History Study Guide

Early European Exploration and Settlement and Indians I. exploration begins • 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue; Columbus discovered America • Indians were already there so Columbus is an European point-of-view, but not Viking • Columbus hit the Bahamas in October 1492 A. events that make it possible • printing press: Marko Polo’s reports are spread • compass: tool used in navigation • boat design improved: rudder, longer, leaner, faster • concentration of resources: created by Spain • 1492 Spain succeeded in pushing out the people of North African decent; with no war there was new money B. Spain explores and colonizes Exploration: • 1471: sailors sail to the equator • 1487: go to the tip of Africa • 1492: Columbus • 1522: ship sails around the world • Spain is the most active Motivation: • riches – trying to trade with Asia (spices) and Indians (gold) • raw material – need timber • Christianizing the Indians – Spanish missionaries • improving shipping industry – expensive • glory – wanted fame 1514 – exploration of Florida: don’t find anything 1519 – Cortez went to Central Mexico and defeated the Aztec Indians, and put themselves at the top of the Aztec Empire 1540 – widespread exploration of the south: don’t find much 1560 – Spain explores the southwest: don’t find much; no riches Characteristics of Spain’s Exploration: • bringing Native Americans to the Spanish Empire • bureaucracy – very complex but worked, Spain became very wealthy II. columbain exchange • old world meets new world after 10,000 years separation and there are fundamental differences between the groups A. plants • came to America: wheat, grapes, onions, sugar cane, peaches, oranges, weeds, Kentucky blue grass • went to Europe: corn, tomatoes, squash, potatoes

B. animals • came to America: • went to Europe: C. disease • came to America: • went to Europe: III.

horses, domesticated: chicken, cow, goats, hogs grey squirrel small pox, measles, 80-95% Indians wiped out syphilis

Indians A. diversity • there were many different groups and they were really diverse; large and complex • large groups – Aztecs • some really small and peaceful B. north American Indians Middle: • Mississippi valley • mound builders East Coast: • eastern woodland groups • big on farming • lived in wigwams Pequots: • lived in Connecticut • wore moccasins • fished • lived in villages made of wigwams • part of the year they were together and part of the year they were separated • chief was head but no absolute power • women had power about food • family groups had power

IV.Indian and European interaction A. differences and similarities Differences: • Indians moved seasonally and every few years; Europeans tried to stay put unless forced • Indians had a lot of land by European standards; Indians thought they had just enough • Indian women were in charge of agriculture and had some power; European men were in charge • Hunting was for royalty in Europe so Europeans thought the Indians were lazy • Indians didn’t have individual land ownership; Europeans did • Indians didn’t have wealth accumulation drive; Europeans did • Indians viewed he world as possessing spirits (didn’t think of themselves as in charge); Europeans view the world as God creating it and putting them in charge Similarities: • came from small towns • practiced farming and hunting

• practiced

warfare and high levels of violence

****Indians were not one with nature B. balance of power • in the beginning there was a relative balance of power • Europeans had technology, but didn’t know how to survive Changes because of: • disease – Indians died • disruption of culture – because of trading the economy changed • dependence – Indians rely on Europeans C. Indian response to European domination • initial response is fighting to annihilation • used savvy diplomacy Settlement of English Colonies I. background to English colonization A. broad trends in English colonial development Differences from Spanish colonization to English: • England had no central empire – different colonies, very independent, individual government; Spain had a big central empire • Spain had no population transfer; England shipped its population over B. reasons England begins colonizing • there is a push for it by the royal; they wanted more land • England had a population problem; too many people • England figures out how to fund colonization; nobility forms companies • England feels the need to “catch up” with Spain C. experience in Ireland • English first attempt at colonization • they view and treat the Irish the same as Native Americans • the Irish used brutal force to keep the English out II. Virginia A. Roanoke • the first attempt in North American colonization • they didn’t know what they were doing • the “vanished colony” because no one knows what happened to them B. Jamestown Beginning: • disaster in its early years • poorly chosen sight • colonists don’t work, they didn’t know what they were doing because they were jewelers, perfumers, minor nobility, etc • not use to working all day • colonists were there to make money all for themselves

