W. Sage


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Greek buildings represented by fragments

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to increase the them by students. g/A October 1908. known monuments Many of the illustrations are diagrams and slight sketches of the nature of marginal notes on the text by the author American " others are taken from the works of Dictionary of Architecture. . and the buildings dealt with include the of Greek art. and by a discussion of the monuinterest taken in opinions which have been held in regard to the Greek ments which they represent. several illustrations of the sculptures the Parthenon are from woodcuts in an old Handbook to the Ill Inverness Terrace. London." the . The Introduction to the Ephesus section sets out the chief purpose with which the papers now gathered into a volume were undertaken. activity of mind the At the same time he has endeavoured to arrive at clear views as to the original forms of the buildings of which the fragments formed part and to put on record some fresh observations. Wood and Penrose. theories of proorders. W. Elgin Marbles.. for without some critical mere looking at such things is nearly vain. of the marbles in our great The author has tried. the Museum Guides of and Catalogues. &c.PREFACE. may sites be through glossaries of terms. It is suggested that by questioning the actual stones a more is practical introduction gained to the study of Greek Building than ever portion. and talk of is Certainly in no place other than a few Greek study best as in there so much material available for such London. by a fresh examination Museum.


CONTENTS. Sculpture The Frieze— The Metopes— The Pediments Restorations — Types of Athena. THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS Sources and the Site — The Peristyle — The Pyramid — The Cella — Retrospect — Details of the Order — - 37 Sculpture and Colour— Construction and the Architect. and Naucratis at Teos and Magnesia— The Choragic Monuments of Athens — The Lycian Tombs The Tomb at Mycenae. III.Appendix The Ionic Volute— The Acanthus Pillar — Architects in Antiquity. — — — — OTHER WORKS The "Theseum" or Temple of Hephaistos — The Propyl/ea — The Nike and Ilissus Temples — The Erechtheum — Temples at Bass^e and Rhamnus—The Nereid Monument from Xanthus — The Temple of Athena at Priene—The Lion Tome at Cnydos —Temples at Miletus. . 147 — : INDEX 213 . and Construction Refinements and Irregularities Architects Colour and Bronze — — IV. I. THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES 71 Date. II. Salamis. Plan. DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS Introduction The Discovery Theories of Reconstruction Further Excayations The Old Temple i — — — — — The New Temple— The Order— The Plan— Sculpture AND Colour— Methods of Workmanship— Dates and Architects.


and of several important tombs. the Antique and Classical." ^' — Introduction. art. The several phases of architecture are usually classified as Mycenae to the late Nereid Of these. and of that which once stood by the Ilissus all in Athens of the great Temple of Diana at Ephesus. — . or Mediseval and Gothic. We are apt A . rocks. "furnishes us directly at. which is the richest alone.s impossible to understand any architecture from books this be even especially true of the great works they are not so much seen immediately as through a veil of traditional explanations. which contains practically all the wrought stones of them which have ever been discovered. monument brought from Xanthus. and theories which are probably in great part a formal grammar applied long after the time when the architecture flourished as a living language. and of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. It i. and of Greek may for collection of representative fragments of great classical buildings with an invaluable means for looking and measuring the very stones wrought by Greek artists. The British Museum. the two most famous buildings of Asia Minor also of the Temples of Bassae and Priene. but Lord Elgin could not carry off Homer' s sun. the Temple of Nik6 Apteros. the Erechtheum. I propose first to examine the Temple of Diana. Baedeker's "Greece. In it are stored large and significant fragments of the Parthenon. Temple of Diana and the Mausoleum can only be properly studied in the Museum. and seas.DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. . from the prehistoric work of in the world. commentaries. the Propylaea. " London has long possessed the finest collection of both the lai-ger and smaller works of art from Greece and Asia Minor.

and had a cedar ceiling. . It was not until 1870 that the site was identified. and as the plain on which the temple was built had been covered b\some 15 feet of alluvial deposit. in In 1877 Mr Wood published his popular account.2 DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. twenty on the flanks of the outer row. octastyle." " the last temple but one. Pliny says that it was of the enormous and impossible size of 425 feet by 220 feet. must have generated the interest which led to a search for the site being undertaken in the following year by J. the discovery was a triumph for what long seemed a forlorn hope. as having eight columns at the ends. In a large degree all architecture is one. and are secondary. is to accept the idea that there some opposition in these. which he brought together many of the references to the temple contained in the ancient books and offered a conjectural restoration. the Temple of Diana was chiefly known by its reputation as one of the Seven Wonders of the world. but this is not necessarily the case. T. in that it is the work of men shaping materials according to their powers and desires Greek and Gothic architecture resemble one another in both being what I may call primary styles while Roman art in much. . and from a few short notices b)According to Vitruvius. of course. and Renaissance art still more. and not one stone remained above-ground. the gifts of kings. which shows that the temple was outside the Magnesian Gate." and " the last temple . that it had 127 columns. Wood. sculptured. restoring the plan from indications found. and thirty-six which were ancient writers. Before the discovery by Mr Wood of the long-buried site. but in the them the Old and New Temples. by the publication of his work on Ephesus in 1862. Falkener. and one hundred in all. Wood speaks of the temple. it was Ionic. were consciously derived. although. In the accounts collected said to have been rebuilt many of only an earlier and a later shall call " last by Falkener the temple is main remnants building were discovered. there is diversity. The Discovery. He was helped by an inscription now in the British Museum. dipteral. and I times.

and we need not infer from it a rebuilding of the temple. which led to the elevation of the New Temple upon a platform reached by many steps. and the modern surface 9 metres. doubtless. a raising of the floor was quite likely to have taken place." but the only remains he assigned to the middle one were those of a pavement intermediate between the higher and the lower levels. The west portico faced the city and the harbour. The Austrian survey referred below shows the floor of the Old Temple 2. as to had been remarked by Pliny. As the site was very low. Alexander to Ephesus in 334.) The remains of the Old Temple were of midsixth century work. i. I. and possibly for this reason became the chief entrance contrary It must have been the nature of the site to the usual custom. 3 but two. and both were discovered .42 metres. We may call them the temples of Croesus and of Alexander.70 metres above the sea-level. (Fig. and. The later temple was of the fourth century. In building the new structure the old work was only taken down to below the level of this platform even the bases and stumps of the old columns were left. and the cella walls were increased at the sides. The new foundations thus contained a core of the old building. belonged to the temple to which Croesus contributed. The site was outside the city to the east at the foot of a range of hills which rose near the back of the east front. . The site was practically a marsh.DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. — Diagram of Levels. and probably was not completed until after the visit of Fig. These were built round about with new foundations. the New Temple 5.

that the square sculptured blocks which Wood had thought were parts of the frieze formed pedestals for the sculptured columns. (Figs. extended the plan by two or three bays. Long portions of the bottom step of those which surrounded the platform were found in situ on one basis for the great * See R. f The best result of this paper was that it led to a reply from Mr Wood in which he gave additional and much more workmanlike data with a plan of what was actually found. At one end. . X From R. 2 and 14. The two temples were identical in size and general disposition of parts. large portions of great retaining walls which supported the platform are shown on both sides. Further.I. the first of a similar pair of bays was found.B. for this purpose. (Fig. and in the right place in regard to the antas. Journal. . In 1884 Fergusson worked over Wood's materials. 1883-4. Joitrna!. site made in 1883-4. 3. however. iv. with the image in the midst. and giving a columniation of 17 feet i^ inch along the flanks.I. He had already suggested. of Sculpt. with the object of showing that places should be found for 127 columns as mentioned by Pliny and." 1880. Tpieories of Reconstruction. + Newton's "Essays. DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. The foundation of one of the antJE and of one column on each side are accurately laid down. "Ionian Antiq. and sections of the steps and platform. 1883-4.+) This plan also contained facts obtained in a further examination of the ..A. and Dr Murray's "Hist. two bays of 19 feet 4 inches were found. and at the other end. The walls of the cella were here completely traced.B." Reproduced by permission.) As there were more than four angle pieces among these blocks it was shown that they could not have belonged to the frieze.4 together. with cross walls exactly opposite the columns dividing the platform into a network of walls (it was so also at Pergamos).* which had been inadequately published." vol.A. It was evident that the two ba)-s at each end were made wider in preparation for the very wide columniation of the fronts. from an examination of the marbles in the British Museum soon after they were received.

letters at the British Museum. of the same width as the side step . 2.. says have come across a short length of step at the east end.tai.. Working over the evidence has convinced F ISEaiziE: wj^kiif . «-&'».ii!. valu- I— able detailed sections were in also but these found tion what was and what was interpreta- conjectural were not suffi- SECTION AT F. Some given. • -:l?in. in 1873. V!.111/ 'vTa \<( 'Jc^ir'f. the colon- Wood says that he that ascertained the Fig. had no square " plinths. Wood. at least " 4 on the sides end. ciently (Fig. 14). : * In his MS. from Wood. side 5 and one end. the outer row of columns at a distance of about 40 feet from their centres.iftr me that the t^^E3 ' network of walls spoken of supported platform a raised reached by continuous flights till. Fig.' of steps. inner row of columns — Sections of Steps along Sides (compare Plan.. PEFIISTYLE." We .* The supplementary facts given in this paper were enough to prove that there were twenty columns on the flanks (outer row) and eight at each of the ends.SECTION AT B. surFOUNDATION OF INNER COLUMN. rounding nade. it is 116 feet from the centre of the column i7i situ on the north side.) distinguished. 2. and and one presumably the other. ^. and that a bot- tom step surrounded SECTION AT D ON PLANS.DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS.

" * volume of 1 877. He finally demonstrated that the sculptured blocks cer- tainly made pedestals. which was about the height of each step " (p. A fragment of an acroterion was also found at one end. opposite the Still alternate piers of the stoa. slightly excessive. The square sculptured blocks were found at the west front. November 1873. . I think.) Fragments of marble roof-tiles were discovered." he says. parts of four of its columns were The columns were 2 feet found and of the wall beyond. 191).f " The masonry which supported the steps. The plinths of the first temple were 7 feet 8i inches square. I should say 8 feet 7 inches bare. I here add a few points derived from the The marble pavement of the Old Temple was about 7 feet 6 inches below the level of the peristyle. * Like the plinth of the outer columns he evidently means. which showed that they must have been of large size.6 " DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. as the rounded covering pieces were about 10 inches wide. " a few inches of the front of the step which I found. t This dimension is. was here substituted for the plinth. with the piers which united the masonry with the foundation piers of the columns. (Fig. surrounded by a stoa or colonnade. The temple rose in the middle of a paved In one place a porcourt. Some time before 1895. which itself was about 9 feet 6 inches above the court. when the late Dr Murray read a paper on the subject before the Institute of Architects. a plinth of the stoa was found on the south it was 25 feet wide. those of the New Temple were 8 feet 8 inches. side nearly 31 feet beyond the lowest step Seventy feet away from the steps on the south side lay a Doric building parallel to the stoa. beyond was a high and strong parabolus wall enclosing the whole precinct. In tion of the pavement remained against the outer step. 3. . each composed of four stones. The step under the base was also in two pieces. and 20 feet 6 inches apart. 6 inches in diameter. an essay at piecing the fragments together had been made by him at the His main points were the following British Museum. : I. was of courses of limestone about 8 inches thick. I feel a doubt as to this step instead of plinths. which were marble and square.

3. Fig. from Wood. . — Part of Sculptured Pedestal.DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS.

Dr Murray Fig. 5. " directly above the joggles. (4. but as a would here no purpose. he endeavoured to prove that this arrangement. which had been suggested by Fergusson and adopted at the Museum. in general . 4. much as desired. and inner bases. after Choisy.— Dr Murray's Restoration of Steps Portico. 13. DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. a plinth block under the base. there is no be it' may escape." we Fig. eighteen at each end. tured drums from bringing the sculpdirectly down on the sculptured pedestals as have done in the Museum. He maintained that a low square block made up of two stones found beneath one of the ordinary columns was cut so as to show that it "joggled" must have been part of a stylobate. he adds. Pointing out that a circular line on their upper surfaces would just take one of the sculptured drums with its roll moulding at bottom. "The [circular] base itself " (Dr Murray says)." According to Wood. this was one of the into other stones. a great modification of the steps and platform. He proposed. in took over Wood's plan.8 2. 3. which gave a hundred columns. as Wood had said. has been in a careful manner cut into as if to receive a metal railing. making up the thirty-six sculptured columns of Pliny. Figs. was " So the only possible one. instead of. — Plinth of Column. Dr Murrailing serve ray thought that the base must have belonged to the outer row.) 4. 12. far as I can see. however.

and. From British Museum Catalogue. by permission. 6. beneath the sculptured pushed the steps into the porticoes behind the pedestals at the two ends. from a drawing by Mr Cromar Watt. For this purpose he level.DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. doing away with steps altogether on the . — order to find a place for the sculptured pedestals at a lower drums. Dr Murray's Restoration of Portico. Fig.

G. for the statue is cella. 3 diameter than the rest. and is. . (Figs. small. Hogarth made a further examination of the site. and.lO flanks. he II. and inclined inwards. S> DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. and without any peristyle in the centre was the basis of the cult statue. 1906 was published a most careful Austrian survey of This confirms Wood's plans as to the position of the fixed points laid down on them.) here substituted a continuous stylobate. and in carrying the columns right back in the deep pronaos as at Miletus. Below its level were found remains of a still earlier temple. and more in said that the increase of diameter " implies a proportionate inThat is in the drum itself." One of the drums Further Excavations. found were carefully measured by In Mr Henderson. He agrees that the Croesus temple was exactly like its successor in size and arrangement. An excavation was made directly to the west of the English 20 feet square. base now in the British Museum. and gave some account of the results obtained in the Times for 8th August of that year. press. in three divisions. This plan shows the retaining wall with cross walls to carry the platform. The great foundation. which is the property of the British Museum. about . * Since writing this I find that a large work on the Old Temple is in the and may appear before this short account. 6. crease of height. but revises them by sweeping away the cross walls between the antse and the door. he says. I suppose. S. inches is in bolder relief. and several inscriptions and tombs were found. shown exactly in the middle given of the west door. the jambs of which were about 3 feet 6 inches wide. which has the New Temple for its subject. 7.) It confirms Wood as to the position of the in antis. as described by Wood. Mr D. The site and the fragments .* the site by the Vienna Institute. the foundations of two more columns at the south-west angle also indications of the foundation of one of the columns (Fig. He placed it at the angle. of the A restoration is site on the axis of the temple. It is most desirable that the publication of these should not be delayed. In the spring of 1905. 7.

and the few of its architectural members which are still to be found on the spot. the authors report that only one stone still remains however. a a shows Scheme. was one of the architects of the sixth century temple. "its forn". probable that this also applied to the were given to Old Temple. as we know that columns by Croesus. could not have deviated in any imOld Temple. and when the writer says it is that so many columns were it the gift of kings. i. Of the Hellenistic temple of the fourth. the actual stones published in the Ephesus Gallery of the British Museum. / A f( WA Fig." I wish I could make good this want. Chersiphron. 92. II The Austrian Survey concerned itself principally with the archaic temple of the sixth century. until all the materials portant in situ . way from that of the gained in Wood's excavations have been properly drawn and published. following the suggestions of Murray. 7.DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. are line required by Dr Murray's fortunately. One will not be able to proceed thoroughly to reconstruct it. — Data for West Front. the architect mentioned by Pliny. but for us.* and the middle of the sixth century Herodotus. . The Old Temple.

for Wood says. the There are restored capitals and bases at the Museum abacus is very long and narrow. as a world's was more the age of kings than was the fourth. therefore. says that all the works of the Greeks cost less than it. " they seem to me to belong in some way to a capital of the Old Temple. Herodotus. the shafts above the sculptured drums were probably monolithic. that Pliny's whole account was a tradition as to the Old Temple. of marble. Amongst the debris of the temple Dr Murray. . however. Its reputation wonder must go back to the earlier date when it was more without rival than at any other time. and one of the purposes of these drums was to shorten the length of the single stones.4 one block thick. speaking of the labyrinth of Egypt. 8 and 9. which.12 DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. said. 8. some ox heads were found." The square attachments suggest rather to me that they were engaged in square piers. it had architraves of great span and columns with sculptured drums and others with square blocks." It is probable. not square as in later capitals . and remarkable their finish were 6. is doubt- . and also that in Samos. S feet New Temple The columns were greatest diameter . The old cella walls. See Fig. " though the temple in Ephesus is deserving of mention. like it. is shown at the Figs. As we have seen.] Museum about (the masonry added at the sides for the increased the foundations to 10 feet wide). it was exactly the same size as the New Temple. of the volume on Miletus. it is thus a corbel-capital. writing to the authors such as the antae. (Not to the same scale. .

As mentioned below. (Fig. 10. Dr Murray. 13 cellars. frieze together with such a and the cornice probably approximated to the form of Fig. 9. and ask why they may not have stood on the sculptured pedestals. on its merits.DIANAS TEMPLE AT ful.* and the surface is sculptured like a frieze between There cannot have the lion's-head spouts. It is so big as to be a parapet.) The most remarkable feature is the gutter front so ingeniously restored by Dr Murray. and the Austrian account gives its depth as 0. were joined by dovetailed metal cramps. I think. as I — been another feature. apart which is simpler. has withheld this feature from the old order too. giving no plinth to the new order. (Fig. The two stones. This building is of extraordinary historical it interest. — Fig. that the ordinary fluted columns are of exactly the same diameter. . from the fact that * It probably derives from one of the archaic terra-cotta gutters.322 metre about a foot. and have an exactly similar torus moulding at the bottom. 10. because on the top of the latter are The weight When we realise traces of a circular setting-line suitable in size. as in many fully particulars set the type for this or perhaps developed Ionic order it would be better to say Ionian order when speaking of the works found on Asiatic soil. rather than a cymatium. we open up an more likely alternative solution and. the archaic temple was fully decorated with painting on the architectural members and sculpture. slightly inclined to the vertical plane. EPIIESUS.) The bases had various profiles in detail while agreeing in the larger parts. The New Temple. of which it was formed. but Wood found one in place under a base. 7. rests on assumption that the sculptured drums must have rested on the the sculptured pedestals. of Dr Murray's case. saw the fragment only for two minutes in the Museum Another fragment is a ram's head. side by side. but of similar work. catalogued as belonging to the New Temple. summarised above.

a total of fifty-two sculptured portions. it seems unlikely that some of them would be doubly decorated. Choisy. making. in adopting Dr Murray's scheme. which would have sufficed exactly to surround the whole temple. to have above the marshy site allowing the principal columns to start from the lower level is opposed to this. and that the irregularity on the flanks would have been most marked and awkward in having three varieties of bases in succession.) It is very awkward also to have the steps sloping down against the sculptured pedestals without any flat space between.14 DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. As only a part of the columns were sculptured. Proposed Restoration and Dr Murray's Scheme below. the former seems to be impossible having regard to the evidence. Fig. allows that the I must think that such disposition was unusual to the Greeks. There seem to have been both square sculptured stones and drums in the ancient The primary idea of the platform seems. II. but did not consider the obvious possibility of the same columns with the torus only. unnecessary complication was foreign to their ideals. flank view 6. II. (Figs. as we have seen. being placed exactly like the drums. indeed. Dr Murray discussed and dismissed the possibility of fluted columns with deep bases standing on the pedestals. . been to lift the temple .

published in 1904. and the different columns must have stood on the same level.'' he says. was a companion work to the account of the latest excavations on this site.) temple which. IS temple. M. many full 14. At Miletus was a Fig. t The At the . c. The columns at the two ends were different from the others in having ornamental bases (not drums). as discovered by Wood (Fig.. in respects. No. 32. " may have rested on square sculptured pedestals. 12. The height of the platform was about the same as at Ephesus. Vol. t * See B. The Smintheium stood on a platform proportionately higher than that of Ephesus.DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS.* and Dr Murray would bring those also together—" the old sculptured columns." But the Old Temple was not raised on a high platform. Artemision. I. shows that it was almost the same size and had a continuous flight of steps entirely surrounding it. at Taos six. Smintheium there were eleven steps. Catalogue. — Base. Other later Ionian temples stand on platforms reached by continuous steps.

relieves 14.) in no way be brought into harmonj' with Wood's view can detailed section. and Wood that it had. 7. and in his of Peristyle " book he gives an accurate base of the lithograph . Dr Murray required he should get rid of any plinth blocks under these bases. in fact. of it to make the Fig. sequence. 13.B.A. 163.) This point of conit except of that Wood having made this mistake. Murray wanted the base to be on the outer row. little from (Figs. possible to get in sculptured pedestals sugthat — Section of Base.* which shows a rough stone foundation pier under the bases projecting 2 feet beyond where Dr Murray's thesis That this requires a continuous fair marble wall face. Fig. is flank. Coming now I to the crucial objections to it would point out that involves the implication that Dr Murray's scheme Wood.i6 DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EI'HESUS. the site for four or five years. Journal.I. where gested. cies came from that But the exigenthe heights. (Fig. He himself appears to be mistaken in saying that Wood had stated that the Museum base and plinth came from the inner who explored In Wood's paper in the R. misread plain evidence as to the steps and bases surrounding the temple. them prothe south 12.I. stones as found and set up in the British and perly describes as Museum. and lettered "Foundation of Outer Column row. and prove that what \\^ood had said was such a plinth should Such a (Fig. stated position. .) * R. 13.B. Journal.A. be part of a continuous stylobate. this base is carefully drawn.


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Pedestals and normal size of S^ inches by 22 inches Drums of Columns was exposed. but the surplus was fitted into a notch in the step below each. Our Fig. firmed by the Ur Murray had no use for this. was a rough square pier projecting. Figs. 165. * R. and that it each one shows followed plainly least was step.A. 14). 166. .I. (Fig. 2 above. and it became a single step in the middle of the narrow space of court which surrounded the temple. — ever. The others are 22 inches compared. so that there was no con- we may venture confirmed by the to say that tinuous marble stylobate such as -suggested tion to by Dr Murray in opposiWood's data.— Diagram of Steps. away of the network of foundations which supported ing outside the columns. the sweepFig. Now. B. is 17 accurate Austrian Survey. and conAustrian Survey. which are carefully the steps and platform shown on Wood's plan 2. sides.DIANAS TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. 15. 16. by is at another The only finding step that Wood speaks of the outer one.) it. Journal. wide and deeper than 8^ inches. Secondly. which. there are three portions of steps British actually at the Museum. and between it and an enclosing colonnade. Wood found the bottom step of those which surrounded the platform about 40 feet out from the centres of the columns on the north and east and sections* (Figs. Thirdly. as said. and one of those at the Museum must be a part of probably the widest one. the theory requires 15. 164. howshows by a fixing line that only the Fig.

that and the pedestals and drums are of the same height (6 feet) . as set up at the Museum. for it is clear that the plinth has been roughly yet purposely broken so that the metal might be extracted a usual phenomenon at ancient ruins.1 DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS.) found at the west end. that the bottom of the fluted columns are exactly the same size as the sculptured drums (Wood says that both are 6 feet ^ inch) secondly. (Fig. i6. all in favour of the blocks having formed a plinth. or rather the bolts did. we must provide for thirty-six On sculptured columns we get rid of any which were doubly sculpAs the returns would have square pedestals on the tured. nothing which exactly fixes their size. of course. which Dr Murray read as a joggled joint. we get only two varieties the supposition that of bases on the flanks as shown by Fig. 1 1. and one of these touches the angle Such of a fracture. believe the blocks were all about the same size across as the I say about.) These holes really conditioned the fracturing of the stone. . therefore. . at one end or both. that the outer row. The Order. and I do not doubt that there may have been a railing. had the square I blocks ranging at the same level with the sculptured drums.* Except the one plain face Such internal data as can be in front all the rest is broken. The question of a railing as suggested by Dr Murray hardly touches the point. outside row as well as the fronts. and can see no sign that the stones which Wood called a plinth made part of a continuous course.. a bolt was. gathered are It was bolted to its foundation by four bolts. three of the holes for which remain. — * The plinths of the Old Temple were also in two stones. and. stones at the British Museum shows first. I have carefully examined the base at the British Museum. that the pedestals are diameter of the drums. put through the solid stone. because there is (Fig. 4. 1 suggest. thirdly. they vary from 6 feet i inch to 6 feet 2 inches. We are thus compelled by evidence of the building itself distribution to look for another solution of the question of the Measurement of the of the sculptured drums and pedestals.

about 8 feet 7 inches. Fig.) Reasons for the stones having formed a plinth. are the facts that the size. (Fig. about four-fifths of the lower dimension. With the plinth the height of the base diameter. Intercolumniation = the clear space.* used at Priene The exact spacing to have been about if. and the whole base resembles those of the companion works just named. which is also a characteristic of the columns of the Mausoleum. and the top diameter is 4 feet 9J inches. is is two-thirds of a impossibly low. but the plinths was settled by that of the old Temple — . of Diana. Of the columns the bottom diameter is 6 feet J inch. but the 8-inch 19 one side of the base seems to by 4-inch cavity sunk about 10 inches into me rather a mending of the lower member than the fixing mark of such a railing. — Capital of Column. from Wood. besides these. without it. 13. and Miletus was i|. Wood noticed that the columns decreased rapidly towards the top. a fair proportion but. .DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. and Wood's testimony. 17. works out to half a columniation as at Priene and Miletus. it . * Rayet and Thomas. The distance from centre to centre on the flanks was 17 feet i^ inches this is nearly the same intercolumthe Mausoleum seems niation of i4 diameter.

f into four the which are ettes. "is characteristic of the Ionic order of Asia Minor as found at Priene. (Fig. the eggs being the same in Fig." say Rayet and Thomas. to It have been a is little less in of the diameter than inner true that Wood says that the columns were of the same diameter as the outer ones. front of the capital are three enormous "eg gs" of an egg _ and tongue moulding which at Priene and the Mausoleum became continuous. and is t This at Miletus. Cockerell drew a capital almost exactly similar at Sardis which he said was the most beautiful he had Fig. . Ephesus. The abacus but about is not tion square. — The faces of the volutes are not vertical. The columns inner row seem those outside. but * "This plinth.) 8 feet 7 inches the same as the plinth block its height is about half a diameter over the volutes as at the Mausoleum and Priene." derived from Old Temple. 19.20 to the bases DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. 17.* The noble capitals seem to be the parent examples of the whole The extreme dimension is about later Ionian group. but lean outward toward rolls the top. This is clearly Volutes of the Capitals. the Mausoleum [this only inferred].) (Figs. and the spaces between them seem to have been equal squares as at Priene and Miletus. 18. volutes The at of the are large the sides divided flutes. ever seen. filled bottoms of by palm18. number as the flutes of the column. a development. 9 In inches longer in the direc- of the epistyle. 19. .

As to Dr Murray's fifth point. instead of at the ends of the flutes as in the larger capitals. 21 on his section he figures it as 4. and this may have been carried over into the New Temple. The flutes are only about inch less in width and were twenty-four in number. in calling it larger.3. which he suggested formed part of the angle column. and supposing. I think.7 across. 18. On the evidence we must suppose that the architrave overhung the abacus by 2 or 3 inches.DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. the drum with higher relief. I suggest that it formed part of the inner row between the antje. some difficulty as to this architrave. 12 inches high : . Wood measured it as 3 inches less in diameter than the rest. As restored. Of the entablature. and cyma was over 2 feet high. The architrave was 10 deep.) Wood's account of the greater number of flutes on the smaller columns is not borne out by the portion of the smaller column erected -} in the Museum. that this panel was central on the surface. The abacus was so very narrow at the Old Temple that we may easily suppose that the architrave projected over the capitals. but no As the Catalogue states " Of the part of a frieze was found. according to a custom which Vitruvius mentions. have included the projection of the sculpture. There Its soffit is panelled. There exist also in the Museum portions of two separate rows of egg and tongue mouldings and a length of the sculptured gutter.2 from the centre of one of these columns to the face of the step or plinth which carried it.4 instead of 8. Wood found several fragments. as we must. Murray. (Fig. the total width would not have been less than 6. must. Dr Murray says " We possess two capitals which differ in size." On the smaller capitals : there is also a variation in the design.* : the gutter * The eggs and tongues are 13^ inches from centres. the palmettes come be- tween the ends of the flutes of the roll of the volute. He also says that these inner columns had thirty flutes instead of twenty-four.3. 3. It is much inferior in style. and is bedded in its height. is What looks like a joggle-joint in the Museum is fragment probably a saw cut made by Wood. the margins are narrowed so as to give a soffit of about 5. that is 8. and have assumed that the smaller belonged to the inner row.

and that the remains. lay the powerfully projecting These Priene entablatures are now set up dentil course. the latest German researches show that it." the Persjamos Museum. directly above the egg and moulding. as will be shown. was explored by the Dilettanti Society we are told that here again no moulding was found which would have occupied a place above the architrave." We must turn to the order of the Temple of Priene. instead. to elucidate this point. and although the order had been restored with a frieze until quite lately.22 DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. did not frieze. . have a but. and the second temple were all examples of the architrave order." I entablature was of the traditional Ionian form which Choisy Architrave Order. it calls " the When is a copy of that. the architrave moulding above and of the frieze nothing believe that they never existed. which obviously much resembled Ephesus. The authors of the work cited * say that ^ '• the temple. which tongue crowned the architrave. and where the carved gutter. in fact. the great altar to the east of the temple.

At . 21 I have laid down the entablature of Priene and the fragments from Ephesus to the same scale. following the proportion of the former where we have no other guide. has figure sculptures on The late colonnade of the Zeus altar has no frieze. At an time the tradition of the architrave order was so firm in Ionia that the Nereid monument in the British Museum. which in much seems Pergamos to derive the architrave but no at still from Athens.DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. In Fig. — Entablatures of Ephesus and Priene compared. frieze. Fig. 21. 23 earlier but it is of the Roman epoch. The result gives an entablature of about 1 1 feet deep. and of practically the same proportion to the whole order as at Priene. scroll decoration appears. nor have the Sidon sarcophagi.



that temple the columns were at least 8f diameters high, the dimension calculated by Cockerell, or nearly 9 diameters, the height arrived at by the German explorers from the masonry The lesser proportion for Ephesus would give a of the ant£E.

4 inches, the greater of about 54 feet, and a The greater total to the top of the cornice of about 65 feet. Wood proposed 55 feet think, be accepted. dimension may, I for the column, and at Miletus the proportional height is still

column of 52



The Mausoleum,

a famous

companion work


Ephesus and

has had


order restored








fragments found of

only the two usual egg and tongue

mouldings, and makes up the abnormal
the whole

depth of nearly a third of the column, instead of about a fifth. I have no doubt that here
Fig. 22.

— Gutter, fiom Wood.
gutter stone
It is clear,

again there should


(Fig. 22.)


be no frieze. above is


however, that a lion's-head spout The rest is occupied the centres of lengths of about 6 feet. elegant scrolls of acanthus, of which the upper filled by part is broken away. On comparing it with the Priene gutter, also in the Museum, I find that the latter is a smaller and comparatively poor copy of the Ephesus gutter, so that one can be completed from the other with certainty. It is all the more certain, therefore, that both entablatures were alike. (Fig.

The second temple

at Priene

had another copy of the same




There are at the Museum two stones of the slabs, 8 inches which cased the pediment. In Dr Murray's restoration he has given dentils to the raking cornice, but this is most unusual, if not unexampled. At Priene they were omitted, and the band which took their place was less in depth so as to lighten the raking cornice. The " acroterion " found by Wood, and now at the Museum (it is not set upright), is much too small in scale to have surmounted the pediment. A series of

Fig. 23.

— Restoration of Gutter.
antefixae along the top of the gutter,*
(Fig. 24.)

them may have furnished

seems to


to be later in style than the rest.

Wood's published plans


refer to the




his text we find that he discovered the positions of at least two of the ancient columns at the west end which are not laid down on his plan. This is what he says " At last we found part of

* As on the Sidon sarcophagi.


. .

the base of a column and in position a large square block of marble which proved afterwards to be the plinth stone of the The size is base belonging to the more ancient temple. 7 feet 8J inches, while that of the plinths of the last temple is 8 feet 8 inches, but the position appears to have been identical."
. . .

This was






the following February

The fine base of one of the columns on the south flank was discovered in position this base is now re-erected in the British Museum. I had now two certain points, viz., the plinth stone of the base near the western end, and another near the centre of the south flank." (Fig. 7.) * By reference to the recent Austrian


* Pp-

174, 176.



Survey it is clear that the plinth first found was that of the second column back from the angle on the south side, an important point. Again, on p. 267, he says " We found in the west front the plinth of a column of the Old Temple as well as part of the base of one of the inner columns, consisting of the plinth and lowest circular stone." The former of these is probably that first mentioned, the latter is shown by the Austrian Survey to be that directly to the south of the south-west anta.


position of these points," he, says, " corresponds as nearly could ascertain with the columns of the last temple, giving a satisfactory proof that the temples were built on the same plan and of the same size." The Austrian Survey, in addition,


gives some slight indication of the position of one of the columns between the antae. In another place Wood says " In January 1873 I obtained particulars relating to the position of the columns at the west end." We can now see how he was able to get the dimensions for the remarkable spacing of the columns of the west front, which he gives as follows From the left to the centre, 19 feet 4 inches, 20 feet 6 inches, 23 feet 6| inches, 28 feet 8J inches. This may be compared with the Austrian Survey, which gives in metres, 6.16, 6.16, 7.20, 8.75. These spans are immense the nearest parallel case was found in the Temple of Sardis, where the openings, following the same order, were 16 ft. 3 in., 17.8, 21.7, 25.4. Wood broke up the cella with an opisthodomos to the east, but from the exactly central position of the great basis for the statue, and from the uniform disposition of certain rough masonry piers along the foundations of the side walls, it seems more likely that the cella was undivided in this way. Such an arrangement would further allow of an eastern door, entering the cella, for even if we are driven to suppose that the great altar and the principal door of entrance were to the west, I can hardly think that there was no central eastern door.* The Austrians endeavoured to find the
: :


basis of the great altar to the west, but without success, never-

they too consider it certain that the temple faced west. concluded that the piers spoken of above were Byzantine, but as they contained fragments of the Old Temple, and were


* The temple of the Dioscuri

at Naucratis,

however, faced west

'' Both were about 45 feet north of the column in situ on south side.6 high. curious Corinthian capital " near the cella. or possibly to some belong to an small erection about the great image. of a pier and two elliptic on plan. 10 inches. "This is the second fragment I have found of internal columns. With the inscriptions at the Museum are Fig. Wood speaks. spaced pretty regularly opposite the columns outside. I am no believer in much which has been written on hypaethral lighting. (Fig. seem to support this view. and other parts for the cedar Save for the roof mentioned by Vitruvius. treasury. . Wood found a if it were roofed it must have been subdivided. but it is really made up attached half-rounds. but it can hardly have formed part of the structure quite late Roman of the cella. a drain in the foundations of this basis. I had come to think that columns would be disposed in the space between the antae walls as at Miletus. * In the MS." — pronaos. . the and the immense size of the great basis in the midst (20 feet square." and supposed that It is described as it represented internal rows of columns. however. which he called an altar " probably for carrying away the water used in washing the There would be plenty of room in the surface after sacrifice.* seeming need of having a treasury at one end or the other of the cella. but Pi„ 2. of finding parts of an " internal " column with flutings at upper diameter of He thought that the lower diameter might be about 4 feet 5^ inches. the evidence in this case seems to suggest that cella was open as at Miletus.28 DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. several walling stones. colonnade Doric building which stood beyond it on the south side there is . it seems more likely that they were internal buttresses to stay the walls The cella was about 70 feet wide against the raised peristyle. The lack of internal foundations. We have seen that the temple court was surrounded by a Of the the plan of this is shown b\' Wood.. 26.M. and I find that the Austrian plan has set forth this view. Such a capital might external stoa. which would well have supported a covered shrine as Wood also found well as the statue).) It is only 2. and is of work. in 1871. letters at the B. 25.

and the style of all has affinity with the finest Attic sepulchral reliefs. archaic temple set up by one of the sculptured drums of the is shown in the Ephesus Gallery. they hold a place amongst the few most perfect architectural sculptures of Greek art. on the silver patera of Bernay. and that here we find the work or direct influence of Scopas. 27). severe Fig. while sweet. 28). about 12 feet high. Their scale is that of nature.DIANA S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. portions of four pedestals have been pieced together. seem suppose that they I to belong to a more advanced school. and taking this exceptional fact into account. 29 a remnant at the British Museum of the triglyph frieze (No. in higher relief and more violent action.* The gracious forms. held the most important place in the front rank of the portico. The standing figures of one of the columns are obviously inspired by the " Magistrates " of the Parthenon. skilful restoration of A Dr Murray The merits of the sculptures are hardly sufficiently recognised. The sculptures of the square pedestals. The seated I which figures. as Dr Waldstein has shown. follow the high traditions of the fifth century.562). Sculpture and Colour. Outside all was the great precinct wall. 27. 18 inches high. of which Wood gives a diagram. 2. and at once broad and detailed in their treatment. 26). Of the later temple. on the drum of have attempted a restoration (Fig. The Hermes has been found copied. Reliefs so noble in style are indeed difficult to find. 3. and on these are set the sculptured tambours of the columns.) Spiers' " * See Figure in Anderson and Greek and Roman Architecture.6 in diameter (Fig. Amongst the fragments are a base of a column 5. and a piece of guilloche moulding (Fig." . recall the goddesses of the same frieze. •(Fig.

