosion rates.5Nb is suitable for many applications.5 The irregular behavior of unalloyed zirconium stimulated alloy development programs. Zirconium’s advantages include its insensitivity to variation in factors like chloride concentration. Tests of U-bend specimens. temperature. Some of the results are summarized as follows.5Nb.4.5Nb is considered to be somewhat less resistant to corrosion than the zircaloys with exception. Nevertheless. Zr–2. Marine biofouling was observed. Zircaloy-4 differs in composition from zircaloy-2 in having a slightly higher iron content but no nickel. porous oxide films. velocity. Zr–2. Overstressing of the tested . the oxide film on zircaloy-2 remains dark and adherent throughout transition and in the posttransition region. hydrogen pickup for zircaloy-4 is less sensitive to hydrogen overpressure than that for zircaloy-2. crevice. in water at 3608C. and polluted water. Zircaloy-2.5Nb is superior to zircaloys in steam at temperatures above 4008C. but after an initial period undergoes a transition to linear behavior. The corrosion properties of zirconium grades 702 and 704 in natural seawater can be found in Reference [9]. and nickel-free Zr 704 were conducted in boiling seawater for 365 days. For both alloys. Zr 702 specimens with or without a crevice attachment were placed in the Pacific Ocean at Newport. Zr–2. For example. with or without steel coupling. and crevice corrosion. nickel-containing Zr 704.

. It is vigorously attacked by HF at all concentrations and even acid fluoride solutions. it appears that the chance to have fluorides in the process media has increased somewhat.2.6. do not attack zirconium. For example. zirconium sulfate. Corrosion rates for zirconium in boiling 20. Results of chemical analyses are given in Table 22. zirconium nitrate. One of the possibilities is the increased usage of recycled chemicals. inhibitors that form strong fluoride complexes should be added for protecting zirconium equipment. 22. hydrochloric (HCl). and phosphorous pentoxide. In recent years.11 The effect of pH on the corrosion of zirconium in fluoridecontaining solutions is shown in Table 22. and in up to 57% HI at temperatures up to 2508C are less than 1 mpy.8 gives some results about the effect of fluoride complexes on zirconium’s corrosion in fluoride-containing solutions.3.6 Chemical Analyses for Hydrogen and Oxygen (ppm) of Tested U Bends in Boiling Seawater for 365 Days Metal Nonwelded Zr 702 U bend with steel coupling Nonwelded Zr 704 (Ni-containing) U bend with steel coupling Nonwelded Zr 704 (Ni-free) U bend with steel coupling Welded Zr 702 U bend with steel coupling Welded Zr 704 U bend (Ni-containing) with steel Welded Zr 704 (Ni-free) U bend with steel coupling Hydrogen 6 8 9 8 450 5 Oxygen 1350 1480 1440 1250 5000 1480 U bends indicated that all specimens remained ductile except for the welded nickel-containing Zr 704 with steel coupling. and hydriodic acids (HI). Steel-coupled nickel-containing Zr 704 showed much higher hydrogen and oxygen absorption and formed hydrides.3 Halogen Acids Zirconium resists attack by all halogen acids. Chemical analyses and metallographic examinations on other U bends did not show evidence of hydrogen absorption and hydride formation.14–16 According to results generated at Teledyne Wah Chang.. The other halogen acids.13 When zirconium equipment faces fluoride-containing acids.582 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 22. except hydrofluoric acid (HF). Table 22.12 This fact is taken advantage of in the preparation of zirconium surfaces using mixtures of hydrofluoric and nitric acids for various fabrication steps and for improved corrosion resistance in certain nuclear and chemical applications.12 Effective inhibitors include zirconium sponge.10 It should be noted that zirconium’s corrosion resistance is not as poor in fluoride salt solutions until fluorides become HF in pH!3 solutions. 45 and 48% HBr are less than 5 mil per year (mpy). recycled sulfuric acid may contain more than 100 ppm fluorides. i.e.7. hydrobromic (HBr).

0 2. pH 1 6.13 3.8 Effect of Zr Sponge or P2O5 on the Corrosion of Zirconium in Fluoride-Containing Solutions Medium 7.0 2.3 F (as NaF) (ppm) 200 200 200 — — 200 200 200 — — 200 200 200 — — F (as CaF2) (ppm) 100 100 100 300 300 2800 2800 2800 300 300 9800 9800 9800 300 300 P2O5 (ppm) — — 1200 — 1200 — — 800 — 1200 — — 800 — 1200 pH 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 Corrosion Rate (mm/yr) 8.0 6. and/or stress corrosion cracking (SCC).79 0.92 0.1 0.00 1.1 0.2% CaCl2C0.6 6.0 2.02 One of the most impressive corrosion properties for zirconium is its excellent resistance in HCl at all concentrations and temperatures even above boiling.1 0.Zirconium TABLE 22. TABLE 22.6 6.17 3.3 3.1 1. pitting.1 0.7 583 Corrosion of Zirconium in Fluoride-Containing Chloride Solutions at 808C after Four 1-Day Cycles Solution CaCl2 (%) 0.3 3.2 2.01 0. it is very difficult for most metallic metals to form protective oxide films in HCl.71 0.6% CaCl2C3.6 6.3% MgCl2C620 ppm CaF2.39 2.54 8. pH 1 90% HNO3C200 ppm HF Inhibitor None 16% Zr sponge None 1200 ppm P2O5 None 1200 ppm P2O5 None 1200 ppm P2O5 None 800 ppm Zr sponge Temperature (8C) 90 90 80 80 80 80 80 80 25 25 Corrosion Rate (mpy) O1000 !1 350 15 150 !1 40 !1 O1000 1 .0 3.0 2.01 1.6 6. The presence of even a small amount of HCl in a medium may cause common metals and alloys to suffer general corrosion. pH 1 2% CaCl2C1% MgCl2C620 ppm CaF2.2 0.3 3.79 0.0 1.02 0.2 0.6 MgCl2 (%) 0.2% AlF3C0.0 1.0 1.15–18 Because of its strong reducing power.87 0.3 3.2 0.01 0.0 l.1% MgCl2C620 ppm CaF2.2 0.5% HF 0.