End: • leadership/military under John Smith who makes martial law and hard rules; forced people to work “you don’t work, you don’t eat” • Indians help out with food • they find tobacco to make money • company changes it policy; no martial law; implement English law; representative government • House of Burgesses: democratic government with elected officials • only adult, white men, who owned property were able to vote • they start giving away land • women begin to arrive in the colony  C. changes in the 1610’s • reintroduce civilian law – no martial law • women – family structure Problems: • Indian attack colony – 1622 was a big attack • bad financially – tobacco isn’t enough • population remains small – only 1,200 people still alive when 14,000 had come D. becomes royal colony • in 1624 the colony is taken over by the crown instead of the companies that use to own it E. nature of society • lawless society • mainly men • planters make some money – if they made money they would go back to England • Indians remained a threat • indentured servants (not slaves) – mainly young men who boarded a ship with nothing but the trip was paid for by a planter for 4-7 years labor; they were owned for those years Indentured Servants differences from slavery: • they agreed to be indentured servants • weren’t there for life • children were not sold Indentured Servants similarities to slavery: • brutalized • bought and sold • 40% died F. characteristics of Virginia for the rest of the 1600’s • aristocracy is forming • spread out plantations – not interested in society • law of England prevailing – governor • church – Anglican church of England • not interested in escaping English ways but trying to reproduce them III. Maryland • becomes an extension of Virginia

• Catholics in England were being prosecuted • 1630’s nobleman Lord Baltimore was granted Maryland by the • Lord Baltimore is Catholic so English Catholics had a haven in • Maryland becomes overtaken by Virginians

King Maryland

Settlement of English Colonies, Part II I. Massachusetts A. Puritanism Late 1510’s Reformation: • Catholic church was called out for being too greedy because of indulgences • indulgences – paying for your sins • protestant reformers vs. catholics • King Henry VIII wanted divorce so he established the Church of England and he was in charge and could do whatever he wanted • King vs. protestant reformers Puritan Beliefs: • God was sovereign and controlled everything but you couldn’t understand him • puritans believed humans were worthless and totally evil • God controlled everything • predestination: “the elect” were the ones chosen for salvation • God made a covenant with humans • to know if you were a member of “the elect” you would have “an experience” • church members were call the visible saints and had to be able to prove they were part of “the elect” Reasons for Coming to America: • didn’t think the Church of England was reformed enough, it was still too Catholic • see the Catholic church as in league with the devil • see England as corrupt and though God was going to wipe England out • wanted to set up a model society – “city upon a hill” : this was the main driving force • did not want to abandon England permanently – they still see themselves as subjects of England, not separatists
• Massachusetts

technically a company but were able to get there annual meetings to be held in

Massachusetts B. types of settlers • Puritans – lots of them, they survive because it is not as ruff • middle class • small farmers, professionals, artisans • came as families • communities form and centered around the church C. puritan society Beliefs and customs: • could do things in moderation; example – eating • could exercise and ice-skate

• drank alcohol • sex with marriage • they didn’t wear black clothing that some believe • didn’t believe in drunkenness, adultery, and gluttony

Economy: • small farmers • no tobacco • fished • sold salted fish in the Caribbean • money was not life’s focus Government: • technically democratic • voters: adult, white man who was a church member • clergy did not hold office but could influence the people D. dissenters • problems • Puritans didn’t believe in religious toleration 1. Roger Williams o thinks the Puritans were not separate enough with England o thought the charter with England was a disgrace o thought they needed distinction from church and government o he was eventually thrown out and went to Rhode Island 2. Anne Hutchinson o said people don’t need to go to church to be good Puritans o woman o thrown out and killed by Indians E. comparison with Virginia Cities: • Virginia was spread out to make money • Massachusetts had communities centered around the church Economy: • Virginia had a staple crop economy • Massachusetts didn’t have a staple crop economy but sold lumber and fished Population: • Virginia was primarily male and poor • Massachusetts had a broad mix of ages and sexes Church: • Virginia didn’t view church as important but had the Anglican Church • Massachusetts had the Puritan church at its center Government: • Virginia had a governor elected by the King and they were a royal colony