Grecque. of the Hermes figure. 29). de la Sculpt. 201). 69) has been pointed out. which itself seems to be a copy Fig. The Hermes may be compared with that on the grave relief in the British Museum (No.30 DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. of Andros The noble woman's on my sketch (Fig. The most perfect group has been explained in several ways but I do not know if its striking resemblance to the group of Hermes. — Sketch of Column. and Orpheus (Collignon * Fig. 28. appears to me to be so close an adaptation of the famous Eirene of Kephisodotos that we may speak of it as a indicated * " Hist. slightly restored. Fig." . Restored. (Collignon. 627). Eurydice. The latter is said to be a late fifth century work.

and a small fragment of a third which was like one of the magistrates of the Parthenon who lean on small point. 31 is The pose is similar. which are identical with On the left of the Hermes are two superb those on our column. 29. it . Restored. 420). and of a figure of ^sculapius from a coin of Epidaurus.— Sketch of Column. were . figures almost complete. not that the coin represents the famous cult statue and a bas-relief of a similar figure (see Collignon) from the same place has open-work shoes.DIANAS TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. in it derived from the Maidens of the Erechtheum (c. Further to the right is the lower part of a seated male figure in the attitude of one of the gods of the Parthenon frieze. copy of that work. almost turn identical. This last is a Fig. and the draping The Eirene was wrought about 370 .

The remains in the Museum show that the was fully painted. and has It deserves setting against I believe. been photographed. one of which was found coloured red in the scotia and Wood illustrates a small fragment of egg and tongue moulding (Plate X. of a gilt the top of the volutes a part was found. Choisy speaks of the " ravalciiicnt" Ahcr fixing as the capitals were fixed in an unfinished state. lips. bright blue and red. picking out the grounds of reliefs. and is also found at the Near the temple a fragment of Mausoleum and at Priene. Fig. and eyes of the figures were painted. " blue. Methods of Workmanship. showing vestiges of colour. and 30 of Our sculptures. This lies neglected in a case. The parallels to the Hermes mentioned above have been likened to the Hermes of Praxiteles. staves. 25. This probably belonged to the building vermilion. and gold. and a leaf pattern around In one of the flutes of the column is painted. half. first half of the Are the seated women three of the Muses ? The perfection of modelling and finish may best be judged from an exquisite fragment. then. 6)." lead fillet . but our figure has quite sufficient earlier sources (see Nos. One of the capitals is is nearly finished on one while the other half only roughed out. which had the ground coloured blue. are of the west frieze of the Parthenon). Doric cornice was discovered. Sufficient was found to show that the New Temple was also painted. The sculptures of the gutter front and of the bottom drums of the columns were decorated. 1. which stood to the south of the temple court.. the Attic school of the transitional period of the fourth century. evident that and a comparison with other examples shows that this was a general method of procedure. The throat of one of the coloured bright red. even to the bases. female figure (No. The use of these colours.239). being the cheek and side of the head of a never. The hair. 23. Several of the volutes of the capitals in the Museum have never It is been completed. and the dresses had bands of palmctte and key patterns. 22. was the traditional method of coloration in works of this school. archaic temple volutes is still a background in a glass case.32 their DIANAS TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. .

at the beginning of the fourth century.. He accepted both burnings. and the erection of the columns as about 560. the rest was finished in place. The smaller shafts rose to At the moment of setting. general. the night in which Alexander was born in 356.t The earlier year * " Hist. not 356. The large capital from the outer row is wrought together with the top of the shaft. on seems to bear the character of a myth. but it seems more likely that the true date was 395.. where unfluted columns. is given in the Chronography of Eusebius. only the reliefs the underside of the eggs and tongues of the capitals. For a column they marked in the shops the extremity of the flutes at the top and bottom. Falkener pointed out that another date. In the Old intentional variation of parts is as marked as in a Gothic building. t See a long Appendix p. Neither of these carved mouldings space equally with the flutes. There are two records which bear on the date of the earlier We are told that the famous artist Theodorus advised that a bed of charcoal should be laid over the site a wellknown and here very necessary precaution against damp and that Croesus gave some columns to the structure. 276. the bed being just below the rounded termination of the flutes. including the astragalos moulding in the more usual way. and the latter varies capital. and half-finished carvings were found. and the remainder was wrought after fixing. temple.DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. Arch. Dates and Architects. unmoulded bases. This story. These facts would date the foundation as about 580." vol. in spacing from leaf 5A to 6\ centres under in the same from The Lesbian 4|- moulding on the pedestals varies spacing Temple to 5^ inches. i. in the Austrian volume.* The most remarkable example of this procedure is the Temple of Miletus. the faces were {d'ebaucke). 33 left rough were fully sculptured in advance. and is quite sketchy in parts. There is considerable freedom in the Ephesus work. C . — — The building of the New Temple is usually dated by the story given by Plutarch and others that the old one was burnt on its face. which contains valuable old material.

" its architect was Rhoecus. the third a temple. Herodotus himself says in another place " The Samians have three works the greatest of all that have been wrought by the Greeks. scale. is poor. who appears to have been younger and nection between the artists architect — of the . According to Collignon. the Samian temple. It is the archaic temple was so advanced in style. which have been measured. while in many respects it was similar. which it is held was begun about 345 and finished about 334. Indeed. a native. the temple of : We the largest ever seen. and it is much more probable that the temple was planned by the master who advised as to the foundations." because of a recorded con- who worked at both RhcECUS. Pliny tells a story of his setting the great epistyle. on the order of the temple. the Ephesian. so that the whole height of the immense mass of The carving of the Ephesus was finished before Priene. with his son Metagenes. Rhcecus began the Hera temple about 600. a servant of Diana {Diance Servus). who. This last certainly could not have been reached in one generation. It is generally agreed that Chersiphron must have been a master at the erection of the early temple. The first the aqueduct. At Priene. somewhat astonishing to find that and so immense in have seen that Herodotus mentions it along with Hera in Samos. show that. and the Theodorus who is associated with him by ancient writers. son of Dr Murray has remarked that the resemblance between the early Ephesus capitals and those of the Hera temple is " particularly striking and interesting.34 agrees DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. it was even larger by a few feet. the second the harbour.. and Paeonius. the order is copied even to the gutter. which was begun about 353 (+ or — ). and the remains of the latter. he says. The Mausoleum. seems to be considerably later in its style. prototype. and of his writing a book. and was completed by Demetrius. also built the Miletus temple in association with Daphnis. Vitruvius speaks of him as contriving machinery for bringing the columns to the site. and Phileus. According to Vitruvius the temple was begun by Chersiphron of Cnossus and his son Metagenes. Theodorus. and seems much later than its fine gutter at the latter much better with the architectural facts.

but if we consider the dates. it becomes certain that Strabo's account is an instance of a big reputation spread." and was placed at the altar of Artemis. '' have originated. however. Theodorus was an architect. as has been supposed." The signatures of both Rhoecus and of Theodorus have actually been found on votive works. was in full activity about the middle of the His work at the Artemision was probably about Rhcecus himself cast for Ephesus the most ancient bronze 580. . and this might mean. it is said by the last writers is on the subject that the Miletus temple. de la Sculpt. Strabo. Indeed. perhaps his pupil. which he stated to have built.* Recalling again the likeness of the two greatest temples of antiquity. We have seen that Vitruvius gives the names of Demetrius and Pseonius as having completed the temple.'' . we may almost say that from no other centre and by no other artists could a work in which sculpture is so intpgral sculptor. the relation of the two cities. the celebrated architect of Alexander master It who planned the new city of Alexandria —was —the its builder. * " Hist. that they were the chief architects for the later structure. An inscription found at Miletus. and taking into account what Vitruvius also says as to the erection of an altar of Apollo (at Miletus) by Paeonius. may have been begun as early as 332. . statue of which there is record it was called " Night. This itself is perhaps not a very certain story. but all which remains seems to me much later in style. it seems more than probable that both temples were planned by those great early masters. Grecque. and writer who possessed all the technical knowledge of his time. it seems more likely that the architect of Ephesus is not the same as he of Miletus.DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. might be held that the conqueror called the master from his great work at Ephesus but Vitruvius tells another story of his introduction to Alexander. says that Deinocrates. ing too far. Certainly if the New Temple of Diana was begun soon after 395 one master could not have planned the two structures. the fame of Samos as the chief art centre of Ionia. and says that he followed the latter from Macedonia to propose the scheme of cutting Mount Athos into the form of a statue. 35 sixth century. As to Paeonius.

clears up one point. . Edinhn-'yh.36 DIANA'S TEMPLE AT EPHESUS. and shows by analogy that the Demetrius mentioned above was a slave attached by purchase to Diana's Temple. and proves that a master builder might be of condition.* * Pontremoli et Haussoullier " servile • Didymes." Printed at The Darien Press. with phrases parallel to the Servus Diance quoted above.

. together with a good bibliography of the subject. but when I saw the vast Temple of Artemis \Ephesus\ soaring to the clouds. built around a deep. I propose to review the evidence of the stones themselves. I was drawn on to read what had been written on the subject with the hope of discovering that which had been proved in regard to it and what is mere embroidery of conjecture. vol.II. and his great monument has such a prominent position in the centre of the scheme that Adier is probably right in arguing that it was begun by himself before his death. almost circular was rebuilt by Mausolus. for except in Heave?i the Sun has never looked on like. * Cited below as Newton for text and Pullan for plates. and to bring out the points in what has been written which seem to me most in accordance with the facts." Antipater of Sidon {c. In the British Museum Catalogue of Greek Sculpture.) on the Seven Wonders. 66 and 6^. The main sources of evidence are three — the marbles in the Museum.c. ioo b. " My eyes have looked on the Wall of Babylon and on the Zeics by the Alpheus \Olympia\ and oji the Hanging Gardens. D . The city is so of Halicarnassus was It natural harbour.* and As shown by the surveys. and the colossal Helios \Rhodes\ and on the high Pyra/nids.C. and the gigantic monument of Mausohis. Newton and Pullan's account of their discovery. the city a short description by Pliny. in 353 B. — Sources and the pp. the others were all dimmed. THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. are set out small prints of eight various restaurations which have been suggested for the world-famous Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. ii. Site. Having been interested in the noble remnants of this puzzling monument preserved in the Museum.

— The Foundation. in an area which had been excavated out of the rocky platform to various depths. This space was rectangular. higher up. by Vitruvius that it almost seems that he might have visited the Mausoleum. site by Covel (c.. The depth averaged about 10 feet." series of stood in a temenos. There were some extensions * In an account of the the fountain (B. with a colossal akrolithic statue. 108 feet north and south by 127 feet east and west. 30. and within this space. which was on the shore of the harbour below. At the right hand point of the curve was the Temple of Venus and Mercury and the Fountain of Salmacis. . of the city is like a theatre in form.M. In the centre of the highest part of the cit}' was the Temple of Mars. The explorations of Sir C. was a broad street or precinct.. 1675) he mentions the walls and . apparently over three hundred feet square. by a terraces. in the centre of which stood the Mausoleum. but always with level surfaces. about the middle. there were also terraces.). MSS. a work so marvellous that it was counted among the seven wonders of the world. which it is clear that he " The site regarded as supreme among buildings. planned by Mausolus accurately described himself" * Fig. on the south The monument and east at least.3S THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. on the curve. Towards the northern peribolus wall the actual foundations were discovered. On the left horn stood the Royal Palace. It is probable that it was connected with the Agora. Newton laid bare the platform of the Mausoleum. On the lowest part by the harbour is the Forum. which was "cut like a step in the side of the rising hill.

39 to the west a rock-cut flight of " The whole of this area had up with the courses of the foundation. diminishing in 24 steps to a meta (generally a steep cone or pyramid). and a quantity of wide step-like stones suitable for roofing. including friezes. such as can hardly be found in temples." (Fig. circuit — It was 63 feet on the north and south sides.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. " The cavity appeared like a bed remained. fragments of marble columns and entablature were found sufficient to give data for a complete restoration of an " order.) as three courses of those foundation slabs A still better account of the great foundagiven by Lieutenant Smith in a Government paper describing the excavations. beyond the general form. Besides this immensely strong basis. and generally about 4 feet square by i foot thick. This accounts for the irregularities of depth and the extensions beyond the square. around the pteron (peristyle) were 36 columns. (Pythios. and shorter on the front. On the summit was a marble work of Fythis 140 feet." The site seems to have been originally a quarry. in an article in the Museum It is of Classical Art. so that . cut in beds or levels at different depths. is cut out to receive the foundations. the architect). consisting of slabs of a coarse green stone. Lucian says " Nothing equal to it either in size or beauty. A pyramid equal to the lower part in height surmounted the chariot the pteron. caused Throughout the area the rock is by the irregularity of the ground." : brought together one or two other is notices. art. In been filled some tion places as many 30. and steps descended to the bottom. enriched with the horses of it most perfect works of with statues of men and costly marble.'' also many fine sculptures. of the Mausoleum given by Pliny of the British It is to this effect : Room furnishes important data. strongly bound together with iron cramps. cutting is continued as a wall. the total height being " Falkener. Four famous artists wrought the sculptures on the several fronts. is The whole of this quadrangle cut out of the rock to depths varying from 2 to 16 feet below Where the rock has failed at the sides the line of the surface. The sculptures and architectural fragments are now also exhibited in the Mausoleum The description Museum. Its entire was 411 (or 440) feet. and the height [of this part?] was 25 cubits (37I feet).

It is easy from these accounts to get some general idea of the monument. restorations and the restorations fall into 440 two groups— (a) the small plan. One main difficulty of interpretation arose in that sides of 63 feet and shorter fronts will not make up a circuit of 41 1 or feet.40 is THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. the perfect model for all tombs. The finds fully confirmed the general good faith and accuracy of the descriptions. 31. and before the site had been explored many A Fig. . had been suggested.— Types of Proposed Restorations." Pausanias also says that its size was great and its decorations magnificent.

5.-]Museum Catalogue says that "the diameter at the top of the in H^e gives a flute at the bottom as 4. in the type B in a single row. we may expect an example . and the Museum For should publish an amended account of the remains." than enthusiasm of the order. 9. made by students of the ArchiIt is most the difficult to get sions of order. architecture and a special description of the Temple of Athene which he was also the architect. * This same Pythios. and they were copied in the principal proAdler speaks with less ductions of the school of Pythios. " 2. The instance. if anywhere. and how Pythios wrote commentaries on Pythios. Moreover.35. Pullan gives the small top diameter as 2. architect. of systematic its relation of parts. of are surely very beautiful. says Laloux. that Pullan intended 3.5. " Satyrus and Phyteus.3I-) The Peristyle. figured on his plates. I have had the advantage of consulting a set of careful. to obtain data which should offer proofs of one or the other types of restoration proposed for in the order of the Mausoleum. ." The beautiful order of the wrote on the Mausoleum itself Mausoleum. any statement of accurate dimenPuUan's measurements. by a detailed examination of the order. 9. The actual stones at the Museum dry. at Priene. I have felt that it might be possible. 4I and (b) the large plan type. Vitruvius tells us how gave up the Doric order because of the incongruous arrangements which arose in its use. are acknowledged to be untrustworthy. (See Fig. it is over 5. type. but only the sizes of the two top drums. . the Museum Catalogue the bottom diameter is not given. In the type A the 36 columns are arranged in two rows. but he judged only from poor. and inaccurate prints.535 : feet.5 inches flutes is 36xV" The large diameter he gives as 3." t Feet and inches are here written thus + The mistake must be. I think.65. at a later time. fullsized drawings of this order.! In fact.* who were very fortunate. was considered to have " particularly happy proportions. with other contemporaries.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS.

and on which Penrose based The former gives his calculation of the height of the order.C.29 metres. Survey. who.y. cannot understand these interrelations worked out to the thousandth of an inch. of works which included the Mausoleum. may be taken as an example going to show on how unsubstantial a basis rest most of the calculations as to the proportions and refinements of Greek architecture. 3 I estimate it lower diameter I find given from 3. and the only inaccuracy seems to be in the data on which the calculations are based. These diversities as to the sizes of parts of the column as 3. School at Art. The latest German that reesti- searches show mates of the diameters at Priene vary from 1.v worked out with the minuteness of a problem in pure mathematics. which I look on as the type of a . 32. — Part of Lacunar Margin.42 tectural THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. and. being accustomed to the rough approximations of modern building.25 to 1. further. the intercolumnar space was i j diameters at Priene it is o-iven as * The former Memorandum. I of Priene. than had been thought.* The feet bare for the top diameter. because it had no frieze. but on the other it should. 7|-. relieve the mind of the practical student. is ." for instance. in the fourth volume of the " Antiquities of Athens. 5 to 3. Watkiss Lloyd's most able tract on the proportions the Royal College of direction of Professor Pite.^^..A. which are actually in the Museum. and yet that the whole order was much less greater than was supposed. under the have found in the British Museum Lieutenant Smith's original measurements of all the drums found on the site. that the height of the column was probabhFig. All this ma\seem a little confusing on one hand. I think. and the latter 3 feet." will be referred to as " R. 6J. We series columniation.. come now to the important question of the interAt Ephesus." the latter as "the .

that is. by about half a columniation.285. columns stood about 9. I suggest.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. Now. Further.) In trying to determine the size of the lacunaria we again come up against mistake upon mistake. the spaces between the square plinth blocks were approximately square. we square. proved that At Priene square. 3|. In the Museum Catalogue the dimension is correctly the given from the stone. gives a projection quite different from Pullan's version. (Fig. they are about as the face as the dimension of the plinth block. I it is said that Pullan's plate this as is wrong speak of some revenge for the awe I used to feel for these elaborately figured dimensions. and this seems also to approximate to a rule. The bases of the columns. On the plate. gfrom centre to centre. spread much on it is nearer square. however. At Ephesus the abacus is about 7 inches longer on the face than on the returns. indeed. where square lacunar panels were fitted to oblong bays by means of additional shallow strips of panels. as in the Museum restoration.) The compartments were thus certainly This being settled. it was ih. 33. As to this. which is about 4. it might be contended that the bays were not necessarily square on plan. At the Mausoleum the abacus is This fact shows that the intercolumniation in this case was probably less than in the other two. (Fig. but instead of the text. from the indications of the setting lines. In all. the capitals Pullan. it is figured as 4. was the case at Priene. or i| diameters. It is now. and this. if the 43 . at the Mausoleum there were similar narrow sinkings on the marginal stones of the lacunars^ but three or four fragments of mitres of these sinkings have been found which show that here they ran all round. and adding to this its own width twice over we again get the same dimension for the columniation (exactly 9. of. have the fact that the margin -stone of one of the lacunaria gives the size of the square panel. 9. as set up in the Museum. Twice the size that the plinth must have been gives us 9. In Newton's text the lacunar stone is said to show that " the exact size " of the panel was 4. and not on two sides only. 32. This dimension has already been arrived at at the Museum as resulting from the length of some stones of the lacunaria. latest built. and the bottom diameter is about 4 feet \o\ . 9^). and as i4 by Rayet and Thomas at Miletus. and this stands out as the most certain criterion.

— Dimensions of Columniation. It is manifest that this means ture were shorter than the sides.44 inches. 33. that the flanks were two bays longer tlian the front. the difference between io8 feet and 127 feet. less obviously. or. The 36 columns mentioned by Pliny can only be arranged two simple ways described above either with 9 columns on the fronts and 1 1 on the flanks. Now. It may now further be stated exactly equals two bays of 9. that they had one or twocolumniations less. the outside ranks being 6 columns on the front and 7 on in the — * Centre to centre. the size of the foundation. almost columniation. been said. -2-^ o -^-^^ Fig. or. as has THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. in two rows. 9.* 2 ^ I —4 y. the plinth would have been one-half the There is a final proof of the dimension obtained According to Pliny the ends of the strucfor the columniation. .

It has been computed from the actual sculptures of the chariot group which stood on the summit that it required a platform of about 20 by 35 feet. 24 on the flanks. 31. an odd number of columns seems to have been preferred. The facts known in regard to the Pyramid give further proofs as to the dimension arrived at for the intercolumniation and for the size of the whole peristyle. we obtain a total of 127. An interesting fact has recently been discovered in regard to the temple of Samos. It was dipteral. 9 or i. Two angle stones in the Museum show the dimension of 21^ inches in one direction and 17 inches in the other. This proportion is again practically the same. 45 the sides. With the columns as described. It is evident from this that most of the steps were wide. If there had been a continuous pyramid of such steps its base must have had the proportion of about 34 to 43 on plan.* The Pyramid. and. the columniation of eight and ten bays must have governed the proportion of the pyramid base.) But only the former has the proper difference of two bays. This agrees almost exactly with the ratio of eight bays to ten required by the peristyle. Fergusson pointed out that at the latter the spans. giving three rows of columns at the ends.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. as will be seen on the diagram (Fig. 36. Where conditions were free. is trustworthy. and four more in the pronaos. seven very wide spans of the principal front equalled eight of the medium and it seems very probable that at Ephesus. and this disposition exactly suits the size of the foundation. (Fig. In this we have a proof that Pliny's number." the two exceptions had treads of 9 and loA inches. Many of the " steps " which finished the roof or pyramid of the structure were found. too. 34). From 40 to 50 steps were found. the number Phny said there were at EPHESUS. the back portico had 9 columns like Samos. . and we may now state that tlie whole base of the pyramid had sides in the ratio of about 34 to 43. with 8 columns on the east front. At the west etid thfre were 9 columtis instead 0/ S to lessen the spans. * Falkener dealt with objections to central columns. These steps were of two dimensions on the "tread" inches and 17 nearly 21^. as in the flanks of temples. and with prostyles in front of each end of the cella. " In all cases but — two the treads measured i. S .

. Fig.46 THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS.— Setting Out of Plan. 34.

35- Fig. 38. just as it should. can again prove this result and arrive at the actual size The great founda- had a ratio of io8 to 127 feet. for the plinths and steps on the gfround level would be the same at both the fronts and the sides. Fig. although still oblong. Indeed. This. Various Restorations of the Mausoleum.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. 36. 37- Fig. if from the centre of the foundation rectangle of 108 by 127 feet we draw lines representing the diagonals of the pyramid . 47 We tion of the base of the pyramid in another way. the pyramid. approximates more to the square form than does the base of Fig.

and less. . and found that the peristyle divides up accurately on the same line.. eight on the front and ten on the side. but not so many. for it was rough for 2 feet at the end. (Fig. were found. He also writes. " One p.48 THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. . tion is surely complete. A few such narrower steps are required to get in the full number of twenty-four around the pedestal of the chariot group. Fig. having treads of loi. * See passages cited by Newton. giving 36 columns. others. as may be seen at the British Museum. About sixteen or eighteen wide steps and six or eight narrower ones would suit our dimensions. A B are the angles of a rectangle of C D 17 inches by nearly 21 i inches. are angles of the foundation to scale. by spacing up bays of about 9. having a base of the proportion 34 to nearly 43 (17 inches by nearly 21 A inches) and now intersect these with true 45 degree mitre lines drawn from the angles of the foundation rectangle. the demonstra. In the diagram. and are therefore doubtful. The Cella. The size of the foundation 3. At the base the first step or attic was doubtless much deeper than the rest. 34. stone of the cella 190. When it is found that the line so found for the centres of the columns agrees exactly with the line of the basis of the pyramid. The proportion of the base of the pyramid) zve may arrive independently at the number of bays. 9. . 9 as close to the limit of the base of the pyramid as possible. 34. At E and F the diagonals and the mitres it is intersect. we obtain geometrically the proper base of the pyramid. and others are difficult to reconcile with each other.* Newton pointed out that a fragment of a cross beam which was discovered must have rested on the cella wall. The size of the columniation 2.) As some of Pliny's dimensions are corrupt and different in the different MSS. which was drawn full size. This gives the base of the pyramid. The name pteron requires a cella to which it is added. Besides the wide steps which have been mentioned. even the number of columns he gives is subject to the same doubt but from the three facts made known to us by the actual remains (i.

" certainly would Retrospect. Had that end rested on Fig. — the existence " this beam has one of its ends roughened to the extent of 2 feet." dicular of I 49 It had an inclination from the perpen- of a cella Dr Murray agreed that was shown by the marble beam in lOO. then not have been roughened as it is. must now quickly review what has been written on the question. 39. wall was discovered. for the evident purpose of being let into a wall. as does the other end. — Adler's Restoration. it an inner architrave. and try to separate results from unverifiable conjectures.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. I .

capitals. as I consider.did so They presented their facts most in rather an inconclusive way. and this is embodied in the fine coloured drawing. This drawing was made by Mr F. 1888 J. thes. inaccurately. 4. 40. With these evidences in addition to the texts. Donaldson had and other orna- ments of a "superb Ionic edifice" on the site of Halicarnassus.) Fergusson. but introduced many errors and fancies of his own. E. iv. of Athens.f 2.50 In the first THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS.) In 1846 thirteen slabs of the sculptured to the 1. at the general form of the cella is set on the pyramid.xcavations Newton and Pullan published in 1862 While they arrived. and made little distinction between them and The order is not properly worked out. in allusion probably to the rites of the edifice of which the fragment formed a part. half of last century. t Watkiss Lloyd made a slight amendment to the scheme. After the e. Fig. with its cornice about 100 above the ground. 31). Goodchild. (Fig. Professor observed many fragments of shafts. He arranged the columns in a double rank. showing 7 and 6 to the made outside (a. in the main following Newton. In publishing an engraving of a pilaster capital he said: "In general character it is similar to the pilaster capitals of the Temple of Priene and of the Temple of Apollo near Miletus. The pteron. monument. issued a pamphlet. frieze were brought Museum. . which attempted to show that the discoveries were compatible with Cockerell's small plan * " Ant. published a study of the monument. The wide span between the and the peristyle at the ends is impossible as construction."* (Fig. and after the analogy of the Lion In Tomb Mr at Cnidus. 35. 3. and surrounding a very small cella. is far No pedestal too elevated for so delicate a work. and he doubtless obtained from Donaldson some idea of the scale of the Ionic order he had noted.of Cockerell's restoration shown at the Museum. in the same year. who had been an " assistant to Cockerell." vol. which he seems to have identified as having belonged to the Mausoleum. He put a basis for the chariot group as Cockerell had done. but the rosettes and torches are additional ornaments. their results. Pepys Cockerell. their own suggestions. Cockerell a restoration. together with a restoration.

51 scheme. much less the He noticed that beside the wide steps there were others having treads of 9 inches. He had Newton and Pullan's wrong dimensions for both the margin-stone and for the diameter.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. and showed that was if diameters. but those hapsuperstructure. He worked out the intercolumniation from the margin stone of the lacunar. and the . — Pilaster Capital. the lacunar stones the right at. 40. 9. About 1893 the order was pieced together in the Museum." ) ll 1 11 m II ' "' "' '" " "' '" '" "' "' '" III m m m ni in m »| iti ill ill iii til in in iir r iii I III HI III III m 111 in n Fig. in giving a columniation of a result right in principle although wrong in fact. the margins above the heads of the figures are twice as wide as the others. 5. g}. 6^. columniation. the arrangement following Goodchild rather than Pullan. From 9. with pened to compensate one another some further variations. An objection may be raised to this on the ground that the panels have not equal margins all round. and of those he proposed to form the pyramid. stated to be was arrived Dr Murray used certain square sculptured slabs as panels for the lacunaria. He pointed out that some of the beams postulated by Pullan "would not bear their own weight.

. the problem. is In the French scheme a possible disposition of the lions sug- some method of pairing them seems called for. and surveyed the whole problem in the " Catalogue of Greek Sculpture.52 THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. as pointed out by Collignon. 37. In Mr Walter's " Greek Art. i" which he reverted to adopted both sizes of steps for a spire-like arrangement. In the same year Mr Arnold pointed out that some foundations of isolated piers which appear in Pullan's surve}' offer some confirmation of the large type of plan. Tombs In of Hellas. but in their method of obtaining the size of the plan. ii. and it is just A German restoration possible that gested. He the pyramid. 36). 52. In the same year Prof Adler of Berlin published a monograph on the subject. as some such arrangement did obtain. 38. see 1 1 below. 10. The sculptured frieze was inserted in the order. (Fig.) 9. following Newton's big plan type i-nto the main. In 1900 Mr Arthur Smith published drawings of the order. On this see below and Figs. Petersen's scheme is illustrated in 7. although the attempt in this case was mixed up with many visionary features. Both are of the large plan type. and was thus able feet. He swept away the cella.) Mr Oldfield's scheme was adopted by Professor Percy Gardner in his " Sculp- retaining the total dimension of 411 ments are to be reconciled. but he broke up the peristyle to obtain short fronts while porticoes. by Petersen and a French one by Bernier have few special points. August and September 1899). (Fig." and thus lowers the peristyle. and proposed for it Fergusson's idea of the '' meta. The former puts pilasters to the lower storey (Fig. He adopts Cockerell's and Cockerell's small type plan. and supported the pyramid wholly on the columns. He follows Newton and Pullan. this tured 8. by setting twenty-four wide steps around the area where the chariot stood. sculptures are so delicate that they can hardly be seen. who published this restoration (published later and fully by D'Espouy)." vol. 11. If all Pliny's measureseems the best suggestion of dealing with them. not only in the general form they arrived at. 51 and 6." 1896 Mr Stevenson also published a restoration {Builder." 1894 Mr Oldfield rediscussed in 1906. consisting mainly of the steep steps.

THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS.) He sets such capitals on pilasters around the cella." He followed Adler generally. suggesting that many of the sculptures were grouped in pediments over the two " fronts. but increased the attics to receive these features. but the true dimension is 3 or 4 inches short of this. consider monument which has been produced. and Rayet and Thomas point out that they were generally plain in Asia Minor. suggestions for setting the sculptures. (Fig. and the great horse and rider seem altogether too big to have rested on the thin shelf of such a delicate entablature. Moreover the square support under the middle of the horse shows that it was isolated. Cockerell also had used this in recalling that capital. E . from what has gone before. 12.* This learned article goes on to discuss the proportions of the structure. but he placed it on square angle piers. (Fig. Six published an article in the Hellenic Journal. form. and the premust. His most original contributions are in the disposition of the sculpture. In 1905 Dr J. 40.39-) He shows that the doubtful 440 of Pliny is to be preferred to 411 and better agrees with the foundations. which. but as Pullan's faulty measurements are used the results cannot be accurate. The existence of two actual angle pieces of the gutter precludes the possibility of pediments filling the fronts as he suggested. and sentation of I what the best general view of the Donaldson had illustrated the pilaster capital as coming from the Mausoleum." which is clearly of still earlier form. He re-engraves Pullan's faulty plates of the order. and indeed does not seem to have seen the original stones. * There were no sculptures in the pediments at Ephesus or Priene. His best points seem to be an exhaustive history (in the main again following Newton). The whole flank. I had come independently to this last probability or possibility as likely dimensions for the top step of the platIt is also suggested that the columniation may have been set out at 10 Greek feet from centre to centre. Dr Six also suggests that Pliny's perimeter of 440 feet should be broken up into sides of 1 20 and 100 feet. Adler suggests that this may be the earliest Ionic pilaster capital of this type. now we have an angle capital. but Inwood engraved an example from Athens on Plate 28 of his " Erechtheum. 53 Indeed there is practically a consensus on this point. we know did not exist.

of these reconciliations are so simple in the supposition of that would do very well easiest thing a mistake. and adding two half columns." In the parallel case of Ephesus. — Rejected Plans. attempts have been made to reconcile Pliny's Pullan supposed that the dimensions in all the cella. while his estimate of the total measure round about is either 411 or 440 feet.6|. this last could be made to apply to an outer court. we get loi. .9i = 97. For the Mausoleum he gives the measure of the long sides as 63 feet. and an outer enclosing building low and large. however. Mr Stevenson suggested an inner call the "broken type. If I must put forward a possible reading. for lo X 9." kinds of ways. and other reconcilers think it is in mistake for 440. Mr building small and high. obviously ! Gardner suggests that cxiii. I would say that as the measure about the exterior was 440 feet. But none for the top step of the platform. according to different texts. which gave narrow fronts. As said above. and the 411 feet to the peristyle. and this Figs. 8i. 63 Professor feet was the interior length of the cella. although it is rather like measuring a field for the size of a haystack. Pliny's dimensions have had to be abandoned. except that another writer says that it was 1 340 However. 41 and 42. 3. would appear to have been exactly lOO Greek feet.. " It As Furtwangler says on another subject. 63 feet applied to Mr Oldfield's plan was broken into the form of a cross with very This variety we may short arms.54 THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. seems to me better to set aside Pliny's information than to try to combine it with the known facts. Which of these last shall be accepted as right? It would not matter much which it was. should be read for Ixiii. 3 English.

and the third to the cornice ? Nothing final can be done with dimensions like these. Another might suppose that the angle columns. of height by as all many these 140. and unless we proceed independently the problem is insoluble. again. and 80 first feet. The long front has seven bays which at 9 feet each make up the desired dimensions (inter-columniations of i^ diameters were quite possible. is Shall we reconcile by supposing that the to the top of a flag-staff. the second to the chariot. all sorts of conjectural restorations are possible. grouped his columns at the angles into threes. were counted twice over.43) which combines many advantages. or another. there are three estimates 55 authors — i8o. Fergusson Fig. But. 43.42.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. and the lacunaria need not . On these lines I put on record a rejected hypothesis (Figs. again. that the 63 feet should be cubits like the dimension of height. — Rejected Restoration. 41. as is so frequently the case. For instance.

) of a reasonable terrace. rested on very substantial The measure of 440 comes edge We get the proportion of two bays longer than wide to suit the foundations. : steps. two bays longer on the flanks than on the front. that there was a screen between them forming the whole into a cella. A great point has been made of Pliny's description of the apex of the monument as like a meta. and I cannot doubt that the main facts as to the exterior have been established from the data made known by the excavations as above set out. meta of marble ("metam marmoream the cella point to the very small. The monument would have occupied such a small part of right proportion of plan to to give immense foundation. yet Vitruvius describes as a tower finished with a "). 25 in our Ephesus section. 2. and Pars' original drawings show that there were dowel holes in the vertical strips by which it is probable slabs were attached. those who would sweep away . The small type of plan seems to me to be an impossible solution for the following reasons 1. (" Hanging in void air " is rhetoric for high. . it The dome piers of Sta. get pediments for our proofs). It would not have been the suit a rectangle 108 by 127 feet and the 3. but I have not seen the plan B (Fig.S6 THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. perfecit Again. as we We on the cella walls. although seemed feet to be suspended at the by a golden chain from the heavens and arches. The pyramid has to be designed as made up mainly oi steep The discoveries showed that it was mainly of wide steps. and it at the centre a finial like a capital. The columns were of the shape shown by Fig. (without sacrificing the gutter returning at the know it did). of late Roman work. the front is A central pillar for a room enough made up mostly of the wider steps. and there is on pyramid of sufificiency the proof for the simple solution following the large type of me from such a desirable scheme. Sophia. Tower of the Winds flat at Athens cited in this This building had a very pyramidal roof of marble. Yet the avoided. get the pyramid firmly based '' have been square except at the " fronts We angles. tomb at Mylasa but this is and the form of the columns suggest. 31) drives parallel case of the relation.

be historically impossible. impression derived from months of study of the excavations. in a word. The basis of the true design Such a building would. cona a in The marvel must have setting over temple . structure pyramid hanging high the air. I think. and Pullan. the their total 6. that this was the size of Details of the Order. but .THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS." small scheme had its origin before the site had been explored. The projecting hollow mould- ing at the top and bottom of the shaft not a quadrant. seems to be the tumulus developed. we can say that the 63 feet is just as likely to be of something interior like the cella. a pyramid. Newton. It is against the views of Lieut. consisting of a basement. 5. 57 would hardly have been " a gigantic monument. And if by the scheme fact that the large satisfies the 440-feet dimension. The may small be one point that claimed for the scheme — that it satisfies Pliny's of 63 feet — dimension neutralised Fig. It may best be compared with the Cnidus monument but in later times the great tomb the " at Adamkilissi. 4. Smith. whose conclusions were based on their knowledge of It The of the positions of the stones found. and. is — Back of Angle Volute. and a trophy. The shafts have twenty-four flutes over is 5 inches wide. site. which are nearly semicircular in form. and mausolea" of Augustus and Hadrian in Rome followed the sisted in same tradition. we are told something exterior to the monument proper.