20 As indicated in Reference [20].4. zirconium is not as susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement in HCl as tantalum is. Figure 22. It can be seen that the presence of ferric ions polarizes the zirconium surface to a potential exceeding the breakdown potential.4 shows that zirconium is susceptible to localized corrosion. Figure 22. the anodic polarization curves of zirconium do not have the active region in this highly reducing acid Figure 22. are present. Under the same testing conditions. Moreover. Unlike most passive metals. intergranular corrosion.19. Thus a local breakdown of the passive surface at preferred sites occurs. tantalum lost 33 and 18% of its ductility after 1000 h in 11 M HCl and 11 M HClC7% GaCl3. respectively. The isocorrosion diagram for zirconium in HCl is shown in Figure 22. Zirconium is susceptible to pitting in %20% HCl but to intergranular corrosion in O20% HCl.584 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 260 450 220 Temperature. at 708C. zirconium remained unattacked and retained 100% of its ductility. This corrosion property explains the resistance of zirconium to crevice corrosion in chloride solutions.3. °F 180 Corrosion rate 140 Boiling curve 100 0−5 mpy 20−200 5−20 250 60 150 20 10 20 30 40 HCI concentration (wt%) FIGURE 22. °C >200 mpy 350 Temperature.21 The same types of corrosion problems may be developed in HCl when highly oxidizing ions. such as ferric and cupric ions. However. and a .5 demonstrates the detrimental effect of ferric ions in 20% HCl at 1008C. when it is anodically polarized to breakdown potentials.3 The isocorrosion diagram for zirconium in HCl. Zirconium is suitable for handling HCl at all concentrations. and SCC. such as pitting.

06 −0.22. maintaining zirconium at a potential in its passive region.2 0.4 −1 32% 37% 585 5% 0 1 2 Log (Current density).1 −0.24 0. which is 0.14 E(V. SHE) 0.23 Alternatively.5 Effect of 500 ppm Fe3Con the anodic polarization curve of zirconium in 20% HCl at 1008C.04 −0. condition favors the occurrence of localized corrosion. . μA/cm2 3 FIGURE 22.3 −0.2 −0.0 20% −0.16 −0.Zirconium 0.26 HCI HCI + 500ppm Fe+3 100 10 102 I(μA/cm2) 103 104 FIGURE 22.1 Applied potential.4 The anodic polarization curve of zirconium in HCl at near boiling temperatures. VSCE 0. pickling zirconium in a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids can suppress the breakdown process of passive films. To eliminate preferred sites.

the corrosion rate of zirconium is conservatively put at less than 5 mpy Figure 22.21 22. is not considered to be a difficult acid for passive metals to handle.6 The isocorrosion diagram for zirconium in HNO3.18 Below the boiling point and at 98% HNO3 and up to 2508C and at 70% HNO3. Nevertheless. . °C 180 140 Boiling curve 100 0−5 mpy 60 150 250 20 20 40 60 80 HNO3 concentration (wt%) 100 FIGURE 22. HNO3 becomes highly corrosive when its temperature is high. but not of zirconium. and/or variable in concentration. can counteract the detrimental effects resulting from the presence of ferric icons. Zirconium is considerably more suitable than most passive metals for handling HNO3.2. particularly when the acid is hot. The passivating power favors the formation of oxide films but may also cause the passive films to break down.4.15. because of its passivating power. 260 450 220 Corrosion rate 0−5 mpy not tested Temperature. Traces of chloride may lead to rapid attack of noble metals. its concentration is too high or not high enough. The excellent corrosion resistance of zirconium in HNO3 has been recognized for more than 30 years. or its purity is poor.6.586 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals arbitrarily set a 50–100 mV below the corrosion potential.4 Nitric Acid Nitric acid (HNO3). Under certain conditions. Zirconium’s temperature limit is somewhat higher than that of noble metals.3. zirconium is even more resistant than the noble metals to the acid. impure. °F 350 Temperature.