• Massachusetts

called there own shots but were technically a company

F. factors leading to change 1.) dissent – Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson 2.) generational problem – people who came to Massachusetts were die-hard Puritans but there children have a different view than their parents • 1660’s the children don’t have commitment; they want money not church 3.) new people – merchants appear with money • well connected in London; not Puritans • politically powerless so they start to make waves 4.) new relationship with England: • 1680’s England decided it needed better control over the Puritan colonies • they lose their charter and become a royal colony with a governor • England is putting together an empire • Puritan colonies under English rule – Anglican church • England tolerated religious freedom but not Puritans
• Virginia

and Massachusetts begin looking more and more alike in the 18th century

II. Middle Colonies • geographically in the middle • characteristics fall in the middle A. New York • starts out as a new Amsterdam but it doesn’t have to support of the Holland monarch and it didn’t prosper; it had a diverse population • 1660’s: King Charles II throws land to friends: the Duke of York (kings brother) is given this land • Dutch colony gave up and gave over the land • cosmopolitan population • religious freedom • economy mixed: staple crop agriculture and other stuff B. Pennsylvania • founded by a Quaker, William Penn because Penn’s father had helped get the King on the thrown Quakers: • opposite of Puritans • inter-light (Jesus) – everyone had this; religious discovery was something that everyone had to find • no original sin or pre-destination • believed everyone was equal in the eyes of God • women were important and could speak at meetings (church)

Pennsylvania: • opened its doors to all religions • populated explodes and economy does well • mixed economy – some agriculture, some trade • some in towns, some spread out • democracy, representative assembly C. characteristics of middle colonies III. Southern Colonies A. Carolina • eight proprietors – high-archial colony • grows slow and in the 1680’s population begins • different – settled by people coming from Barbados • plantations and slaves • in the north are poor people coming out of Virginia • outer bank kept ships from coming in B. Georgia • founded in the 18th century unlike the other colonies in the 17th century • 1730’s Britain wanted a buffer from South Carolina and Spanish Florida • Britain dumped the poor debtors who were in jail to Georgia • no alcohol, no slavery, but debtors got land to farm • doesn’t work out, debtors stayed in England imprisoned; population doesn’t grow • alcohol law lifted but still not a big population • 1750’s slave law lifted and there was a population explosion – mainly South Carolina’s population • doesn’t rescue England’s poor Development of Slavery I. origins of racism • racism: believing your own race is superior to other races • comes from two tendencies: 1. categorizing 2. individuals think they are right • when English (not colonists) began to explore they encountered extensive African American and there was skepticism • in European culture the color black symbolized horror, evil, something to be feared • Europeans were Christians and though that others were heathens – Africans II. slavery in Virginia A. gradual shift to slavery • 1619: first people with African decent; probably slaves from the Caribbean • Africans traded off the ship in Jamestown • loaded as slaves, traded as indentured servants • 1640s: there is a pattern of a distinguish being made between indentured white people and indentured black people; example – run aways • 1660-1720: widely recognized slavery, laws began to form B. reasons for shift 1.) Fear of Rebellion:

• the number of poor indentured servants were growing and they had stopped with land grants • aristocracy thought that as the poor people increased trouble would increase • 1676: Nathaniel Bacon lead a rebellion because he got mad at the government; led the