It should be noticed that this angle thrown volute is not quickly out from a general square form. The capitals must be carefully examined at the Museum to be appreciated. of which an ex- ample is also exhibited. both the cushion and the abacus. column seems to be quicker toward the top. and shows a diagonal volute. and this doubtless furnished the reason why they were separately inserted. height of the cap from the bottom of the volutes is The half a diameter.58 THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. is exactly similar ornament . — Ordinary Capital and Angle Capital compared. curve. They are almost exactly like those at Priene. and might be slightly injured in tracing the curve of the volute.) Doubtless rolls of the volutes were adorned with palmettes. 45. and Penrose considered that it formed a part of a long hyperbola with its focus some distance above the top of the shaft. and the flutes are set into' this in a beautiful way. At Ephesus the fluted eye space was made An almost found at the back of the angle volutes at the Mausoleum and at Priene. here and at Priene and Ephesus. is One of the capitals from an angle. The top diameter seems to be one-seventh less entasis of the The than the bottom. Often the studs pro- jected beyond the general face of the volute. (Fig. some of which remain. The use of also. The eyes of the volute were sunk out about 2 inches. and were filled again with Fig. marble studs. but the whole of the two external sides curve outwards. elliptical a long. 44.

we the are told that " after a Mr Penrose. Fig. 50 shows the ordinary capital.— Mitred Volutes of Angle Capitals. as a separate fragment shows. and consequently within a small fraction of 28 feet 6 inches in height.. that the pillars were 8J diameters in height. so to allow room for the bringing of two volutes together at right angles. With a more correct value. Fig. giving the sizes the drums discovered. of Ionia. by Lieutenant Smith?). 45. 48 point. we get about eight diameters. 18. Figs. On it a series of six drums. to the Fig. Even to get this much the length of the side rolls had to be reduced on the angle capitals. iv. from the entasis. is a restoration of the abacus at this Fig. most of careful dis- cussion of the dimensions twenty-six drums measured by Mr Newton at Halicarnassus. . 31980. There was not room enough for this on the Mausoleum capitals where the outer revolution of the volute was lost at the mitre.35."* The diameter here accepted is Pullan's wrong value of 3. At Priene the two volutes of the inner angle were complete. which agreed most nearly with one another as they diminished * "Antiq. p.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. and by those which are at the Museum. came conclusion." vol. the 59 angle volutes at Ephesus were exactly similar. The inner angle of the Mausoleum capital was recessed. As the to the height of column at Mausoleum. 46. 46 and mitring of the volutes against the inner angle. 5. See which shows the 47 show the relative sizes of the two capitals. sheet (in of all The memorandum spoken of above is a MS.

accepting Penrose's calculation of 28. at most. This furnishes a maximum dimension. I am satisfied the columns were. Mr Penrose. have see«i that Wood remarked that the columns of Ephesus diminished rapidly towards the top. 1 1 J. 6. If vertical. the plinth. and 24. says. whereas in the Column 24 Attic examples it occurs near the base (at to horizontal the Parthenon it is below) or the middle. 47. following the analogy of Priene. for the most part. for the drums Fig. 6. This gives a total or. Fig. of the several columns would have varied in their heights." On plotting the dimensions of the memorandum to an exaggerated scale principal is : — Diagram amount of curvature . 9. o. we get 8 diathat meters exactly. A is reason for the abnormally stout proportion furnished by the great burden these pillars bore. — Sketch of the Cast. giving a total height for the shaft only of 26.6o THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. 48. are superimposed. I an hyperbola were chosen to represent the curvature its vertex would be above the capital. estimate the height of the shaft at about The capital and the base add 2. The found toof Entasis of wards the top of the shaft. upwards. would have been 9 of 28. and in the series of drums brought together the upper ones. inches. overlapped those next below by a quarter of an inch or so. I Making allowance for these differences. We sion Fig. not higher than this. nearly 8 diameters. 49. — Restored Abacus of the Cast. in his discus" of the columns of Priene.

THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. of the order. 50. 11. Combining our entablature of architrave. egg and tongue course. dentil course. I find that the Mausoleum shaft followed the same the lower half was very straight. egg and tongue course. corona and cymatium we get a depth of S. This is proved so far as the Mausoleum is concerned by the way in which the cross beams are notched down If there had been a frieze for the full depth into the epistyle. and Furtwangler and others have applied it to the podium. but not upright. the arrangement proposed for .) has long been discussed whether the sculptured frieze belonged to the order. the upper part curves swiftly so that the vertex would be 10 or 12 feet rule. — Capital reduced from Royal College of Art Survey. I Ephesus. the cross beams of course would have rested on the epistyle. Now at Priene the depth of entablature was three-fifths of a columniation. Following the analogy of Priene and have shown that there could have been no frieze Fig. above the It capital. 49. (Fig. 6l (24 to i).

so that the advantage of strength entablature. 51. there appear to be fragments of all these The dentils are blocks lO by 7 inches BASE Fig. I believe.) given to the cornice is much more than in Pullan's plates. with our At the Museum parts of the entablature. 52. At Priene the intercolumniawas a little more open in proportion and much greater in is absolute span. and this takes the place of the shallow bed mould of the Museum restoration for which there is no evidence. The under side of the marble was finely dressed to (Fig. — and 5 inches apart.62 the tion THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. the front of the corona being 1. Mausoleum gives the same.9 in advance of the bed mould below. In the Museum restoration the projection which has been 51.) . X is doubtful. Following Ephesus and Priene I have put an egg and tongue moulding and a cavetto beneath the corona. Faces of Architrave and Cornice are not vertical. Restored entablature reduced from Royal College of Art Survey. (See Fig.

resting on the thin corona of the cornice." As greater than in other examples.10 back from its nosing. the dressing having been so wide in order to relieve the bed mould from the weight. There are several yards of the gutter set up in the Museum. . remnants of two angles exist both show that the palmette carving came up to the mitre. and this. the pyramid. (Fig. As before mentioned. 63 "where there is this gives a projection much a slight rise as if for a bed. but about 3. is how Pullan has shown it. — Museum Restoration of the Entablature. On the top of the gutter "a line is marked "1. In the Museum Catalogue it is called a "weather line which is supposed to indicate the position of the lowest step of Fig." This entirely impossible arrangement would give no back to the gutter.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. I see. and one gives just enough evidence to show that the first head was . 52. this distance. O in front of the architrave. 53-) It is divided into stones 42 inches long. Newton says that this line marked the commencement of the pyramid. It brings the weight of the pyramid not only on to a 4-inch gutter stone. I would suggest that it should be pushed back 4 inches or so. with a lion's head spout in the centre of each.

as there was on the straight. 6. about half a stone back from the angle. be a multiple of 3. Fig. bending around the corner. 54 is an enlarged detail of the base. which is 3I inches less than 28 times 3. 6 on the two fronts. because the distance between the lion's heads should." . The law of the distribution of the heads was to have as much carving between them. Now equals 78. and \ inch less than 3.64 THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. The proportion of the cornice as above corrected was such as to throw the second lion's head about 6 inches behind the centre of the angle column as seen in elevation. cut into the shield borne by one of the figures of the frieze. We may find here some check on the dimensions already obtained. for the eccentricity of the Fig.6. 53.* * See Newton's article in " The Classical Museum. — Detail of Carved Gutter. heads nearest over the centres of the columns. which is 4 inches more than 22 times 3. which is probably of the sixteenth century. 57 is part of Fig. 6 was the best possible mean for the dimensions of the two fronts. we get a total of yj. That is 3. an inscription. 4. and deducting I3 inches as eight bays of the short side at 9. 9|. On the other front we get 97. 4. on one side at least. In other words the gutter stones would have averaged about \ inch more. 8^. 6.

T?IE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. figure I Fig. which thus at the angles set into the caps and resisted displacement. It might have come from Rheims . been shown. and suggested that corresponding Beatings must have been left on the architrave blocks.-Enlarged Details of only know one other has the same which Bases. several fragments of the 65 There appear to be Mausoleum built into the walls of the Turkish fortress of Budrum. sculpture in the world. while another has no sinking. August 1 899. Some interesting observations on the peristyle by Mr Marshall were published in the Builders' Journal. for that master of medisevalism. also gives a is He It Sculpture and Colour." the slen- der draped girl's figure from Priene. yet Dr Six after is probably right in grouping them the model of the The deSidon Sarcophagus. I cannot find that they have ever been described. and that half the top of another capital was similar. probable that the columns all leaned inwards. has rightly picked out the figure of Mausolus as having a character comparable with the le best mediaeval sculptures. He pointed out that the top bed of the angle capital was countersunk. scription calls for an equal dison all four sides.. 54. at least one in the hundred following the inclination of the cella wall. The great chariot group which stood on the summit is it might be particularly noble nominated for a place amongst the most " universal " pieces of . Pythios. Viollet Due. which I should like to think of as by the same artist. " feeling. The as has principal sculptures could not have been in pediments. tribution Adler's disposition of groups aeainst the basement seems to best suit the evidence. good sketch of the ceiling over the peristyle.

and many other places. Xanthus. If they were above the cornice they may have formed Fig. in THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. restored. it is certain. as in the frieze * See Rayet and Thomas. Miletus. . The lions are comparatively poor from the position which they were found it seems likely that they occupied a high situation. a procession approaching the centre of the front along both sides. . that they presented a side view.*on the Lycian tomb in the British Museum. — Sketch of part of Frieze. with many additions of bronze.66 or Chartres. and could not have been set end-on as by Adler. doubtless gilt. and the Sidon Sarcophagus at Constantinople. Lions appear as guardians of the tomb at Cnidus. alternately to the right and left. From the fact that they all turn their heads at right angles. like a It was decorated similar frieze on the Nereid monument. 55. The frieze is an extraordinarily delicate work. and with colour. It most probably surrounded the basement at no great height. I think. Newton says that "the bridles of the horses.

and the execution chef-d'oeuvre. but it does not satisfy like fallen the Parthenon One or two of the Amazons are charming " The design and feeling." The ground of the chariot frieze was likewise blue. many drilled holes that the warrior on slab 1007 had a bronze crest in his helmet. 55. 67 much more. another. and the plain moulding below had a painted ultramarine. tense and slender figures have " the accent of bronze. in 1013. its diagonal variety is lines. the flesh a . 56. (Figs. which was inserted into an axe-head which formed part of the marble relief. The figures are all in most violent action falling into a series of Fig. another. — Sketches of two wounded Amazons. in 1015. the ground of the relief was in dun red. I find by examining the positions of . on 1016 was an Amazon riding spear in hand. side." It very wonderful.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. 56. grasped a shaft of bronze. held a bronze bridle. an Amazon on slab 1006 carried a sword strongly pinned to her hand another. but the composition in continuity and easy The is is most masterly. mounted on horseback. an extraordinary frieze. were of metal " but there was For example.) whole frieze was coloured. thrust a spear into a man's . and the drapery and armour were picked out with colours. of the Parthenon.

57. Fig.— Part of an Inthe so-called Sarcophagus of Alexander. the joints being polished so as to sit very close. of construction of which the Mausoleum is an remarkable from the way in which the marble is handled. and the leaf moulding around it was picked out in red. colours were ultramarine and vermilion. A the small square panels also had blue backgrounds. is brightly coloured. The to All the carved architectural members were painted. Indeed. the recess on the soffit of the main architrave was blue." says Choisy. An abundance of bronze cramps was used to link stone to stone. " or pigments equal in intensity. I think. " The Greeks. and blue to the leaf moulding of the abacus. The principal sculptures and the Newton reported that lions also showed vestiges of colour. The type is example . In the account for building the Erechtheum gold leaf for gilding the eyes of the columns is mentioned. The eyes of the volutes were doubtless gilt. in speaking of ''iTOlF-*!! IR** L^tJ the ground of wax. Newton '^^^^ be right." them Construction and the Architect. yet the whole is harmonised and softened into waxy texture and hues. this treat- was customary. At Priene. As usual in Greek works it is put together without mortar. and even the statues were painted. This was doubtless in the recessed channel of it." Newton says that " the system adopted have been to tone down the whole of the marble with seems to a coat of varnish and wax. which in leaf moulding. The most perfect I h \J' h ancient painted work I have ever seen. At all epochs colour was present. scription on one of the Shields. to paint all grounds of sculpture and ornament blue.68 THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. " did not conceive of form without the association of colour. on its discovery the colossal seated figure plainly showed two ment of relief colours. and to pick out the mouldings with red." A lacunar margin -stone was found with bright blue upon it. The capital there had a red ground to its egg-and-tongue. traces of note on the memorandum the may still be seen in one Museum shows that place. where exactly the same system of architectural coloration was followed.

51.THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. I think. Scopas. as we should think. (Fig.) Pythios. and the use of mitre joints for the lacunar margins and carved mouldings. is. F . that these parts are wrought in a . which was probably begun about 345 and was not comHe belongs to a class of sculptor pleted until about 334. 53). The vertical planes. the sculptor of the noble chariot group. in two beds. The architrave is wrought two facias.* architects who shaped the course of Greek architecture. some of which are The steps of the Pyramid have a raised fillet along the back and at the two ends. and the whole outlook is very advanced and even doubtful. 6 deep with and the upper i foot deep with one. and with ornamental members inserted in rebates (Fig. as he was architect of the Priene temple. Adler suggests that the insertion of the delicate mouldings in rebated ledges was done with me object of hastening the works. In the columns 69 bronze dowels. lessly constructed. These fillets fit into cavities cut in the next course above. * Vitruvius gives the name in more than one form. make one think of a sort of " marble joinery" rather than masonry. fragile being broken up into many pieces. The scheme is derived from tiling." After seeing the chariot group we can under. much finer quality of marble. The workers must have been skilful in an extreme degree. These points. but see Rayet and Thomas. one i. The entablature is. The roles of sculptor and architect seem to have been interchangeable as in the Middle Ages the Greek sculptor was a " stone-cutter. with whom he is mentioned at the Mausoleum. with those on the adjoining stones. The latter. The heading joints of both cavities are come together over the columns. Pheidias. and Pythios. and I think it probable that the exposed joints were covered by a marble A piece. but incline facias of the architrave are not in outwards at the top. was followed by Kallimachos. Polyclitos the younger. and at the back formed to receive the ends of the cross beams. may only have been a younger associate of Satyrus. who himself was general master of works for Pericles. The same custom is followed at Priene and another reason. carefine were preserved at the Museum. make rolls which throw the water away from the actual joints.

which is not even acquired by the professors of any one in particular. one of the ancients. architect of the noble Temple of Minerva in Priene. EJiiibnrgli. says in his Commentaries that an architect should have that perfect knowledge of each art and science.70 stand Vitruvius THE TOMB OF MAUSOLUS. but architects I am at least convinced that have been stone-cutters." A large " ferent branches of claim. On this account Pythios. in all great times Printed at The Darikn Pkess. from their connection with each other. . when he says : Those who are initiated in difknowledge have facility in acquiring all.

The existed as an almost perfect Parthenon. Plan. until comparatively modern days. being of white marble. a short encomium containing the substance of a /aw^^rzV. ITS " It was observed of Phidias. and little injured by time. great interior ivory and gold statue of Athena was consecrated. that as a statuary he excelled more in forming gods than men . : marble G ." * Randolph. and was practically completed ten years later. Tavernier speaks of columns of porphyry and black he must refer to the interior of the church."— Chandler. painting. It is very dark. some lights at the east. by 8 at the . Date.III. From the date of these records the destruction has been con- tinuous." the works were still in progress. having only ends. until at the beginning of the last century the temple was but a shattered wreck. * Courmenin.C. 58. a French ambassador. waxing. 59. show that in 434-3. but it is thought that these would only be details of •completion." About this same time valuable drawings of the sculptures were made for Nointel.. an English writer. such as channelling the columns. "the fourteenth year. and Construction. each 19I feet round about. discovered in 1888. (Figs. THE PARTHENON AND SCULPTURES. seems to have monument. "The body is 168 feet long by 71 wide its total length is 230 feet. In 1632 it was described as a temple " entire.) It was begun in 447 In 438 the B. speaks of it as entire and one of the most glorious buildings in Europe. about 1675. and it has 17 pillars on the sides. Some fragments of building inscriptions.

and underneath the floor solid courses of masonry are extended over the whole area many feet in depth. Uorpfeld. were four columns which divided the ceiling into nine equal * Lechat. Fig. — The Acropolis a century ago. been published by Penrose. In 437 Phidias. Magne. was Good plans. and polishing. 62. according to recent opinion. Penrose speaks of pieces of the upper architrave found on the site. 60.) columns which divided up the chief cella are clearly marked in some places upon the pavement. at the two ends of the temple stand above the level of the . its southern foundation is built up from a depth of about 50 feet. as at Olympia and other places.72 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. and from the size it is obvious that there must have been two stages. (Figs. and are less in scale peristyle on two steps.) as it was built in part over the sloping sides of the Acropolis rock.4 by 228. have 101. A portion of one of positions of the The the eastern responds of the internal colonnade still remains by the entrance door. banished from Athens. 60. . The superstructure rests on a colossal foundation (Fig. They had a diameter of about 3 feet 7 inches. The foundations in The inner rows of six columns part belong to an older temple.3. 58. the other end the colonnade returned In the smaller cella. than the outer ones. and Middleton. There are continuous walls under the internal columns.* The size of the Parthenon. At behind the great statue. or opisthodomos. measured at the top step. L. probably began his great Zeus of Olympia.

No provision was made. 14. although an Fig.* Some writers have supposed that the columns in the opisthodomos would have been Ionic. Plate V. and the speculations of Stuart originated in error. elaborate French restoration. for the admission of light otherwise than by the doorway and by artificial light. and this is evidence for their having been of marble. . and Wilkins in his " Pro" Where is the authority for assuming the lusiones. for is 73 compartments. only just published. follows the hypaethral heresy and allows the ivory statue to stand in the air. . but the stone squares on which they rested are of the same size as those of the inner external order. and Penrose is probably right in showing columns of the same diameter also. p. or contemplated. As long ago as Chandler the view to which Dorphas returned was expressed. beams of this part were them to probable Traces 3 feet in the walls showed that the wide.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. The construction of the marble work is not only of mar- * Penrose." open feld : ." writes Parthenon to have been hypaethral ? No such authority exists.59- —The Parthenon in its present shape. . the size of which was not too great be roofed with stone. and as this was a treasury it that it was so covered. After long dispute it is now generally agreed that the great cella was lighted only through the open door-way.

— Ground Plan : from Dorpfeld. These were only set a little way into the masonry of the pediment. and about 4 feet long. 6o. where some of the marble beams were channelled out middle and became of this shape U. The slabs of the pediment were hollowed away at the back and the lacunar stones were pared away on the top so as to lighten them as much as possible a method which was carried further vellous accuracy but in — :ii 10 20 30 40 50 Fig. were placed above the end cornices apparently to relieve the weight of the greater figures. as we sometimes use timbers. but as the tympanum face was considerably behind that of the architrave the relief to the overhanging cornice must have been sufficient if this was indeed the purpose of the bars. (Fig. The pediment slabs were attached to the backing by curiously modernat Bassse. mitre-joints are used for the moulded members of the beams of the peristyle. and the pediment is cased with slabwork which is in ten large pieces. and strong iron bars. in the looking holdfasts. from 6 to 10 inches wide. 64. For instance. The frieze above consists of a facing and backing only. The architrave is made up of three pieces side by side. 63. methods of workmanship were developed marble building suitable only to this fine material.) Iron dowels and H-cramps were used plentifully in attaching stone to stone. or cantilevers.74 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. (Fig. allowing a free space in the middle almost big enough for a passage.) .

Doubtless a true vertical was also set up by the side of the plane table so that perfect right angles could be obtained." Penrose goes on to say. and exquisite fineness. .THE PARTHENON AND " ITS SCULPTURES. this Fig. n^ commenting on — Diagram of Portico : after Choisy. been thrown on this question by an inscriplight has Some tion reciting the method at to be used for building a verLebadea milion and olive oil — temple were to be applied in some unexplained manner. it 75 frequently The joints of the marble fit so closely that is almost impossible to imagine a finer line than they show. 6oA. + Penrose. Jiaving been applied to a true plane. pp. and a stone canon. thus proving that it also has been brought to a plane. observes method in question must have been that called by French masons "dressage au rouge. This can hardly have been produced by other means than that of the stones having been rubbed upon one another. or rule. the newly wrought stone is brought in contact with it until it takes up the red equally all over. that the Choisy. An inscription regarding the works at the Erechtheumf also mentions polishing a canon. was to be used." where the red powder. following an observation of Stuart's."* passage. * Penrose. that some of the stones had grown " May not the attraction of cohesion taking place together between the two surfaces in almost absolute contact be sufficient " to account for it ? " Difficulty occurs in explaining how the vertical joints of the architrave could be such brought to it is : difficult to perceive them. 25 and 124.

61. it to seems me much that finished more they probable were by some revolving trammel. of the Angle : Pediment remark justified : if omitted Small steps only suggest the height of stylobate. but as there is no sufficient means in the top bed where- by such immense blocks could be attached to a lathe. a point in the circumference was finally its brought back to proper position the fact that the axis of a drum would lie different directions as' it revolved would be immaterial. According to Penrose the capitals were turned in a lathe. cannot see that this is Fig. It seems to have been usual to put even bronze dowels into " boxes.* in * Penrose distinctly says moved " through a small arc.16 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. and altogether I consider it most likely that the 3-inch wood pins in 4-inch square blocks of the Parthenon were simply dowels." some of which were square. wood dowels and even wood cramps were not uncommon. Penrose that thought drums of the columns were ground together by the rotating on their central pins which were of wood." However. . and they are so true that it is clear that they were finished by rotary action. Magne says out in this idea is ruled by the fact that consequence inclination of of the the columns the horizontal faces I beds are not surof revolution. — Diagram .

17 the The lowest course of the cella wall was. and bead and reel mouldings at the antse the latter is repeated above the metopes. built of great blocks.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. The mouldings are few and simple although of slight and Fig. (Fig. 62. — Section of Portico : from Penrose. . following general tradition. The only carvings other than the sculpture were simple &%^ and tongue.) subtle curvature. 65. The . In the roofing there are several curious adjustments.

is the slab bedded on the . i in 50. but these also are orna(Fig. 63. Refinements and Irregularities." The tiles against the edge of the gables curve upwards forming a cymatium to the pediment. in diminishing from the base to the The capital they follow a curved profile instead of a straight one. Fig.) At the bottom of the row of marble tiles which turns up to form the cymatium is affixed on the slant a stone which for about 8 feet up the roof rises flush with the top of the cymatium. On the upper slanting face are worked stops for the cover-pieces of the tiling. and other small parts. being an angle of about still . Along its edge antifixffi are attached. keeping them from slipping. lowest course from which the marble tiling starts has its upper surface slanting in the same plane. which are thus purely " ornamental. Perpendicular faces are the exception and not the rule. like spouts. tiles. The the entablature lean . but Museum. the lower surface being level- bedded on the cornice beneath. " Vertical " parts of more the abaci of the capitals and the faces of the cornice. The marble tiles space up three to every two antifixse.— Lacunaria. The lines modified in many ways and planes of the Parthenon are adjusted and from what we are apt to think should be the normal procedure in building. D. The architrave follows a similar curve. C. and on it. 67 A. B. that is. All this is best understood from Penrose's minute analysis. carved the lion's head. towards the bottom. is worked a level seating for the base of an acroterion. This stone is partly caught at the bottom by the block on which is J mental. one over each metope and triglyph. incline outwards. At the bottom of the gable the cymatium returns a little way on the flanks. All the columns have a delicate entasis.78 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. 66. outer columns of the peristyle lean inwards about three inches. The stylobate on which the columns rest rises in a curve about four inches at the centre of the flanks while at the fronts it rises about three inches.) I give a plan from the Stuart papers at the British (See Fig. forming blocks from which project fine lions' heads.

. of the several drums are level except the top ones. we may suppose. 65.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. — Profiles of Mouldings. they are said to lean forward in a contrary direction. other in-egularities which appear to be manship.* The angle columns larger than the rest. the capitals being A level The beds of equal depth. 79 " vertical " axes of the capitals are not in the same line as those of the shafts. The columnia- seating is worked on the stylobate for each column to stand on. there are accidental or * many made necessary by circumstances. but. The inner external is Fig. notwithstanding the exquisite precision of the work- Fig. are to and the next inter-columniations the angle are considerably less than the others. 64. entirely intentional. — Iron Cramps. All these adjustments are. which are worked to the general curve the architrave is to follow. order of columns of more slender proportions than the outer order.

"^1 Fig. which were quarried of slightly varied lengths. we learn that the Greek architects " did depart .8o THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. and the heights and diameters of the columns. says Penrose. The abaci of the columns are largest at the east. and other parts. tions along the flanks vary among themselves. : They little towards somewhat from that strict regularity of proportion of which abundant examples may be found in the plan and elevation of the temple. The metopes of the fronts vary by two or three inches. seem to have been designed so as to have dimensional relations each with the other. To whatever motive. but not regularly. At one of the angles the architrave projects more than four inches further on the abacus on one side than the other. the sides of the rectangle formed by the upper step of the stylobate were exactly as 9 to 4. 66. following no apparent law the probable reason being that their exact dimensions were taken from the stones intended for the epistyle. and smaller at the south and west. the widths of the abaci. At the north and south they diminish from east to west. — Lions' Heads are turned a the Angles of the Building. In regard to the adjustments by inclination and curvature first spoken of." The idea of proportion here referred to was that parts bear some simple ratio to each other example. we may attribute these irregularities. for . it has been usual to consider them as being intended to correct certain optical defects which it is supposed of making adjacent thus.

An .C.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. Fig. R. B. D. L. and that by these adjustments they were made to appear perfectly level and perpendicular. Stone fixed on Tiles Cymatiuni of Pediment. The rebuilding of the Parthenon was only part of Pericles' great scheme for the architectural adornment of the Acropolis after the close of the Persian wars in by the Propylaea may have 449 B. Architects. C. and to ture of the stylobate is perfectly visible. 8 the truly horizontal and vertical lines would have presented to the eye. create a unity out of the many similar parts. 67. . for from other points of view the curvaThe real reason would seem rather to be a desire to sweeten the transitions. Also. Lion's x. This is too much of a " front elevation " idea. Antefix . The Nike temple been the first actually begun. delicate effects of light and shade must have resulted from slight changes in the direction of the surfaces. as Penrose has seen. A. — Plan of Angle of Roof: Head .

from Penrose. — Perspective View of the Angle of Roof: architect. guard-house was also ordered to be built about 447 on the Aero- liomanail viav of th& J W a/igU^.82 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. according to the direction of Callicrates the architect and a . Now the Parthenon was begun in we hear of this same Long Walls at 447. inscription has recently been found whereon is ordered the construction of a temple. and we are told working under the that the architects were Callicrates and Ictinus. 68. a gateway. polis by the same As early as 460 Callicrates in connection with the building of the Athens. . and an altar of marble. marly vl i£s pruuu itatx' Fig.

83 We hear of Ictinus again as having. although there were other eminent architects and excellent workmen amongst the Athenians. and it seems open to question whether we may not suppose that Callicrates was the first master and Ictinus a younger man. The Long Wall was also built by Callicrates. who is the " Phidias was appointed by Pericles the superintendent of all public edifices. Through the friendship of Pericles he had the direction of everything. yet the structures of Pericles built in so short a time were yet built Each. was rebuilt by Callicrates and Ictinus. for edifices which might seem to have required the labour of generations were finished during the administration of one man. as if they were animated by the spirit of of antiquity. built the temple of Apollo at Bassae. and the Great Hall at Eleusis. pass the magnificence — Painting on Cymatium after Vulliamy." * This seems to mean to the office of city architect." Works per- of great magnitude raised. 69. Ictinus may have swallowed up the fame of Callicrates as he wrote a book on the Parthenon. says : the artists received " his orders. had the venerable air now that they are old they have the freshness of a modern building. best authority. as soon as it was finished. which had been 100 feet long. While it is generally true that time expended for ages. according to Pausanias. . Plutarch. The golden statue of the goddess was the work of Phidias. in labour is paid for by the duration of the work. ITS SCULPTURES. and all at the Parthenon. The work at Bassae seems considerably later than the Parthenon. beauty of the execuBut the most wonderful circumstance was the speed with which they were completed. : of the design by the tion. and inimitable fection were while every architect was striving to surFig.THE PARTHENON AND supreme direction of Phidias. so eternal youth.* The Parthenon.

and others. talents. and which during their execution would diffuse wealth for all kinds of labour and materials being required. The opposition. every art would be exercised and every hand employed. Even the mechanics and common people would have their share of public money. paviors. ebony. carriers.— Frieze : Angle Group. . while they would not be supported in idleness for the different — . masons. gold. and cypress. metal-workers. struction. he says. bronze. urged that it must be considered an act of tyranny when the money which had been contributed toward the war was lavished on adorning Athens with temples that cost i. That which was the delight of the Athenians and the wonder of strangers. was the magnificence of the temples and public edifices. asserting that Pericles wasted the public treasure. furnished employment to carpenters. which he gives us to understand expresses the opinions of Pericles. 70.84 THE PARTHENON AND The work was ITS SCULPTURES. Pericles answered that superfluous wealth was best expended on works which would be eternal monuments of its glory. carried on amidst considerable political oband Plutarch has quite an interesting essay on the political economy of art in the city. and their transport employed sailors. materials such as stone. getting ready. so that almost the whole city would gain while it was being adorned. ivory.

. 71. was begun completed about 432 together with directly after the practical completion of the Parthenon. member In the erection of public buildings in was usual to have such a board to supervise the progress and arrange contracts.THE PARTHENON AND and the ITS SCULPTURES. 85 like." p. Greece it * Murray's " Parthenon. 8. These Fig. Thus by the exercise of their different trades was plenty diffused amongst persons of every condition. itCm^ The Erechtheum was begun about 421. whose architect was Mnesicles. The Propylaea. That there was a board of this kind for the works at the Parthenon appears likely from a fragment of papyrus at Strassburg. and that an architect Philocles was. building accounts show that there was a commission appointed for carrying in 408.* It seems very much like the mediaeval custom as to building. about 437. and was still in progress in 408. The results of the inquiry are recorded on an inscription in the British Museum. — Frieze : Horsemen. and was probably the temple of Nike. a on the works. when an inquiry was held in regard to the works necessary for its completion. of it.

although his harsh colour prints must not be held to represent the original hues. Probably this priming was of wax This " patinage a la cire " (Lechat).86 the rarthenon and its sculptures. bably blue or red. were compositions like the ornaments used by vase painters. The structure and the sculptures were decorated by painting and by many accessories of bronze.) In the squares at the angles of the cornice. 69. to an ivory tone. which were doubtless gilt. . One of the fullest accounts of the painting is given by Penrose. hard lights. — Frieze : Waiting Magistrates. 72. he thought that the whole surface of the marble had first been given a general tint to reduce its high. Some of the smaller architectural members. between neighbouring mutules. Like Hittorff and others. Colour and Bronze. were painted in plain. The triglyphs and the mutules above them were coloured blue. archaic statues discovered some twenty years ago on the Acropolis were wrought. The bands above and beneath the triglyphs had fret patterns the guttse band beneath each triglyph has a small palmette pattern. The cymatium had a larger palmette pattern. the spaces between the latter were red. At ^gina it was blue. the guttse (according to The field of the pediment was proL. one of which . Magne) were also red. and the backgrounds of the sculptures. treatment was found to have been used already when the — Fig. bright colours. (Fig.

the antse capitals. " No The temples doubt all the Greek temples were ornamented. 87 carefully drawn in Laborde's fine book. but " there can be little doubt that the gilding is necessary to complete the harmony of the colouring" (Penrose). the band above the frieze. had painted patterns. the drops and other small surfaces red.THE PARTHENON AND is ITS SCULPTURES. for instance. At the Theseum. with the exception of the large swelling mouldings of the capitals. — Frieze : Hermes. writers remark that the outlines of the patterns were first traced The colouring at the Parthenon followed with a sharp tool. Two or three fragments in the Museum still likely that the succession of small fillets the capitals were coloured and gilded. and the red bright. on which no trace has been found. an almost fixed tradition. and of the frieze blue. No actual gilding was found. Fig. while all the mouldings were patterned. Sauer found that the triglyphs and mutules were blue. Dionysos. All the mouldings. I should think it and hollows beneath Within the peristyle. and a similar band from the Propylaea is decorated with Lesbian leaves. 73. both outside and within the peristyle. one length of the bear traces of the painted pattern-work band above the frieze shows the double fret. Demeter. the background of metopes red. the green was of verdigris. and the coffered ceiling. and Ares. of ^gina and of Apollo in Arcadia (Basss). Many . The statues found in the H . The blue is said to have been deep. are enriched with a profusion of painted ornaments. were fully decorated.

the spaces between the latter were red. of the slab of the frieze. and Zeus. the lacunaria were blue with gilt stars. now in the Louvre." 1904. painted patterns were plainly visible on the corona and taenia." a description is quoted from coloured. the pattern on the cymatium was red. Weigand." * At ." At Rhamnus. Mellin. 15. the mouldings around them had painted eggs and tongues some green remained in places. 14 shows some remains of red. Hera. which still remain on No. M. temple of . In regard to the sculptures. . many traces of colour. the only other colour was an "apple-green. Spots of blue were observed on the triglyphs. The same blue triglyphs and mutules with red bands and spaces have been found on early fragments discovered on the Acropolis. " Archaic Poros Architecture. and the attributes were of bronze and lead.^Egina were all painted. The upper left field as of No. t See Theo. — Frieze : Iris.88 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. on the strip beneath the triglyphs were little palmettes. Fig. but there cannot be any doubt that they were richly In " Museum Marbles.f The late examination of the western metopes of the . The metopes and mutules were blue. Parthenon by Mr Ebersole revealed well as of bronze bridles and swords. " This * Dodwell. again. 74.^gina the scheme of colouring was practically the same as at the Parthenon. almost all direct evidence is lost.

as well as groups of statuary. The thought of coloured statuary is apt of the Parthenon." Cockerell pointed out the remains of a coating on parts of the " Ilissus.e. preserved traces not only of the waxing). "the colours are still perceptible on a close inspection. Beul6 says of one. he says. " tions of gilt bronze. with which according to custom the Greeks covered their sculptures. This agrees very closely with Dodwell's description of the Theseum. or red which seem to have been the favourite colours of the Greeks." on the pediment and concluded that there was no doubt The that the Parthenon groups had been similarly decorated. which is accepted as having come from the Parthenon.. as do many referred to the remains of bright colour He sculptures of Olympia. perhaps. Fig. should read some traces of what might — be gold." Not only the the great reliefs." and Murray says. " It appears that originally the sculptures had been covered with a thin wash or size of lime. sculptures but were finished with colour says. rendering them pic- Athena and Hephaistos. before it ITS SCULPTURES. were gilt. . . . that "the drapery of the woman was green. and some parts of the body. where. says gold is observed in many parts This. enriched with various — Frieze : colours. the drapery is generally green. the background] is painted blue. hair." * encaustic colour (i. The open air \i.e. the ground being frieze of the red. . still shows traces of red in the hair. and addiLeake proof as in We found as many and were tures traces that the statues reliefs. 89 the the the the was cleaned. but also of real painting of some parts. * Cockerell. The armour and accessories have been gilt.THE PARTHENON AND marble. The ground was blue." Penrose thought he saw " a slight trace " of colour on one metope. blue. other antique heads. Laborde head in Paris. 75. in the jCgina volume.. well the members of the architecture.

possibly stars. — Frieze : Central Panel. * Penrose. The columns of the pronaos and posticum had metal screens set between them. to offend people. Pausanias says. the goddesses had bracelets. and even earrings. finding do not think the statues themselves would leave any room for doubt. I . in which small objects must have been attached.) bronze.go THE PARTHENON AND I ITS SCULPTURES. . On 4 feet in diameter. shine like sea spray.'' The jambs were very slightly inclined. and along the ridge of the mane of one of Selene's horses are many holes. was to colour The all sculpture general tradition. The serpents of Athena's segis were bronze. The bronze accessories mentioned The horses of the sculptures had before bridles. clasps on their shoulders. believe. or little balls to figures doubtless held symbols. the epistyle were placed round shields of bronze. nearly one over each column on the western front. 62. were profusely Some of the and probably the chariots of the west gable were of bronze. and thus the modern incomplete sculpture arose. Dionysos had sandals. it was thought to be " classical " to do without colour. the doors were of bronze. used. fixed on wooden framing. but to the Renaissance. The doors were probably of as traces still show. Fig. Bronze was largely used in the structure. remains of antiques from which the colour had disappeared. the jambs were " probably cased with bronze. down at that time. (Fig. for which a shallow rebate is provided * in the stonework. 76. At Olyrapia.

with nine holes in each. that there was another shield beneath the Victory on the pediment . We may fairly suppose that the Athenians hung up their memorial shields on their own temple before they sent them to Delphi. in in pairs some places . They are said to have been fixed by Alexander the Great— they were attached more rudely than is likely to have been the case at the time of building. however.f Between the " There shields of the east front are traces of rows of lettering. the Roman conqueror of Achaia. The temple at Delphi was built in the fourth century. this was probably placed there in the fifth century along with the Victory. they seem to have been drawn nearer together over the columns. recent discoveries have and the shown that the Fig. J shields at Delphi after the examination lately made by an American student suggests that shields were put up at four times. ' at least." says shields. 146 B. those on the east and north having been given by the Athenians in memory of Marathon. Penrose says that they were fixed "at some uncertain period. 91 and one under* each metope on the east. and those on the west and south having been given by the ^tolians in memory of their victory over the Gauls. The long after " | the completion of the building. p. On the north and south fronts there were single shields at each end. 77." The idea of their being late may have arisen from what Pausanias says of shields having been affixed to the temple of Olympia by are five rows.§ As I shall show that the metopes of the west front of the Parthenon had reference to the Persian war. we may conclude that the shields there were in * Not exactly. 446). there were shields at the temple of Delphi.C. thus. restored. § " The Athenians dedicated battle of Platsea" (Furtwangler. Dodwell. it is generally said. An . Leake. shields were fixed in the metopes. objects under the triglyphs attached with three pins. were fixed " Mummius. — Frieze : Head of Hera. which were unsculptured. + Also. Again.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. He also says.