or 1. Zirconium is normally susceptible to pitting in acidic oxidizing chloride solutions. It has very noble corrosion potentials because of the oxidizing nature of HNO3. The transpassive potential decreases with increasing acid concentration.27 The slow strain-rate technique can reveal zirconium’s SCC susceptibility in less than 70% HNO3.6 20% 35% 60% 70% 80% 0 1 2 Log(current density). common oxidizing agents.25.2 1. the presence of an appreciable amount of HCl should be avoided because zirconium is not resistant to aqua regia. Zirconium exhibits the passive-to-active behavior in HNO3. 1% NaCl.0 0.7.Zirconium 587 Results of autoclave tests showed that the corrosion rates of zirconium were less than 1 mpy in 80% HNO3 and 90% HNO3 at 120–1508C. Results of 1.7 The anodic polarization curves of zirconium in HNO3 at near boiling temperatures. such as oxygen and ferric ion.4 1. will not affect the corrosion resistance of zirconium. However.26 Still. 1% iron.8 0. . the corrosion rates were less than 1 mpy when zirconium was tested in boiling 30–70% HNO3 with up to 1% FeCl3.24 These results indicate that the presence of heavy-metal ions and chlorides has little effect on the corrosion resistance of zirconium.45% type 304 stainless steel at 2058C.28 The primary concern for using zirconium in HNO3 service would be SCC in concentrated acid.24 Moreover. However.25 or 5. The anodic polarization curves of zirconium in HNO3 are shown in Figure 22.26 The minimum ½NOK =½ClK molar ratio required to inhibit 3 pitting of zirconium was determined to be 118. 1% seawater. This is consistent with the observation of SCC in U-bend specimens in greater than 70% HNO3. The polarization curves imply that zirconium may be sensitive to stress in concentrated HNO3. NOK ion is an effective inhibitor for the pitting of 3 zirconium. VSCE 1. μA/cm2 3 FIGURE 22.6 Applied potential.18.

Figure 22.34 Chlorine gas can be generated by the oxidation of chlorides in HNO3. Areas that can trap gases should be avoided when ClK is present in HNO3. Dilute solutions are reducing. a reagent in chemical syntheses. 22. The corrosion of zirconium in H2SO4 is rather straightforward (Figure 22. an absorbant. Or. Solutions become increasingly oxidizing at or above 65%.9–72.5% H2SO4 at nearboiling temperatures are shown in Figure 22. a passive film is formed on zirconium that is predominantly cubic zirconium oxide (ZrO2) with only traces of the monoclinic phase. the corrosion rate of zirconium increases rapidly with concentration. These highly versatile capabilities can be attributed to the complicated nature of this acid.2. As indicated in Figure 22.27 Cracking can be prevented by avoiding high. The usefulness of common metals depends strongly on acid concentration.9 shows that the transpassive potential of zirconium in the acid decreases with increasing . sustained tensile stresses or by applying other preventive measures. the corrosion resistance of zirconium depends strongly on temperature. which makes passive metals vulnerable to corrosion.g. at the higher acid concentrations. as do common metals and alloys.31 Also. the corrosion of zirconium in fluoride-containing acids can be controlled by adding an inhibitor. For example. The consumption of sulfuric acid indicates a nation’s industrial activity. such as zirconium sponge and its compounds.31 The anodic polarization curves of zirconium in 4. it is used as a dehydrating agent. a catalyst.3. dilute solutions can be used to pickle steel and stainless steel. an oxidizing agent. In fact.. temperature.29 Other concerns include the accumulation of chlorine gas in the vapor phase and the presence of fluoride ions. In 70–80% H2SO4. hot. It can be seen that zirconium resists attack by H2SO4 at all concentrations up to 70% and at temperatures to boiling and above.30 Zirconium corrodes in highly concentrated H2SO4 (e. to convert fluoride ions to noncorrosive complex ions. zirconium does not have the active region in H2SO4. 80%) because loose films are formed that prove to be zirconium disulfate tetrahydrate [Zr(SO4)2$4H2O].588 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals C-ring tests indicate that zirconium will have a long life in concentrated acids when they are stressed below the yield point. As indicated previously.8). Again. and more.5 Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is the most important acid for use in the manufacture of many chemicals. In higher concentrations.9. films that flake off are formed and are probably partly zirconium hydrides.9 zirconium experiences a passive-to-transpassive transition in the acid with increasing potential. In the range in which zirconium shows corrosion resistance in H2SO4. and the presence of other chemicals. zirconium equipment should be pickled for having much improved resistance to pitting in wet-chlorinecontaining vapors.

zirconium equipment is often used in steel pickling. zirconium can tolerate large amounts of strong oxidizing agents.32 Moreover. Figure 22. Consequently. such as 510G208C.8 The isocorrosion diagram for zirconium in H2SO4.10 indicates that zirconium can tolerate some amounts of strong oxidizing agents in %65% H2SO4 without a reduction in corrosion.33–36 In O65% H2SO4. in the presence of oxidizing agents. Figure 22. zirconium becomes sensitive to the presence of oxidizing agents. in %40% H2SO4. Zirconium weld metal may corrode preferentially when H2SO4 concentration is approximately 55% and higher.37 The presence of chlorides in H2SO4 has little effect on the corrosion resistance of zirconium unless oxidizing agents are also present. this hightemperature heat treatment is not suitable for equipment made of zirconium/steel-clad materials because of the large difference in thermal expansion coefficients between these two alloys.Zirconium 589 260 200 mpy 20 mpy 20 ver 0 m py O 500 450 400 350 300 250 Temperature.9 indicates that 60–70% H2SO4 would be the optimum range for zirconium to face the coexistence of chloride ions and oxidizing ions.4 mm of thickness can be applied to restore the corrosion resistance approaching that of the parent metal. chloride ions should be controlled within a limit to avoid detrimental attack. should be applied when there is . °C 180 20− 20 0m py 5 −2 0m py 0−5 mpy 140 100 Boiling point curve 200 150 100 60 20 0 20 40 60 80 Concentration (wt%) 100 FIGURE 22. concentration. Table 22. Heat treatment at a much lower temperature.38 Heat treatment at 775G158C for 1 h per 25.39–41 However. °F 220 5 mpy Temperature.11 can be used as a guide when chloride ions and oxidizing ions coexist. Therefore.