rebellion to Jamestown and burned the city, governor fled, but Nathaniel died of dysentery 2.) Change in supply: • the poor were subjects to the King of England and the King wouldn’t let them be slaves, plus they came voluntarily and if you enslaved them they wouldn’t come • African decent were not under the King • the supply of indentured servants were going down and the African supply was going up • 1670’s there was an English slave company created 3.) Life Expectancy: • at first the life expectancy was really short so buying slaves for life made no sense • it increases over the century as conditions get better (no swamps, more food) • slaves were more expensive than indentured servants • better off paying for the cheaper but when life expectancy changed it was a good thing for profit (slaves were for life) 4.) Racial Assumptions: • English treated poor people like crap • Africans looked different, had cultural differences, and were poor • racism is a key component but not the only one III. slavery in other southern colonies A. South Carolina • begins with slavery • first permanent slaves • considered a slave colony – slaves were everywhere B. Georgia • 1750’s slavery was allowed so the population boomed IV.slavery in the middle and northern colonies • slaves not essential to society and economy Middle Colonies: • some slavery 8-10% • mixed economy is a reason for little slaves, not all plantations Northern Colonies: • little slavery 2% • no plantation agriculture • slaves loaded and unloaded ships V. slave trade • minority of Africans come to British America • 1580-1810: 12 million Africans were forced on slave ships, 10 million arrived, 2 million died • most slaves went to Brazil and the Caribbean were the masters were most brutal • 450,000-500,000 slaves reached British America • slaves in British America were the only ones that provided natural increase by birth

3 Active Participants: all essential • companies in Europe with the money; capitol • colonist willing to buy; demand • leaders in Africa willing to fight other groups and trade them on the coast; supply A. village raid • one African group would fight another African group, lead them to the coast, and traded them as slaves B. middle passage • jails were set up n the African coast • first slaves were shipped to the Caribbean Ways to put Slaves on Ship: • pack them tightly – started with more but more died • pack less tightly – started with less but not as many died
• the slaves were mostly packed tightly • extreme brutality on ship was used to keep • bad food, bad health, and dirty

order

C. arrival • Caribbean to the port; sometimes Baltimore but mostly Charleston • slaves cleaned up for sale • sold at auction
• there

is a psychological trauma of the unknown for the slaves

VI.slave experience in the colonies • 17th and 18th centuries extreme brutality and the most chance of being freed is seen; extreme differences South Carolina: • slaves from Barbados • slaves were the dominant population • worked on large plantations with little to no contact with whites • African culture traits remained and a new language (Creole) was formed Virginia: • more slaves than South Carolina • slaves were not the majority • they were in constant contact with whites • worked in smaller groups • fewer culture traits remained and English was learned Middle and Northern Colonies: • the minority was slaves • they were in constant contact with whites • no cultural traits remained and English was learned Colonial Politics, Economy, and Slavery

I. politics A. colonies’ places in the empire • colonies didn’t mind being subjects to England • colonists thought of themselves as English • the king’s job was to oversee the good of the empire; protector of the people; the king was seen as doing a good job • the king’s job was to see that the empire prospered – and it does • colonists happy being British B. ***mercantilism*** • economic policy that drives the colonist trade system and the British trade policy • the colonist were cool with it • money is what really matters; try to gain more and keep what you already had • goal was to be self-sufficient; maintain the empire Trade Acts: trade laws • the colonists had to use English ships for trading • enumerated or specified goods were goods that were suppose to only be sold to England • consumers had to buy from the colonies • manufactured goods had to be bough from England C. government with the colonies • no centralized government like the Spanish • individual colonies had their own government • colonies didn’t want to join together they were independent • colonies were tied directly to England • By the 18th century the colonies were royal and their government mirrored England’s • Royal governor and colonial assembly with an upper and lower house • governor was limited in power • lower house could find a way around the governor D. ***deferential politics*** • attitude that dominated colonial politics and during the US writing of the constitution • social hierarchy • there was an ability for social mobility and there wasn’t an extreme difference between poor and rich • there was a notion that there were “great men” • 50-70% of the white men could vote • the same men were elected (the wealthy) by the more moderate farmers • not suppose to seek office • the wealthy controlled things II. economics A. growth • grew tremendously in the 18th century • established trade patterns • things started settling down • in the middle colonies there was a mixed economy • in the northern colonies there was everything but staple crop agriculture