The blocks for the pairs at the lowest angles still exist." Museum . vessels of gilt It is said that such bowls on the pediments of the Parthenon are casually mentioned in an epigram. some of which must be than the time of Alexander. cording At Olympia Pausanias. Sculptures —The Frieze. it In describing the sculptures of the Parthenon to begin with the frieze. there may be a difference of age. conformably to the general practice. At the lower angles of the temples and Rhamnus (one earlier and other to later the than the Parthenon) were. of the Athenian victories. says that the acroteria were . metopes. memory the original bronze adornment of the temple."* and of yEgina Fig. The inscription on the east architrave is of the time of Nero. On the apex and two lower angles of the pediment acroteria were set. " (Fig. 6"]^ As Cockerell says. of Athena. were sphynxes. the apex of the temple was also similarly adorned. to which I cannot find a reference. As there is a and distribution between and the west fronts. following ancient tradition difference in size the shields of the east much older than the Parthenon. and that they formed part of The architectural use of memorial shields represented in marble is found on the monument at Cnidus and other works. Marbles.7 square on the upper surface. and pediments. that very the existing remains show considerable ornaments were originally placed at the angles of the pediments it cannot be doubted that. been used before they were copied earlier Bronze shields must have in this way. without giving reasons. in which they were inserted.92 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. the best may the three great divisions — " known and most complete be best of frieze. 78. Bohn adopted them in his restoration Magne. certainly of metal. 2. having sunk spaces. ac- Hands bronze.

east pediment represents her the west her taking the city and the land under her protection. : . to the middle of the east front where it is received by a group of gods assembled over the east door. The general balance of the whole composition. 93 Athena and the dependence of the Athenians upon birth. the other metopes conher. and the isolation of the central . beyond or outside. 76). so completely divided off from the general their backs on it. north and the south sides have a general resemblance in the succession of groups of horsemen. is sculptured a procession in honour of Athena. On this band 524 feet long which surrounds and surmounts the cella walls. 79. as if it were intended to represent the right and left flanks of the same advancing body. The eastern Fig. chariots. The eastern metopes show her amongst the gods battling with the powers of dark and ill. from the west front. frieze falls into . obviously the gods. was a sort of Psalm of rejoicing. and space such as we find nowhere else by being on the frieze. representing the present relation of the gods to the chosen city at the great feast of Athena. and maidens. seven parts i and 7 are the heads of the procession overlapping from both sides 2 and 6 are groups of magistrates who wait to receive them (Fig. 3 and 5 consist of dignified seated figures differences in the details. as if this central panel had action by the two groups of gods who turn isolated in a bare a background of a different colour from the rest.— Frieze Head of Apollo. which appears . 72). The pediments were stone books of Genesis and the Covenant. although there are considerable . that it seems probable that this part was thought of as within the temple itself There seem to be slight indications of lines dividing off this group.THE PARTHENON AND All the sculptures relate to ITS SCULPTURES. of larger scale. 73) 4 is a central group quiet and detached. The tain the acts of the heroes done by her assistance. which progresses. It is to the rest of the scene. On the west front is shown the Both the preparation for the start. an anti.climax (Fig. waiting and looking outwards (Fig. the metopes were chapters from the Books of Kings and Chronicles the frieze. in two streams.

signals to the inner group. seven * Since writing this I see that this explanation has been suo-gested by Mr G. Hill. exactly above the entrance door. One of these. but is now practically fixed. On her left folding a large square of cloth which a man and a boy are we can see is doubled over and over again. scene. The middle figure of all is that of a priestess who is approached on her right by two female attendants bearing seats. on the right. The last figure of this group (7) is also sure.73-) He is shod. ^6?) The watching gods and waiting magistrates must mark the reception of the troop at the temple. . It is in his hand. while a drilled hole shows that he held the caduceus. Zeus enthroned and holding a sceptre in his right hand. the delivery of the As it is difficult new Peplos seems more likely that the action is that of folding up the old one preparatory to replacing it. a youth nearly nude. The identification of the gods has been discussed for a hundred years. On each side there are reached the temple it — — to think that this can represent for the procession has not yet four magistrates standing nearest the centre.94 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. In Eros). who are as yet Fig. leaning forward in eager attitude. of bronze. unconscious of the approaching throng. 80. (Fig. and two who turn toit. — Frieze : Diagram showing mass and background. F.* (Fig. The assembly consists of twelve chief personages and two minor ones ("Iris and ward on each side. and rests his characteristic hat on his knee. The first on the left is certainly Hermes. can be best seen on Lucas's fine model in the Gallery.

Fig. also the pedimonument and a metope of Selinus (Collignon. an earlier writer says olive and close to her elbow stands Iris (5) the messenger. This is clearly Hera. X Ludovisi Mars. 73. He is the only one who sits upon a cushion and is probably Dionysos. and Saglio. The first figure (8) is a slender girl who can be no other than Athena.THE PARTHENON AND conversation with him there seems to be is ITS SCULPTURES. who leans forward against her raised an attitude that became typical for mourners. Dr Murray of willow.* The it is says third figure is right hand in a goddess.) In her right hand she held * Cf. . her forehead some trace of a diadem (Fig. 75. The attitude in which he sits with his hands clasped around his knee is repeated in a wellknown statue of Ares in Incised Drapery. the slab being 14 feet 6 inches long. This is certainly Demeter. By his foot appears the end of the shaft of his spear which would have been completed above in painting. May I suggest here Darem.— Frieze has a veil falling Berlin.) Passing across the central panel and coming to the corresponding group of seven gods on the right. 77). and at the door Ulysses talking with the nurse. The well-known one example of the same gesture. fig. and held : Rome. mourning passed on into Christian art. 272) does not represent Pheedra but the return of Ulysses? there are the idle handmaids. of the Nereid "A The Hera and Zeus in the Mausoleum Annexe. towards Hera. Cf. 3. On the other side. In his raised left hand he may have held a thyrsus. t attitude of the Crucifixion figured with Penelope statue is that the painted vase (Fig. The one between her and Hermes (2) sits backward leaning listlessly against Hermes. s. Mendicaiio. (6). and the Zeus and Hera of the left hand group. She in her left on her shoulders exactly like a Demeter at hand a long torch formed of reeds bound together. St John a hand uplifted to his cheek.t (Fig.v. (Fig. the first pair (8 and 9) are on the same long slab as the central subject. 81.'' The first and the relief of last are very much is alike. breath of Homeric poesy animates this scene.f On either hand of her is another god. ment 213). the well-wrought bed. 95 a noble goddess On . is Ares (4).

The younger. The bearded male figure (10) must be Poseidon. it but. all agree. Around her left wrist is a snake which it has been said was merely a bracelet.) " It is supposed that his lame- ness may be indicated by the awkward pose of his right foot and by the staff on which he leans. 1789 . Apollo seems to have had : a wreath. Zeus. although she is often called Peitho. radiant-faced god (11) must be Apollo (Fig. a spear of bronze. 75. We now have three figures remaining between Hephaistos and Aphrodite. the holes for attaching which occur in a straight line slanting across her body. The head is boyish in its simplicity. In his lifted hand he may have held a trident.* girlish figure is exquisitely imagined. This is very doubtful said with certainty is that serpents play about her hand. others around both wrists. Demeter 7. * The bracelet idea seems now to be given up. made 9. The arrangement is not stiff enough to represent metal. dignified. (Fig. combinaThese : attributions were Iris. after every possible now practically decided. the only suitable name which remains." I cannot see anything awkward in the foot.96 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. 79). tion has been suggested. The identification of this assembly of gods is has taken a hundred years of discussion. still others knotted around the waist. If it is a bracelet (Fig. The last chief figure on the right (13) with Eros (14) beyond must. there cannot be a doubt. Fig. that this snake was thought of as alive or at least as significant of Athena. . and the great gold and ivory statue in the interior of the temple had. and the goddess next to him (12) is probably Artemis. — Frieze Sculpture and Joints. and it holds her a. in the following order: Stuart. S> Hera. 6. but the staff may serve to indicate the lame god.gis under her left hand. her. besides the snakes of the aegis. from her close association with Aphrodite. is said that she that can all be . Visconti : 3. and This slim. Poseidon. the most important name which remains. The bearded god in conversation with her (9) is probably Hephaistos. 78). be Aphrodite. I think. 82.

9/ first to name the six principal figures correctly Hermes. Robert was the first who named the whole assembly correctly. On this point we must take into consideration the difference between one man working alone even though it be Michael Angelo. and were all works of the same school. can properly be assigned to Phidias at all. . 13 . * The new British Museum S. 12 Aphrodite. some 50 pedimental figures and horses. on the evidence of style and tradition. . 92 metopes. like Raphael in the Vatican. although no new identifications remained for him to make. Hawkins suggested 8 for Hephaistos. 6. t Furtwangler. Some English writers would still keep the question open in regard to one or two points. . can. " In certain details of slight importance the assistants may have gone beyond the master's orders [or ^. a few sketches.83still argued about when Furtwangler said a ^ Hand. and Furtwangler will prevail. Demeter 4. The metopes in this respect need hardly to be considered a few words. Michaelis was the first to name the whole of the second group with substantial accuracy. few words which very much settled dispute. The attributions were ^^%. Hera. as is said. Dionysos 3. 7. Overbeck. Reinach has also written to this effect. but I have no doubt that the names assigned by Robert. Catalogue. Zeus." f Again. and 524 feet of frieze. would soon settle all but a dozen or so of them. C. calling 11 Peitho instead of Artemis. ITS SCULPTURES. frieze Pediments. May 1908. 11 Artemis. Eros. on the Sistine and the master of a school.THE PARTHENON AND Leake was the I. The German Gerhard then named lO Apollo. it is said that these " mere architectural — . but in all essentials the design is his very own that dominant personality which governed the frieze and the pediments. be none other than that of Phidias. Ares. ^' have dragged behind them]. and the great traditional technique. metopes. Phidias was chief of a school. 2.* Doubts have been expressed as to how far the immense mass of sculptures. now accepts the identi- fications fully.

chinks of time. and loses his instinctive Fig. he has taken to appear to recede in He has drawn the eyes and nostrils the look of flatness. — Lyre — from Frieze. sense of the proper treatment of a brittle substance.98 sculptures THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. 85." on the marble slabs set together like a long roll of canvas bold brush drawings putting down the forms like a herald and not by " outlines.) The frieze must have been cut from drawings made. " were in antiquity of little account as compared with the temple statues and bronzes of Phidias." with inconceivable rapidity." On the Parthenon frieze the horses are in A Vessel. and by a soft rounding of the flesh surfaces and modulation of the veins." The drawing (and Phidias was a painter) was the For the rest a pattern panel or two struck off by such master's. the rhythm of the lines. the I more I have studied it it. 80. . . have the closest affinity with vase-paint(Fig. not " a work and — : . 86. with dark incision. either small Fig. chisel thought. the horses' legs. The relief is all marble model of a clay model. or big. more see that as a matter of design is than relief painting. " swift as a hawk's flight. The method of composition. " yet by mere drawing you see the sculptor has got them due order. if I may make use of such a term. while the ivory statue and the pediments were in progress. the heraldic pattern less sculpture made by ing. a " stonecutter. some touches and talks All this need only fill the that is all that was required. the rapid sweep of the forms. On the production of the frieze hear Ruskin " A great sculptor uses his tool exactly as a painter his pencil." To speak of models for such work. then did Aristotle in a passage quoted by Visconti call Phidias a wise Why And may we not take this to be an allusion to the sculptures of the Parthenon? stonecutter? As the to the frieze. chisel is beside the point. careful as the finest touch of a painter's away . and you may recognise the decision of his thought and the glow of his temper no less in the workmanship than The sculptor [now] thinks in in the design. clay instead of marble. low relief.




and then, at last, when he comes to the manes he has let hand and chisel with their full force and where a base workman (above all if he had modelled the thing in clay first) would have lost himself in laborious imitation, the Greek has

struck the tresses out with angular

deep driven."



followed from the true method of marble relief that the original sur^^^^ plane is made to take as much










indeed carefully preserved throughout as a fine water-colour painter will preserve the light in his work. The


Incense Burner 87. from the Frieze and from a Vase.

background is found anywhere in the thickness of the material where it is wanted, and does not occur at a constant depth. There are broad passages which are little more than incised on a flat surface.
furthest plane or
(Fig. 81.)

The forms

are, as



seen through a plane, they are not attached to a plane. The system was, as Dr Murray has well expressed it, to " broaden the
nearest plane," but he seems to have regarded
taste not as a

as a choice of



law of fine craftsmanship. this type of section



modelled relief to this other A. One is from a level surface, the other is added on a level surface. Several years ago Dr Waldstein brought into prominence some fragments of small terra-cottas which had on them parts of some of the figures of the assembly of Fig. gods, and put forward the view, although cautiously, that they might have been parts of original models for the frieze. Furtwangler, amongst others, accepted them as at least of ancient work but they are now considered to be taken from a cast made for Choiseul Gouffier about 1787. It happens that the original slab which these terracottas represent has been much injured, and the early plaster





it have been lost. Now the heads and other on the terra-cottas are remarkably good, and it seems to be held that the slabs from which they were taken must then have been far more perfect* I cannot, however, agree with this view, and I see no difficulty in thinking that a skilful modeller

casts taken from

Fig. 89.

— W.

Metopes, No.




working on casts of the slabs as now
their indications,

in the


could, from

make as true a restoration. In Museum Worsleyanum " we are told that this

the text of the
particular slab

was lying on the ground outside the west front in 1786. The slab itself shows that it has been subjected to treatment different
* Collignon.

from the others.
decay, not




The features and forms are destroyed, not by by sudden violence, but by long-continued petty When Pars drew it in 1765 it was already in the state
in at present.
It follows that




the terra-cottas, good as




have no record value. study of the jointing suggests
ideas as to the



While it seems plain that the subject must have been generally settled before the slabs were cut, yet the detailed design certainly follows the slabs, and I cannot doubt that it was drawn on them in place. In regard to the first
point, the slabs of the east front are
Fig. 90.

the production of the

than the rest, the central stone being over 14 feet in length. Although the composition of this front
selves are irregular in size.

W. Metope, from Ebersole.




regular, the slabs



the ends, and also at the ends of

the west frieze, there are narrow panels, and three of

them take

only single

figures, for

which we

suppose they were intended. Each slab on the west front con-



w uu a.u«i,

tains a separate group,

and the size them so perfectly that we must

think that the subjects were settled
before the stones were cut.

That there was revision of design
to suit the jointing

however, even




and several of the heads and legs were clearly

Fig. 91.

W. Metope, from Pars.



spaced so as to avoid the joints, as, indeed, every part which they passed through has been specially considered. (Fig. 82.)

In two or three

cases the divisions cut through a man's head, or a horse's hoof,

but exactly in the middle, and with evident adjustment.


the south side there are generally two and three horses' heads and necks to each slab until the chariots are reached, and then

nine or ten successive slabs are occupied by as






The marble was finished to a polished surface. This is best seen on the slab at the Louvre, which is perfectly lighted. The details are wonderfully true and minute. The hands all seem
separately observed
(Fig. 83.)

the veins, creases, and nails are indicated.

(Fig. 84.)

The sticks on which the magistrates lean are knotted. By comparing two or three slabs, the forms of the
(Fig. 85), vessels (Fig. 86), (Fig. 87)

chariots, lyres

and incense burners How can be made out. one of the latter was carried appears better in Stuart than on the slab at
It has been remarked that the compositions of the pediments have centres of action of which the remoter figures are unconscious, and that between them is a growing movement of interest. In the frieze







standing figures, then rapid movement towards the centres of the long fronts. At the east end the waiting figures are partly unconscious of the procession, and beFirst, there are
is a waking of group of gods, again, we have the interest of some

tween them and



engaged, while the inner ones are as yet unconcerned. In the frieze W. Metopes, there are nearly 200 horses in all Figs. 92 and 93. 4 and 8 from Pars. varieties of action, which are observed with the keenness of sight of a Japanese, and set down without " the smallest symptom of constraint for no less attention has been paid to the beautiful realities of life than to ideal beauty." *



None but " the horse-loving Greeks " could have carried through such a work. The mere following and keeping account of the number and directions of the men's and horses' legs is
* Dodwell.

set The metopes were 92 panels. " Museum Marbles. as may be seen in Plate XXL. in the Museum. Many of those once at the middle of the north flank are entirely lost. but BeuM long ago suggested that the subject was a battle of Greeks and Persians. 94 and Metopes. Of man on the north side he says: "We see how possible it difficulty . 9 from Pars. The given which recalls the very troop of horse seems to go by with a clatter. the last horseis to get into the man's leg ought to have been visible across the belly of his horse. approximately 4 feet square.THE PARTHENON AND bewildering* effect of the ITS SCULPTURES. Those which still remain on the building are much decayed. 14 at each end. and. It : * Dr Murray has found some faults in regard to this. above the stone beam of the outer order. Figs. 95. figures. There are fifteen originals from the south side." But on the marble the rider's leg is plainly to be traced. and Leake described them cautiously in a way that would admit of this interpretation. indeed. and These sculptures are relief. so that an illusion march of cavalry. and about as many on the south side are only known through Carrey's drawings. The Metopes. but this I . considerable loss last cen- from exposure during the The Western now always Metopes are described as a battle of Greeks and Amazons. and apparently Oriental. and two casts from the north-west corner. II : and He says in and the shield " The long dress of the vanquished in 14 10 are barbaric. there was tury. are omitted. would be hidden in the same position. too." He also complains that some tails is only so where the tails of neighbouring horses are held so high that they. some of the almost detached. — W. in the highest indeed. are 32 at each side. 103 The crossing of the legs at different angles conis fuses the eyes.

13 and from 4 groups were of the usual victory forEbersole. j. curiously the Amazons who ride. They have been recently with Persian shields from Vases. 96. in pairs Fig. The general arrangement of the series put a horseman. In Cockerell's restoration only the last but this inference only to two of the panels.W. 97 and 98. A large number of the figures are certainly is obviously a woman. these metopes did not represent a battle of Greeks and Amazons. does he suggest of any one that it is a woman. which in " Museum Marbles " are skirts. doubtless.iKfc. not one nor. ArchaoL. Journ. indeed. is probable that the whole front related to the warlike exploits of the Athenians. »j-^^oigift> :>. Metope.I04 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. yet several of the riders were almost nude. mula where a warrior rides down a Surely all this can only be explained by supposing that foe. enough. usually with a fallen antagonist. riors on foot. the others having of war- —W.* He considers that the subject is most probably the Amazonomachia. all the horse topes.. examined from a scaffolding by Mr Ebersole. 1S9S-99. from the fact that the Persian warriors wore applied at said 10 and 14. or nearly so. to represent Greeks and Amazons. : * Am. first figure of all is shown as female. although his detailed description in no way substantiates his opinion. and the wounded antagonists are also Not one rider nude. each alternate panel. . Meof the combat.tjiBj3(iy ivoian^faygj 10 : from Ebersole. seems to have been getting the worst Figs." The idea that the foes were Amazons arose. According to custom it should be men.

105 and the probability is that the foes were Persians. 89. 394). built as it was from the funds subscribed by the Greeks against the common foe. Gardner's " Athens.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. and such a theme was ^appropriate to the Parthenon. 99. the I : from the slightly amongst Greeks. —Amazon : from logue in called Athena's Shield.t a combat on foot (Fig. on the Parthenon itself. found practically copied the tomb-relief of Dexileos(B. fig. the triumph over the Persians should be celebrated tories over the Persians ^'"^ -^ / Fig." t Collignon. some further confir- mation of this view. it was retained. — W. but no longer necessary. . Taken in relation to restored. The metope i. by her help. but would not these allusions best be gathered up by a sculptured battle with the Persians themselves ? It was only fitting that.. ii. 100. 3 is a noble group of a mounted 'Greek and a fallen Persian. A.* Yes. the subject of the pediment above. I have found. of which Pars gives a valuable drawing 2 is * E. 90).) It is an Amazon with a ?). these metopes suggested how. in some drawings of these metopes. by the north corner. Professor Gardner has remarked generally of the sculptures: "By their choice of all these subjects there is little doubt that the Athenians intended to depict to the glory of their goddess the mythical prototypes of their own vic- which were still fresh in their memory. which showed how Athena took charge of the land.C. when they were in much better condition. at Metope. is a magnificent Greek horseman (in the Museum CataFig. made by Pars in 1765. the acts of the Cast Museum. (Fig. as on the Temple of Nike.

of which Pars also has a drawing (Fig. Pars gives a sketch of this. but there is no doubt that 6 . and am confirmed in the . again. the action. like 3." 1 1 is a horseman facing to the left and a fallen foe. 96). 3 ITS SCULPTURES. (Fig. 8. Since getting so far I have examined the two casts of the metopes against the north-west angle. and 9 formed a strong centre. com- bat on foot. Mr Ebersole mistakes. and thus as the next. 95. and 8 are very decayed. all having horse-groups. in supposing that the arms of the fallen foe followed around the rim of the Greek's shield. Beul^ properly described it as a Persian on his knees before an Athenian.) This composition is found repeated again and again on the Phigalean frieze. 7. he decided that there could not have been a horse. (Fig. Fig. even when he drew it. 7.) If 7. (Fig. the reason for reversing 11 becomes apparent. very like 3 6. 93. .io6 THE PARTHENON AND "West front. but enough remains to show that it followed 2. 92) 5. 13 is. and Mr Ebersole's photo- graph shows the Persian " perme. and on the vases. as it formed a pendant to 5. which show that 8 did contain a rider and fallen foe. Mr Ebersole thinks that there was alternation between rider and foot groups throughout. 91) inscribed from northern end" 4. . 14 is a combat on foot. I think. 10 is a combat on foot (Fig. and he suggested two warriors and a rock in the middle. (Fig.) 12 is nearly effaced. — Greeks and Persians : from Nike Temple. had a fo"ot combat. much defaced. contained a rider. The hands really caught at the arm of the Greek just above his own head. loi. Of this one Leake remarked that the shield seems to be Persian. 98. This does not agree with the evidence of Pars' sketches. although the subject of 8 could not be made out. although the subject was. and the scheme from 4 to 12 becomes a balanced composition. Pars has a drawing of it.

Parthenon marbles Amazons. 99. as Persians — being represented on these S. seated on the rock. 102.) . Centaur Battle. bony and muscular forms and strong hand and foot show that it is a man. clothed in a beautiful fleecy chiton. metopes is offered sculptures of the by the Temple of Nike. It is a magnificent sculpture. Metope . 'tis Fig. Both shoulders were covered. for she is here unarmed." over frieze the beloved Compare she is the Athena of the of the Theseum. The girl who quickly advances from the left is clearly a messenger. must (Fig. 11 1. still A further to con- firmation Fig. Metope : Centaur Battle.and with arm upraised as if it held a spear. where several of the groups figuring combats of Greeks and Persians obviously follow the western metopes and furnish the closest parallel with them that can be found.) how the sculptor (Fig.) We know shield from from Athena's the of and copy of the Amazon of Phidias the represents 100. where also watching a battle from her rock. In the last panel of the north side the majestic figure.THE PARTHENON AND view ITS SCULPTURES. The other hand may have held her helmet. (Fig. — S. 107 set out above. "in peaceful possession. The of the west front is certainly no Amazon .) be Athena. and the dress is the ordinary short men's tunic and a mantle flying from the shoulder. (Fig. 103. and the pity it cannot be rider i better seen. loi. tranquilly watching city.

) Bronsted long ago suggested a similar reading of the central group. as already said. which also at the Parthenon. are attacked by a Centaur. in fact. who is himself attacked by a Greek (Theseus ?). 104. was an attack on in — S. formed a continuation of the Centaur battle. T-ni^wnrmt-nnM iyiiii. the chief incident of which Fig. the mythical founder of : the Panathenaic procession. The panel. gallops up to the rescue. " The nine intervening metopes have been ingeniously interpreted as relating to the story of Erichthonios. The sculptures of the third group. It furnishes. which is the last of these or y • . belong to the Centaur series. and we derives much admittedly from the . w-. Two women.) the Centaurs. it seems to me. with Apollo in her stag-drawn chariot. 103. The southern metopes were thus divided up into groups of 12:8:12. while in the centre there its end one is is a separate group of eight or nine. . The panel at the Parthenon must. Metope : Centaur Battle. These seem to relate to In the Museum Catalogue we read the early legends of Athens. Museum. conthe first tains side of two women on an archaic either statue. A frieze from Bassae. most part contain sculpwith tures of the legendary combat of Theseus and the Lapiths The first twelve and the last (Figs. On either hand. two it Pernice reads this subject as maidens adorning the Xoanon of Athena. gives a prominent place to a similar episode. are two panels of Centaurs carrying away women.io8 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. in this case Artemis. while a goddess.uKA of the twelve which form the third group. who have taken sanctuary at a sacred image. The Southern Metopes for the eleven or twelve deal with this subject. 1895. women." (See Pernice. 104. according as read to go with one or the other series. 102. and makes the last of the central set. the episode around which the action develops. while further towards the angles there are no women. and must be the first of a second group of twelve. in the separated groups.

37." No. been re-examined since Michaelis published his unsatisfactory representations. 50. and thus was the story brought into relation with the goddess. it may be called the Palladium formula. the door to the inner palace the chief episode tearing in.t far as I know. is again in question on the Fig. stately Lansdowne grave slab. so * " Athens. Similar subjects often occur on vases.-Greek and AmaParthenon must represent the bride zon from a Vase. On 19 was a woman's figure which looks like one of the " maidens " of the Erechtheum. and a figure in 20 looks as if it might have been the original of the beautiful been of great beauty. 106. The Eastern Metopes have not. but the result of the intervention of the goddess for those who appealed to her image. . Leake I and Cockerell had assigned meanings to some of the panels which are concerned with the deeds of the gods.. J Leake's description is full and valuable if it is independent of the Elgin drawing mentioned below." fig. . : down The panel while in Ovid the of the altar also comes notes of the compositions of the group given by Carrey are enough to show that they must have central The Fig.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. and especially of Athena Petersen and Robert have . and what followed. — Mercury and Argos : from a Vase. The subject is in general terms different colour to distinguish may — sacrilege or violation of hospitality. and her mother appealing to an image of Athena. t " Burlington Club Catalogue. The best version of the subject which occurs on a vase * here is figured by Miss Harrison the struggle at the domestic altar by . 105. The subject of the end groups would not have been a mere struggle between Lapiths and Centaurs. 109 suppose that the central series had a background of a it from the rest.

(Fig. Although there must be a good deal of conjecture in these reFig. No. Athena driving winged No. was another figure. Apollo. * If . or old. as figured by Laborde and Michaelis. 6. No. 7 looks as if it might be Athena and Pegasus. Heracles. 106. Metopes. to have had a Hercules. no subject would probably suit so well as one on a vase published in the Hellenic Journal for 1889. Athena. at least there is a panther on it.* E. is in the attitude of the man restraining a bull on the frieze. they were based on careful observation. Metopes. fact can bring forward is that Cockerell's scheme is taken over from the restoration I made by Lord Elgin's drawing at the Museum artist on a large made about 1801.) as on a vase at Oxford. and may well be Hercules and Apollo As restored on the Elgin drawings struggling for the tripod.) Hermes and Argos are sometimes so represented. so it is in great part an assumption. gods on the frieze within. Zeus. • attacking a ' from these indications and divergencies we might assume that a bull man was being held back. No. Artemis. sought to identify all the subjects. No. Hera. Dionysos. 12 stored panels. The only new. 9 seems horses appears on the Cnidos Treasury at series in THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. : . No. 2 does appear to represent Dionysos. 1 08. Ares. 105. i has two struggling figures. and the latter proposes a which the gods occur in the following order Hermes. one of whom cowers beneath the Designs of this type are so frequent that no interpretavictor. probably made from a scaffold. 107. while the four chariots belong to as many and Poseidon He bases this reading largely on the order of the of the gods. 14. of the east front tion can be certain. where Athena is rescuing Theseus from a bull. (See Fig. No. and give data when the panels were in a much better state than when the drawings published by Michaelis were made. but prostrate in front according to the Elgin drawing there Fig.

No. Nos. on the Michaelis. angle. seen in relation to the first on the north. Metopes. Ill almost exactly like this scene as represented on early and it occurred in the pediment of the Delphi Treasury. which figured a scene at the fall of Troy. Fig. which also appear in and to the left is a water bird which is only a shapeless form in the drawing of the latter. that it Michaelis. last. Fig. Both of these points are omitted in " Museum Marbles. decayed. 14 represented a chariot rising from the sea. 107. according to the are lost. some small fish are shown. 13). These eastern metopes cannot be profitably discussed until every trace of what actually remains can be brought into comparison with these restorations made more than a century ago. no. 24 and 25. 29. 12 seems to have contained Athena." This seems a direct rendering of the passage in Homer (Iliad. horses over the sea. had the * The composition of 2 and 12 may be compared with two Selinus metopes (Collignon). apparently represented on a vase painting.) The Elgin drawing is clearly very accurate in some points. Helen is shown before a sacred image. while dolphins sported beside the chariot. (Fig.* Fig. 108. while Aphrodite sends Eros towards Menelaus. The Northern Metopes are so greatly would seem hopegood fortune to find the subject of two which adjoin. is vases. — Metopes at N. .THE PARTHENON AND it ITS SCULPTURES. (Fig.E. which can be tested. 109. where Poseidon drives his swift flying gold-maned Thus. 109 shows the last metope on the east.) No. and so less to many of them make anything of them. however. N. No. who.

this clue it is easy to suggest that 29 must be a from Troy." 1903). . : — . N. This interpretaParthenon Sculptures. On a vase in the Museum * we have Menelaus and Helen again. Ajax and Cassandra. He proposed a battle of Centaurs for this side too. (" tion Dr Murray would not accept Fig. killing his wife. III. 32 Slightly restored from Drawing in Elgin Collection. No. and Dr Robert. comparing it with the description of the painting by Polygnotos of the fall of Tro)-. The figure from the vase which Michaelis gave seems to me entirely convincing." But the subject suggested was not a Troy battle. remarking that " there were too many women about for the Troy war.112 Story. and other similar groups. 278. reads it as representing two Trojans who were escaping on one horse With fugitive * F. Metopes. THE PARTHENON AND was thus restrained from ITS SCULPTURES. but incidents after taking the city.

. to her.) Compare the vase figured by Reinach. (Fig.) Compare this beautiful —Athena on the Acropolis : from a Vase at the British Museum. : whose like 29. runs (Fig. 113. 112. "3 war. in. tains a chariot apparently woman.* It was the last act of come here. No. one of whom is on a falling horse singularly Fig. ^ which again shows a Greek attacking two Trojans. Possibly this may be Athena setting off to witness the fall of Troy. and so would appropriately of the two riders by Neoptolemus. The last metope. I do not feel sure on one horse. has a dignified woman's figure sitting on a rock. % || 1905. § i. 411. encounters two Trojans.t where a Greek. as shown by Michaelis. called by him I Achilles. while a messenger up Fig. first action that is on all metope The panel of side on the north driven by a 109. it is rendered clearly on Lucas' model at the Museum made before 1845. Plate 13. 32. ctorious Athena from a Vase. CoUignon. with the I give panel at Olympia of Athena seated on the Acropolis. and Fraser's "Pausanias. whom figured RFrTO<:H rode a horse which has have found a similar group on a vase in the Berlin Jahrhuch of Archaeology. i.) con(Fig. one of fallen. no. of in the Museum. fig. 223. Pedestal . but of the action of the falling horse there seems to be no doubt." t Repertoire. 7.THE PARTHENON AND when they were killed ITS SCULPTURES. which we fortunately have an old cast panel. § in the Museum where she sits apart also a sketch from a vase || * "Die Iliupersis des Polygnot" (1893).

as indicated by an olive tree and a pillar. seems to have been opposed to an enemy. They are. and that those on the north. who never •^^»>fc^ X Fig. while the less seen south side celebrated the primitive legendary battle of Athenians and Centaurs. Before seeing this. The Pediments. which I find that Sauer has restored as holding her helmet in her hand. (See Fig. which were passed in reaching the entrance. the noblest images wrought in all time. almost seems to be drawn from the Athena of the eastern frieze.114 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES.) The messenger on this metope resembles a figure on the Theseum. then the warrior on No. . i west. on the Acropolis. 1 12. from the last of the series representing the Labours of Hercules. Y — W. . Pediment to : and Suggestion as from Carrey's sketch Right-hand Group. from a vase. I had come to the conclusion that this was probably the action of the Athena of the Parthenon metope. " She has laid aside her helmet. the pediments are Most of the surviving sculptures of those which once filled now in the British Museum. by common admission. and rests triumphant at the conclusion of the war. on the vase. 113. to bring out the result that the western metopes which were first seen on approaching the temple were a memorial of the victory over the Persians. If we accept it that the last metope on the north represents the rock of the Acropolis. Those of the east were the deeds of the gods themselves." (Fig. watching from afar the fall of Troy. may be supposed to be riding out from Athens to join the battle. Compare also the figure of Athena seated on a rock watching a battle on the frieze of the Theseum. It is worth some tiresome concern with minute points. 114. recalled the War of Troy.) The figure itself.

are creatures proper to temples born in marble. they forms. They make me feel that fate is neither cruel nor kind. the great. Valuable data in regard to the now lost figures are contained in some careful drawings made about 1674. where he says that the Birth of Athena occupied the eastern front. Fig. Pediment in 1749 : from Dalton's Sketch. only the inexorable law fulfilling itself. II5 and sweet. the western. lovely. as majestic as mountains. 115. Other details have been filled a minute examination of the remnants and pediments themselves. all know that the figures are wonderful. " Those three serene. in extraordinarily beautiful curves the bare shoulder of one of the Fates. the big folds of skirts and mantles." — The general meaning of the compositions in the pediments are known from a few lines of Pausanias. and that the Dispute of Athena and Poseidon for supremacy in the land of Attica. and usually called Caney's drawings. To examine them from steps is We a revelation. They are not mere statues. but it is only necessary to see them from some unaccustomed point of view to feel it again as a fresh surprise. and most masterful and energetic in handiwork. and some further light may marks on the made known by . — W. beautiful figures The Fates are Fates they must be have the quietude of fate. great yet graceful they are and in design. yet almost flowing. They fill the background of my mind constantly and wonderfully with their passionless power. the startled horses of the Sun. the muscular back and shoulders of the Theseus.THE PARTHENON AND They are at once severe large in absolute scale ITS SCULPTURES. the variety of texture and fold in the draperies of the goddesses. the dainty buttoning of the sleeve. restful and the resistless energy of the cutting are all wonderful and Most wonderful of all is the great spirit which fills out and transcends the forms. but simple in conception. . the perfect pose of the Ilissus. the soft rounded arms of the Demeter and the Wife of Cecrops strong.

stood Athena and Poseidon. the recognised symbol of the sea. truth is evident in every touch. is just published. and Pars. where the — Hercules Relief rendered with : much Paris.) In the middle of the western pediment. and off a fish is shown under the which bears Europa. May 1908. by a comparison of model the statues in the with the the 1844. especially through Carrey's drawing (Fig. in energetic attitudes of protest and surprise. Museum made by about are feeling facts sculptor Lucas. and fidelity. as it is the first seen and more is known of it. It is usual to describe first the western gable of the Parthenon. and the place they occupied. proves to be Omont. probably a dolphin. The heads of the right-hand pair. relation of the two works is not settled. Other drawings by Dalton. Right and left of this pair were their chariots. includ- ing reproductions of Carrey's drawings. its one has got accustomed to style. 116. are helpful and analogy with vase paintings and marble reliefs has re(Fig. and in the excellent Museum its Guide. which. Useful collecin tions of illustrations.) flected a light on the design. Under Poseidon's chariot both Carrey and Dalton show a fish. but undoubtedly one of them derived much from the other. Fig. 115. * On a vase in the often Museum Poseidon and bull Ampliitrite carry dolphins. Between them was probably seen the olive tree which she had just called into existence. were identified by Sauer. be gained by comparison with the lately discovered sculptures of Olympia. and. with rearing. 1749. have much in common The as compositions with the pediments of the Parthenon. are contained Dr Murray's volume. under peak. An subject think.ii6 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. 114). frightened horses. best published by This drawing. introduction is to the I best gained. although they are more archaic in style. (The last edition. 1765. . notwithstanding a quality repellant. 1903. .* Behind the chariots on each side were groups of spectators. in some degree after remarkably trustworthy.

117. in the angles were reclining figures. 1 14. in his restoration. Cockerell. and on the on the broad grounds of the architectural balance of the lines and it seems to me that quantities in both halves of the pediment. ." hardly a doubt would remain. as if the intention had been to cover up Leake accepted both the the whole field of the pediment. — E. If they corresponded. of interpretation.* Fig. Pediment: Horses of the Sun. Fig. The evidence given by the marks on the pediment as to the two gaps is not conclusive. More lately still. ITS SCULPTURES. -figure The question needs to be approached apart right. a figure should be assumed on the right side. but they did not. on the Throughout is left a nude male. yet balance is maintained. rejected the one * He speaks of them as "corresponding gaps. Dr Murray rejected that figures were called for in both places. Schwerzek has again rejected the both. I IJ The figures nearer the chariots were mostly seated.THE PARTHENON AND amongst whom were children. on the right a draped female. Sauer put a figure on the left but Furtwangler argued from the same traces not on the right. which are apt to bias the judgment. from theories The figure on the left is now generally accepted.) series of figures. On either hand Carrey's drawing shows a space which seems to interrupt the (x and y. proposed figures. variety of incident. even overlapping one another. •of With the exception these spaces the figures are set close together.