It is essential to operate zirconium equipment within the limits. Acid concentration can easily increase when the system is under vacuum operation because water vapor is continuously taken away.9 The anodic polarization curves of zirconium in H2SO4 at near boiling temperatures. a pyrophoric surface layer may be formed on zirconium under certain conditions. VSCE 20 45 50 55 60 0..48 The pyrophoric surface layer on zirconium formed in . the concentration change is negligible when a system is under a pressurized condition. for example.2 1N 0. In %65% H2SO4.0 65 70 −0. zirconium may corrode rapidly. When the limit is exceeded.43 This susceptibility was suppressed in the past because it was typical to heat-treat zirconium equipment for service in this narrow range. μA/cm 72. In a leaking system.590 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 1. the vapor phase is almost entirely water.4 0. Zirconium is susceptible to SCC in a narrow range of H2SO4. 64–69%. the system is imperfectly sealed. the acid concentration can exceed the concentration limit.8. it is very important to maintain acid concentration within the limits indicated in Figure 22.e. When the corrosion resistance limits of zirconium in H2SO4 are exceeded.42.5 FIGURE 22. heat treatment at a temperature as low as 450G258C has been developed for dealing with clad materials. Consequently. It was detected recently when a zirconium-clad vessel that was not heat-treated failed by SCC in this range.8 Applied potential. Factors that affect the corrosion properties of zirconium in H2SO4 are discussed in Reference [46]. For zirconium equipment.4 101 102 2 Log i.45 Acid concentration may change significantly when.47. concern about SCC.44 However. i.

and fine metallic particles. concentration.12.49 . Zirconium outperforms common stainless alloys in this area. The most useful area for zirconium would be dilute acid at elevated temperatures.6 Phosphoric Acid Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is less corrosive than other mineral acids. Zr(SO4)2. 77. °C Bo il c ing e urv 110 Corrosion rate <0.2.5% H2SO4C200 ppm Fe3Cat 808C consisted of g-hydride. As often occurs. Treating in hot air or steam can eliminate this tendency.Zirconium 591 pure acid 170 200ppm NO3− 200ppm Cu2+ 200ppm Fe3+ 150 >0.125 mm/y 90 70 50 50 60 70 H2SO4 concentration (wt%) 80 FIGURE 22. the corrosion rate could increase greatly with increasing temperature Figure 22.125 mm/y 130 Temperature.10 Effect of oxidizing ions on the isocorrosion diagram for zirconium in H2SO4. Such areas as the liquid level line or the condensing zones are particularly vulnerable to attack. ZrO2. Zirconium resists attack in H3PO4 at concentrations up to 55% and temperatures exceeding the boiling point.48 22.3. corrosion rates of common alloys in the acid increase with increasing temperature. and impurities.48 The combination of hydride and fine metallic particles is suggested to be responsible for the pyrophoricity. Above 55% H3PO4. Many stainless alloys demonstrate useful resistance in the acid at low temperatures.

. the employment of zirconium has always been TABLE 22. the passive range diminishes gradually and the passive current increases progressively. Figure 22. It appears that zirconium passivates more slowly in H3PO4 than in other mineral acids.592 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 10000 Corrosion Amount of chloride ion. If H3PO4 contains more than a trace of fluoride ions. Because fluoride compounds are often present in the ores used for making H3PO4. attack on zirconium may occur.13 shows the anodic polarization curves of zirconium in H3PO4 at near-boiling temperatures. As the concentration increases. ppm Pitting likely 1000 Effective inhibitionno corrosion expected 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 Wt% sulfiric acid 30 35 40 FIGURE 22. Localized corrosion.11 Chloride allowable for zirconium in H2SO4 under oxidizing conditions.9 Inhibiting Effect of Sulfate Ion on the General and Local Corrosion of Zirconium in Boiling Sulfuric Acid and Containing FeCl3 Temperature (8C) 40% H2SO4C2% FeCl3 50% H2SO4C2% FeCl3 55% H2SO4C2% FeCl3 60% H2SO4C2% FeCl3 70% H2SO4C2% FeCl3 a b Corrosion Rate (mpy)a 199b 80 83 26 33 115 124 131 141 166 Four 1-day cycles.

0 30% 0.2 0 1 2 Log(current density). .8 Applied potential. °F 70% 3 >200 mpy 20−200 350 140 100 Boiling curve 250 5−20 0−5 mpy Corrosion rate 150 60 20 20 40 60 80 H3PO4 concentration (wt%) 100 FIGURE 22.0 −0.4 0.13 The anodic polarization curves of zirconium in H3PO4 at near boiling temperatures. μA/cm2 50% 60% FIGURE 22. VSCE 0. °C 180 Temperature.12 The isocorrosion diagram for zirconium in H3PO4.Zirconium 593 260 450 220 Temperature.2 0. 1.6 0.