B. maturation • lawyers and merchants that governed and controlled trade and maintained order • there was a growing difference in classes • trade imbalance: more imports into America than exports to England • easy credit: no money, no problem; many go into debt III. society A. population growth • 18th century – population increased but was steady • there were no mass deaths or starvation • the birthrates were up • there was an even sex ratio • 80% - people started marrying young and having lots of kids • 20% - steady immigration B. cities • cities grew and were established • some of the cities: Boston, New York, Charleston, and Philadelphia (largest) • cities are the center of high culture because of ports • colonial newspapers and magazines are being printed C. education • started developing colleges in cities • most ivy league schools were established in the 18th century • there was no organized education below college; some families taught there kids or hired tutors • language began changing from that of England • a dialect developed; people had a “colonial accent” Book Questions: Who lived in the colonies by 1770 and what made the population unique to that of any other place in the Americas, Europe, or Africa? English, Dutch, French, Scot, Irish, Swede, and German The strange mixture was not found in any other country. It had a remarkable mixture of people. They excluded American Indians from society and captured African Americans. In what ways, both positive and negative, did the colonial economy change from the late seventeenth century to 1770? Positive: • Economy grew significantly • more diverse and complex • American goods to international markets and more international goods to the American goods • They grew enough crops to feed the family plus surplus to go to market (both use and profit) • Paid more attention to markets • Everyone worked including women • they went from a society of mostly farming and began to branch out to other occupations – ex. fishing, whaling, fur trade

Negative: • Africans lost freedoms and everything else they had and farmed Gap between the rich and the poor increased and poverty became permanent in America • Slaves began to outnumber servants How did colonial politics mature during the eighteenth century and what possibilities and disappointments were realized?

Possibilities:

Disappointments:

In what contradictory way did colonial material culture change?

From 1680 to 1770, what became of the relative colonial religious homogeneity?

What role did all these changes play in the coming of the Revolution?

Essay Themes: Trace the history of early Virginia, including the development of slavery in that colony. IV.Virginia A. Roanoke • the first attempt in North American colonization • they didn’t know what they were doing • the “vanished colony” because no one knows what happened to them

B. Jamestown Beginning: • disaster in its early years • poorly chosen sight • colonists don’t work, they didn’t know what they were doing because they were jewelers, perfumers, minor nobility, etc • not use to working all day • colonists were there to make money all for themselves End: • leadership/military under John Smith who makes martial law and hard rules; forced people to work “you don’t work, you don’t eat” • Indians help out with food • they find tobacco to make money • company changes it policy; no martial law; implement English law; representative government • House of Burgesses: democratic government with elected officials • only adult, white men, who owned property were able to vote • they start giving away land • women begin to arrive in the colony  C. changes in the 1610’s • reintroduce civilian law – no martial law • women – family structure Problems: • Indian attack colony – 1622 was a big attack • bad financially – tobacco isn’t enough • population remains small – only 1,200 people still alive when 14,000 had come D. becomes royal colony • in 1624 the colony is taken over by the crown instead of the companies that use to own it E. nature of society • lawless society • mainly men • planters make some money – if they made money they would go back to England • Indians remained a threat • indentured servants (not slaves) – mainly young men who boarded a ship with nothing but the trip was paid for by a planter for 4-7 years labor; they were owned for those years Indentured Servants differences from slavery: • they agreed to be indentured servants • weren’t there for life • children were not sold Indentured Servants similarities to slavery: • brutalized • bought and sold • 40% died

F. characteristics of Virginia for the rest of the 1600’s • aristocracy is forming • spread out plantations – not interested in society • law of England prevailing – governor • church – Anglican church of England • not interested in escaping English ways but trying to reproduce them

• Virginia • Virginia • Virginia • Virginia • Virginia

was spread out to make money had a staple crop economy was primarily male and poor didn’t view church as important but had the Anglican Church had a governor elected by the King and they were a royal colony