Pediment B and left. right. corresponds with that postulated on the right. figures. which centre line and the angle. on the right. and the two their proper positions on the as — . But the actual figure since found shows that its leg was gathered close on the under the body. if there had been no such figure in the space it should. on the left. it would seem that there must have been a pair of reclining and crouching figures in each remote angle that there must then have been a pair of seated reversed.Il8 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. fig. Again. were then traced from measured from both the The figure C. 118. 114. — E. I this compactness calls for a figure closely by comparing the known and left of the pediment. the figures v and w. fits exactly where Surely. so as to partly fill up the gap. the two known figures next the angle would have been spread a little towards the centre. The tracing paper was have tried to test the question Fig. were traced in their proper situation from Sauer's Survey. but spread the leg of the next figure beyond the space on the right. and adjoining. C. reasoning from the balance of the composition. : Dionysos. In the position of figures on the right diagram.

it are similarly reclining figures. while there were ten on the left. nearing the group made up of a woman. 7. seems to me. 9. a figures on each side on either side. Altogether. 10. — E. Accepting the empty space on the right. Then there is a similar woman's figure on each male figure. 10. 8. 119. have fallen out. 8. The nude figure on the left side surely must have been a pendant to the other on the right. 4. Pediment left : Demeter and Persephone. and on the side. Or. I. there would seem to have been balance. 2. is an important is right a space. represent thus 6. 115). then came the chariot groups. II9 centre. ITS SCULPTURES. and finally. and a second woman followed. Beyond these a figure Fig. we may see that the falling of blocks of the pediment probably destroyed figures on both the right and the left . 6. and (3) on the right.THE PARTHENON AND and rising . From Dalton's drawing of 1749 (Fig. we may 9. reckoning inversely from the centre. a nude figure. there would be only nine figures on that side. that : there must have been a series which I. 5. — X. 5. and so of the next figure it rests on. on both sides. and on the a space . 7. Y. 4. Then. on the left. of which (2) on the left. 3. on the right. point by point. the floor of the pediment is also broken K .

that they were only emblems too small to count amongst on the other the figures hand. from Dalton's drawing. . — E. had two nude children associated with her. Schwerzek has minimised the importance of the left nude figure. Clearly this was a point of weakness. we know that the figure 4. is complicated by the fact that the great woman's next behind the right chariot. had fallen before he made his drawing. but other difficulties spring up regarding such a solution. but I incline to the view that the evidence points to there having been figures in both the gaps shown figure in Carrey's drawings. Taking this view. Pediment : " Iris' (Ilithyia?). having found anything which I can consider a proof. has been described as having belonged to the east although many writers have raised objections." so named because it the mortice- the shoulders. bodies of the nude figures must have been most important points in the composition. away at these points. The question figure. The holes in of " Victory. feel that the gleaming I . it may be held that these two compensated for one larger figure on the left. Further. It may be claimed. 1 must leave this question without Fig. and we should naturally expect on the tedious left that one balanced one on the right.I20 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. and with this view I am disposed to agree. next to the right hand gap. 120. showed that had had wings. The reasons advanced in the last edition of the Museum usually pediment.

Cranaus and Erechtheus. Cecrops and the women between him and the chariot. seems to me the most consistent and dramatic. to the prodigy. Both produce their tokens of power." As he accepted and who bore witness may . his daughters. and it is now admitted that the figure is that represented on Carrey's sketch. according to another version. seeing the Victory difficulty. who conjectured that the figure near the car of the goddess might be Cecrops. It is this last form of the story which Phidias had represented. the side figures represent the witprimitive dwellers on the Acropolis." Leake. Furtwangler." 30). and both are standing as nearly as possible on the same spot. the figure was found under the west a Victory. so Poseidon had Iris. were present. " Cecrops testified that he had seen the olive planted by Athena. and both draw back. and he gave instances of this parallelism between Iris and Hermes. " the native hero of the Athenians. that according to the letters of Lord Elgin's agents. be found to have been the observer who made the most identifications of the whole mass of Parthenon sculptures. rightly applied this theory. According to Furtwangler. . November 1907. as front.* However. not only Cecrops but his successors. shows that this theory has entirely broken down. Difficulty of is interpretation arises in respect to the side figures. which accepts and restores figures in both the gaps of the pediment. Both gods claim the same land. close by Poseidon's charioteer. t late Discord is I know Iris is is not winged (Furtwangler's That the figure probably allowed in the last edition of the Museum Catalogue. is —the The germ of this theory already found in Visconti. In the Hellenic Journal. and Discord is proposed.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. as Athena had Hermes for a supporter. it It is suggested that the figure cannot be on the side of Poseidon." he writes. He named the man's figure next to the left hand gap. that. " According to one version of the fable. * The only " Vases. extended and. as it was done nesses in the sight of men. had said. Dr Cecil Smith writes.f The interpretation of the scheme of the sculptures by Furtwangler. the spectators of the main action. whom they revered as a god. after all. to a large degree. who. 121 Catalogue.

* We Fig. the Cecrops and family theus. come now to the angle figures. 121. the — E. is very much a traditional copy of it — — * This nude figure has been discussed. ErechWith the exception of this. When we find that Pausanias described Olympia as being bounded by two rivers. starting from the Cecrops identification. there seems to be little room for doubt. One of the daughters of Erechtheus has a nude figure on her lap. Pediment : A Fate. . for the identification instance. would make both the right and the left hand groups " the original dwellers on the citadel rock who witnessed the visit of the two deities.'' the two forming a group like another." Bauer claims to have identified parts of it. identification is now generally accepted. further. so on the other were Erechtheus and his daughters he having occu. pied the position of the right hand gap on Carrey's drawing. " her son Ion. we note how later rivergod statues have followed this type the "Nile" (at Rome). Ilissos or another. father of the lonians. and that it was a male figure. and next to the car of Athena (now Hermes). Guide rather overstates that it was most Ukely female. and who Visconti's suggestions as to the figures pediment — Latona —he named first instituted it their worship. which has been found from the frieze of the Erechtheum. left one of which to the has usually been taken for one of the pediments at a river-god. and the present British Museum scheme is practically that of Leake. on the right half of the the statue on the left half." the chariot on one side were Cecrops and his family. The new B.M.122 THE PARTHENON AND and the rest ITS SCULPTURES. see Miss Harrison's "Athens. the and is they who have best right to be represented As behind here as witnesses. Furtwangler. and when.

has been more irrecoverably destroyed in regard to the central statues than that of the western pediment. the token of which was the sacred olive tree. but it is the story of the Acropolis itself. 1 23 only doubt had been in regard to the angle. and she the fountain Callirrhoe. group of spectators might reasonably be taken " as nymphs or such like on the coasts of Attica " is not convincing. with spectators accidentally drawn together. 116. 122. the reply of Dr Murray that the whole right hand calling is ." The subject which filled the eastern pediment. although the most perfect of all the remaining figures come from the angles . the birth of Athena. Fig. of the Fathers of the people and of the covenant Athena made with them. Pediment : Other Two Fates. This difference between the two angle figures prevents our figures at the right My hand and "a river-god and fountain nymph" Furtwangler takes them to represent That such reclining figures need not represent Rivers is shown by Fig. which seems to be founded on the Parthenon statue. where the outer figure is a female turning back and conversing with a male. The strength of Furtwangler's interpretation is that the sculptures do not according to it represent the strife of Athena and Poseidon as a mere episode. " Phidias gave form to that which was in the heart of every Athenian. — E. ITS SCULPTURES.THE PARTHENON AND seems complete. them "river-gods" perhaps over elaborate. Taking Furtwangler's scheme altogether. other primitive spectators. He is said to represent a river.

sure.124 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. and the three and four next figures on either hand. The three colossal figures on the right were called the Fates by Visconti a century ago.. however. Sauer. This. . with Sauer's careful examination of the pediment that at the left of the centre in front seem to and show was Zeus. Intermezzi. who follow the rising Sun. of this composition." + Berlin Arch. 121. made various About the is objeclatest theory that of Studniczka. it is allowed. 117.) These last. for the three figures on the left. certain reliefs. in this pediment. Dione and Aphrodite. The comparison. which has been accepted and reinforced by Furtwangler. are in the Museum. ' (Fig. we may be would be held by Visconti to be a striking proof of the truth of his ascription. and Demeter.. 123. xix. 1904. according to him. Inst. and whom Furtwangler called — — — Two of the "Fates" Kephalos and the Horae. and others have tions.) their emblems (Figs.f who. Pediment to which. starting from the assembly of gods of the eastern Fig. as we have frieze Selene's Horse. derived from the pediment. itself. E. enthroned in profile. and Furtwangler suggests that the Medici At the two torso represents the goddess of this pediment* extremities were the rising Sun and the setting Moon. and the relief at Madrid of him Athena. Persephone. (Fig. Dionysos. to be the Fates. seen. also has which are figures three shown by 122. which. 122) are. Robert had already related the sequence of the acts of the gods in the eastern metopes considers that the twelve great gods were represented He also goes back to the old ascriptions.

124. agree in having goddess who attends at births (Fig. The existing noble triad of goddesses to the right should be the Fates. Poseidon. which is represented now authority for the pedimental best starting point for the interpretation of the sculptures of the eastern gable would seem to be other reprefigures. Hermes. Ares. On the marble and one vase appear the three Fates. Hephaistos. . Reinach.THE PARTHENON AND It ITS SCULPTURES. the . Demeter. facing to the right Zeus must have been enthroned to the left of the centre next to him must have been Athena and . except the marble. except the marble. still more important. Phidias might cast it into a but he might hardly vary outside a limited range. Hephaistos. the left must be Dionysos. The (Fig. in his " Repertoire " This moment when Athena of and it probably not only represents the Parthenon form of the story but derives from it. writing about 1850. and another. reclining 118. All versions agree in having Zeus seated facing to the right last selects the full stature con- fronts Zeus. gives eight versions. have several gods attendant on the scene ^ApoUo. 119. 124) one vase has her only besides Zeus and Athena. in the Museum. generally accepted as an The sentations of the birth scene. Rome This similar pair of figures the left hand part of the was a remarkable intuition. The pair to the left should be Demeter and (probably) Persephone. all. are earlier than the Parthenon." suggested that a relief of Zeus and Hephaistos at group. — Fig. is on the just-mentioned marble relief at Madrid. for a are on the larger relief at Madrid. We gather from Ilithyia present. 125 may "Classical central be recalled that Falkener. The existing figures may be conjectured to be anything. — Zeus . 1899. but the evidence should compel us to take the identifications which agree best with the tradition. for Athena was a great most of the vases Vase at the British Museutn. and a Ilithyia from this that the birth of traditional subject. as many (Fig. as proposed by Visconti. of painted vases. Hera.) god still further to He jni£-/i£ he Theseus.) have thought. Dionysos. Most. classical form.

but it the one most supported by evidence. accessories. Dr this it Suggested Interpretation. is youthful. and Fig. The motive would be she is that startled at the flies extraordinary birth. (Fig. by analogy with other figures. and to this view I incline. 125. This figure on the vase. and should be so called. If not Ilithyia.) On the latest of the is vases referred to she in figured a way which this closely re(Fig. and also by comparison of them with other works which deal with similar subjects. like Hebe. The attitude is repeated by the Demeter as on the frieze. and character when they were complete. but the Dionysos of the Kertsch vase is also shod. but for the present be known as Dionysos. plates). 5. like that of the pediment. should. Murray. H. or the coin of Pandosia). The figure comes over He comes next to the exploit of that god in the metope. It is by minute observations on the separate figures. attendant on Hera. we are to rest on evidence he must 120. it can hardly be any other than Ilithyia. This is the method of " restorato derive in . but if she is to be regarded as one of the chief actors. if Hercules. Kephalos. sembles 124. vol.126 THE PARTHENON AND Pan {cf. ITS SCULPTURES. The frightened girl near the centre may be a subordinate figure. withdrew later.) statue. possibly a messenger to Athens. on a relief from Furtwangler the Piraeus and on a vase (/.. claims that it should be Kephalos. who proposed identification. be a Nereid. or seem some degree from the sculptures. that we can most fully enter into their meaning. because it was shod. — Seat of Demeter and it is from the scene. Dionysos of the monument of Lysicrates. 25. Restorations. made with the object of discovering their gestures.

Dionysos ("Theseus") is the only figure which still its head. on which. ." the flaps at the side of the jaw (Fig. figures. 1903.THE PARTHENON AND experts. others. and photographs of works which are at all germane. There is a roughly cut indentation across the back of it above the neck. part of a scarf which evidently passed — Seat of Cnidus Demeter. is On the back of the statue of Selene Fig. the entire chariots. and Sauer's " Theseum. under the impulse of taste and eloquence. The Helios and Selene of the pediment seem to have inspired a vase painting. ready to hand. p. 373. which at present is a little empty. retains . and . . which Dr Murray thought indicated plaited hair but to me it rather suggests that a metal wreath had been adjusted there. A pin-hole above the ankle suggests that the feet were shod with bronze. over her shoulders and helped to support her extended arms a point of technical design which will again be referred to. Even the observations which have been made are not fully scheduled. is most life-giving. copies. The idea this painting gives of the action of the groups. often unrestrained by facts discovered a century or more ago by Visconti.* and not merely segments of I. Leake. might be made the best possible centre for Phidian research. however.f II. and horses are shown. this should be a panther. which is frequently brought up to date is quite perfect for a work of so small a compass but the Parthenon room itself. The excellent British Museum Guide to the Marbles. The figure reclines on the skin of a panther or lion. and theories of interpretation blow here and there. 126. 127 tion" which has been used so suggestively by many foreign For this purpose we want the fullest possible apparatus of casts. and the accessories such as reins. east them. * Figured in Revue t Do ArMoL. ITS SCULPTURES. The modelling of the forearm shows that the hand was turned inwards toward the shoulder and probably held the shaft of a spear or thyrsus. 103) indicate a Hen's skin ? If so.

— Section It is very skilfully supported by a ^- of Drapery over Letr of Demeter. C. (Figs. A learned German has claimed sit on closed boxes.* I IV.) . but. u. however." of which they are but copies with differences. a bead covering the flush joint was attached. plate n. may be 1^ fig. might not be a hinge. directly or indirectly.^ The first looked back toward the * Cf. 120. it at first seems general lines.128 III. the). where the fundamental idea is the same. had heads on the first and third figures. The moulding at the back." . What makes this certain is the similar design of several figures from the Nereid monument from the extended Xanthus. \. from the " Iris.would have been commonly used as seats. The Fates. t These had probably disappeared by 1750. as Pococke speaks of the right-hand group as " only three broken figures. 125 and 126 A is from the marble.u Auttermg portion of the upper tunic. 1899. a'^^^ . when Carrey's drawing was made. the least interesting figure of the pediment. But on comparing their seats with that on which the Demeter of Cnidus rests. 128. They were in much the same state as at when Carrey drew them. as it must be allowed the seats are very like the In any case. B is a suggested interpretation. the tomb furniture. and which must derive. 127. (Figs. as the top of the stool was not allowed to project at the back. almost complete. chests which appear on vases. and with others. but close study reveals extraordinary beauties in the design and adjustments of the figure. do not feel certain of this. and need have no special significance. thyia?) The figure usually called Iris (Ili- completely restored as to its As it stands. except for their heads. present that they The Demeterand Persephone are. it seems possible that these seats were meant for stools framed with uprights and rails of wood. Against the back is a slab-like area of what was clearly a mantle flying free from the figure. represented on reliefs. The extremities were obviously supported by arms. which projects between the body and the mantle.) V. r ^. THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. Ephemeris.

of Figure (Ilithyia down the back. by Alkamenes. of course. was bent towards the right shoulder. but in any case the after-confirmation of Carrey's sketch forms left good proof On the shoulder the mantle passes under the reclining head of the third figure it falls . . and is gathered in big folds across the right thigh and over the lap.* In some respects it appears as if one of the Fates had risen erect. Pediment : Restoration ?). Working small point of restorawith certainty in regard to the middle figure. and that an interesting one. 128. Of one * See Fig. characteristic detail the fluted selvage to the garment which appears on the frieze. that the slight indication of the under side of the mantle has been ob- served before. according to : Carrey's drawing. From the indications the accompanying restoration was made (Fig. The Louvre Venus is is distinctly of Phidian type . After J had made my restoration. the pupil of Phidias." It may be. This could only mean that it was supported by the right hand bent over near the shoulder. as if the action had been that of drawing up the edge of the mantle from behind the shoulder with the right hand.THE PARTHENON AND tion can be ITS SCULPTURES. — E. pediment sculptures and on the Reinach assigns it to Kallimachos. follows it so closely that the derivation must be direct. from the marbles. I found a parallel treatment of this action. I found the following " The right arm. which has been identified by Furtwangler as a copy of the Venus in the Gardens. and afterwards. turning to the Museum Catalogue. Fig. A statue in the Louvre. I observed that over the right A made out shoulder there is a tiny remnant of the under side of a piece of the mantle which rose above it. 129 centre. 129. the third forward to the Selene. 129).

which was held above the as the Ilissos. appears over the left arm of the "Victory. flying "Iris" sustains the In the of the west pediment the drapery — E. The drapery forms a stay to the otherwise free arm." in Carrey's sketch. and must have passed on to support the other free arm. which Furtwangler * The forearm was evidently extended and the hand caught at the end of left thigh in a bunch.* mantle of the extended " Ilissos " The arms. Other unidentified .fragments in the Museum indicate how large a use was made of these webs of marble. The head (Collignon. "calm and dreaming. was attached to the body at the back. The same action the mantle." above all reminds one of the beautiful Laborde head. No. 331. this figure might be an arm with drapery over it . which falls detached from the arm forms really a supportThe scarf which ing slab. which is certainly a work of Phidias.f A small statuette of Aphrodite. 129. One Pediment : Action of of the Fates. too. detached for the greater part from the body. Venus Collignon remarks that the drapery slipping from the shoulder recalls that of another one of the Fates. figs. t in the The further arm of Museum. and the lifting of the corner of the mantle resembles the gesture of Hera on the frieze. at Berlin. 57 and 58) is indeed so like the Phidian type that the suggestion may be made that it.I30 this THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. turning into «a: what would be drapery was made Similar use of for support frequently < in the pediment against figures. 130 suggests a part completion of one of these. the head. The origin of this movement technically is to be found in constructive necessity. Fig. Fig. is taken over from the statue which inspired the gesture. The far sleeve of the reclining Fate falls the body enough free left to give the otherwise arm great support.

. This. action of the right arm of the is of the three statues shown by Carrey.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. the right hand figure. 27). If this is so. 131 also assigns to Phidias ("Masterpieces. Fig. the feet another. rests with her right arm on the lap of the next figure. and again the mantle is drawn over the right thigh into the lap. An interesting and valuable addition its to the place. This. Altogether a practically complete restored drawing of this group could be made. The chief distinction is that one of the latter reclines much more to fill the angle of the gable. The than the pediment. In drawing a restoration of the last two goddesses from the eastern frieze. I ha\-e observed so many points of resemblance to the two Fates furthest to the right. the drapery was tally. To gile this cause we may attribute many fra- and uncomfortable jutting forms. in the frieze as The left arm in each was extended horizonin the pediment. from which it requires the insight of an Alfred Stevens to abstain. 130. — Restoration of 339-7 Fragment. forms part of the proper constructive tradition for statues by competent stone-cutters. shows a wonderand powerful use of the connecting drapery. Fig. . that I cannot but conclude that the frieze figures are adapted from the great statues. it — Two follows. In its both. 131. VI." fully perfect fig. with the sleeve falling against the body caught up around the right thigh and turned into the lap beneath the figure it falls like a valence. Great confusion has been introduced into the technique of modern sculpture by following Roman copies in marble of bronze originals. of course. The second were crossed over one figure in each had right hand raised against the shoulder. indeed. Between the first and second figures there is at the back room cut away for some object. that the frieze 01 : was done first Selene's Horses later from Indications on the Pediment. Athena of This is the west gable has recently been fitted into the .

132. In the Bronze Room there is an original helmet of this type from Vulci. 132 is sufficient of the Fig. VII. the heads of which have recently been identified. of late work in the Museum. It had a volute above the ear. which Furtwangler has already singled out as of Phidian type. 1.572. has much in with the colossal head. but some holes in the neck suggest that this may have been applied in bronze. The rearing horses of Poseidon. — Athena's Helmet: Restoration. The common head. No. and was in fact the distinctive Attic helmet. On the right of Fig. however. and above a helmet by Scopas. in having no neck-piece. the Dresden head. and it may be completed from the helmet on the head of an Athena at Dresden. neck and the back of the head. It is singular. including a complete ear. approach him so closely that . as restored from these indications. and helmet to indicate its general character.132 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. which is admitted to be a copy of an earlier one.

Thus. The Kertsch vase shows the same motive in representing the scene. 1 33 there can hardly be a doubt that Cockerell was right in making him grasp at their bridles. the " Ilissos. in the catalogue we read " On the ground between the pair is a convex " : mass. which Dr Waldstein supported so lately as 1885.. has yet necessitates the which abandonment of Brunn's Fig. of a serpent to the kneeling figure._w. 1908. " Cecrops. figure led Michaelis to recognise in tion. animated map " idea. rather suggests the type of the earth-born Cecrops."* And Furtwangler says. confirmed by the early drawings made when a part The head must have been turned of the forearm remained. there is a curious rough patch.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. figures and on the right of the head when Carrey made his — The are next two his now usually called Cecrops and wife or daughter. Both seem to have been seated.. Turning to the figure on the extreme left. At the back of the shoulders of the marble fragment of Poseidon in the British Museum. He also draws his legs back to rise. the question is still open . If B and C are Cecrops and one of his daughters. Pediment : Restoration of First Figure. like that shown on the vase ? VIII. him Asclepios. Can a small flying mantle have been attached. was properly conceived as ending " If we adopt * In the new Guide. which has been recognised to be part of the coil of a The association of the serpent with the male large serpent. i33." we can see from a portion of the drapery above the knee that the right arm was outstretched and grasped it at this point. but she with a startled action rises to her knees. : this attribution . the snake-man. always said that by his side is a serpent. The rela- however. regarding the action at the centre figure shown by the corresponding its pediment. weighty yet soft. throwing a magnificent matronly arm. although I know of no proof which been offered. which retained drawing.) IX. It is over his shoulders. (Fig. 133." &c. And this is over the this is left shoulder.

—W. back . It falls. Pediment full in : Cecrop's Tail .) X. The figure on the Kertsch vase. The female I figure at the side of his Cecrops in the pediment which * it is shall call wife. over the beginning of the tail. 136. and makes two turns. from front. 134) with the figure taken from a vase given with it (Fig. . B. which is later. twists under the body. does not pass under the body.134 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. and behind his hand is a tenon-hole where the end . Phidias gave his Cecrops legs. her mature character because she wore some sort of diadem. (Fig. like a skirt. A. Fig. 134.* is also somewhat inadequately From said. See also Miss Harrison. paring my sketch (Fig. but here Phidias represented him merely resting on his snake. below in the form of a snake. and this raises the identifica. and because the third daughter might have been in the gap to the — left of Cecrops. The strong coil continues from the spine. of the Comtail must have been attached in a separate piece. Here he holds a wand or sceptre in his raised hand. and made the tail less grotesquely obtrusive but he is a snake-man. The hand of the figure rests near the tip of the tail. sculptured figure would also have done. tion from which Notice that his drapery. 135). as the is good conjecture to proof rather front. there can be no doubt of the intention." Not so the figure is here undoubtedly a snake-man. has lost his tail entirely.

136. body. It might be — : . and over it an apoptygma. 137.THE PARTHENON AND described — ITS SCULPTURES. The heads of Cecrops and his wife remained intact until about a century ago. which has slipped from the left shoulder. restored.) The opening of the garment under the left arm is extended so to uncover the side. . The group was drawn beautifully by Pars in 1765. except for a piece of the drapery which passed over the shoulder. Over the right thigh a piece of a mantle appears in front this must at the back have passed to the left shoulder and then have formed a support to the extended left arm. like the drapery of the Demeter(?) of the east gable is treated. enlarged careful photographically. basis of a and be made the restored if drawing. See Fig. (Fig. 135. some — Cecrops and Wife Restoration. so that the left shoulder and breast were nude. of the Probably Fig. again it will be done for us." In fact. but entirely undercut and relieved from the body. : educational bodies were ap- proached they would give the help of trained students for If we do not attempt such work ourselves. About 1802 the "head of the Sabina [the name at the moment of the woman's figure] being very mutilated and having On it one fallen [with help I expect] was brought to Fauvel. C and D show its completion above. 138 B is the mantle below. open on the left side down to the girdle. I3S " She wears a long chiton. although even there Fig. and a reproduction of his drawing hangs on the wall. L . she is dressed in a girded chiton. Cethe tunic is not blown clear of the surface of the crops from a Vase. such a purpose. and that this is the thought is proved by a similar detail in the wind-blown garments of one of the Xanthus Nereids. and the edges are turned over as if it were violently blown aside by a wind.

When Carrey made his drawings fourteen figures retained there is their heads. there now a a is only one with head. I reThese heads in the possession of scholars only a hundred years ago have completely disto have been it knocked off four years afterwards.136 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. . The Oxford head. which has been terribly injured since Carrey made his drawing. is in my possession. on which the figure . In Paris which almost certainly came from noble the female head Parthenon.. is of his time. The male head still remains. Much We need full-sized and must have been remains to be worked out in regard to photos of all the heads of the frieze." t iv. 137. A cast of this is shown at the Museum. Cecrop's Wife Wind-blown Garment. executed under his influence." * The head of Cecrops was taken down about 1803. by a careful Fig. 22. could see the holes by which a crown [?] had been fixed. mantle which covers the whole back was brought to the front A over the knees and lower legs while at the other end it must have been wrapped round the right arm. it give a sketch (Fig. p. * "Antiq. we can. " which is said ceived by a Turk. and casts of two other imperfect cellars.'' appeared. these heads. may compared with a fine head at Oxford and a head called "Sappho" at the Museum.f XI. Reinach says. heads are in the Of one of these I 139). arrive at a few suggestions as to the complete figure. both of British be Phidian type. &c. Dodwell says that the head. as a beginning. Turning to the figure on the extreme right. Athens. — : consideration of the drapery.

the so-called " Victory.) against the uncovering of the side. B. Serpent's Tail. XII.'' for long assigned to the east front.THE PARTHENON AND rests. indications suggest that the shoulder and side were The figure on the left of the Kertsch vase recalls this one. A gust of wind seems to sweep through the composition from the centre of action. There the upper body is wholly uncovered. ITS SCULPTURES. It now takes its place just in advance of Poseidon's figure. charioteer. : Restoration . as is it is was a winged shown by the strong Iris. Fig. left 137 The bare. mortice holes in the shoulders. As before said. 141. D. 138. . a. Carrey's sketch is inconas to the pediment figure. part of the clusive and I suggest that it derives from it. and a rough note of Cell's is (Fig. and best called This figure shows in a high degree a characteristic which is shared by other figures of this pediment. — Cecrop's Wife Mantle . c.

So also was it more apparent in Carrey's is blown out behind so to with Athena's charioteer. from a Cast. Gable Restoration of Last Figure." Far away on the seated. — Sketch of Cast of Head. This " of course. where the skirt of the chiton uncover the leg. the action or had not gods Fig. and is blown away from her . Are these also to be thought of as in motion. that this figure was in but the effect of the wind is almost as apparent on the It Fig. 140. Fig. ITS SCULPTURES. — Metope : Head . obvious in regard to the drapery of the Victory. however. which troubles as by most striking manner folds. robes of Poseidon's charioteer." which is driven forcibly against the body and flies out behind. 141. 139. although their horses are halted and rearing? chariots still Were the coming up took the while place. flight. : in them ? Furtwangler has already noticed that the garments of the next is figure to the chariot on the right. or even .drawing.138 THE PARTHENON AND is. who its the wind. seized left " The drapery appears in the by the wind. might be supposed. themselves come — W. are agitated is the tunic of the wife of Cecrops that wind-driven almost as much of the Victory.

and could gain any light as to their form. (Fig.THE PARTHENON AND shoulder. Fig. 142. but perhaps this requires " good will " to see. and as the large it is fragment is said not to fit on to the " Victory. B. which this front faces. it would seem that Poseidon's stroke was accompanied by a great blast from the sea. retains the tenon have One is quite large.) As other fragments are also from another left wing. 139 Even the mantle of the reclining Ilissus seems to flap against his arm. by which it was attached left its figure. ITS SCULPTURES. Putting all these indications together. It is part of an expanded wing. 142." clear that there . — Part of a Wing whether I : and Suggested Restoration. the effects of which carried the action over the whole composition. At and to I the Museum tried there are several casts of fragments of wings.

at least. by the sides of the figure. who had shown her power and favour in the struggle with the Persians. which Furtwangler thought was first adopted at the Erechtheum. The Victory type. Now on the Kertsch vase. In the latter case. and other places? of the fronts. and the completed form must have been somewhat as in B. however. This scroll-work.) Fig. 143. and the wings of Greek figures generally spring from the collar bones. The Parthenon was the temple of the victorious Athena. and cerfrom Vase. Bohn so setting restored the summits scroll-work. we know. which is usually conAcroteria sidered to come from the Parthenon. are Miss Harrison and Dr Cecil Smith. and if the figure to which it was attached was in the pediment it could only have been placed belonged to an acroterion.* seems to be more in the style of the fourth than of the fifth century. On this Victories are shown over all the angles of the pediments. were at least two winged figures. but it is possible that it Several writers. 143. judging from Carrey's drawing. The portion which clasps over the collar bone has a parallel in the Victory of Olympia. which it is generally agreed probably stands for the Parthenon. (Fig. which has been so often referred to. The large fragment is the expanded part of the wing which was nearest the shoulder attachment. as it contains acanthus foliage. as the bases for the lower ones still exist. of which some remnants have been found. from which the figure design was derived. tainly came from the Acropolis. was designed by Phidias to be borne * Invvood thought they were parts of a Corinthian capital from the acroteria of the Erechtheum? : were they not . There is no doubt at all as to there having been acroteria of some sort on the pediments. have suggested that there were Victories in the centres of the fields of both pediments between Zeus and Athena. Epidaurus. Is it not probable that the desired Victories were on the acroteria of the pediments as at Olympia.I40 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. there would surely have hardly been in profile . and Athena and Poseidon. among \\hom room for this. one corner of the composition is occupied by a tiny sketch of a temple. The form of the wing demands considerable extension backwards.

. nearly 40 feet high several copies. formed a vision of supernatural splendour. dates probably from the second century Berlin is B. giving delightful diversity to the folds of her long peplos." * It stood. show a chariot and horses conducted by a Nike on each Other representations show projecting horses along the front. .'Vthena's regis. Her left leg was slightly bent. and proceeding from this it seems likely that . At The goddess stood erect. Her e. 141 on the hand of the Parthenos within is it not probable that Victories also surmounted the temple without ? The whole composition of the west front would thus represent -in the pediment Athena taking Athens under her protection of old time. and her towering helmet was magnificently crested with sphinx and horses.-f * Lechat.Some have fine there are many echoes of the Parthenos on these vases. which last t -Some coins side. . heads of Athena with a Nike above. agree so closely together that the main facts are certainly known. One vase in the Museum besides the horses has Hippocamps painted on the sides.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. — . On her breast was the Jegis.x- Fig. and the rest of the body is covered with an interesting scale pattern. with the Gorgon may recall the pattern of . . 144- Athena. and colcjssal statue its The glorious beauty. of the interior must have been amazing in and yet severely restrained dignity. gazing along the axis of the temple to the eastern door and the sky beyond. her present help in the Persian War on the metopes the votive shields on the architrave a Victory as acroterion. is about 10 feet high. The finest is now at Berlin it was found at Pergamos. " The sweet white of the face and naked arms. though for the most part small and late. tended right hand supported a winged Victory the left held her round shield edge-ways and resting on the ground. The design of this is so fine that we may suppose the head on Athena's shield or a3gis was of this type. Types ok Athena. set in the gold of hair and peplos. with its pedestal. others have a Gorgon's head encircled by winged snakes set in front.C. These are possibly the sources of the horses on some ornamental vases of the third <:cntury from Southern Italy. also a coloured copy of the head. .

" . .-E. Frieze : Head with " restored by comparison of Athena Lemnian Athena.142 THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES.. .^s.^^^^'^^^ Fig. 145.

and on some coins of Athens. It has been argued whether the pillar beneath the Victory." agree. It : Miss Harrison is inconceivable that Phidias should have introduced this clumsy. 144). and sandalled feet. that the pillar was the proper pedestal of the Victory. The chief difference is in a new fashion of girding the peplos. and the same bare arms. which must have been full 10 feet in diameter. If Athena indeed had stood there. as I am told. Murray. was adorned with reliefs of the battle with the Amazons. as shown on a relief at the British Museum (Fig. quite un- May Drs Murray and Waldstein I suggest that this. such as is seen ?esthetic grounds. The evidence for the suppose. The spear probably rested against the left shoulder. decision? some later statues. . 146. column is surely quite conclusive. We may in too. says " The pillar must be thought away. I get quite tired with feeling the strain.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. Fig. The " Maidens " of the Erechtheum are practically copied from this figure there is the same axial pose and fall of the drapery. would she not have been glad to rest her arm on a convenient support? I declare that when I think it away. It Athena from Bronze Cista. following a gem. carrying hand of the goddess can be original. — : appears copied on the statuette. M . and were it not for the pillar the Victory would be held much higher. on a relief now at Berlin. but it may be thought of as part of the ideal composition. long dresses. and that " when we were not looking " Athena replaced it there. even on may be too hasty a This column is not necessarily a makeshift post. 143 Tresses of hair fell on her shoulders and back. obtrusive support thinkable. Finally. . bearing a Victory 6 feet high on her extended hand. the design of which is best known from a small late copy in the British Museum. and on a medallion in the Hermitage. . The shield. the arm itself is not in a position of balance.

which also supported the shield. he identified with the Lemnian Athena. says she held hand. which might with definition. but the gold had radiance. A close examination. although the surface * is badly injured. must not be thought as merely costly and splendid. we may infer that the Victory-bearing Athena was conceived of as Giver of Victory to the Athenians. represents the Lemnian Athena." this figure might be called a translation into relief of the statue which. almost boyish. describes the head on the frieze perfectly. a figure at Dresden. and "the short hair combed up wavy and curly. Temple of Victory. the outline of which. however. the absence of the helmet. a much-praised early work of the His master's. One of these.* The glowing gold of the garments and of her hair. reconstruction of the Lemnia is now widely accepted. On the Berlin relief it is the Victory she holds which crowns a man. sought in his " Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture " toflesh-like. advantage be brought into the circle of Phidian material in the in her left The gem in question seems to the goddess Parthenon room. — of the east frieze. were. and her jewelled eyes. . of the seated Athena writers are still unsatisfied. which also occupied a place on the Acropolis. the gather out from later copies those which derived from originals by Phidias. where the spear is given this position for sake of clear From the British Museum relief. . and me that in the design of the general " feeling. me to be only a copy of a coin of Athens. has convinced in head and bust. Was it a_ symbol of the reaction . although some — and one of the latest Pottier urges that the type of head is unlike any known work by Phidias. the tinted ivory of her flesh." This at the back statue that it typified the .144 THE PARTHENON AND it ITS SCULPTURES. can be surely traced. He remarks of the Athena of Peace as a slim. Furtwangler. they were that. by an almost clairvoyant exercise of critical insight. and several others of the same class in which is shown conferring a wreath on some person. is The Parthenon was ? the true built and why another specifically called that was on the Acropolis puzzling. and tied with a fillet. the ivory was eyes actually flashed. which were doubtless of wrought goldsmith's work in tresses. Furtwangler claims. young The striking characteristics of the head girl.

is still I45 also Some . from the indications of the frieze alone. although there are dozens of figures on vases. that only Ruskin could have described her in his " Queen of the Air. with a similar subject. and she holds a spear indicated. The small bronze No. neck. desirable constructively in a colossal statue. may be inspired by the great external Athena of the Acropolis. and small bronzes which. The whole figure is a seated version of the same ideal type as the Lemnian Athena. 145.* Her leg is bent in an attitude 146. and the fall of the drapery over the slight. and how narrow is the margin for doubt may be seen by comparing it with the photograph of what I suppose to be a modern Italian restoration. as hers was. with the same Attic helmet as the Athena of the west gable. owe their inspiration to it." Helmet and segis are put away. In my Fig. . published from a terra-cotta by Dr Waldstein." had he known " She is the queen of maidenhood. 1035 with glittering diamond eyes also probably derives from one of the Athenas of Phidias. The head. I think. of the modelling. which. heaven. also from Prffineste.) of rest. and with head sharply turned over the right shoulder. It is clearly of Phidian type. and well understood by a narrow circle of experts. like the position of the ear. may be described as identical. She is only as a plaything. decorated with magnificent Greek incised drawings of what appears to be a grotesque portrayal of an assemblage of the gods on the Acropolis. stainless as the air of her. a figure representing a great external statue of Athena. shapely shoulder.THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. and apparently by the same artist. Athena with her own people. but we miss much by there being so little active curiosity about * I sdmewhat have just seen at Lyons another cista. There is on a bronze cista from South Italy. I have filled up an outline of the head taken from the frieze. Of the " Promachos " there is no large copy which can be identified with certainty. with the details from the statue. and on her own rock so exquisitely fresh and bright. doubtless. in the British Museum. and her shield rests on the ground — a detail which seems (Fig. The Parthenon marbles form a great treasure which is well cared for.

THE PARTHENON AND ITS SCULPTURES. . where they and might as well be plasters. to their " educational value. Although. if it were. but it is really only about six feet from the floor. the reports on the acquisition of the marbles. insufficient use Restoring " a figure from the Parthenon should be an incident in every sculptor's training. in ? The metopes. to collect all material relating to the school of Phidias. we should soon know more about them and more about sculpYoung architects should also measure and "restore" ture. some The fragment is of frieze at Paris seems to be of exceptional value from its place and lighting. inch can be minutely examined. Its top and are. be brought down on screens not so.146 them. and every Could not a few pieces. Finally an attempt should be made the building fragments. including some of the metopes. Perhaps the possibiHty of improvement might be con- sidered in respect to the Hghting and the accessibility of select panels. their places be taken by casts are largely out of sight. much was said as is made of them.