such as FeCl3 and CuCl2.53 This makes zirconium distinctly different from other highly corrosionresistant materials.3.54 22. sulfuric–hydrochloric. including NaOH solutions.594 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals questioned. at 1208C.7 Other Acids Zirconium has excellent corrosion resistance in up to 30% chromic acid at temperatures to 1008C.18 In mixtures greater than the 3:1 ratio.52. During the test period. the concentration changed from 50% to about 85%. and 2258C. and temperature increased from 150 to 3008C. It can be in acid mixtures of sulfuric–nitric. The PTFE washers and tubes used to make the U bends dissolved. nitrate. 22. In the 1:1 volume mixture. zirconium’s performance is very . paper-pulping solution that contained NaOH and sodium sulfide. the zirconium U bends remained ductile and did not show any cracks after 20 days. graphite. Furthermore. calcium hydroxide. It should be noted that stainless steel is susceptible to SCC in alkaline solutions. potassium hydroxide.9 Salt Solutions Zirconium is resistant to most salt solutions. zirconium sponge and its compounds can be used to complex fluorides. However. Zirconium also exhibits excellent resistance to SCC in simulated white liquors.2.50. because P2O5 is an effective fluoride inhibitor and is usually present in large amounts in H3PO4 processes. glass. carbonate. tantalum.51 Zirconium is aggressively attacked in 1:3 volume mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acids (aqua regia). and sulfate. However. including halogen. such as titanium. 51 Corrosion rates are usually very low at temperatures at least up to the boiling point. graphite and glass both corroded badly at 1008C.54 In the same solution. Zirconium is also resistant to some mixed acid systems. Some data for the mixed acid systems are given in Table 22. are examples of the few exceptions. zirconium is attacked by much more slowly than in the 1:3 mixture. zirconium is resistant.3.2. 1758C.50 It is not suitable for handling chrome-plating solutions that contain fluoride catalysts. Solutions of strong oxidizing chloride salts. tests should be conduced to determine zirconium’s suitability in the actual stream. In strong oxidizing chloride solutions. concentrated NaOH at TWC. and phosphoric–nitric. All coupons had corrosion rates of less than 1 mpy. Zirconium coupons were tested in a white liquor.8 Alkalies Zirconium resists attack in most alkalies.10. including sodium hydroxide. Zirconium U-bend specimens were tested in boiling.2. The sulfuric acid concentration must be below 70%.18. and ammonium hydroxide. 22. and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).3.

J. No failure was observed in U-bend tests conducted in boiling 42% magnesium chloride (MgCl2) at TWC. L. L.0 99% HNO3 90% HNO3 14% HNO3 75% HNO3 50% HNO3 5% HNO3 1% HNO3 25% HNO3 0.5 0. and W. Acherman. Chem. Consequently.10 Corrosion Rates of Zirconium in Some Mixed Acids Test Solutiona (wt %) 1% H2SO4 10% H2SO4 14% H2SO4 25% H2SO4 50% H2SO4 68% H2SO4 68% H2SO4 75% H2SO4 88% H3PO4 88% H3PO4 Aqua regia 20%HCl 10% HCl 7. 100 RT. Chem. Zirconium is considerably more resistant to chloride SCC than stainless steels are.0 WG Dissolved Dissolved Dissolved 0.06 WGc 0. weight gain. and A.3 0.R.5% HCl 4% HCl 1. Lane. Glukhova. there is no instance of zirconium–sulfur bonds forming in .L. Acherman. Eng. No attack was observed on zirconium in a salt spray environment.63 2000 11 260 0. dependent on surface conditions. I. WG. Jr. Another attractive property of zirconium is its high crevice corrosion resistance. 1952.22.0 5. Ind. V. zirconium is not ideal for handling most fluoride-containing solutions unless fluoride ions are complexed..L. Golden. 11: 390.1 150 0. its resistance decreases rapidly with increasing temperature or decreasing pH. and W. Andreeva.0 15.I.Zirconium TABLE 22.5% H2SO4 34% H2SO4 40% H2SO4 56% H2SO4 60% H2SO4 69% H2SO4 69% H2SO4 72% H2SO4 a b c 595 Temperature RT.5% HCl Corrosion test with HCl/H2SO4 and HCl/HNO3 solutions were conducted at TWC.56 Furthermore. Andreeva and A. J. RT.B. Chem.I. Zirconium–sulfur compounds form only at temperatures above 5008C. Jr. 1962.23 Zirconium becomes quite resistant to pitting when it has a good surface finish like the pickled surface. room temperature. Golden. Chem.22.V.... Ind.5% HCl 1. 45: 782.R. I..0 1.2 2. Appl.. Source: From V. Zirconium is not subject to crevice corrosion even in acidic chloride at elevated temperatures.. 44: 1930. 1961. Lane.0 20.23 Although zirconium has good corrosion resistance in sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride at low temperatures.55 Unlike many common metals. 12: 457. zirconium has very little affinity for sulfur. Eng. Glukhova.V. 1953. Appl.5% HNO3 5% HNO3 20% HNO3 10% HNO3 19% HCl 17% HCl 14% HCl 10% HCl 1. 100 Boiling 100 RT Boiling Boiling RT RT RT RT RT RT Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling Boiling b Corrosion Rates (mpy) 0.B..

