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Mass Society and Democracy

The Growth of Industrial Prosperity The Emergence of Mass Society The National State and Democracy Toward the Modern Consciousness

The Growth of Industrial Prosperity

Objectives: 1.Describe how new sources of energy and consumer products transformed the standard of living for all social classes in many European countries 2. Summarize how working-class leaders used Marxs ideas to form socialist parties

The Second Industrial Revolution


Westerners in the late 1800s worshiped progressstunning material growth The rst Industrial Revolution had given rise to textiles, railroads, iron, and coal The Second Industrial Revolution, steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum

New Products

Between 1870 and 1914, substitution of steel for iron building of lighter, smaller, and faster machines and engines By 1913, the total was an astounding 32 million tons Electricity was a major new form of energy that proved to be of great value, providing heat, light, and motion 1870s, the rst practical generators of electrical current were developed

Electricity gave birth to new inventions *Thomas Edisonlight bulb *Alexander Graham Bell telephone in 1876 *Guglielmo Marconirst radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901 By the 1880s, streetcars, subways, conveyor belts, cranes, 24 hour running factories

Internal-combustion engine, red by oil and gasoline, provided a new source of power 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wrightthe rst ight in a xedwing plane in North Carolina

New Patterns
Rapid pace because of greatly increased sales of manufactured goods Wages for workers increased after 1870 In the cities, department stores emerged

By 1900, Europe was divided into two economic zones: Great Britain, Belgium, France, Netherlands, Germany, western AustroHungarian Empire, northern Italy = industrialized core Agricultural zonelittle industrialization = AustriaHungary, Spain, Portugal, Balkan kingdoms, and Russia these countries provided food and raw material for the others

Toward a World Economy


Growth of transportation by steamship and railroad the creation of world economy Beef and Wool from Argentina and Australia, coffee from Brazil, iron ore from Algeria, and sugar from Java

Organizing the Working Classes


The desire to improve their working and living conditions led many industrial workers to form socialist political parties and socialist trade unions

Marxs Theory

1848The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels They sought the creation of a new social order history of class struggles The oppressors (*bourgeoisie) those who owned the means of production The oppressed (*proletariat) those exploited by the production owners

After victory, the proletariat would form a *dictatorship to organize the means of production Marx believed that the nal revolution would ultimately produce a classless societyThe state would wither away

Socialist Parties
Working-class leaders formed socialist parties based on Marxs ideasGerman Social Democratic Party Socialist parties also emerged in other European states Marxist parties were divided over their goalsPure Marxists and *revisionists (rejected the revolutionary approach)

Trade Unions

Trade unions emerged and won the right to strike in the 1870s By 1900, there were two million workers in British trade unions But 1914, however, they had made considerable progress in bettering both the living and the working conditions of the working classes

Objectives: 1.Describe how new sources of energy and consumer products transformed the standard of living for all social classes in many European countries 2. Summarize how working-class leaders used Marxs ideas to form socialist parties

The Emergence of Mass Society

Objectives: 1.Characterize the varied middle class in Victorian Britain and their belief in the principles of hard work and good conduct 2. Discuss how the new opportunities for women and the working class improved their lives

The New Urban Environment


The new industrial world had led to the emergence of a mass society in which the concerns of the majority of the population the lower classeswere central Urbanization was on the rise, shifting into 40 percent of the populationgrowing as a result of job migrations to cities Cities grew faster in the secondhalf of the century

In the early 19th century, living conditions were lthy From the 1830s and 1840s, Cholera ravaged Europe Reformers sought the improvement of city life boards of health, building regulations, running water, internal drainage systems, expelling sewage through pipe systems

Social Structure of Mass Society


The New Elite Great poverty remained a part of Western society At the top of European society stood a wealthy elite5 percent Wealthy upper middle classthe new elite (leaders in the government and military)

The Middle Classes


Middle classes consisted of a variety of groups The upper middle group that included lawyers, doctors, members of the civil service, business managers, etc. The lower middle class of small shopkeepers, traders, and prosperous peasants

The Second Industrial Revolution produced a new group of white-collar workers between the lower middle class and the lower classesbookkeepers, telephone operators, department store salespeople, and secretaries Middle-class morality hard work, regular churchgoers, right way of doing things The Habits of Good Society

The Working Classes

Working classes80 percent of the European population, landholding peasants, farm laborers, and sharecroppers Urban working classskilled artisans and semi-skilled laborers, day laborers, domestic servants Reforms in 1870 created better living conditions in citiesa rise in wages, decline in many consumer costs, 10-hour workdays and Saturday afternoons off

The Experiences of Women New Job Opportunities


In 1800, women were mainly dened by family and household roles working-class groups maintained the belief that women should remain home The Second Industrial Revolution created new jobs for women clerks, typists, secretaries, le clerks, and salesclerks lled with the working class

Marriage and the Family A new family system emerged


men worked outside the home The birthrate declined, improved economic conditions, and increased birth control Middle class family fostered a new morality characterized by the Victorian era Most working class women supported their families nancially as did children