" or Temple of Hephaistos. and all around them still were. The building throughout. although much smaller. and even the inclined lines of the pediment are said to have a slight as refined and perfect in its With all the many points of likeness to the Parthenon. N . as much covering panels which being very thin and light. Of the Theseum the only actual fragments in the Museum are those belonging to the ceiling of the peristyle. The central group was again an assembly of gods watching a battle a subject found also at the temple of Nike.IV. — " The Greeks were the first people that were born into C07nplete humanity. The nations before them had been. One is a thick marble slab pierced with six holes 7 inches square. t Penrose." f The inclination of columns is exactly similar. and earlier at Delphi. Parthenon. and to its metopes. It is almost as " harmonious in its proportions. There are also valuable casts of the frieze taken a hundred years This frieze has many points of resemblance to that of the ago. AND OTHER WORKS. and the stones were filled with breath" RuSKIN. 100x40 feet to the centre lines of the columns. its place in the sequence of development hardly yet established. partly savage. being between the others are little fitted into rebates on the upper side. — its construction. and 30 feet from the platform to the top of the pediment. THE THESEUM.* recalls in its details the Parthenon to such a degree that the question of priority is of some historical importance. But the power of a new spirit came upon the Greeks. there are also differences which bring it into relation with other Doric buildings. Though the date of the Parthenon is is accurately known. and left . THE ERECHTHEUM. vertical curvature. The "Theseum. * Its size may best be remembered as c. their entasis is more delicate.

It is interesting to recall that Penrose found a fragment of a gutter at the Theseum which he concluded came from the In flanks of that temple. like the is Sunium. I do not think that it has been noticed that the temple of Rhamnus. East Front. and there cannot be a doubt that this temple later than the Parthenon. ERECHTHEUM. the cult statue of nus. was Fig. At Rhamnus this arrange- ment is repeated.148 THESEUM. but Dr Dorpfeld has shown good reason On comparing the friezes for supposing that it followed it. only are the guttae absent. but the columns are all equally spaced.* and this in points so minute that the likeness cannot be a mere coincidence. Rhamnus is intermediate * Uned. " Antiq. the Theseum. one respect. has omitted them. around the cells he observed that at the Parthenon regulae and guttse are placed at intervals beneath the sculptured procession The architect of as they would be beneath a triglyph frieze. — Theseum. The frieze over the inner columns of the former runs on right and left of the antse until it joins the main order. AND OTHER WORKS. at least. but at the Parthenon there was no gutter. 147. the temple at In regard to this. so Theseum that one must be a copy of the other. exhaustively illustrated by the Dilettanti Society. He therefore puts the buildings in the following order : — The Parthenon. is of a pupil of Phidias. The cymatium of the pediment at Rhamnus was continued along the flanks as a gutter. however. The Theseum is between the roofing of the portico and the posticum. and the disposition of the transverse ceiling beams and lacunaria are almost identical in both temples.' . Now. At Sunium not the Theseum. A few years ago it was always assumed that the Theseum predated the Parthenon. remarkable for a difference while in the latter the frieze returns. of Attica. of Rham- which there are the work fragments at the British Museum.

89.THESEUM. AND OTHER WORKS." The elegant painted scrolls and palmettes of the Theseum are much more elaborate than the patterns at the Parthenon." Many p- writers have observed that the orna- . at the Theseum " Mr Pars found out the method used in drawing the echinus or eggs and anchors from the marks of This note seems to embody the compasses on the walls. preserve the remains of 7" the colours with which they were Vestiges of bronze and \f^ painted. green." slight mistake. The drums of its columns were connected by wooden blocks and pins like the columns of the Parthenon. and of blue. "All the sculptures of the Theseum. and this circles again speaks of later date. For all that concerns the sculptures and other details see the monograph of Bruno Sauer (1899). ERECHTHEUM. of a blue sky !J^ wl ^|/^ ^J : W W w [background]." on each His full and clear account of the painting on the sculptures It is fully corroborated by what has been quoted on p. who restores even the pedimental composition from the slight indications in the fabric . and the painted decoration was similar. ment generally was outlined by means of a " templet. as its inner plain friezes have blocks and gutts at intervals.4g_painted mental painting was outlined by a Decoration. The painting at the Theseum was described a century ago by Dodwell " Some elegant painted foliage and a meander resembling that of the Parthenon are remarked on the interior cornice. both those of the metopes and of the friezes of the vestibules. that country to which the Greeks were indebted for so large a share of their architecture f(g^^'^^(^^^^s^ and other arts. of which is painted a radiated ornament or a star. <^j ^f^ golden-coloured arms. Leake saw about twenty years later. for in one of Stuart's plates of the temple a the construction of a painted dead decoration is shown by It is probable that the ornadrawn by compasses. The lacunaria are adorned with square compartments. Chandler says that scratched line. The custom was brought from Egypt. and red drapery are very apparent. I49 between the Parthenon and the Theseum.

Hera. AND OTHER WORKS. In the Elgin Collection there are good drawings of this frieze. Altogether the architecture. Her arm falling by her side evidently held her Hera is enveloped by a large mantle spear as at the Parthenon. p. seem to be copied on a vase in the Museum. 149. of which those to the west were Of first pointed out by Penrose. covers the left arm and hand. 149. and on another at Madrid (see Miss Harrison's " Athens. 113). . the Athena he restores as holding her helmet This is (see above. This would be a magnificent subject for a restoration essay. 75. Fig.). and falls on the lap over the rest of the garment which . is brought from the back over the right thigh.) Athena wore a girded chiton with a deep turn-over this is a characteristic of Athens fashions c. painting. by the Parthenon — Fig. and from them I have sketched the Athena and Hera. The Museum possesses the The designs original drawings of these made by Pars c. but the drapery is more voluminous and later in style. The one on the extreme right Sauer Those on the left all agree are Athena.'' p. 430-420. — Sketch of Athena and Hera from the Frieze right : cf. ERECHTHEUM.ISO THESEUM. a very noble group. (Fig. and sculpture agree in dating the work. and Zeus inspired . cxv. the gestures figures. 1765. over the chiton it is drawn over the head. The metopes are also very fine. the six watching gods in the frieze those on the right cannot be identified with certainty. restores as Hephaistos.

sheltered under a building having Doric porticoes and interior rows of Ionic columns. that it looks as if it had been quarried from the golden light of an Athenian sunset. is and when " the ruins were the least it must have been wonderfully imits the integrity of structure that it requires beauty defies all. that it was most probably the temple of Hephaistos. their development and persistence may be understood when they are seen in sunlight and shadow. delicately modelled shades. and points of gold and colour. Whatever were the origins of triglyphs. mutules. trenchant sharp-edged shadows. Now a record has been found that a cult statue set of Hephaistos was up in 421 B. the alternate lights and darks of the triglyphs. when it stood on the outskirts of the city with ploughed pressive. and the points he mentions give additional proof. 150. formed the most famous structure in Athens. ruinous buildings in Athens. seems to be set in between the columns of the peristyle. from the rich hue which the marble has assumed. thrown forward and rising above strong basement walls. More even than others this was an architecture to be completed by broad flooding light. and the long fingers of shadows from the guttae.' c. entered through five gates.) This middle building is flanked by wings on either side.C. on one of which stands the After the Parthenon the Propylzea little temple of Nike Apteros. AND OTHER WORKS. and this date agrees perfectly with the time when we may suppose the " Theseum " was dedicated." The beauty of these marble pillared Greek buildings when the shafts reflect the setting sun is almost surpassed by the midday glory when the sky.. Its The The Acropolis is Propyl^. The loveliness of its colouring is such. At that time. ERECHTHEUM. fields close by.THESEUM." " Such no description. Wordsworth came very near to the same conclusion seventy years ago. whose arguments have been summarised by Miss Harrison. It was part of the . (Fig. and guttae. I have called it by its traditional name. but it has been shown by Dorpfeld. the deep shadow of the cornice overhanging like a pent roof. IJI 430-420. which continue to form bastions. brighter than the glass of Chartres and Bourges.a.

and a good summary of his results. a drum of one of the Ionic shafts. ERECHTHEUM. with zones of polished and chiselled face.* was. were picture galleries and other halls. AND OTHER WORKS. approached from within." f Fig. * Parts of a simpler earlier gate still remain.IS2 THESEUM. but the entire scheme has been much more fully worked out by Dorpfeld. 1904. t See also The Builder^ 23nd February 1890. and one of the actual construction in marble. of course. American J. In the wings. . better than any others in Museum. —The Propylasa Museum one : Perspective Section. a fortified entrance into a citadel. These stones. 150. We the have in the of the Doric capitals. Aixh. is given in Miss Harrison's " Athens. Stuart inferred part of the original intention and restored the south wing on his plan. Pericles. and a length of the moulded band under the lacunaria. with a plan. In the middle is a square hole about 4x4x4 which took the wooden box-dowel. some of which were never completed. work of It and the lower works may even have been built before the Parthenon was begun. display the most characteristic points of Greek The bed of the drum of the column is wrought exactly like those of the Parthenon.. and the wings flanked the steeply ascending road to the gates.

ERECHTHEUM. polished around the margin and rough picked within. which grasped the stone so that it might be lifted by a pulley. — At Megara there . The length of moulded — is even more instructive.* An * The wingless Victory was also a temple to more properly Athena Nike. inclined at an angle these were prepared for the forceps. 4/ w 5? 0^^ 'i: 4 j^a . 151.^:S 'J~ %/%l. and had a rich palmette ornament each the cymatium had large " eggs and tongues " painted on it. They are the halves of the matrices of H -shaped cramps which linked stone to stone. 153 cypress dowels is preserved upstairs in the Bronze Room.THESEUM. . In the top bed of the capital is still a metal dowel which connected the capital and the epistyle. Further in are two pits sunk into the bed. 151.i S'. profiles of the best time. were the spaces between the mutules were red. and in it was fully decorated with colour. The therefore the triglyphs. It is needless to describe the procedure the thing is before us. Two were for metal dowels. 3^ x ^-. and on the top bed there are six sinkings of three different kinds. blue . AND OTHER WORKS. Two others at the lateral edges band We are of I- form. On one of the mouldbe traced a leaf pattern.) Like all Greek moulding ings may other Greek buildings mutules. Four slabs of the frieze and an angle capital in the Museum are described as having belonged to the Nike temple. Athena Nike (Pausanias). 9 « I i f f Fig. have the heading joints. the shadow of the bright colour decoration which once adorned it. The Nhce and Ilissus Temples. — The Propytea : Painted Decoration. (Fig. This same stone furnishes beautiful examples of .

was richer than the other. ple 153. AND OTHER WORKS. ERECHTHEUM. Its sculptured frieze is clearly of later date than the Parthenon. an 430. and if one was designed by we may assign the other to One little point at the Ilissus temple may be pointed to as showing Callicrates also. and may hardly be dated before On the other hand. Stuart and illustrations who give valuable Fig. him that it was of the age of the Parthenon. but the Ilissus temple was Ionic. both had " prostyles " of four Ionic columns at each end and no columns along the sides. (Fig. : of the lost building.* it The doorway of the Parthenon was similar. 152. — Nike Temple : and that they were then delayed so that the Parthenon might be pressed forward to completion. (Fig.) Again the doorway had no marble architrave. Revett. Anta Capital in the British Museum. now entirely deI stroyed. now this is identical by Pars. but this shall show Nike building. so also were the doors of the Propyla. although smaller. Besides their general resemblance some of the details are identical in the two temples. It would appear that it and the Propylaea were begun or contemplated with the earliest of the new works on the Acropolis. on its architrave . with that of the Parthenon as engraved by an independent observer.1 54 THESEUM.) Both these small temples were very much alike. figure a palmette ornament which was painted — Ilissus Tem- Sketch of Capital. which stood also belonged to the by the Ilissus river. 152. Fig. is anta capital assigned to the little temple. inscription of about the year —which was found 1897 — orders that a temple to 450 in Athena Nike should be built by the architect Callicrates. but there was a sunk band around for a bronze-covered wood frame. . and the marble frame the Ionic.a * I have seen this type called the Doric. The temple of Nike. 69.

The Ilissus temple may be safely dated c. and this indicates a date round about 435. 154. In one of the views engraved in the "Antiquities of Athens" this temple appears in the foreground. and to serves Fig. : Intersecting drawings as to the form of the capitals. It is described by Pococke as " built of very white marble.) Nike temple at the British Museum has It is an by a German scholar. the walls one stone thick. This kind of doorway may be taken as a general rule to show that a building is earlier than the Erechtheum.) The capital of the only recently been identified angle capital. ERECHTHEUM. but they Here the inner volutes were not mitred through the were thrown out far enough to clear the eyes. and he also shows remains of the stone ceiling of the portico. (Figs. and also a sketch showing the mitring of the inner angle volutes from a figure in Stuart's text. 155. AND OTHER WORKS. centre. 440. (Fig. 153. 155 and of the temple of Bassse. In the catalogue suggested that these are " perhaps intended . I give here a sketch of the capital taken from one which appears lying in the foreground of Pars' drawing. the base moulding and steps. 154. view of the interior of the portico which shows the recessed band around the doorway. Pars' exquisitely accurate drawing of this (1765) is in the Print Room of the this too confirm the entire accuracy of Stuart's Museum. the fluted roll of the base was continued around the temple and inside the portico. it is In the external eyes of the volutes there are small holes.THESEUM. the plain architrave and frieze. and the walls with the raised surface showing that they had never been cleaned off. the moulding along the wall of the cella in continuation of the anta^ capitals. and a diagram of the entablature which indicates that the architrave was plain." He gives a capitals of our little The two order of the Propylaea are all similar. — Ilissus Temple Volutes. temples and those of the interior and must be practically contemporary.

Notice that the egg and tongue moulding is only indicated under the volute it is so at the Propyla. — Winged higher than that of the other. Inwood's drawing of for . " the friezes which had been built into a wall by the Propylaea were removed b). 169. cone employed to generate the curve of show below that the use of such cones is for the insertion of the the volute. . and it has in fact been assigned to the wrong one by the Museum authorities. showing 22 instead of 24. and as the lowest part of the capital projected in Intersecting Volutes. the profiles of the mouldings and their height at the two temples were so exactly alike that it would be impossible from these alone to decide to which of the two the stone belonged. (Fig. agrees with the latter. Museum. and the stone consequently comes from the Nike temple.5. show further that our stone was obtained with the other fragments of the Nike temple brought away by Lord Elgin. No. which is 19J. 436). its materials were used for building a bastion. South Kensington Museum. and Inwood's suggestion that these holes were metal fastenings to which festoons might be suspended is much more probable. however. 156. It agrees with this that the order of the Ilissus temple was about 1. 152. We are told that when the temple was broken up.'' Now amongst the Stuart papers in the MSS. The well-known relief of Icarus and Dionysos at the Museum shows such festoons. AND OTHER WORKS. beyond the was nearly pilaster making a " facia " this Ross gives the similar dimension at the Nike temple as Now the width of the cap at the . for modifying it into an ordinary (not angular) cap he has got into trouble with Coming now the eggs and tongues. I think I can Nike. Compare what is said as to the Erechtheum on p. Room there is a careful drawing of 21 inches wide.a also.'55- — Nike Temple : this capital (plate 23) is not correct. and later. Stuart.6 Fig.) figures the width of the Ilissus antse as 20. F'gf." I shall most unlikely. ERECHTHEUM. to the anta capital (fragment.495 m.Lord Elgin.156 THESEUM.

— Nike Temple : Painted Decoration. 158. an anta 157 capital exactly like ours 19. . 157. is It evident that Lord Elgin set himself to "collect " represen- tative details of the chief buildings of the the Acropolis. . ERECHTHEUM." We thus have at the Museum the anta capital.SS and wide. and lengths of the frieze. Fig. AND OTHER WORKS. . it figured A note with of a bastion says "the capital of a pilaster in the wall fronting the PropyIffia . It would be easy associate to these together in their proper relation thus and make an important spe- cimen of Greek architecture. the angle cap which stood in front of it.THESEUM. (?) Fig. with the frieze with In basso relievos. Around platform of the Nike was a temple balus- trade of sculp- tured slabs. — Nike Temple : Painted Decoration. a a book with marbled cover said to be the capital of an anta of the Temple of Victory without Wings.

There is also a cast from the console of the north door. a cast of which found in every art school. It would be worth while to obtain casts of the few other details. and made by his father in Athens about 1844. there preserved of the Maidens from the " ago there was at South Kensington a cast of the frieze sculptures This might be put in its place in the entablature. 166? The Erechtheum. 158. ERECHTHEUM. such as the cymatium of this door. Figs.'' Then one entire column from the north-east angle of the eastern portico. How far do the calyces of the anthemions. The Erechtheum consisted of a body or cella divided into two or three parts. but unless this is done with casts it banishes affixed to a black marble backing like the original. coffers from both porticoes. lengths of the main cornice and architrave. AND OTHER WORKS. of the figures is One the well-known is Victory adjusting her sandal. . save that one was painted. represent the acanthus of Fig.) The Nike temple was as usual completed with painting. a part of a richly carved window architrave from the east portico. the few Greek rings at South Kensington (Fig. and amongst the drawings recently given to the Museum by Mr Halsey Ricardo. some details (like the capital at present) to a height where they cannot be studied. We have in the Museum specimens of almost First of all all the charac- is the best Caryatid Porch. so that we should have a complete collection of details from this building. This anta cap thus completed may be said to be exactly like the antae caps of the Erechtheum. 1 57. (Fig. I was about to say that the whole angle of the building might be erected from the Museum fragments. 156. A few years teristic details of the Erechtheum.) To the east was a hexastyle portico on the north was a four-pillared portico and opposite . . and probably copied from the balustrade. I would like indeed to suggest that the original capital should be brought within reach. 159. &c. are accurate copies of the patterns on the anta capital and an ovolo moulding. is Amongst one engraved with the same subject. and lengths of the decorated moulding in continuation of it along the wall. the other sculptured. the anta capital which corresponded to it.158 THESEUM.

to the south 159 maidens (the Caryatid north portico and west wall were at a lower level than the east end and south side this difference of level was occasioned by its being built on the brow of the Acropolis. (Fig. prostasis of the was the Porch). and that the body was originally intended to be continued westward until the north porch became central. —The Erechtheum : Plan showing different levels.) The irregularity of the plan seems to have been conditioned by various sacred sites which were to be sheltered by the building.THESEUM. together with the west wall and its columns. ERECHTHEUM. does not accept this view. 160. As to the last. 159. Prof . a change of scheme. I can see no reason for supposing that the building was not planned as it has come down to us.) The . Dorpfeld considered that this irregularity was the result of Fig. in the most recent study of the subject. and acutely observes that any irregular plan may be made symmetrical by doubling it over from some imaginary central line. Petersen. (See the model at the Museum. AND OTHER WORKS.

was blown down in 1852 But in 1839. Furtwangler thought that both were original.l6o THESEUM. — The Erechtheum. but we find them in the temples at Agrigentum and at Bassae. undoubtedly genuine work they rested on." It has generally been accepted that "the columns on the wall by the Pandroseion" mentioned in the accounts are the attached columns of the west those accounts of a front. The late works have shown that a large scheme of repairs was carried out in early Roman days which included work not only on the west wall but to the doorway. which included the The workmanship of string and the bases of the half columns. We are usually told that the west wall. (Fig. The later columns of the west wall fell in 1852.) It seems to confirm this view. East Front. roof. with its attached columns. Penrose considered that the west wall originally had the columns but no windows. the columns and capitals and the mouldings of the windows was of a very inferior character. and architrave of the north porch. as well as in later works. when ." and applies it to these columns on this wall. and Choisy translates an entry in payment "to those who put four closures between the columns by the Pandroseion. that the windows were indeed in a thin screen wall set in between the columns. like the Philippion at Olympia. ERECHTHEUM. " was called to the fragments as we}l as to the manner in which they had been fixed to the Fig. 160." says Penrose. " My attention. Gardner has argued that attached columns were not in use at the time when the Erechtheum was built. 1 61. AND OTHER WORKS.

ERECHTHEUM. AND OTHER WORKS. Since writ- ing the above a valuable contribution to the history of the west wall has been A merican Journal of Archeology (June 1908). and then the screen wall was built. tetrastyle (north) porch was greatly injured in the siege of 1827 before that time the spaces between the pillars had been walled up to form part of a house. only three columns and two pieces of architrave resting upon In 1832-33 it was in this same state. rebated to take the screen wall. The fallen portions have recently been re. as appears them being left from the description given by Wordsworth. the western wall and its windows was already destroyed. Seccounts with the building that the tion of Lacunaria. leaving only the three columns standing. this follows from the fact that Comon of Melite. in the library of the Institute of Architects.) By what has been said. which.— A. 1802. is of the formed on stones which are part main walling blocks which in show the north porch. Even now the antse at each end.erected. who fixed them. that the adjoining north porch was much injured in the siege of It was almost certainly at this time that the screen wall 1827. the construction of the wall is plainly refirst vealed . who says. i6t.Fig. Eight j'ears before. are of The north anta the original work. present west wall represents the original external wall. the screens between the columns were of wood. by R. it was very much in the state it was in at the middle of the eighteenth century. was destroyed. Flandin. Smirke. (See view in Pococke's travels. the columns were erected. In the Museum we have a lacunar stone is console. l6l a drawing by E. Plan of At tached Column B. when it was drawn by Inwood.THESEUM. rafters for the roof The . There is a good drawing of it in this state c. as said above. now in the library at South Kensington. was made. further. and a cast of the door not actually part of the original . also prepared published in the . It is there shown by a comparison of the ac. and that in It is stated that the southern bay there was a curious recess.

. whole. 163. where doubta rosette less of bronze was attached. (Fig. above which this porch was erected. as Dr — Moulding from Argos. .) The birds in both are extremely interesting. in position in his time. The drawing shows the starting stone of the part of the pedi- ment Fig. 161. and — Moulding after Penrose. away of all surplus stone for the sake of is In the middle of each coffer a hole. at the Institute of Architects.) of the west front by Stuart. 162. of the north . at least ten years the earlier. by Penrose appears also at the Heraeum of Argos after 420. instance of the paring lightness. which sloped up against the west front. 163. as perhaps the first appearance of the picturesque variet). but this is very doubtful. " there cannot be finishing a doubt but that it is part of the cymatium the carving portico. Inwood says.l62 THESEUM. .and naturalism which was slowly to creep Dr Waldstein thinks that the Argos example into classical art. Inwood shows the ing stones of the springfront. however. was I find amongst the Stuart Papers in the MSS. ERECHTHEUM. of which he remarks. it may be a copy." details the The Fig. is unsurpassed of by any temple. figured The pattern Fig. shown on was about I2i inches high. were tympanum was about 3. stones. These lacunaria are a remarkable work. 162. An open space is left in the which was repeated in the roof above.6 its three No part of the cymatium. (Fig. Waldstein has pointed out. as Penrose remarks. AND OTHER WORKS. Room (22152-3) . been found. The height of the above with an egg and tongue. although lacunaria. Penrose gave a woodcut of a fragment had then found on the Acropolis. should be open to the sky. so that the prints of Poseidon's trident.

* a short note reads " M. present is cymatium of might. Genain. Genain found a fragment which adapted itself so well to the mutilated cornice that he could do no other than recognise the old 'doucine. 164. but of one of the doors. in the restoration of the Erechtheum by the French student. made many years ago. unfortunately. and size.) certainly was a companion moulding This explains a small fragment drawn full size by In wood on his plate 11. (Fig. It is without a title except for the query "Erechtheus?" but to the other. be the original cornice The cymatium over the north doorway at copy of it practically a in ruder workmanship. Genain's fragment was the same pattern as Fig. however.' and has made use of it in his restoration. — Moulding from a Drawing in the Stuart Collection. plate 11. we have the drawing had a return end. profile. 164. 164. It is possible that the piece in question was the it the eastern portico . O . ERECHTHEUM. but only recently published. AND OTHER WORKS. note that it is there drawn much enlarged." it Fig.THESEUM. M. as to section. 163 a minutely accurate drawing of a moulding very similar in decoration. Again. t In making the comparison with Inwood.f * D'Espouy. but its The piece of which is nothing noted. M.

which acanthus is already a part. doors continued long in use. between the west passage and the cella. and allies them with the The resemblance of this band of vertical foliage. East. and a similar door of about In the. Barnsley." It was com- paratively perfect when Stuart made the beautiful view now in the library of the Institute of Architects (engraved in Stuart and Of this we have in the Museum the entire right-hand Revett). (i 901). At the Leeds Museum there are two or three fragments of marble doors. a step towards Corinthian. At the east end is the "hexastyle portico. xii. of Corinthian. The same is. the resemblance to this original fragment goes decoration was recopied on it. i that the original inscripthink. Although the cornice of this door is certainly part of a re- to prove storation. to the lower part of a Corinthian capital.1 64 THESEUM.) is in the Louvre. the anta capital behind it.C. Argos has recently been described. 5 feet wide. It is the bringing of the anta band on to the column which makes "the chief singularity of the Erechtheum capitals.) " Even the holes where the work was needled up remain above the cymatium. makes it. 165. and a further note by Mr Barnsley. + S. The eyes of " jamb stones are deeply drilled out. column. (Fig. and contain remains of wooden plugs. W. caps. true of the consoles. for we know from the building tion that the east door at least had consoles. ERECHTHEUM.f On this it may be observed that a fragment of a sixth century (B. were probably the doors to the openings. to the ends of which were probably attached little bronze Certain door slabs. From this account. which are mentioned in the inscription.) stone door at 8 X 2^ feet. AND OTHER WORKS. we gather of that the jambs are original. A detailed examination of this doorway was published by Mr Schultz in the Hellenic Journal. and parts of the carved band in continuation. I suggest.Schultz. .clamps the rosettes on these metal fixed with the walling.* of marble inlaid with black. marble the second century (B. . and held in position by I. * R. in which he proved that the present lintel was a restoration. This is a point against Choisy's contention that this eastern portico is of later work than the northern one. vol.C. where it resembles the ornamentation under the capitals of the columns. This band becomes richer at the anta. . one of which is figured by Inwood.

TUIWEUM. W. North Door. EKI'CIII'IIDUM. 165 Fig. SchuUz. AND OTIIICR WORKS. from :i Drawing by Mr K. — The ICrcclillicum. . 165.

The slender fluted columns diminish in what Penrose says is " the which had probably ever been applied in There is a curious irregularity in the spacing of the palmette band relatively to the twenty-four flutes below on the shaft. We have in the Museum a length of richly carved jamb- mould. and 21 pieces are now known. Fig. There are several such splicings even on the Museum fragments (see Catalogue). and Fig. I suppose. capitals together. IS 5). Archaol. ERECHTHEUM. but it is smaller in scale. Jour. and the eye is carved into a flower. " It is an ancient copy of the capitals of the Erechtheum — with a small additional projecting rose carved on the centre of * Am. In the Museum there is a fragment of a volute (No.. In the recent excavations other fragments were found under the eastern wall. . palmettes. nine of each alternate pattern.1 66 THESEUM. Details.* The order of the Erechtheum is extremely rich and refined. It has been shown that they all belonged to two windows in the eastern wall of the cella. It is figured by Inwood (plate 20). 1906. 140) that the fragments of what appears to have been an acroterion may have belonged to the Erechtheum instead of to the Parthenon. the result of a repair. We also possess a slab of the lacunaria of this portico." being about .12. there being eighteen most delicate line architecture. The to curious flat side the angle volute at the Museum is. and were plain {cf. i6o. — The Erechtheum. 445) which has a double spiral like the portico capitals. AND OTHER WORKS. Under the Parthenon I have ventured to suggest (p. one on either side of the east door. 166. some of which clearly belonged to a lintel or lintels. so as to were mitred show only two halves. The inner volutes of the angle Fig. who describes it in his chapter on the Erechtheum as found in a wall in the lower city not far from the Erechtheum on the north side that is under the Erechtheum.02 in 21.

Yet the capitals of this building have the same " ugly line " for the cushions. The rose in the eye seems to be an early feature. The wall between the western and central chambers had two doors best shown by Penrose and described by Inwood. As it served as an architectural member it has been a little passed over. Fig. belonged to attached columns in the interior. and no one will put it later than 370-360 B. cf. There is a further reason for thinking that these caps came from the Erechtheum itself This is that its caps are so much like those of the Nereid monument that there cannot be a doubt that the capitals of one were copied from the other. A few years ago it was thought that such " caryatides " were an innovation at the Erechtheum. and another small Ionic capital in the Museum figured by Inwood. I should have supposed that these portions of half capitals (see '' the restoration of the to original attached Museum is columns of the west It too small in scale. figure The casts of those at the archaic figures were remarkably like those of the An archaic relief found in it Louvre show that these Erechtheum in the Acropolis also shows a which is thought represents a caryatid (see Petersen). . wrought while his influence was paramount. I think. however. fragment. AND OTHER WORKS. turning to Puchstein we find figured (No. another figure given by Puchstein. It is of the school of Phidias. gesture. One of the great treasures of our Museum is the " Maiden " from the south prostasis. from 167 whence it might be supposed that the centres of the volutes of the Erechtheum might have formed a rose. or the early part of the fourth.THESEUM." Now.C. but similar figures fully a century earlier and about the same size have been found at Delphi. Between these Furtwangler says it was probably divided into bays by pillars. Now the Nereid monument is assigned to the fifth century. It is a half capital and was found in the Erechtheum in 1862. 169) belonged but they seem possible that these caps. ERECHTHEUM. front. as an example of pure sculpture. But after the Parthenon works it is one of the most perfect and best authenticated statues which have come down to us. although Puchstein considered it to be later chiefly on account of the unbeautiful " line of the cushion. 18) a capital with an exactly similar volute. This is also described with the capitals of the Erechtheum. the volute.

ERECHTHEUM. L. yellow and dark blue in the second. At the Erechtheum this same stone was used for the fields of the pediment and for the friezes. and black and says. This is a copy of a memorandum by Donaldson. In the Museum there are also fragments of the anta (No. and in the Propylsea the lowest course of the wall was in dark Eleusinian marble. figures Gold for the eyes of the volutes and for certain flowers —pro- Fig. At Olympia a black marble pavement was laid in front of the statue. AND OTHER WORKS. 411) and of peculiar the inner architrave of the prostasis of the maidens. of small scale of white marble were pinned The so that they appeared on a nearly black background. The eyes of this plait are drilled out and set. One of the most singular characteristics of this building was the use of coloured materials other than painting. —appears in the The capitals have a guilloche band under the cushion. Greek work that I Ornament F. entitled " Disposition of the Coloured Glass Beads in the Interlacing light blue again in the third.' Copy of The and drawing shows purple and bright blue in the first . 167. careful in the Capitals of the Tetrastyle Portico : The base was ornamented in the same manner. bably of bronze in the coffers of the lacunaria accounts. pillar figures Probably the idea of came from Egypt. — The Erechtheum Capitals.l68 THESEUM. figures themselves must have been To the latter. D. brightly painted and gilt. " with — This seems so extraordinary for have been glad to find an independent account with a coloured drawing of this decoration in the Greek and Roman Department. Inwood black and very light blue in different coloured stones or glass " the first row.

The iron nails still remain which " [were inserted in the volute]. 168. and " the bronze nails " were probably for suspending garlands.) One or two points in the design and construction may be * Is the drum of a column at the Museum. No. 446. 168. This was. (Fig. Donaldson's remark about the deep spiral groove refers to Inwood. shows that absence of a palmette is characteristic Fig. 169 and yellow and purple in the middle. Lloyd noticed red paint decoration was added. AND OTHER WORKS. Yet this is supposed to have received an ornament of bronze. vols. I doubt not. {^&q Journal of the R. i. Watkiss in the deep groove of the capitals of the Nereid monument such as Donaldson observed on the Erechtheum capital.) Donaldson extracted some of these glass beads and brought them to England. The note goes on to say of the capitals that.THESEUM. from this temple ? .— Detail of Plait inlaid of all of them.. 178). ERECHTHEUM.* which are an exact copy of those of the Erechtheum. and Donaldson says that the mouldings had painted eggs and tongues. the usual painted Traces of red colour remain on the back- ground of the anta and course of palmette ornamentation. monument all with the capitals of the late temple of and above Augustus and Rome. filling the spandrel between the volute and the cushion. Besides this use of coloured material.B. and that the faces of the beams also appeared to be coloured. and others on the plait ornament. who found in them "bronze nails inserted with lead. third rows. by which some additional decoration of bronze was fixed." This has been amplified into the statement that there was a bronze fillet ending in a palmette. the original decoration. the capital of the Nereid (Fig. Comparison with the other cap found in the Erechtheum (Fig.I. 169). It is said that paint has been found also in the flutes of the columns. " The sinking round the volute was painted red. and ii. The sofifit of the lacunaria was decorated with frets (Inwood. forking out as shown [Y]. plate 20). as has been re- with Glass. marked by Puchstein.A.

They form the records of a Building Board Philocles. to. curiously like a mediaeval fabric .) Not only Erechtheum. in the year 408. but at the Fig.I70 THESEUM. They have been published and analysed by Choisy and others. all The architect was at this time finish. ERECHTHEUM. painted in other parts there ceilings. is shown as remaining in The water escaped through a series of holes about II inches apart. restored by this capping of the cella wall comparison with a capital pubhshed by Puchstein. were panels coffered the being covered with sur- terra-cotta slabs. According of to Choisy's analysis of the building accounts the roof in was part open. The carved band which mounts the cella walls in con- tinuation of the anta. between the "eggs. and finished at the edge with a raised moulding with large egg and tongue." The slabs are described in the accounts of 408. and what remained to are noted. a small part of which the early drawings. What was done. 166. as shown by Inwood (plate 15). capitals has been more than once mentioned. AND OTHER WORKS. further referred The prostasis of the maidens was and is covered by large thick marble slabs. also wages and prices. Detailed building accounts of the Erechtheum have been is — preserved on some slabs. the upper surface being slightly sloped all round. lightened with deep coffers excavated in the lower side. directly under the entablature was used. — The roofs and ceilings were wood (cypress). the discs on the architrave are also mentioned as unfinished they are unfinished to-day. the British Museum. and on it rested the course of big blocks the orthostatae. I suppose. one of which of the in the Inscription Hall Museum by the door to the library.— Fragment of Capital in temples of Nike and the Ilissus. at the (Fig. Other small fragments were found in 1901. which were pierced. i6g. and moulded and . The base moulding of the antEE also ran round continuously.

but that it actually resembled a palm-tree rising from the floor to the ceiling. It noble. " Petersen gives reasons for thinking that the bronze " palm-tree was not a mere column-like chimney to the lamp. many possibly twenty or twenty-five years before. appear in the accounts as getting as much. The temple of Apollo at Bassse. wooded country. If an otherwise unknown architect. was visited by R. AND OTHER WORKS. drachma a day Sawyers and carpenters A and that the I do latter was paid a drachma for a daily survey. roll. Bocher. The contract for Lebadea. and the other In 181 2 it was excavated by at the Institute of Architects. one of which is at the British Museum. a French architect working at Zante in 1765. and its sculptures and representative details of its architecture were obtained for the British Museum. in 408. As Pausanias tells us that Kallimachos. was in charge when we need not suppose that he was the original architect was begun. provides that the laying of the stones should be approved by the architect. He was paid thirty-six drachmas for as many days. not far from the sea. Bass^ and Rhamnus. which is spoken of together with the great lamp of the interior. called the architect. Furtwangler has suggested that he was probably the designer of this remarkable building and the sculptor of the maidens. Choisy interprets these facts by saying that the works were under the direction of an architect [Philocles]. . except that I suppose the assistant architect was present all the time. Cockerell and others. which we know were in place before 408. it — wrought the bronze palm-tree. 171 The master actually in charge was Archilocos. Philocles. and an assistant architect [Archilocos]. seems to have been common wages. and all the joints and beds should be tested in oil (red dressing) in the presence of the assistant architect. who made two excellent drawings. also edited by Choisy. not think that this explanation can be bettered. while the clerk received thirty drachmas. who was especially celebrated for his delicate mode of workmanship. was discovered by M. It stands high in while he was on his way to another site. ERECHTHEUM. near Phigalia.THESEUM. Smirke about 1803. mountainous.

. with . had a separate door facing the east. — The Temple at Basste. was matter of planning it would seem that this reduction of the space either a provision for a roof of stone or else that the midde part was left entirely open. although parts of the covering of the recesses have been that the central area was sunk a step from the rest of the floors that the sculptured frieze seems more explicable on this supposition that there was a separate sanctuary for the image. Points in favour of this latter solution are that no fragments of a cella roof have been found. 170. reducing the clear space to about 14 ft.172 THESEUM. finally. Along the interior of the larger cella were attached Ionic columns. I hope in the good sense of that most — distorted word. AND OTHER WORKS. . . that the architect was Ictinus. the adytum. this temple stood north and south. the analogy with another Apollo temple at Miletus. . attached Ionic pilasters around the walls. . and above them ran a sculptured frieze. ruins The and partially restored have recently been again explored by Cavvadias. Contrary to custom. where the cella was open. the recesses between the attached columns only being sheltered. which. roof has been This question of the much argued over. but a chamber at the south end. 6 in. was covered and. and that the roof was of marble. As a t o g o IP 20 30 i° peet Fig. The temple was was the fairest described by Pausanias. of course. in the who says that it temple Peloponnesos excepting that at Tegea. ERECHTHEUM.