terphenyls.01 !0. or SCC was observed. 1980. hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is highly corrosive to common reactions of zirconium in sulfide-containing solutions. e. June 2.10 Organic Solutions Zirconium has excellent corrosion resistance in most organic solutions.5–25 10–50 25 100 58% urea 17% NH3 15% CO2 10% H2O Temperature (8C) 35-boiling Boiling 35–100 Boiling 35–100 Boiling 35-boiling 35-boiling 35–100 35–100 35–100 Boiling 193 Corrosion Rate (mpy) !0. Indeed.5 5. early experiments in the organic coolants indicated that hydriding was a major concern.64–66 On the other hand. Zirconium coupons and U bends were tested in numerous NaCl–H2S solutions at temperatures to 2328C.9.g. crevice corrosion.03 !0..g..01 !0. It was found that chlorine impurity in the organic coolants was the major cause of gross hydriding.61 These coolants are noncorrosive to zirconium. the combination of a lack of water and the presence of halogens or halides is the major reason for zirconium to experience corrosion problems in organic solutions. However.58–60 No general corrosion. For example. except certain chlorinated compounds. addition of some water can suppress zirconium’s susceptibility to SCC in alcohol solutions with halide impurities. 20 100 10–50 100 10–90 10–85 0.2 !0.07 0.11 Corrosion Rates for Zirconium in Organic Solutions Environment Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Aniline hydrochloride Chloroacetic acid Citric acid Dichloroacetic acid Formic acid Lactic acid Oxalic acid Tartaric acid Tannic acid Trichloroacetic acid Urea reactor Concentration (wt %) 5–99. pitting. e. 22. as indicated in Table 22.57 Hence.1 O50 !0. New York.3. carbon .1 Source: Excerpted by special permission from Chemical Engineering. Elimination of the chlorine and maintenance of a good surface oxide film by ensuring the presence of adequate water (O50 ppm) alleviates the hydriding problem.2 !20 !0. zirconium shows excellent corrosion resistance in certain chlorinated carbon compounds.05 !0.596 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals TABLE 22.2.5 !0. aqueous systems.61–63 It has been extensively tested in organic-cooled reactors where the coolant consisted of mixtures of high-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons. Copyright 1980 by McGraw-Hill.1 !0.5 99.11.

it diffuses into the metal faster than oxygen because of its smaller size. such as alkyl and aryl halides. Zirconium can absorb oxygen and become embrittled after prolonged exposure.. Water-incompatible halides. and they will not exclude water either. 22. chloroacetic acid. addition of water and/or stress relief would be effective in preventing the corrosion of zirconium in water-soluble halides.e. i. are not corrosive to zirconium. probably because of their stability. Water-soluble halides. such as dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acids. and water-incompatible. provided that small amounts of oxygen are also present in hydrogen for healing damaged spots in the oxide film. such as acetyl chloride.2.11 Gases Zirconium forms a visible oxide film in air at about 2008C. organic halides can be classified into three groups. to form organometallic compounds. From a corrosion point of view. are more corrosive to zirconium. and tetrachloroethane. More active halides. Consequently. such as trichloroethylene and dichlorobenzene. They may become more corrosive when water content is low and/or zirconium is highly stressed. white scale on zirconium at temperatures above 5408C. Water-insoluble halides. The oxidation rate becomes high enough to produce a loose.3. water addition may increase the corrosivity of many organic solutions towards common metals and alloys. The nitriding rate can be enhanced by the presence of oxygen in the nitrogen or on the metal surface.Zirconium 597 tetrachloride and dichlorobenzene at temperatures up to 2008C. At temperatures above 7008C. Once nitrogen penetrates through the oxide layer. including noble metals. Temperatures of 13008C are needed to fully nitride the metal. A general discussion on the corrosion mechanisms of zirconium in organic solutions is given in Reference [63]. to handle. They react violently with water. However. and maybe other metals. They are not stable. They and water can be physically mixed together. These reactions can be suppressed when there is some water present in the media. water-insoluble. In an . It should be noted that certain organic compounds. It is suspected that these halides may attack zirconium or inter-metallic compounds at grain boundaries to form organometallic compounds. are not corrosive to zirconium. may be highly corrosive to zirconium. Clean zirconium starts the nitride reaction in ultrapure nitrogen at about 9008C. are the common ones to react with most metals. They will not dissolve in water. but it seems always to be beneficial to zirconium. The oxide film on zirconium provides an effective barrier to hydrogen absorption up to 7608C. There is no chance of water to be present in this type of halide. water-soluble. which is the most undesirable organic for zirconium. such as aniline hydrochloride. Zirconium reacts more slowly with nitrogen than with oxygen because it has a higher affinity for oxygen than for nitrogen and it is normally protected by a layer of oxide film.

but the corrosion resistance is affected by trace impurities. 100 ppm fluoride ions. such as oxygen. Nitrate and sulfate ions can inhibit the pitting . The oxidation properties of zirconium in nitrate salts are similar to those in air. However. zinc. Hydrogen can be effectively removed from zirconium by prolonged vacuum annealing at temperatures above 7608C. Therefore. zirconium forms volatile halides. but not in nuclear power applications. up to 350 ppm chloride and iodide ions. The presence of oxidizing ions. It is very resistant to corrosion by molten sodium hydroxide to temperatures above 10008C. Zirconium has a corrosion rate of less than 1 mpy in liquid lead to 6008C.22.67 Refer to Table 20. i. Zirconium resists some types of molten metals.23 Zirconium is susceptible to pitting in wet chlorine unless it has a properly cleaned surface.1 Pitting Zirconium is susceptible to pitting in all halide solutions except fluoride. 22. 22. CO2 and SO2) up to about 300–4008C. The corrosion resistance of zirconium and its alloys in steam is of special interest to nuclear power applications. They can be exposed for prolonged period without pronounced attack at temperatures up to 4258C. Zirconium will ultimately become embrittled by forming zirconium hydrides when the limit of hydrogen solubility is exceeded.2. zirconium does not pit in most halide solutions.2.68 This susceptibility is greatest in chloride solutions and decreases as the halide ion becomes heavier. in acidic chloride solutions may increase the corrosion potential to exceed the pitting potential. in most gases (CO. hydrogen. Depending on the surface condition. Table 22. The molten metals known to attack zirconium are aluminum. and sodium to 6008C. In 3608C steam.. and 10.2. pitting may occur. and IK are 380. zirconium may or may not be resistant in wet chlorine. It is also fairly resistant to potassium hydroxide. BrK.6 for the compatibility of zirconium with selected corrodents.12 Molten Salts and Metals Zirconium resists attack in some molten salts. because its corrosion potential is often lower than the pitting potential. lithium to 8008C mercury to 1008C.000 ppm sulfate ions are acceptable for zirconium in general applications. the pitting potentials in 1 N solutions of ClK. 660. Zirconium is stable in NH3 up to about 10008C.3. and 910 m VNHE. bismuth. respectively. At elevated temperatures. such as ferric and cupric ions.12 illustrates zirconium’s corrosion resistance in several molten metal systems. hydrogen absorption will begin at 3108C.4. and magnesium. or nitrogen. except acidic chloride solutions.4 Selected Corrosion Topics 22. and in dry halogens up to about 2008C.e.598 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals all-hydrogen atmosphere.