I. slavery in Virginia A. gradual shift to slavery • 1619: first people with African decent; probably slaves from the Caribbean • Africans traded off the ship in Jamestown • loaded as slaves, traded as indentured servants • 1640s: there is a pattern of a distinguish being made between indentured white people and indentured black people; example – run aways • 1660-1720: widely recognized slavery, laws began to form B. reasons for shift 1.) Fear of Rebellion: • the number of poor indentured servants were growing and they had stopped with land grants • aristocracy thought that as the poor people increased trouble would increase • 1676: Nathaniel Bacon lead a rebellion because he got mad at the government; led the rebellion to Jamestown and burned the city, governor fled, but Nathaniel died of dysentery 2.) Change in supply: • the poor were subjects to the King of England and the King wouldn’t let them be slaves, plus they came voluntarily and if you enslaved them they wouldn’t come • African decent were not under the King • the supply of indentured servants were going down and the African supply was going up • 1670’s there was an English slave company created 3.) Life Expectancy: • at first the life expectancy was really short so buying slaves for life made no sense • it increases over the century as conditions get better (no swamps, more food) • slaves were more expensive than indentured servants • better off paying for the cheaper but when life expectancy changed it was a good thing for profit (slaves were for life) 4.) Racial Assumptions: • English treated poor people like crap • Africans looked different, had cultural differences, and were poor • racism is a key component but not the only one

Virginia: • more slaves than South Carolina • slaves were not the majority • they were in constant contact with whites • worked in smaller groups • fewer culture traits remained and English was learned Discuss Puritanism and its role in the history of the New England colonies. C. Puritanism Late 1510’s Reformation: • Catholic church was called out for being too greedy because of indulgences • indulgences – paying for your sins • protestant reformers vs. catholics • King Henry VIII wanted divorce so he established the Church of England and he was in charge and could do whatever he wanted • King vs. protestant reformers Puritan Beliefs: • God was sovereign and controlled everything but you couldn’t understand him • puritans believed humans were worthless and totally evil • God controlled everything • predestination: “the elect” were the ones chosen for salvation • God made a covenant with humans • to know if you were a member of “the elect” you would have “an experience” • church members were call the visible saints and had to be able to prove they were part of “the elect” Reasons for Coming to America: • didn’t think the Church of England was reformed enough, it was still too Catholic • see the Catholic church as in league with the devil • see England as corrupt and though God was going to wipe England out • wanted to set up a model society – “city upon a hill” : this was the main driving force • did not want to abandon England permanently – they still see themselves as subjects of England, not separatists
• Massachusetts

technically a company but were able to get there annual meetings to be held in

Massachusetts D. types of settlers • Puritans – lots of them, they survive because it is not as ruff • middle class • small farmers, professionals, artisans • came as families • communities form and centered around the church E. puritan society Beliefs and customs:

• could do things in moderation; example – eating • could exercise and ice-skate • drank alcohol • sex with marriage • they didn’t wear black clothing that some believe • didn’t believe in drunkenness, adultery, and gluttony

Economy: • small farmers • no tobacco • fished • sold salted fish in the Caribbean • money was not life’s focus Government: • technically democratic • voters: adult, white man who was a church member • clergy did not hold office but could influence the people F. dissenters • problems • Puritans didn’t believe in religious toleration 1. Roger Williams o thinks the Puritans were not separate enough with England o thought the charter with England was a disgrace o thought they needed distinction from church and government o he was eventually thrown out and went to Rhode Island 2. Anne Hutchinson o said people don’t need to go to church to be good Puritans o woman o thrown out and killed by Indians G. comparison with Virginia Cities: • Virginia was spread out to make money • Massachusetts had communities centered around the church Economy: • Virginia had a staple crop economy • Massachusetts didn’t have a staple crop economy but sold lumber and fished Population: • Virginia was primarily male and poor • Massachusetts had a broad mix of ages and sexes Church: • Virginia didn’t view church as important but had the Anglican Church • Massachusetts had the Puritan church at its center