171. was especially fine and it may have been this also. 1865. and Anderson and Spiers. Moreover. At ^gina. The size of this. again. or rather that there was niore Athens. but the cymatium in question seems to be that of the external pediments.I. says that an internal cymatium was found by the French expedition to the Morea. but marble. with a bearing of 1 3 feet. the admiration of Pausanias. is uncertain. which. serving a similar purpose to the palm-tree chimney at the Erechtheum.B. for the outer parts of the roof over the recesses at least. and Cockerell speaks of " the ascertained structure of the wooden roof" of the portico. marble tiles were. and Papworth brought forward some evidence to show that the opening was only in the middle of a tile of the Fig. Joicrjial. and brought into evidence a small fragment of a roof tile with a margin which showed that it edged an opening. ERECHTHEUM.THESEUM. From Haller's account it appears that only two small fragments of this kind were found. the marble ceiling of the portico at Bassae. but their size and the manner of fixing hardly allows of this interpretation. excited tiles sanias himself. . or there may have been a light in the slope of the roof opposite to the statue for its illumination. — From ordinary size. AND OTHER WORKS. and Pauwhen describing Olympia. as Cockerell says. who accepts the open cella. Papworth further suggested that the rafters might have been marble. and the writer of the text appears to be rather opposed to the idea of an open cella. Choisy. We are thus thrown back on the evidence of the structure itself. however. marble for here at Bassae the were only used at the eaves and up the verges. finer even than those at the Parthenon. and they were discovered in the adytum.* Such openings might have been mere smoke vents in the adytum. Cockerell says.A. Cockerell was in favour of a roof with a sky-light opening in it. than one. Much has been made of Cockerell's showing an interior view R. 173 Pausanias' remark might very well refer to the tiling only. remarks that the tiles were not clay.

but the segment is but a slight variation from the flat pitch shown on the sections the size of the sky-light and the disposition of the coffering remains the same. This Corinthian capital is an extremely interesting example transition. and " arch-stones " have even been looked for. but it was of " scarcely Cockerel 1 is conclusive on this point secondary importance " to Altogether. which conof — . which well shows how the new form derived from the Ionic. ERECHTHEUM. We have. unlike the others. . Some have argued that it must be more recent than the rest. probable that the entire centre part of the cella was open. the old Ionic with the angle volute 2. I consider it . it " the fell first rays of the dawn . 172. mere slight alternative suggestion as to the wooden casing of the ceiling.174 with a THESEUM. and by . and how small this was may be seen on the plan. at The yet carving of simple. as precedent conditions i. Fig. This column was wholly of marble. . who had no doubts on the matter. upon the image the remains of which we found there. French plans omit the eastern door to the adytum. the Erechtheum capital with a band of foliage in which acanthus leafage appears.— Corinthian Capital Epidaurus. AND OTHER WORKS." The most remarkable feature of the temple was column Corinthian which stood in the middle the of the opening between the adytum and the cella. although it is the earliest Corinthian capital known. It was a . pointed to the central column in the internal range of the cella of the Parthenon as an analogy with the position of this one. flat segmental ceiling. the principal entrance. but this view has passed away with fuller knowledge. its capital was very sharp and elegant. which were partly of stone. Cockerell.

At Tegea. and especially to have minimised the angle volutes. The antefixae of the roof have carved palmettes with acanthus leaves at the base. He to have exaggerated the rows of acanthus leaves around the bottom. 173. is the coming of carved decoration in the place of merely painted ornament. as it did happen. although Kallimachos. the exterior was again Doric and the interior Ionic. 172. itself with volutes at all the angles . we may say that these last were large and distinct. 4. although the newest one was represented by only one and precious column. almost as well Leake did call restoration in the " call it it Ionic. c. 171. At central Bassae. as according to the tradition of Vitruvius he did. 330. to call in aid metal-work technique. and also in the Peloponnesos. the Ionic . ERECHTHEUM.) seems to me. there was the concurrent growth of scroll and foliage decoration generally as at the Erechtheum and on the steles. (Fig. 395. then. the author of the bronze palm tree of the Erechtheum. The Bassae capital is so simple. in the temple built by Scopas. Another evidence of the new spirit of variation in Greek art is to be found in the lacunaria of Bassae. indeed. and that the temple of Bassffi by again at the still later Another variation . where we find lozengeshaped coffers as well as square ones. and on the top drum of an Ionic shaft from Halicarnassus in the Museum) 3. 175 verts a low capital into a high capital (a similar feature occurs under the archaic Naucratis capital. that we might is it There no reason. — Antefix. Cockerell in his little was biassed a too much seems Corinthian " direction. have made the actual step in the development which. AND OTHER WORKS. and more lately found Epidaurus capital. as Choisy and others have done. (Fig. all " three orders " were used.) Fig. but the inner row of external columns at the ends was Corinthian. and the Ionic volute is so marked a feature in it. (Fig. capitals of Bassa. we may call inevitable.) Furtwangler considered that the acanthus was first adopted into ornament at the Erechtheum. 173.THESEUM. ornate Ionic as early Corinthian. c. Similar coffers are found rotunda at Olympia. may very well. By comparison with the later.

ERECHTHEUM.. 175.) It was highly adorned with painted was finished with painting in the usual way. unless both derived from a common ancestor not yet determined. Wren in England. which may have nothing more solid to rest on than like stories as to Sir C. and of the ridge and eaves tiles with their antefixae. . cymatium. frieze of the Of archi- tectural numbers there are : specimens of the Doric and Fig.— Cymatium the ends of the peristyle. 175. The temple was excavated by a British expedition. The external metopes were plain. stopping over the antae with one return triglyph at each end. A remarkable feature of the construction is the ceiling of Fig. 174. The temple at Rhamnus has been incidentally compared with the Theseum on page 148. of the carved Lacunaria. This is a good deal like the arrangement of the frieze at the posticum of the Theseum. One of these is a * On the subjects see Aihen. There are broken fragments of these metopes sible substance. decoration.* (Fig. which had a clear of Pediment. but cut away to the slightest pos(Fig. and the whole temple in the Museum. p. — The Temple of Bass<E Ionic capitals.. Notwithstanding the tradition as to Ictinus being the architect. The cymatium of the pediment has a carved palmette ornamentation so much like that of the Erechtheum. 174. this mark must be later than the Athenian building. that it seems plain one was influenced by the other. 176. In fact these last fragments present to our study the complete roofing system of a Greek temple. and on a moulding of similar profile. but we have in the Museum only small pieces of the colossal statue of Nemesis. I am inclined to think that this building may be placed very late in the fifth century.) That one we may reasonably suppose was the remote Bassae. bearing of 13 feet. 333. but sculptured metopes were set over the inner row of columns.) as well as almost the entire interior. AND OTHER WORKS. This was entirely of marble. Mi/t/i. (Fig. xxi.176 THESEUM.



noble fragment of the upper part of a head. Placed as it is on a bare shelf below the sight line, it seems comparatively valueless and neglected, but seen in a photograph the great style of the

Phidean tradition shines out. that is done for us there

Our Museum


so superb,


so liberal that

almost appears

Fig. 176.

— Part of Sculptured Frieze, Basss.

have any individual views on such points, but do feel that this fragment would be better shown in almost any museum in the world. Like the Ephesus fragment (p. 32) It would form a fine it should be placed in a glass wall-case.*
like insolence to

* See Athen. Mitth., 1890,

p. 64.



by comparison with the Laborde head and others. Small as the fragment is, it suggests " a something of that mysterious work the Venus of Melos.
subject for an exercise in restoration

The Nereid Monument from Xanthus.
This tomb building was discovered and excavated by Sir C. A note-book by Scharf in the MSS. Room includes At the excavations a diary of the finds, thus " Dec. 12, 1843. a slab from the city series several sculptures were found showing the walls in three horizontal tiers, with soldiers between the battlements a portion of the small frieze, with broad mouldings, and a figure on horseback a fine statue of a draped female. Dec. 14. Some architectural sofifites [lacunars], with remains of colour in the centre of each, the ornaments being traced in fine lines of vermilion," &c. Scharf drew this ornament from the lacunars, and his drawing, together with many others, of Lycian monuments, are preserved in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. His view of the basement and the site of the monument is published in the Museum





Fellows discovered a great number of sculptures and archimembers, most of which are now at the Museum. He found seven capitals, and a fragment of an angle volute, one whole shaft, large portions of others, and several bases, some
cornice stones, showing
pieces of

of dentils on the lower


gutter with lion's head spout, pieces of the raking

cornice with evidence of marble tiling, the sculptured


of the pediments, the sculptured epistyle, with marks where it bore on the capitals, the egg and tongue moulding which sur-

mounted the basement, with traces of the bases of the columns which rested on it and also of the sculptured Nereids which stood in the intercolumniations, some fine lions, fragments of a doorway with consoles, lacunar stones, antae capitals, sculptured acroteria, and a large number of sculptured slabs, which were easily sorted into three series, which must have formed as

many bands or friezes. The style of the monument was
from other Lycian works



respects different


marble was from Paros, the



blocks were put together with bronze cramps, and the sculptures had bronze additions. All this material is sufficient to allow of a restoration being made, which shall be accurate within narrow limits, and the

View amended Fig. I77.- -Nereid Monument. British Museum Guide.



at the

Museum which shows

Sir C. Fellows' view, while


the least satisfactory

the schemes in detail, well

enough represents the general character of the structure. At the same time, although we have practically the whole monument in the Museum, a final restoration of the little buildP



ing has never been published.

A, wide and 33 ft. long, by Hawkins and Fellows, and as 22 ft. 3f in. wide and 33 ft. i^ in. long by Benndorff B, the size of the pediment as put together at the Museum gives an extent of 25.8 from point



data are

the dimensions of the basement, given as 22




point of the




the lengths of



which two are about 6.9 long and two about 6.5 one other, which is nearly 7.6 long, must have come next the corner,
blocks, of

thus overlapping the angle capital.

There is some discussion in the Museum Catalogue as to whether the pediment dimension (B) may not be excessive, as the sculptured tympanum may have been set in a rebate. This would, I think, be impossible, except for a small fraction of an inch along the top edge. There is very little room round about the sculpture, and

^v ujimuMj

to set the lower part in a

rebate would hide
jecting cornice



the more behind the pro;



" let the



Fig. 178.

total projection of the

cornice, allowing


which can just be traced on the under side of the corona, looks about 1.9, and twice this taken from 25.8 leaves 22.2 across the epistyle, which agrees very exactly with the dimension of the basement (A). It is true there seems to have been some plinth or set back in the basement. In one place Hawkins speaks of i| in., in another of s in. This last was only inferred, because the marble slabs of the sculptured band were 1.4 thick, and the top course of the basement as found seemed to allow 1.9 for the casing stones. A space may have been left at the back, or there may have been a course of thicker marble below the sculptured

— Nereid Monument, Capital.



himself, in a sketch in the


figures the

width of the front at the architrave as 22


AND OTHER WORKS. detail He acted as architect to the expedition. 3. — rested. It is the fits epistyles 32. proposed by R. • ." vol. each containing three coffers. 180.0.ii^ from centre to centre. and we can now apply a proof.THESEUM. Falkener put two columns between the antse. iii. ERECHTHEUM. Falkener has also preserved a record of longer lacunar stones. He also shows the architrave and cornice of the door to the cella 1 . three of the cohimniations of 6.. certain. to this the console frag- 3 ' "V T'^^'Sy 1 I ^/^ .* All this is perfectly direct and obvious.1. Hawkins in 1845.9 and 10 in. that in the peristyle and six had four columns on the flanks. After all this discussion we come back to the restoration. and this is quite a possible arrangement. ISI end Again. this defines the width of the cella. for five columniations along the flanks at 6. ment 937 doubtless belonged.).9. and the cella. as we find a pair of Ionic columns in antis at Cnidos (" Ionian Antiq. and there is a partial draft of the front amongst the papers in the Greek and Roman and his * If for this dimension on careful measurement and plotting i or 2 inches more are wanted it may be given to the central intercolumniation. detail from Frieze. the antse capitals of which are preserved in the Museum.2 and that showed between the periFig. Allowing for a moulding on which they would have Nereid Monument. — Nereid Monument. at each for lapping over the column gives practically the same dimension. 'J.8 for which perfectly 33. and adding 1. but it was sides. 179. described in the Civil Engineer for 1845.^ " Fig.5 gives 31. lacunar stones at the front The show about style Museum that they were spaced about i. as being most in accordance with the prime facts. which he puts at the two ends. scheme showed four columns on the front and six at the His drawing has been allowed to disappear. from Frieze. the basement of then.

most perfect in Western Europe. and thus arose the suggestion that the tympanum may have been lessened through being fitted into rebates. and to make the architectural members fit he put four columns with short epistyles on the fronts. AND OTHER WORKS. he was driven to narrowing his pediment also. He did not and on finding that he had recovered all four angle pieces of one of the sculptured bands he proceeded on the assumption that he had found the whole of the slabs of that frieze. the size too much more than but apparently fearing to increase Fellows. and that the wider columniation were in front. and not the total length of the stones. and showed that there were probably six columns on the flanks.2. PINARA we have were 181." " Museum of Classical Anti- worked over the evidence again.9. and that by adding up their collective length he might obtain the total perimeter of the upper part of the monument. and assumed that three were As he thus narrowed his front. which he suggested were cut only 6. which shows that he made the width of the front at the epistyle under the cornice 22 feet and the front columniations 6. he made the curious proposition that the epistyle stones longer than the columniations.— Sculp- against him. fully appreciate the architectural evidence. but the evidence here again is Fiff. department. He tured Architrave.5I and 6. in the quities. and orAy five columns with the long epistyles on the flanks. This certainly the is one of the completest Greek buildings known. The at the it actual restoration of the front set up by Dr Murray the facts. The resulting dimensions were a good deal smaller than the basement. Further. but a pity that it was not placed where the height would allow the entablature and pediment to be placed over the closely to is Museum must approximate columns. Fellows published his restoration in 1848. Falkener. and an endeavour . he objected to figures standing on the lower angles of the pediment as acroteria. intended to cover each bay. thought he found a confirmation of this in the spacing of the lacunar stones.1 82 THESEUM. ERECHTHEUM.

Dr Six argues that it should be dated about 375 to 360 B. (Fig. 178. shows the patterns on the margins of the lacunaria.) So also was one figured in Texier's " Asia Minor. Furtwangler claims that it and the Hereon of Gjolbaschi belong to the fifth century. of which a drawing by Scharf is in the Lycian Portfolio at the Museum. and discusses our monument before the Parthenon itself. of which the head is extant. at the left is entirely ancient. as remarked on page 167. AND OTHER WORKS.-Nereid Monument. was also of this type. The friezeless entablature. might be made whole. painted there were palmette Fig. 181. . is as has an Asiatic characteristic. been said. in 183 it some future rearrangement to re-erect as a The column capital. as it resembles the style of the metopes of the Parthenon. For this view he gives several reasons. including two points which have independently convinced me the resemblance of the acroteria to those of Delos. 182 Decoration. (Fig. and do not imitate Attic models " the Dioskouros of the Acroterion.THESEUM. A tomb at Pinara.C. On the other hand. and on it rested the bold dentils of the cornice. derived from the Erechtheum. Assos. 182. can hardly be placed later than 440. in the official German handbook on Greek sculpture. ERECHTHEUM. — .. still maintains this view. of course. are of original Ionic style. ornaments. but the proper had an angle volute. The date of the Nereid monument is still discussed. On the panel of one is a head. A good deal of painting can be traced on the lacunar stones." Kekule. The capitals are. ." and the early Doric temple of . in others Fig. Fragment 938 is a part of the cymatium with a lion's head 935 and 936 are the antse capitals 637 is part of the console from the entrance.) There was no frieze. but the epistyle was sculptured. it may be combined with the door architrave figured by Falkener.

1 84 THESEUM. Fig. 183. capitals with those of the it and a comparison of the " Erechtheum. marine creatures. B. except that they are shown to be later by the leaf pattern of the which resemble the Priene. the Nereids are evidently inspired by the " Ilithyia " of the Parthenon pediment {ante. The are practically copies of that described on page 170. Group from would reinforce Dr Six's argument regarding the Erechtheum by pointing (937)." latter As " point. swimming bird. unhappily described as running they all rest with Acroterion. the guilloche under the cushion. and passages in the friezes are as evidently influenced by Athenian Fig. and seem to glide on the wind. central bands on the rolls. They are best described and most poetically explained by Dr Six as Aurae. 183. 129). 184.. crab. . AND OTHER WORKS. but it is much dis- usually assigned greatly in- to the end of the fifth century. fish. Notice the double volutes. capitals of the Mausoleum and The statues of the " Nereids " are rather . Cf. " The date and occasion of the building have been cussed. The group is for instance. personifications of the Breezes surrounding the Isle of the Blessed. and to sculptors to the " fluenced by Athenian work. ERECHTHEUM. which also has capitals its to the fragment of the door console prototype in the Athenian building. p. at — Bronze M. an echo of the In regard to — Nereid Monument. I frieze. and the moulding interposed between the rolls and the abacus on each side. works. for in the last Guide (1908) we read. on &c. such is the similitude that goes near to proving the direct connection. Fig. Frieze." German weight seems to be impressing itself on the guardians of the Museum. Parthenon the date.

of the raking Three or four small fragments are cornice. AND OTHER WORKS." * The carrying off of the daughters of Leukippos by the Dioscuri on the acroteria symbolises death. also in the Louvre. Dedication Stone. made before of the order. They a crab.fowl. i8s. with was excavated so lately name of Alexander. more thoroughly. " A note of flying over sea. . reads. a dolphin. of the explorain Rayet and Thomas. ERECHTHEUM. Pars. and. and of the lacunars.. Many charhas been explored by a German expedition.-Priene. one of which is set up in the Inscription Hall above a large part of one of the antae. they hover over the water without touching especially to be seen by the swimming water-fowl beneath one of them. where the dead sea rest. 1768. and sea under it. Still it more lately. see the dolphin I had read this. PRIENE." One at least . have * is in much modified our knowledge my own. and some of the original are '.ANEG)BfcE-T-DNNA'QN i.v memoranda in preserved the Greek Department.THESEUM. and the stones were brought to England at the cost of Mr Ruskin. a water. Many British in Museum. 185 thinnest garments. There are also portions of the cornice and gutter. sailing and as is shore. tion of I suppose. as 1870. through which winds the Meander. made of the ruins on a height above a wide plain. acteristic parts have been set up in the Pergamon Museum at These inquiries Berlin. it must be admitted. clad in the by the aid of their mantles over indicated by a fish. and a shell it. It. There are capitals of the order and of the anta. Y\g. the material result. and there fragments of the temple of Athena are gathered in the It was first examined by a British expedition is in the Print Room an exquisite drawing by at that time. which was described an excellent volume. and it has been described by Wiegand. are "young maidens.

30 and 42. The Germans proceeded by another method.error An is 87. In the English text we are told that in "' all the restorations hitherto published the height of the column has been assumed . by the same method.Z86 THESEUM. and we saw that the Mausoleum. — Priene.40 metres.. the temple in these plates assumes a more elegant form.0 rather serious in the minute engravings of the English volume.95 feet to the column. and the bottom ones left on the site. ^^^^^ of 42..230. or less than 9 diameters. \ diameters or about 6. what seems to and allowing for be missing they estimated the height as 11.'' Penrose's cal- culations resulted in giving a height 1 I ^k.:# Fig. Mr Dinsmoor. which is about an inch in excess of the French and German estimates. is gf. An ing American. . and Pullan gave the full bottom diameter as 4. Penrose had very inadequate data the measurements on which he based were taken within the flutes. without the plinths. estimated it at 1 1. workgives the 814. 1 86. members of Entablature. another work of the same architect.7. or 9J. Thomas Penrose's total height therefore works out to nearly loj diameters. AND OTHER WORKS. of i proportion as exactly 8 .a. while Rayet and ^V:^^^gi — Priene. If the column at Miletus. which seems to be the only one . the Capitals. taking the top courses of the antse as restored in our Museum. Pytheos. had a height of only eight diameters. while Miletus.75 metres. to be nine diameters but it having been ascertained from the exhaustive inquiry by Mr Penrose that the real height was not less than ten diameters. as the fillets were so broken. the later and otherwise tallest known column. ERECHTHEUM.

Palmette from Capital restored. — Priene. — . has a height of about 9I. The composition and height of the entablature has already been spoken of on page 23. notes "Fig. The Ger- man restoration showing how the stones fitted into one another leaves no room for doubt of its correctness. says the frieze at Priene "is actually omitted. the English account would have set forth the true form. but to bring it into relation with contemporary examples. and that the order had no frieze. and Priene had probably a height of about 8|. Since I first discussed this point the results of Dinsmoor. and the Mausoleum as well. members where it of the entablature is plain that the cornice notched down over the outer stone of the architrave. find amongst the associated original as in the 186. there is very slender basis for the theory of proportional measurement. to compare Priene with other works. AND OTHER WORKS. ERECHTHEUM. from " Ionian Antiquities. It is on such a basis that elaborate calculations of pro- portions rest ! Mr wishing Fig. 188. I have restored a frieze. Priene. If it had not been for the compelling Fig. the Capitals. 1 87 whose height is perfectly sure. 189. By correcting the height of both the columns and of the entablature we make a reduction of 8 or 9 feet on the whole order." first I force of a preconceived idea.THESEUM." He then gives friezes to Ephesus.

the last explorations at is Ephesus have been published. the early temples at Ephesus. 44. which were largely undercut as the>' passed over the eggs and tongues. of which the first and the last are admittted to have had no friezes. (Fig. ornaments. Capitals of Propylrea. At the angle of the cornice in the square space between the : * Dinsmoor in American Jour. 1908 a valuable article on the Mausoleum which. 190. Now.) At the inner angle the volutes were complete. Arch!.THESEUM. and the early temple restored without a frieze. ERECHTHEUM. together with a general Ionian tradition. The facts in regard to the other two point in the later and same direction. (See coloured plate in of carved mouldings are picked out Rayet and Thomas' work. . the analogy with the others. detail from Lacunaria.) in colour. the Mausoleum. except in regard to the details of the order.* it acall The Priene capitals at the are almost exactly Museum 1 like those of the Mausoleum. of the give a restoration palmette Fig. as shown by the engraving in " Antiquities of Ionia.. tions of lines Some ments of the frag- Fig." marble studs inserted into sunk circles. agrees with the scheme set out above in Part II. and Priene form a series. — Priene. One " The finished eyes of the volutes were of the unfinished eyes shows slight indica- and the centres from which the curve was struck. AND OTHER WORKS. At Berlin there is an angle volute with a palmette ornament at the back like those of the Mausoleum. — Priene. are sufficient cepting grounds for our as proved that four had no friezes." and in a sketch by Huyot given in Didymes. 191.

naturalistic element in the carving of the antae of the temple — The Lion Tomb at Cnydos. 192 shows a Propylaea. and the upper two. thought it commemorated a naval victory of the year 394. 190. and was about 40 feet high." From the sketches I give a detail of one of the stone shields about 3.) Several large pilaster-like caps from square piers the were found on the site. and Some are shown in VuUiamy's etchings and also in Donaldson's sketches at the InA smaller one at the stitute of Architects. — Lion detail of Tomb. (Fig. were probably of vitreous paste or perhaps of precious stones. dentils 189 was a large palmette. Museum it is described as a pilaster cap. . AND OTHER WORKS. Newton Fig. 22 . Of this noble work only the recumbent mounted the pyramid was brought away. but seems to be the anta of a small building —the size of Propylaea? It agrees well with the Priene. ERECHTHEUM. as shown in the sketch from the Museum. 191.6 diameter. the length of the lion "The eyes now wanting is nearly 10 feet. Fig.) This monumental use of shields has been Shields. Some are in They seem to have supported they are later than the temple statues. The coffers of the lacunaria were very rich and deep. which were set between the columns of the basement. 193.THESEUM. Room at the Museum. The monument stood on a rocky promontory 200 feet above the sea. and the original sketches are in the MSS. Sir C. having three recesses with carved mouldings the lowest a fine egg and tongue. (Fig. 192. 193. (Fig.) Fig. structure lion which of sur- Details the were published by Newton and Pullan. and 23) was copied from Ephesus. Pliny tells of a marble lion on the tomb of a prince in Cyprus with emerald eyes. Museum. one of the ordinary capitals of the Lilies from carving. The gutter (as shown in Figs.

.* It is represented The temple in the British Museum from ever. of which With statue of ' there is a cast in the Louvre.. square. by 56. 45 p. Pausanias tells of a hall at decorated with shields "not the made for war. 194. Is it only a coincidence that it was found at the treasury of the Cnidians ? The DeArchaic Fig. near Miletus. meter follows a traditional type. and 195.. " Didymes. how- form the greatest architectural possession of the Louvre. An example of a memorial inscription written on such a shield may be seen in the Inscription Hall. also from Cnydos. AND OTHER WORKS. from Athen." tomb I must mention the Demeter. 194. Salamis. . Fig. and with that compare a similar figure on the Harpy tomb. Mitth. p. Mitth. and Naucratis. was probably in its mass the greatest temple ever erected. above. parts of the frieze of griffins which ran between them. but the temple of Samos may have been still larger in area. Samos {Athen.'' As a result of the recent excavation at the size is given as 11 1. 6 in. bases from the (Fig. see Demeter. Fellows illustrates a tower from a city wall in Lycia with a similar shield before referred upon Elis it. MM. Pontremoli * See Pontremoli. which by this analogy should also be Demeter. 1895. only by some archaic sculptures brought Important fragments of this temple. its sacred way.95 m. and some colossal highly ornamented. Its style seems to me to be remarkably like that of the head of " Apollo found at Delphi. 471). portico. where are exhibited five or six large capitals from the pilasters of the open cella.) their height was nearly 65 ft. ERECHTHEUM. one of the most delightful works in the Museum. The lowest diameter of the columns was 6 ft. to under the Parthenon. Cf. 1903. — Miletus.igo THESEUM. of Apollo Branchidae. In the most recent work on this temple.25 m. of which the plinth blocks are about 9 ft.

and Haussoullier * have sought


to collect every slightest reference only here note one or two points from English sources unknown to them.




in the British

Museum MSS. Room

an account of

a visit to the temple in 1679 by Dr Covel, once chaplain to the Levant Company. This, the earliest modern description, is

accompanied by a sketch, of which a poor rendering is given in an engraving in the account of Spon and Wheler's travels. They did not visit the site but obtained the view from Dr Pickering, physician to the Company, who, with Mr Salter, visited the temple in 1673. Wheler, Pickering, and Covel all met in Constantinople, and travelled thence to Smyrna together.

Fig. 195.

— Miletus, Capitals of Pilasters.

Covel's account of his visit in 1679 is as follows: "This morning, not long after five, pitch our tent near ye Temple of

The remains Apollo Didymeus, called by the Turks Yoran. shows ye greatest pomp and magnificence of all of this building The stones are all pure white marble, I have seen in Asia. them very large. On many of them a few letters are most of On certain of them are certain cut, particularly in one place. carved most curiously, such as images of griffins, in some figures, On a large chapter defaced, in others remaining almost entire. is a fair image of an angel [a winged figure, now in the Louvre].
* See Anderson and Spiers for abstract. This site was cleared further year, and much light has been thrown on the destruction of the





17 are





entire piece of marble




long, 3.9J broad,

3. 2 J thick.


this great structure

remain standing

only three
the others,




are joined



them, which a tran-


(architrave) of marble.

Each of them


made up


about 16 or 17 pieces of marble, very evenly laid, one upon another, and are of channelled work. The compass of one of them is 19 ft. 6 in. ... In the inscription on the other side of the pillar is also found ... so that it is not to be doubted but that these ruins are all that remain of that most magni-

Fig. 196.

— Naucratis, part of Ionic Capital.


temple which the idolatrous Milesians erected to Apollo

It appears from this that Covel saw a dedicatory inscription, probably on the anta, which, as the sketch which accompanies the description shows, was still standing to its full height. This sketch also indicates a number of short inscriptions on the stones of the cella they have been corrupted by the draughtsman, and still more by the engraver, who prepared the similar view for Wheler and Spon. According to Pontremoli, many of the blocks of the walls still bear quarry marks, usually IE or lEP, signifying that they were for the temple works, together with other variable letters, representing proper names.





In 1820 several drawings were made of the fragments on the by the French architect, Huyot, who was in the company of

Donaldson, as appears from some sketches made at Priene and Miletus by the latter, now in the Library of the Institute of Architects, on one of which the presence of Huyot is mentioned. Vulliamy etched several of the capitals of the pilasters, and
also the griffin frieze.


from Cyprus

associate with Miletus the fine bull-headed capital in the British Museum. The ornamental female
like the

is almost exactly Other bull-headed capitals have been found at Delos, Ephesus, and other places. A gold pin in the Museum, with a head in the form of such a capital, is the

figure at the side



of the

Miletus capital.

finest design of all of



comparison with Miletus goes to show that the Salamis capital is later than it is catalogued. I should date it c. 250-200. It must derive Fig. 197. — Naucratis, Egg and from the Persepolitan capitals. Tongue Moulding restored. With these may also be mentioned some fragments from the later Apollo temple built by the Greek colony at Naucratis. These comprise a part of an Ionic capital {c. 250), of which Fig. 196 is a partial restoration some fragments of an egg and tongue moulding, with an interesting termination against the angle, which I have put together in the restored Fig. 197 also a knot ornament which appears also on a capital recently found at Delos. There are also some still more interesting fragments from an early temple {c. 550-500), being parts of an Ionic column which are to be compared with the archaic order from Ephesus.


Teos and Magnesia.
by Pullan, was pubvolume of " Ionian Antiquities." There are in the Museum only two slabs of sculptured frieze which were brought away from it, but they are so entirely bad, and fallen
Ionic temple at Teos, excavated
lished in the fourth




again into barbarism, that


difficult to




temple had any reputation. The temple of Dionysos at Taos and the temple at Magnesia on the Meander were according to Vitruvius the work of one architect, Hermogenes, who, he says, wrote a description of the Ionic pseudodipteral temple of Diana at Magnesia and of the monopteral * temple of Bacchus at Teos. The pseudo-dipteros, he explains, has a single row of columns at the distance of two intercolumniations and a diameter from the cella. The temple that is, its intercolumniations were of 2j at Teos was eustylos diameter. " Its proportions were discovered by Hermogenes, who was also the inventor of the octastylos or pseudodipteral f formation he omitted the intermediate columns in number 38, It is and thus great space was obtained around the cella." difficult to say what all this means, a monopteros as wide as a dipteros is found in one of the early Doric temples of Paestum, indeed it is selected to illustrate the word pseudodipteral in the American " Dictionary of Architecture." The Ionic temple of Messa on Lesbos, described by Koldeway, and dated by him about 400, is also of this formation, which, as shown below, is about two centuries earlier than the temples of Magnesia and Teos. The temple at Magnesia was excavated by the French about 1842, and large parts of the sculptured frieze and the It was a carved cymatium of the cornice are in the Louvre. large Ionic structure about 190 by 100 feet, the columns were 40 The site has been recently re-examined by a German feet high. expedition, and part of the order has been set up in the Pergamon Museum at Berlin. Foundations of an earlier building In the rebuilding the of the dipteral formation were found. intermediate row of columns was omitted. This seems to be the The entire true basis of the confused account in Vitruvius. very poor, coarse,, frieze was occupied with an Amazon battle and ineffective. The figures are only so much space-filling inAlthough the " architrave order " of stead of important stories. the rest has here been given up, it is Ephesus, Priene, and


* Notice

this use of the


In his general description of temple types

he seems to limit it to circular buildings without a cella, but it must mean properly what it means here, a temple with one row of columns. t Omit " or," and read octastyle-pseudodipteral " ?

Q . as Dr Hirschfeld suggests [from the inscriptions]. as they were taken more than a century ago. and with the Stuart Papers in the MSS. when the sculptures In the Elgin Room is the frieze.* The Germans date this work as built in fourteen years. 193 and 133.C. Both have an almost identical scroll ornament on the cushion of the volute. Figs. This elegant little Corinthian structure is too Two or three points only may well known to need description." Including the mouldings along the margins it is only about 2. may be briefly mentioned here as one of the most elegant later works. of which Hermogenes was the architect. The whole entablature was about 10 feet deep. many valuable drawings in the Greek and Roman Department. to have been erected in 335. Diameter of columns was c. Samos. from an inscription which it bore. 34. : cf. 35." Another Ionic temple. One of the most definite criteria is a comparison of the capitals with those of the Ptolemaion at Samothrace made by O.8 deep. excavated and described by Pullan. "It seems probable. There are also in the basement one of the Corinthian capitals. and both must be of about the same age. In the English account of Teos we read. were Ephesus * The great sculptured altar was found to the west of the temple also. but very poor and dull. from 221 B. and in a much better state. I think.C. The bases were carved after the model of Miletus. interesting to observe that " under the frieze shrinks to I9S mighty dentil course the almost an unimportant band of decoration. 4. AND OTHER WORKS. The monument is known. . Its date has never been accurately settled.7. The Choragic Monuments of Athens. the Smintheium. it is in short lengths of about 4 feet.THESEUM. On the other hand the temple may have been restored or rebuilt in Roman times. carved with a lion's head in the middle of each. Of the famous monument of Lysikrates our Museum pos- sesses only casts. but casts which are most valuable records. The cymatium alone must be fully half as deep. was planned if not completed between B. Room. that the temple. Puchstein in his work on the Ionic capital. ERECHTHEUM.

AND OTHER WORKS. Epidaurus. 200. that a moulding. It is a cones. mistake to think of the cupola. circular cornice-stone like little about the developthis one seems to have been designed as a pyxis. represents tiles. The columns are really complete. pattern. ERECHTHEUM.). On the top is a very handsome finial with three branches. and covering them. (Fig.) Traces of painted decoration have been found on this monument. 198. of Lysikrates.I. so that the columns stand in half round channels at the joints. but it is rather a leaf We find it first. The Monument low-sloping cone or pyramid is the classiFig. be mentioned. frieze The architrave and blocks. the closures of the small round cell being set between them. is are is in single circular It and joint the roof in another. which supported a tripod. with a lid and a knop on the top. Outside it approximates to a very flat cone. Jour. exactly the curvature of the cover of a vase or one of the turned marble toilet boxes. roofed with a low-pitch pyramid. but as a painted pattern appeared on the Ionic capitals of the it pjg.A. so far as I know. as a classical form. and Samothrace must have been covered by low So must the Odeon and the Skias at Athens. signed as a jointless fabric. Fig.196 THESEUM.B. The ornament carved on the roof-stone. We know ment of circular buildings. but having a slight curvature. 201 is the capital. vol. we are told. really deis. It fits on and into the a lid.. no occurs except behind the columns and at The marble it roof-stone Stuart calls a cupola. inn—pian Propylsea {R. on the volute rolls of the capitals of the Nereid monument. but — # . especially as seen from the outside. i. cal form for a round or polygonal structure. although is hollowed out inside for lightness. but this raises a false idea. The octagonal " Tower of the Winds " was The rotundas at Olympia.

seated. ERECHTHEUM. well represent the sepulchral monuments of Lycia explored by Fellows. AND OTHER WORKS. or rather oblong on plan. 200. 201. and several fragments. set on basements. 197 Fig. its ment of also the statue from the choragic monuThrasyllos. In Capital. (2) chest or sarcophagus-like tombs. more or less complete. square. at the Fig. We small. There are three principal types of those tombs (i) Rock-hewn chambers with temple-like fronts. Rome such marble piers presenting their narrow sides to the front are to be found on the Palatine. — Detail of the Finial. the statue being possess and It probably holding a tripod in and altered front was supported in the middle by one pier. series of tombs. The Propylsea and the Temple of Victory.THESEUM. . later. — The Lycian Tombs. raised high on stone shafts or basements (3) ark-like tombs. imitating small wooden shrines A — . like detached antse. which was placed above the front to a rock-hewn cella. The entablature of the square piers. the narrow face fronting outwards. There are similar lap. was built in 320.

seem so and yet belong to the fourth century. With a high plinth below the shaft. Several show other varieties of the characteristic Ionian cornice of these Department.198 THESEUM. 181.! !^^iv*.— From Xanthus. as usual. in some respects. Museum is Museum were of the second or " chest \^\ which. ." Fig. Of the rock-cut tombs there is a valuable series of drawings by Scharf preserved in the Lycian Portfolio in the Greek sculptured epistyle of the from one of these. 1844.::. traces of which can still be seen. Memoranda in Scharf's note-books refer to the colour of these Xanthian monuments. being blue. All these monuments appear to have been painted there are plain traces of colour on a slab with a sphynx in the Museum. No. The bottom moulding with its painted decoration.'' " at the The slabs in the elevated on a tall base about 10 feet high.::^^::^:^^::^ little turret with a deep sculptured frieze. Fig. This tomb is generally dated as of the seventh century.!. is like the Nereid monument. It is now dated soon after the middle of the sixth century. The two " ark procession. bright and natureful. 302. On January 22. including the Nereid monument. the painting has protected the surface. This "frieze" was ' ^~"^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^-^ V-. was found . On the top of the sculptured sarcophagus would have been a heavy.) This can hardly be earlier than the fourth century. The Harpy tomb from Xanthus rested on a shaft 17 feet high. I cannot see why it might not be nearly a century later. 370. widely-projecting cover. frieze of I should say of the fifth century 82 is a delightful cocks and hens. it seems to me. to give too early a date to all these Ionian monuments. (Fig.!. but comparing it with the "ark tombs. the background. Its projecting cap-stone remained. 86 is a noble primitive. The " Lion tomb type.^^S fully painted. taken monuments. surely points to the fifth century. ERECHTHEUM. but there is a general tendency. 202. One of them is dated by an inscription as wrought c. and on the Harpy tomb some patterns may be discerned where .^^\\'«&.^!. AND OTHER WORKS. tombs " are in the Mausoleum Room. it looked like a p^^^^^^.