which are strong SCC-including agents on common metals and alloys. K. one low in impurities. changing pH. The high SCC resistance of zirconium can be attributed to its high repassivation rate.72 Preventive measures for the SCC of zirconium include 1.3–97.4 231. Source: From R. Koenig. MgCl2.. In the presence of some water or oxygen. 22. October 1.43.69. i. Modifying the environment. defects. Zirconium service failures resulting from SCC are few in chemical applications.2.Zirconium TABLE 22. NaOH.5 650 12. e.4.4 180. 1953.12 Corrosion of Zirconium in Some Liquid Metals Liquid Metal Bi Bi–In–Sn Bi–Pb Bi–Pb–In Bi–Pb–Sn Ga Hg Li Mg Na. KAPL-982.7..26.e.3 60 125 70 97 298 K38. such as NaCl. any breakdown in the surface oxide film will be quickly healed. or NaK Pb Sn a 599 Melting Temperature (8C) 271. Applying electrochemical techniques 5. or adding an inhibitor 3. halogen or halide-containing methanol concentrated HNO3. CuCl2.25.2 Stress Corrosion Cracking Zirconium and its alloys resist SCC in many environments. Maintaining a high-quality surface film. Achieving a crystallographic texture with the hexagonal basal planes perpendicular to the cracking path .F.9 Temperature (8C) 300 Unknown Unknown Good Unknown Good Limited Poor Good — Good Gooda Good 600 Poor Poor Limited Poor Limited Poor Poor Limited Poora Good Limited Unknown 800 Poor Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Poor Unknown Limited Unknown Unknown Limited Unknown At its melting point. Corrosion of Zirconium and Its Alloys in Liquid Metals.g. The environments known to cause SCC of zirconium include FeCl3. and liquid mercury or cesium. and H2S. prepared for the US Atomic Energy Commission by the General Electric Co. Report No. Shot peening 6. concentration. and mechanical damages 4.9 327.70 Other protective measures that will be discussed later are also available in controlling pitting.42.. Avoiding high sustained tensile stresses 2. of zirconium under certain conditions. 64–69% H2SO4.

It can be overcome.13 Galvanic Series in Seawater Cathodic (most noble) Platinum Gold Graphite Titanium Silver Zirconium Type 316. highly loaded surfaces.4. Graphite and carbides in the TABLE 22.2. addition of a heavy oxide coating on the zirconium may eliminate the problem. 3 I7 stainless steels (active) Type 304 stainless steel (active) Cast Iron Steel or Iron Aluminum 2024 Cadmium Aluminum (commercially pure) Zinc Magnesium and magnesium alloys Anodic (active) .2.600 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals 22. If it cannot be eliminated mechanically. zirconium assumes a noble potential similar to that of silver (Table 22. 22. 317 stainless steel (passive) Type 304 stainless steel (passive) Type 410 stain less steel (passive) Nickel (passive) Silver solder Cupronickels (70:30) Bronzes Copper Brasses Nickel (active) Naval brass Tin Lead Type 316.3 Fretting Corrosion Fretting corrosion takes place when vibration contact is made at the interface of tight-fitting.4.13).4 Galvanic Corrosion Because of the protective oxide film that forms on zirconium in air and most oxygen compounds. This coating reduces friction drastically and prevents the removal of the passive protection oxide. Vulnerable areas include areas with damaged oxide films and grain boundaries. particularly in chloride solutions. such as between the leaves of a spring or the pats of ball and roller bearings. Zirconium may become activated and can therefore corrode at vulnerable areas when in contact with a noble material. Fretting of zirconium occurs when its protective oxide coating is damaged or removed.