Government: • Virginia had a governor elected by the King and they were a royal colony • Massachusetts called there own shots but were technically a company H. factors leading to change 1.) dissent – Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson 2.) generational problem – people who came to Massachusetts were die-hard Puritans but there children have a different view than their parents • 1660’s the children don’t have commitment; they want money not church 3.) new people – merchants appear with money • well connected in London; not Puritans • politically powerless so they start to make waves 4.) new relationship with England: • 1680’s England decided it needed better control over the Puritan colonies • they lose their charter and become a royal colony with a governor • England is putting together an empire • Puritan colonies under English rule – Anglican church • England tolerated religious freedom but not Puritans
• Virginia

and Massachusetts begin looking more and more alike in the 18th century

Discuss the origin of slavery and the way slave experiences differed in the various regions of the colonies. Development of Slavery II. origins of racism • racism: believing your own race is superior to other races • comes from two tendencies: 1. categorizing 2. individuals think they are right • when English (not colonists) began to explore they encountered extensive African American and there was skepticism • in European culture the color black symbolized horror, evil, something to be feared • Europeans were Christians and though that others were heathens – Africans III. slavery in Virginia A. gradual shift to slavery • 1619: first people with African decent; probably slaves from the Caribbean • Africans traded off the ship in Jamestown • loaded as slaves, traded as indentured servants • 1640s: there is a pattern of a distinguish being made between indentured white people and indentured black people; example – run aways • 1660-1720: widely recognized slavery, laws began to form

B. reasons for shift 1.) Fear of Rebellion: • the number of poor indentured servants were growing and they had stopped with land grants • aristocracy thought that as the poor people increased trouble would increase • 1676: Nathaniel Bacon lead a rebellion because he got mad at the government; led the rebellion to Jamestown and burned the city, governor fled, but Nathaniel died of dysentery 2.) Change in supply: • the poor were subjects to the King of England and the King wouldn’t let them be slaves, plus they came voluntarily and if you enslaved them they wouldn’t come • African decent were not under the King • the supply of indentured servants were going down and the African supply was going up • 1670’s there was an English slave company created 3.) Life Expectancy: • at first the life expectancy was really short so buying slaves for life made no sense • it increases over the century as conditions get better (no swamps, more food) • slaves were more expensive than indentured servants • better off paying for the cheaper but when life expectancy changed it was a good thing for profit (slaves were for life) 4.) Racial Assumptions: • English treated poor people like crap • Africans looked different, had cultural differences, and were poor • racism is a key component but not the only one IV.slavery in other southern colonies A. South Carolina • begins with slavery • first permanent slaves • considered a slave colony – slaves were everywhere B. Georgia • 1750’s slavery was allowed so the population boomed V. slavery in the middle and northern colonies • slaves not essential to society and economy Middle Colonies: • some slavery 8-10% • mixed economy is a reason for little slaves, not all plantations Northern Colonies: • little slavery 2% • no plantation agriculture • slaves loaded and unloaded ships VI.slave trade • minority of Africans come to British America • 1580-1810: 12 million Africans were forced on slave ships, 10 million arrived, 2 million died • most slaves went to Brazil and the Caribbean were the masters were most brutal

• 450,000-500,000 slaves reached British America • slaves in British America were the only ones that provided

natural increase by birth

3 Active Participants: all essential • companies in Europe with the money; capitol • colonist willing to buy; demand • leaders in Africa willing to fight other groups and trade them on the coast; supply A. village raid • one African group would fight another African group, lead them to the coast, and traded them as slaves B. middle passage • jails were set up n the African coast • first slaves were shipped to the Caribbean Ways to put Slaves on Ship: • pack them tightly – started with more but more died • pack less tightly – started with less but not as many died
• the slaves were mostly packed tightly • extreme brutality on ship was used to keep • bad food, bad health, and dirty

order

C. arrival • Caribbean to the port; sometimes Baltimore but mostly Charleston • slaves cleaned up for sale • sold at auction
• there

is a psychological trauma of the unknown for the slaves

VII. slave experience in the colonies • 17th and 18th centuries extreme brutality and the most chance of being freed is seen; extreme differences South Carolina: • slaves from Barbados • slaves were the dominant population • worked on large plantations with little to no contact with whites • African culture traits remained and a new language (Creole) was formed Virginia: • more slaves than South Carolina • slaves were not the majority • they were in constant contact with whites • worked in smaller groups • fewer culture traits remained and English was learned Middle and Northern Colonies: • the minority was slaves • they were in constant contact with whites

• no

cultural traits remained and English was learned