Gell. others transferred from the Institute of Architects belonged to Donaldson. the background blue—" intensely bright blue. Some belong to the Elgin Collection. On my calling Dr Murray's attention to it." On February 2. . — Mycenas. the latest and best being that of Mr Phene Spiers. and several restorations have been put forward. The gateway. and the fragments which were found round about it. now Museum. In the Lycian Room of the Museum has lately been erected a reconstruction of the greater part of the pillared gate of the " Treasury of Athens " at Mycenae. part of Frieze. standing unrecognised in the porch of a collector's house in London. have often been described and figured by Dodwell. now In one respect. placed with the fragments in the Museum. in the have had evidence enough that painted decoration on external marble work was regarded as a necessary completion from the earliest days of Greek art to the latest. Donaldson. ERECHTHEUM. AND OTHER WORKS. . he obtained it as a gift from the proprietor. We Mycen^. It is made up of parts brought to this country by collectors at various times. One of the fragments (Fig. with a harpy above an Ionic column it was " richly coloured. ." The slabs with cocks and hens were found at the same time. the hair yellow.THESEUM. I99 the relief of the sphynx the wings were patterned with feathers. 203. was discovered the pedimental slab. and others. 203) I had the fortune to find Sligo. 1844. and the most important fragments of the pillars recently obtained were brought from Greece nearly a century ago by the Marquis of Fig.

2.200 THESEUM. and of which forms. some of which have sunk eyes. There are only three pieces. I think a former more extravagant restoration by This is the suggested Perrot and Chipiez is to be preferred. He British also gives another long the without slanting ends. Expedition a la Morde " a piece with a slant end is given much shorter in proportion than the British Museum fragment.) piece. w^^^^mmmm — Mycense. Chipiez place here certain slabs of dark red marble (sometimes mistakenly called porphyry). all of which have slant(Fig. and now in the British Museum. (Fig. 204.— Mycenae. and it is a question whether Perrot's 3 is not a restoration of this. ERECHTHEUM. in- deed. Apex of opening above Door of Tomb. Mr Spiers. as from Museum. AND OTHER WORKS. but this is a mistake. takes these slabs to case the adjoining pieces of wall. spirals and some circles is figured. then.) Portions of the slabs covered with spiral ornaments have been drawn several times. other hand. and one might suppose it to be different were it not that a plainer piece with one row of In the " Fig. but often so inaccurately that it is not possible to say different times. how many i Perrot gives separate stones have been found at i. 205. The British Museum piece has one slanting end and a broken end. and 3. on the have been set. which are decorated by bands of spiral ornaments. Fragments. 204. the slanting edges of which framed the opening. did for It is clear that the slabs occupy one or other position. however. in which studs of coloured glass must sm^^^^^mma Fig. ing ends. they have joints which rake at the required angle. with slant ends of which . the apex of a triangle. and this seems to be the same as a stone illustration by Dodwell. 205. Perrot and fining of the triangular opening above the doorway.

THESEUM. the is outer boundaries of which upright. not > is The best early sketch know of the capital a drawing in one of Gell's sketch books in the Print Room Fig. the contributory evidence The it de- scribed that. for obvious that the proportion of slanting ends required is greater to fill the triangular space than would be required to fill the two side spaces. to re- sketches by Gell. which Fig. of the British first. AND OTHER WORKS. and the British Museum piece. 1879. i. " was a capital and not Near the door observe a semicircular pilaster and its capital very curiously carved in spiral and zigzag lines. were necessarily That is. at and less uprights in The rected restoration a mistake in which appears Museum has corregard to the capitals almost all illustrations of the in them. seems to settle the question.) * Athen. 2. . I it Museum.symmetrically at the central line. and more the triangle. which is may be triangular piece i was found in 1878. Thiersch* It accurately fitted the apex of the opening.) There is. I 201 feel certain. also. Mitth. I in one direction < <. in illustrations are shown as arranged. there uprights than slants would have been more at the sides. 207. however. 205." (Fig. See also 1896. (Fig. They really all pass : around <. out of so few known slabs. to me. ERECHTHEUM. 207. — My- cense. believe. so as to oppose one another . 3. cognise that He says. and by F. 206. and this. from was the a base. Column and Capital. He — Mycente.. so it many as three have sloping ends. They are adorned by a series of chevrons. allowing for some inter- mediate slants joints.

— Fragment exploring party at Enkomi. AND OTHER WORKS Another slight sketch is of a piece of Mycenaean frieze. 210." the pillar of Mycenze. and that they — faced outwards. South Kensington.202 THESEUM. as it appears on the Lion Gate. — Gem at H. (Fig." The examination of it by Thiersch showed that the heads of the lions had been pinned on in separate pieces. 208. comparisons show that it must be a portion of a marble lamp. (Figs.) It was found by the English Fig. It was a symbol of the stability of the fortified city. who also mentions that " the block of the lions is of a compact limestone of a green hue resembling in appearance the green basalt of Egypt." * There is in the Early Vase Room at the Museum a cast of a fragment of a small Mycenaean shaft decorated in a very similar way to the pillars of the Treasury of Athens. Dr Evans found at Knossos such a large * J.) A few words may be added on the noble Fig. (Fig. S. is essentially of Egyptian deriv-ation. 209. which he notes was "in a church near the Treasury. " the pillar of the House. This. or rather two altars. and is now in the British Museum. frequently found Similar compositions are Fig. ERECHTHEUM. I think. on early gems.. Gem Lion Gate. so well known to us by the from Mycenae. guarded by lions. may be the very piece described above which was found in London. which are the companions of a pillaridol. from the size which is figured on the sketch." and of red material. Dr Evans has shown that the 208.) composition was a sacred pillar standing on an altar. The best general view I know is the coloured print of Dodwell. descriptions of English travellers of a century ago. . " The scheme of the pillar and guardian monsters. 207 B. 1901. 209. 210. and from Cyprus. Cyprus.

This ornament seems.* The Palaicastro lamp has a band of ornamentation almost exactly similar to the Enkomi shaft. . although the transformation cannot here be followed. similar lamp was found at Palaicastro. and resembles A lamps still in situ at Hagiatrida. . (Fig. Amongst the many extraordinary fragments recently discovered at Knossos and other sites. The horned objects by the pillars are altars within the cellas. AND OTHER WORKS. 203 lamp made of similar rose-coloured marble the top is an imitation of an Egyptian capital. Fig. not the least interesting is a painting showing a temple front with pillars like those of the Lion Gate.THESEUM. from a Pamting at Knossos.) * Angelo Mosso. with lotus-flowers and papyrus leaves. 211 A Temple Front. to derive from the papyrus blossom. 211. ERECHTHEUM.

" The late Mr Penrose. * R. Ephesus. 212. set out the theory that the volute was in fact drawn by means of a cord helix. the volutes were made to contain the helix from which the cord was unwound. what we one another.A. .* unwound from a central If the cord is unwound is from a cylinder a equal intervals this differs spiral having produced.. Pontremoli in the volume " Didymes. according to of arcs of circles gradually it was drawn by a series whom The details of his scheme have been much increasing in radius. feeling as . tions Priene B. a mathematician that such a method was only an approximation to a true theoretic spiral. and in having succeeding revolustarting Fig. set out the volute discussed one of the latest theories of interpretation is that of Choisy. Other reasons for the excavation of the eye have been given.APPENDIX. cord is may call parallel to If. The traditional explanation of the is manner in which the Greeks given to us by Vitruvius. 21. p. however.I. . which is almost exactly like Penrose thought further that the sunk eyes in the Ionic volute. The Ionic Volute. A. 1903. as given by M. B. Jour. — Eyes of Volutes. but from the volute in quickly from the eye. the a spiral or unwound from a cone an expanding volute results.

I * sugthe Fig. then to set out the dimensions on ordinates. at the Erechtheum the points do not give a smooth curve. believe. (Fig.)* Probably the best way of designing a volute would be to sketch it as required.) As a matter of fact. agrees with the actual gest. then to " smoothe the curve. — to sketch on it a rough spiral according centres for successive number of revolutions required. And if from the centres thus obtained arcs are . unfinished. On examination it will be found that many of the centre points on the eye fall into the course across but show lines of construction of a spiral. and many Ephesus fine capitals exist still 205 their volutes which have while the eyes are capitals." and from it to correct the volute. Amongst these is complete one of the where the eyes are not only nearly 5 inches and compass marks which have often been pointed out. If the dimensions of a perfect spiral of this type are laid down on ordinates they should give a smooth parabolic curve. as suggested on Fig. These are now very dim. 212 A). then. that Greek method of constructing the volute was to draw four intersecting lines on the eye. The and rude spiral with the eight radii. volute. 2 1 3 B." We may bring Penrose's theory to bear on the elucidation of the marks on the Ephesus capital.APPENDIX. . successively spiral results struck. and only under the electric light have I been able to verify the statement (Fig. 213. Rodeck. then to the Dimensions ofVolutes set out on Ordinates from circumference of eye. * I arcs of circles were found at the intersection of this small owe fall this observation to Mr P. (Fig. On the diagram the points do not on the curve. a I which. 212 B. The late Prof Middleton drew attention to the fact that similar lines might be traced on one of the Priene capitals. 2 13 A. Chandler reports that at Athens " we found an Ionic capital with marks of the compasses used in forming the volute.

The flutings of the acanthus pillar of Delphi finish under each acanthus band like in a series of leaf-like terminations. sketches at the Institute of Architects. — Acanthus a Fig. Monument of Lysikrates. of which there is a cast in the basement of the British Museum. from drawing aldson.C.3 in greatest diameter. exactly those of the Corinthian columns of the monument of (Fig 215. the by Don- Top of Shaft. built in 335 B." an example of which has recently been found at Delphi.2o6 APPENDIX. The Acanthus Soon Pillar. 214. I is also of the It same can- pattern. 215. (Fig. but smaller. The flutings of the . In Donaldson's *'A) Fig. not. — Detail of Column. This was 1. be so early as the Parthenon. 214. a further development was made in the " acanthus pillar. one of the fragments assigned by Michaelis to the acroterion of the Parthenon.) Lysikrates.) Now. think. by any possibility Delphi Column fragment said to be from Parthenon. I find & drawing of a part of a similar pillar which was in a church at Athens. after the Corinthian capital came into use.

A. vol. The foundation craft was most generally. Rhoecus. . Phidias. . . American Architectural Record.APPENDIX. . to office-work . telephones. i. 216. according to Plutarch.)' This section may be compared with that of the curved frag- ments assigned to the acroterion of the Parthenon. was architect of the Skias at Sparta and other works. the most famous sculptor of the archaic period. The Greek architect could not have been what we call a professional man. d. he was the city architect of Athens. 500. (Fig. and artists received his orders. Griech. was. His contemporary. It is all the more necessary to distinguish and ask what are the essential qualities of an architect ? The training of the Greek must have been practical. The modern conditions which make the modern architect are unique. a mason. at once the architect Furtwangler. Before the invention of penny posts. the mathematician and military engineer. although the Athenians . " director of all the public had other excellent architects. and all the That is. Choisy's Essays on Greek Durm. or a sculptor. The Greek master may seem to have approximated more to the modern idea of an architect than did a master-mason of the Middle Ages in being a man of science and culture.) Architects in Antiquity. but it is evident that he must have had a training. Daremberg and Saglio. the sculptor. He had the superintendence of everything. 1908. Kallemachos was probably and the sculptor of the Erechtheum. although it is significant that in the list of the seven great architects is included Archimedes. " Gesch. that is.* But I can only here deal broadly with the general facts of their training and standing. the Building Accounts . * See Brunn. B." as will appear more likely by what we shall see below. Theodorus of Samos. vol. telegraphs. as has been suggested. 216. Large collections of material are available from which to architects. (Fig. he could not be trained to their use. 207 Delphi pillar are also of an elaborate section. was also a sculptor and architect. Kiinstler". draw an account of ancient I believe. was architect of the temple of Hera at Samos. c. Polycleitos the younger buildings. Bupalus of According to Chios. and the architect must have begun as a mechanician. i. and copying presses. the last. .

must also have been of this type.* As to their critical aspect toward their art we hear from Vitruvius how they wrote descriptions of their works and commentaries on architecture. architect of the temple of Diana at Ephesus. Earlier. must have to us. but he neglects to say how practical knowledge was attained. Hippodamus. p. and Sag. but never of learning building. s. he gives such sound advice that he must have been an excellent practical builder himself In one crucial passage he says that architecture has three branches. architects. the master at Priene and Halicarnassus. He begins. the architect of the arsenal at the Pirsus.v. it appears that an architect might cost ten times as much as an ordinary workman. in which he seems to have been an expert. dialling. and mechanics. although it is evident that the most essential commonplaces of procedure are assumed. indeed. . Notwithstanding all this. Ictinos wrote on the Parthenon. by saying that architecture is a science based on practice and theory. the latter being the construction of war-engines and other machines. Aristotle would not allow that architecture was a Fine Art it was too much subject to mere need to come within his definition. and of music and grammar. He talks of studying philosophy. who laid out Alexandria. i. vol. primarily sculptors. wrote on it. In Athens.. was the sculptor of the magnificent chariot group which surmounted the Mausoleum. as he was keeper of — * See long lists of sculptor-architects and engineer-architects in Daremberg and Saglio. down been an engineer. of which practically a complete specification has come was classed in later times as one of the seven great and we have seen that Archimedes was also named as one of them. 377. Forma. Philon. was both architect and sculptor at Epidaurus. Chersiphron.208 APPENDIX. For the Roman period Vitruvius himself has left an invaluable document. The more ancient and the great classical architects were. architect of the fortified town of Piraeus for Pericles and of the city of Rhodes. The most famous architect at the middle of the fourth century. Scopas built the temple at Tegea. and Pythios on the Mausoleum. as well as sculpturing the splendid pedimental groups. On the other hand. Later. Deinocrates. From a phrase cited from Plato. building. see Darem.. Pythios. I should say. Later architects were primarily engineers. As to plans.

must also have been an engineer. Whence came the change from the classical spirit which sought to realise perfect types. architecture was based on Greek precedents. for him. He also mentions Trypho of Alexandria. A second great architect contemporary. and. who devised the wonderful bridge over the Danube. machines. and who wrote a book on war-engines for Hadrian. He was appointing the Architectus publicorum of Rome. Vitruvius in his last chapter happens quite accidentally to mention three Greek architects who were concerned in the siege of Rhodes Diognetus. At a still later time. Architects for public works were public servants (not the same thing as public servants calling themselves architects !). a celebrated architect of Athens. who. to the Roman spirit of adventure and aggrandisement ? The change. Apollodorus of Damascus. and Epimachus. war-engines to the emperor. The Ten Books of Architecture " falls into the three divisions just named. an inventor of mechanical knowledge. architect of the city (who had a fixed annual salary). and other building masters — of the Lower is Empire were mechanicians " and engineers. Further. who acted with the besiegers. as the records show. he mentions the city architect of Carthage. was also his military engineer. saved that city by his devices. His vision was retrospective. the ninth is on dialling. he says. and the tenth is on machines.APPENDIX.'' but that which best qualified the architect to deal with it was his association with military engineering. the favourite architect of Trajan. including one on water supply. was general. . The first eight books are on building. Apparently he was the author of only one important building. and " in the air. the architect of St Sophia. of course. architect of the city of Apollonia. " 209 There is close association between the " engineer " no doubt that there was a and the architect. Decrianus. As late as the time of St Augustine. or a little later. and Cassiodorus gives the form for called Anthemius mechanikos. we know that the most famous master of the most celebrated group of buildings in Rome. a rival. and excelled in He was employed on the fortifications of Dara. Anthemius of Tralles. who removed the Colossus of the Sun to another position and built the bridge and Mausoleum of Hadrian. Callias." we are told.

with wooden frames (antae) and a surrounding protecting verandah (the peristyle). I think. as Mr Flinders Petrie has shown. On sanctioned huts and beehive tombs. and then only as an Even in Roman architecture the conical exterior interior form. we examine. Origins and Conclusion. How long do past and cast-off needs remain in consciousness as taste ? Take the great typical moulding. Or it was the Doric mould). and so on. projecting rafter ends eaves. which It is a lesson architecture.210 appendix. and certainly also much of the Mycenaean was handed on in the Doric. and terra-cotta gutter (cymatium). That which now " Esthetic architecture " was once organic building. our page 196 has been mentioned the late entry into " architecture " of that noblest building form. that the Doric order was in a large degree ultimately of Egyptian extraction. There can be no doubt. made up of wall plate (bed (mutules and corona). Many years ago Champollion pointed out the resemblance between the Doric order of columns and some pillars found in Egypt." Actual relation has been alternately asserted and denied one of the grounds for the denial being the wide gap of time between early Doric architecture and the period of these Egyptian columns. at the springing that the external It is the is mud same whatever " features " dome hardly counts." Yet these menial coverings of drains and stores were to become the master forces of a new for us that the dome. Again. Egyptian reeds. plastered over with Dr Dorpfeld has shown how that mysterious entity the Doric temple arose out of mud brick walls on a stone base course (orthostatae). and the like common necessities. The whole question is entirely altered by the establishment of Mycenaean art between the two. as has been shown by Dorpfeld and others. Certainly much of this art is of Egyptian derivation. kilns. originated in coverings. and the argument was carried further by Falkener in the " Museum of Classical Antiquities. and was used in well and baths. the spreading top of a fence of mud. It is a commonplace that the arch and vault were not recognised in Greek " architecture. the dome. and . only slowly came into higher structures. It was once. . The Pantheon is so much banked up to the dome was general. the cornice.

Later architecture was again and again renewed in Byzantine. from Athens.APPENDIX. R . The normal course of architectural development has been through need. but all things by experiment. was declining. Romanesque. Edittburgh. and decline. in South Kensington Museum. and mediaeval building adventure. incoherence. that the Ionic 211 is Egypto-Assyrian. shapes accidentally derived.— Fragment of Slab with Lattice Pattern. Their power is in this were never " designed. and maturity into rules. Printed at The Dakien Press. My study of the old has had the conditions of the new. expansion." * * Herodotus. as in modern days it is being renewed outside the realm of "taste" by fresh needs and — : : engineering experiment —the basis of the architecture of to- morrow." the ideal of Vitruvius. 217. While Greek " sanctioned architecture. Fig. the Roman building art arose. local possibilities. experiment that is the period of infancy to custom. order. and then intentional variations." but developed slowly from a that they The essence of Greek art is not in these mere far ancestry. redundance. but in the spirit of clearness. " for its object the discovery of Nothing comes of its own accord to men. and exquisiteness in which they were dealt with. mastery. sestheticism.


97. 65 Building boards. 138. the. 71. 86-88. 123. n3-n5. 83. 89. cratis Apollodorus. 26. . 106. 33. 209. 151. 70. . its walls. i. Acanthus. 82. 41. in the Parthenon. 38. 183 Athena. sculptor. 89. 155.95. i. 82. 169 A A Bacchus. architect-sculptor. 25. the. 68. 133. M. 141. . in. 160 Ajax. 124. 183. 1 50 and see Priene Athena Nike. 2n see 143. 162. 97. 91. 160. see ^sculapius Assos. silver patera Artemis. 3. 31. . 141 her types. 93.. of. 113 121. 109. 87. 208. 93.87. 207-209 Architraves. 129. 132. 130 Apollo. architect. 121 . 195-197. see Dionysos Bassse. 207 Achilles. 122-125. 112 Alexander. 116 note Anderson and Spiers. 141. 35. 108 . no. 140-145 . 98 Alexandria. 96. 15 Asclepios. see Bassje. 56. 92. 92. 81. Mycenas 57. see 83.97. 96. architect-engineer. 140 Acanthus pillar. her charioteer. 35. 206. 96. 1 6 Amphitrite. see Diana Budrum. 69. 83. 209 Aphrodite. 173 ^sculapius. the. 6. 72. shield. 144. architect. 12? Argos. temple at. 22. 65. 206. temple at. 104 merican Jourjial of rchceology. 153 . treasury of. 193 Bupalus. 69 Mgma. 171 Bohn. Acropolis. 37. at Bassse. 52 Beul^. 38. 140 Brunn. 170 Bull-headed capitals. account 171-178 Berlin. 29 Bernier. 53. 207 . Athens. 140. Augustus. temple of. 85. 151. temples to. 164 207. 141146 at Lemnos. see Entablatures Ares. 133 Agrigentum. Adamkilissi. no. 207 . 108. 23. 90. 131. 209 Apollonia. Nau- and Athens. no. 208. 107 her Xoanon. 57 Adler.INDEX. Miletus. 74. 207 note Bernay. 208 Architects. 210 Archilocos. 103. 144. 92. 209 Arch. 106 Bocher. 190. 84.. 209 Alkamenes. 125. 145 at the Theseum. the. at. no. 52. 120. her her olive. temple of Apollo at. tomb at. his temples. 49. 53. 184. 66. 171 Pergamon Archimedes. Artemision. 152 Acroteria. see Spiers Anthemius. 129 Amazonamachia. 206.

174 Centaurs. 188. 189. art of. 97. 163-165. 143. architect. 173. 58. 194-196. Cornices. see Painting Colossus of the Sun. 205 Chersiphron. 112 Cavvadias. 34. 76. 122. 53 note. 103. 52. 109 note. 152. 108. 10. 30. 51. 210 Cyprus. 50. 202. 154 CaUirhoe. 61. 210 Ebersole. 155. n. 72-74. 88. 51. 124-128. 64. 207 note Cnidos. 61-63. 190 87. 56. i. 31. 202. 35. 59. 124 Dionysos. 120 Daphnis. 62. see Mouldings Covel. 82. 191. 206 Comon of Melite. 87. 181. architect-engineer. Mr. Lord. 24. 115. 68. 89. 129. 170. 172 Demetrius. 187. 151. figure of. and see Magnesia Uinsmoor. 156. 30. 210 Eirene of Kephisodotus. no. 131. 176. 109. 203 Egypt. 183. 31. 171. 91. 159. 92. quoted. 33 Cupolas. 22. 175. 113 note. 109. 104. 22. 183-188. 193-195. 140. 158. 50. 210 Dorpfeld. 205. 127-13 152. 199. 197 182. 174. 117. 164. 174. 198. u6. 175. 73. 122. 208 figures of. 13. 56-60. 201. 173. 189. 186-188 Diognetus. U5. 90. the. 188. 202 Dome. 192. 108. 106 Cymatium. 124127. 112 no. 14. andseeTeos Dioscuri. 109. 28. 31. 133. 75. her Temple at Ephesus. the. 186. 104. 196. 3. 156. 201. 108 . 208 Epimachus. 85. 109. 156. 20. tomb of. 200. 34. 71. 105 1-37. 209 Erechtheum. Colour. 121. n9. 31 Elgin. 25. . 140 Caryatides. 185 Discord. 155. 24. 24. 186. in Cnossos. 123 Capitals. 187. 66. 207 Demeter. 190. 34. 148. 207 note. 83. 19. Epidaurus. 53. 202. 72. 136-138. 206 Chandler. 206. 177. 195. 190. 34-36 Dexileos. 102. 133. 147. 152. 22. 71. 149. 210 Donaldson. 83. 32. 59. Dr. no. 171. 199. 168 Cassandra. 183. 65. 130 no. 79. Dr. architect. 140. n5. 149. 114-117. 88. 189. 26-28. 193. 2.214 INDEX. 167. 14-17. 159. ni 52. 75. 164. Dalton's drawings. architect. 89. Doorways. 174. 209 Deinocrates. Dara. 95. quoted. 33. 154. at Bassae. 128. 121 Dodwell. 160. 21. note. 4-6. 150. 200 Doric temples. 200 Choisy. Mr. 92. 31. 58. 209 Dione. 136. 35. 57. 135. 197. 159-161. 23. Colhgnon. the. 208 Delos. 154-156. 209 Columns and colonnades. 54. architect. 158-171 Erectheus. 127. 203 Cockerell. ng. 167. 63. 173. 143. 105. n8. 210 Drapery. 128. treasury at Delphi. 91. 50. 19-21. 209 Daremberg and Callias. 171. 121. 204. no-n2. 180. 11. architect. 169. 192 Croesus. 95-97. 158. architect. 206 Carrey's drawings. 208 209 note Caliicrates. architect-engineer. 161 S3. 168-170. no. 38. wife. architect. 187. 27 note. Saglio. 96. 157. 122 Erichthonios. 76. lion tomb at. 97. 42-45. 183. 32. Decrianus. Diana. 34 account of. 181. 175. 168. 199 Entablatures. 53. 208 Chipiez. 121. 175 30. 120-122. 174. 170. 21-25. 95 note. quoted. 183. 193 Delphi. Cecrops and his 133-138 Ceilings. 189. Professor. 193. 20. 202. 176.

53. 127. 82. 122-125. 130. 128. 84-99. 160. 106. 120. 28. quoted. 67. 208 Hirschfeld. 178 Laloux. no. 89. E. 195 Hogarth._ 205. 109. 137. 129. 183 Kephalos. 208 Ilissos. 30. 128-131 Fellows. 132. 117. 125. 115. 202 1 215 109. G. Samos Heracles. 176. 140 Knossos. temple of. 133. 149. 180. 195. 97. 2. 207 Kekule. 102. 202. 125 Hermogenes. 116 note Eurydice. 181. 117. 209 Hagiatrida. 177. Eros. 137. 106. 33 Evans. 94. 23. 134. Iliad. 22. 66. 57. 96. see Mausoleum \2i/i. 95-97. 130. 109. 171. 110. Mr D. 51 Gorgons' heads. 150. 91 note. 126 Kephisodotus. 114. 169. see Ionia. 20. Dr. 163 Gerhard. 89. 122. 69. 127 97. 202 Genain. 88.. 50. 143. 99. 83. 97. 87. 184 Inwood's drawings. Harpy Tomb. 152 Hawkins. i°6. 105. 89. Miss. Dr. 211 Iris. 126. 194 Cymatium H Hadrian. 97. 133. 122 53. or Hercules. 124. Laborde. Professor. 54. 45 note. 12. 121. architect-engineer. 125. 190. Gardner. 192. 109 and see Argos. 150 . 95. 198 Harrison. the. the. 195 Herodotus. 1 Europa. 2n Hippocamps. 73 I 207 Icarus. 50. 140. 176. 103. 138 K Kallimachos. 39. 124. Hebe.. 181- Horee. 125. 141 note Gutter. 94-96. 193 Hypasthral lighting. 171. 170 Ilithyia. 96. 41 Lamps. 175 . Sir C. 91.7iote. architect. 130. 151 . i. 121-124. 167. 141 Fates. Hermes. 156. 45 note. 10 Homer's Falkener. 124 note. 168. 120. 144. 115. in. 117. 178-180. 91. 54. 34. 182. 184. 199 Fiirtwangler. 133. 127. 190. 104. the. 122. 124 210 Horses. 124. 38. 126. 30 Eusebius. 126. 141 Hippodarus. 55 Finial. 183. 4. 130. 197 Friezes. 11. 194. 126 Helen. 4. 183. 166-170 Ion. see Cnossos Koldeway. 122 Leake. 131-133. 124. 181 Hephaistos. 89. 97. and see Theseum Hera. 317. 126 Latona. 97 Glass beads. iio> 125. 97. M. I7S. 112 Helios. 150. in 33. a. 122 note. 108. 88. 183. 53. 175. 204. 22. 121. 160 Gall's sketches. 197199 Fergusson. quoted. 94. sculptor-architect.. 126128. 52. 154. architect. 138. 203 Halicarnassus. 31 Kirsch Vase. 139. 116. 195. 156 Ictinos. J. 188. Huyot's sketches. 87. the. 128. 172. 153-158. 104. 115. 201 Gems. 122. 140.INDEX. no. 200 Goodchild. 161-164. 126. 29-32. 203 Lapiths.

160. 33. 203 Palatine. 32. 126. 193. 137-141. see Selene Psonius. 153. 50. 173. 206 Middleton. 80. 197- N Naucratis. 19341. 185 Lighting. 133. 27 Orpheus. 199 Palaicaistro.11 3. 86. 163. 195 L. Mycenas. tomb at. 153-158. 20. 178. 197 Nile. 51. 4. 59. 169. 146. 189. 25-29. quoted. Lion Tomb. 124. 11-18. 66. 66 190-193. 174 Lion Gate at Mycenae. 85 Monopteral temples. 86. 143. 112 Mercury. 186. 19. 121. 169. see Mau. . 135. 149. 60.22. 140. 143. 196 Oldfield. 85. 182. 86. 206 monument. 156. the. 157. the. 15. 48." 29. 150 " Magistrates. 175. 127. Apollo's temple at. Watkiss. 109 Oxford. 95. 89. i. 6. 89 Menelaus. 117. 54 Olympia. 2 Maidens. 75. no. 50-54. 130. 66.2l6 Lebadea. 167.79. 183. 110-112. 43. 194 Lucas. 170. 38. Hadrian Mausolus. 76. 94 Nereid Monument. 173. 202 Mummius. 198 account of. 92. 194 Moon. Professor. 25. 33-35. 113. 19. 62-64. 72. 200. 49. 186. 172. 42. 67. 108. account of. 85. 37. i. 34. the. 95 note Lechat. the. Sir C. 61. 28. 66-68. 56 22. Murray. 11. 88. 12. temple of. 107. 39. 86-90. 194 Odeon. temple at. 91. architect. 97. 102. 194 Painted sculpture. 72. daughters of. 194 . 95 note. 138. 86-90. 35 Passtum. M. 201 . 42. 126. tombs of. 89. 126. 170. 196 Orientation. 102. 120. 129. 113 at. 199 Lysicrates. 194 Metal work on sculpture. 91 4. 37. Mr. 71. his 205. 27 note. 31. 187. Magnesia.28. 173. i. 81. 205 Miletus. 8. 92 at. 116. 113. see Athena Mnesicles. 190. 197 77. 191. 112. 167. I.'' 92. 72. 52. 196. 199-203. 104. 168. 178. 144. 185. 20. and PuUan. Minerva. 30 Ovid. 166. 190. 141 Leukippos. 24. 34 144 Nike Apteros. 37 his tomb. temple of Apollo 175. 116 Lucian. 128. 151. in 169 Louvre. quoted. 136 soleum Mellin. 29. Magne. 193. 185 Newton. Dr. see Ares Marshall. see Caryatides Mars. tomb at. 179 Metopes. o Octastyle-pseudodipteral temples. architect. 1 09. 176 Neoptolemus. 122 Mausoleum. statue of. 34. 32. 190-193 Nemesis. 100-105. 19S. the. 10. the. 65 Matagenes. 176 79.. and see Augustus. the. 68. Mr. see Cnidos " ?iote. 162. 188. 66-68. 147. 37-70. quoted. 116. M Madrid. 91. 105107. temple of Diana 178-185 Nereids. 184. 50 Museum Marbles. 195. 34. see Hermes Messa. Mourning. 40 Lycia. 66. temple of Zeus at. 184. 125. Mouldings. 175. 199 Lions. 94. attitude of. 136. 186-188. temple at. architect. 195 Nike. Magnesian Gate at Ephesus. 23. 189. 210 Mylasa. 103 note. 99. 66. 29. ig6.. 57. 20-22. 171 INDEX. 178 Lloyd. Michaelis. 122. 149. 73. 139.

160 3. 135 Saglio. 190. 84. 164. ni. 173. 141.. 44. 131. 189. 150 Scharfs drawings. 205 note Rome. 115. 149. teer. 152. 35. 129. 69 Sauer. 208 R Randolph. 138 no. 210 217 Priene. 162 125. 95. n5. 88. 140. 151-156. 75. 143. 172-176. 36 note. architect. 39. 97 Penelope. 25-29. 57. 200 Persephone. 122. 87. 155 PolycHtos. 16-18. 173 56. Penrose. 210 Phaedra. Dr. 71-146 Pausanius. 97 note. 126 Pandosia. 124. 141. Pergamon Pergamos. the. 20. 128 Petersen. . 77. 53 note. 147. 70. 207. 167. 71. 171-173. 195-197 Ruskin. 72. 196 Pliny. 87. 172. 41. 162. 176 Rhoecus. 106. 121. 190 Pediments. 208 Pontremoli. O. 8. 122-124. 28. 177 Philocles. Pan. 204 Porticoes. 12. 72. 154. architect. 95 note Phidias. school of. 130. Pap worth. 92. 196 85. 204. 185 11. 148. his chario- Schultz. 120 . 96. 186. 136 Sardis. 150. 6. 93. 69. 41. temple of Athena at. 82. 12. 167. 140. I47. 1 1. the. 69. 129-137 Pegasus. 129 note. 33. 73. 166. Mr Flinders. 70. 83. 158 Robert. the. 74. 143. 196 Sappho. 184. 69. 81. temple. 34. 191 Pinara. 20 185. 149. 69. 34. 91. 178. 127 note. 80.. 133. 48. account 65. 208 Phyteus. 155. 171 Petrie. 35. sculptor-architect. 158. Poseidon. n8. 141 Pericles. 167. 148. 139. 146. 95 note Pythios. Propylasa. 81. 147-149. 134. 124. 85. 124 Rodeck. 42. 81. 188 note. 37. 195. 45 note. see Daremberg Salamis. 161. n7.97-99. see Pythios Pickering. 56. 41-43. 148. see Newton account of. Berlin. 32. architect-engineer. 58-60. 98. Mr. 170. collection. the. 42 Plans. Bruno. 160. loi. on Bassie. 122. 171 Philippion at Olympia. of. 148. 71 Rayet and Thomas. i. 9. 198 . no. 205 53 note. Pares marble. 183 Pile. 186. 19. 190-193 Samos. 8. tomb at. r83. 22. 69. 206. 20 Satyrus. 53-54. 145. 22. 86. 34. 152. 207 . n3. 195 PuUan. 205 . 65. 52. 60-62. 109. 96. 144 Schwerzek. 207 Ricardo's drawings. 23. 167. 207. 40. Rhamnus. sculptor-architect. 60. !74. 114120. 159. 40. 190. 160 Philon. S. 159. 191. 83. Ptolemaion. architect. 22. 144. 136 note Revett and Stuart. 125. his drawings. 185-189 i. 126 Pantheon. 2-4. 39. 1 86. 119. 207 Pococke. 154. 194 4. ii5. 132. 67. 178 Pars. 209 Roofing. 117. 81-85. 78. 113. 75-78. 109. n4. 83.INDEX. 46. 97. temple of Hera at. n2. 144. 153 note. 90 note. 125. the. 156 Rotundas. 8. 195 note Samothrace. 164 Perrot and Chipiez. 89. 105. Sabina. 45. 130. Dr. 128 note. 165 Pettier.. Mr. 99. 189 Plutarch. 185 i. 125. 1S2. 178 Ross. 123. 169. 185.. Parthenon. coin of. 58. 136. 195 Puchstein. i°7. no Peitho. 208 Reinach. ^Ir P. Professor. n6. 170. 34. 103. sculptor-architect. 75. 135. 122 note. 193. 92.

fall of. Mr Cromar. 102. 191 note. 195. Edhilmr^h. 109. 145." 52 Watt. 23. 69 note. 132. 140. 32. 149. 209 Sphinxes. 125. sculptor-architect. 17s. 52 Smith. 189 Sidon Sarcophagi. 162 Walter's " Greek Art. 193-195 Texier's "Asia Minor. 24-29. 113. 57. Lieutenant. Mr. 90-92. 115. 65 Visconti. 173 note. architect. 28. 170. 197 Roofing Tombs. 75. 140 Wood. or the Moon. 4-6. 15 note. 199 Spiers. 124 Sun. 66 Six.. 211 Volutes. i47->5i> 176 Theseus. 133 143. 207 sculptor-architect. 56. R. see see Rayet Yoran (Apollo's Temple). 173 Wood. 161 Tegea." 183 X Xanthus. Scopas. 132 VuUiamy's drawings. 17 191. 208 Scrolls. 21. 143." 37 Shields. 199 Viollet-le-Duc. 137. 184 Skias. 35. 124. Theo. 204. see Cnidos. 88. 72. 96. 59.. 52. 121. 125. 114. 185 Wheler. sec Theodorus." 73 Wings. 140 Smith. 111-114 10. 70. Sta. 63. Tavernier. Dr Cecil. 88. 205 Vulci. 56. Dr. 9 Weigand. and Diana's Temple. 22. 171 Smith. 15. 198. 64. 175. 191. and see Aphrodite Marquis of. 60 Stevenson. 207 V Vases. 21. temple at. 35 Strassburg papyrus. 33-35. 150 Pkess. 139. Steps. see Helios Sunium. 209 J'rititeii at The Darie N . 195 Sligo. Mr. 25 note. 86. 202 no Thomas. 94-96. 95 note. 56. 71 note 151. Nereid Theseum. 156. u Ulysses. 140 Venus of Melos. 201. Lycia. 140. Dr. 192 w Wages. '25> Trypho. 38. 87. 10-13. 189. 178. 85 Stuart Papers. 96. 24. 124. 152. 208. 127 Selinus. 23. 14. 15s. 196.2IS INDEX. 89. 175. 194. 78. 65. 2. 209.. or temple of Hephaistos. 162-164. Mr Arthur. 208 Teos. 2> 4-8. 54 Strabo. 73. 199 Smintheium. 124. 154. 148 Wordsworth. 171 Waldstein. 9. Smirke. 107. 172. 99. 135. 196 Studniczka. 149. the. Phene. 59 Sophia. 121.. 99. 122. 191 Thrasyllos monument. 57. 108. 39. the. note. 92. 183. 53. Tiles. temple of Dionysos at. 204. 193 Spon and Wheler. F. 34. 29. 98. 1 1 1 note " Seven Wonders of the World. 127 Vitruvius. 15-20. 192 Wilkins' " Prolusiones. 1 Tower of the Winds. 65. 69. 29 7tote. 156. 25. 95 note 175 Selene. 161. 196 Troy. Mausoleum Zeus. the. 125 Thiersch. 29.




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