For example. is among the most insoluble compounds in a broad range of chemicals. there is no need to thicken the oxide film before zirconium is placed in a corrosive medium. this impervious oxide barrier will regenerate itself in many environments. zirconium is not immune to crevice corrosion in a broad sense. The surface of zirconium with anodized films appears in different colors. a thick coating of this oxide on zirconium can be used to minimize galvanic corrosion.2. zirconium is among the most resistant to crevice corrosion. and formation in molten salts.5 mm).5. only certain wavelengths are selectively reflected through the thin film form the . and zinc is accelerated in electrical contact with zirconium. depending on the properties desired. because of interference of this light. Properly oxidized zirconium has a much improved performance against sliding forces. 22. Oxide formation methods will be discussed later. However.5.1 Anodizing Anodizing forms a very thin film (!0. Oxidized zirconium pump shafts are an example of a common application.1. Bolts and nuts are often oxidized for the purpose of preventing galling.2. 22. in spite of the reactive nature of the metal.1 Oxide Film Formation One of the unique properties of zirconium that makes it attractive for chemical applications is the inert nature of its oxide film. it is desirable to preoxidize zirconium. 22. For corrosion resistance.5 Corrosion Protection 22.2.Zirconium 601 powder form can be very effective in promoting galvanic corrosion because even a small amount of material can produce a very large cathode area.5 Crevice Corrosion Of all the corrosion-resistant metals and alloys. They include anodizing. zirconium is not subject to crevice corrosion. autoclaving in hot water or stream. which forms on zirconium’s surface. Because zirconium oxide is an excellent insulator. Still. although it can be damaged by striking action. It is advisable to keep them electrically insulated. corrosion of steel. This resistance can be attributed to zirconium’s excellent corrosion resistance in HCl solutions.2. Other less noble metals will corrode when in contact with zirconium when its oxide film is intact. crevice corrosion of zirconium becomes possible. If it is mechanically destroyed. In low-pH chloride solutions or chlorine gas. in seawater or acidic solutions. formation in air. This film gives excellent corrosion protection in most media. Several methods of oxide formation are possible. aluminum.4. for example. For example. varying through the entire spectrum. when a dilute H2SO4 solution is allowed to concentrate within a crevice. Zirconium oxide (ZrO2). The thickness of the film is in the range of the wavelengths of visible light and. for mechanical reasons.

In addition to the slower corrosion rate. or in a eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides with 5% sodium carbonate.602 Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion: Atmospheric and Media Corrosion of Metals zirconium metal underneath.4 Film Formation in Molten Salts A layer of thick. but it serves as an excellent surface for sliding contact. the rate of hydrogen absorption is drastically reduced. protective. to an iridescent blue or purple. This film is formed during the final stress relief of a component in air at 5508C for 0.2.2 Autoclave Film Formation It is a practice common to the nuclear reactor industry.74 For example.2.3 Film Formation in Air or Oxygen It is the most common method used in the chemical process industry. The oxide layer can be damaged by a striking action.75 In this process. is equivalent to sapphire in hardness and is diffusion-bonded to the base metal. It does not have the adhesion to the underlying metal of thermally produced films. strongly cohesive oxide film can be formed on zirconium by a patented process developed at TWV.5.5–4 h.73. Nevertheless.74 The resultant oxide layer. a layer of black oxide film can be formed on a cleaned zirconium component in air at 5508C for 4–6 h73 or in a fluidized bed using oxygen during the oxide formation stage but using an inert gas during the heating and cooling stages. A treatment time of several hours typically is used. 22.1.5. This film has greatly improved resistance to abrasion and galling over thick oxide films grown by many other means. Treatment is carried out at temperature ranging from 600 to 8008C for up to 50 h. . the uniform film of high integrity is formed in pressurized (19 MPa) deionized water at 3608C for 14 days or in high-purity stream (10 MPa) at 4008C for 1– 3 days. Anodized films are visually appealing but have very limited capability to protect the metal from mechanical damage. This treatment does not cause significant penetration of oxygen into the metal but it does form an oxide layer that is diffusionbonded to the base metal.5. The oxide film formed under a well-controlled condition serves as an excellent bearing surface against a variety of materials in several media and over a wide temperature range. 22. the change in color observed with increasing voltage indicates that the film is growing in thickness. to a powdery tan or light grey. Such films need not be taken as a sign of metal contamination.2. the film is formed at ambient temperatures. 22. a zirconium subject is treated in fused sodium cyanide containing 1–3% sodium carbonate. In this method. The thickness of oxide film formed in the fused salt bath ranges from 20 to 30 mm.1. This film ranges from a straw yellow. approximately 5 mm73 or 20 mm74. Because the selected wavelengths depend on the thickness of such a film.1.

such as oxygen. zirconium becomes corrosion-resistant in oxidizing chloride solutions.14 Corrosion Rate of Zirconium in 500 ppm Fe3CSolution after 32 Days 603 Penetration Rate (mpy) Environment 10% HCl Spent acid (15% Cl) 20% HCl Acidity (N) 3 5 6 Temperature (8C) 60 120 65 80 60 107 Unprotected 7.1 2 !0.15 demonstrate the benefits of TABLE 22. Zirconium’s corrosion problems can be controlled by converting the corrosive condition to a more reducing condition by various means.5.1 !0. In fact. by impressing a potential that is arbitrarily 50–100 mV below its corrosion potential. to form protective oxide films.1 51 36 36 3.1 !0.3 NF !0. zirconium performs well in most reducing environments.1 1 !0.6 59 Protected !0. zirconium is one of the best metals for handling reducing media.2 Electrochemical Protection Zirconium exhibits a passive-to-transpassive transition with increasing potential in all mineral acids except HF. no failure.1 !0. Electronically.15 Time to Failure of Welded Zirconium U Bends in 500 ppm Fe3C Solution after 32 Days Time to Failure (days) Environment 10% HCl Spent acid (15% Cl) 20% HCl 28% HCl 32% HCl 37% HCl a Acidity (N) 3 5 6 9 10 12 Temperature (8C) 60 120 65 60 107 60 94 53 77 30 53