Higher paying jobs emerged in heavy industry which led to higher standards of living These higher paying jobs allowed men to work and women to stay at home

The Movement for Womens Rights

Modern *feminism emerged movement for womens rights inspired by the ideas of the enlightenment and natural rights The ght for property rights and the right to vote was only the beginning of the movementequal treatment *Amalie Sieveking (Germany), *Florence Nightingale (British), and *Clara Barton (U.S. Civil War)nursing

Many feminists believed that the right to vote was the key to improving the overall position of women The Womens Social and Political Union founded in 1903 by *Emmeline Pankhurstbattled for the right of suffrage

Universal Education

Education in the early nineteenth century was primarily for the elite and the wealthier middle class state-nanced primary schools emergeda consequence of states needing better trained and skilled labor force which ultimately led to more people with the right to vote Education led to patriotism and a greater faith in nationalism

The most immediate result of public education was an increase in *literacy most could read by 1900 which led to the rise of mass newspapers Millions of copies sold each day and told stories in gruesome details sensationalism for the masses

New Forms of Leisure

Second Industrial Revolution allowed people to pursue new forms of leisure The industrial system gave people new times of rest evening hours, weekends, and a few weeks in the summer Amusement parks, team sports and athletic games, dance halls Earlier festivals based on community participation shifted to standardized big-businesses

Objectives: 1.Characterize the varied middle class in Victorian Britain and their belief in the principles of hard work and good conduct 2. Discuss how the new opportunities for women and the working class improved their lives

The National State and Democracy

Objectives: 1. Discuss how new political parties and labor unions challenged the governments of western Europe 2. Explain how international rivalries led to conicts in the Balkans and World War I

Western Europe and Political Democracy The late nineteenth century established constitutions, parliaments, and individual liberties As more and more men could vote, political parties became increasingly important

Great Britain

Liberal party and Conservative party Both parties were led by a ruling class composed of aristocratic landowners and upper-middleclass businesspeople Reform acts increased the number of adult males political democracy was well established in Britainthe working class supported the Liberal Party

France The Third Republic gained a republican constitution the legislature made up of two houses The principle of *ministerial responsibilitythe idea that the prime minister is responsible to the popularly elected legislative bodycrucial for democracy France ultimately failed to develop a strong parliamentary system

Italy Emerged by 1870 as a united national state However, a great gulf separated the poverty-stricken south from the industrialized north

Central and Eastern Europe: The Old Order Germany, AustriaHungary, and Russia pursued policies that were quite different from those of some western European nations

Germany

*Otto von Bismarck created a new constitution for the new imperial Germany with two-house legislature Bismarck worked to keep Germany from becoming a democracy The reign of emperor William II (1888 to 1918) Germany had become the strongest military and industrial power in Europe

Austria-Hungary

*Francis Joseph largely ignored parliamentary system and often issued decrees and laws Unlike Austria, Hungary had a parliament that worked

Russia

Industrialization began late in Russia but progressed rapidly after 1890 With Industrialization came factories, an industrial working class, and pitiful working and living conditionswith these, Socialist parties developed This led to the Revolution of 1905 Bloody Sunday

International Rivalries
Bismarck made a defensive alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879. In 1882, italy joined this alliance Bismarck tried to keep things peaceful with Britain and maintained a treaty with Russia In 1890, Emperor William II red Bismarckhe sought an activist policy dedicated to enhancing German power He dropped the treaty with Russia

France and Russia formed a military alliance German policies abroad caused the British to draw closer to France by 1907, an alliance of Great Britain, France,a and Russia*the Triple Entente formed opposed to the *Triple Alliance of Germany, AustriaHungary, and Italy

Crisis in the Balkans


By 1878, Greece, Serbia, Romania, and *Montenegro had become independent states Bosnia and Herzegovina territories were under the protection of Austria-Hungary eventually annexed in 1908 Serbia was outraged, desiring to created a greater Serbian nation; Supported by Russia, tensions grew in Europe setting the stage for WWI

Objectives: 1. Discuss how new political parties and labor unions challenged the governments of western Europe 2. Explain how international rivalries led to conicts in the Balkans and World War I

Toward the Modern Consciousness

Objectives: 1. Describe how innovative artistic movements during the late 1800s and early 1900s rejected traditional styles 2. Explain how extreme nationalism and racism led to an increase in anti-Semitism 3. Summarize how developments in science changed how people saw themselves and their world

A New Physics
Science was one of the chief pillars supporting the optimistic view of the world Many applied known scientic laws to understand the physical world and reality largely inspired by Isaac Newtons mechanical universe Time, Space and matter were objective realities which existed separately from people

New views and discoveries emerged *Marie Curie discovered that an element called radium gave off energy, or radiation, that apparently came from within the atom itself

*Albert Einstein, Germanborn scientist working in Switzerland, provided a new view of the universe In 1905, Einstein published his special theory of relativity, arguing that space and time are not absolute but are relative He concluded that matter is nothing but another form of energy

Freud and Psychoanalysis


*Sigmund Freud, a doctor from Vienna, proposed a series of theories that raised questions about the nature of the human mind In 1900, he published The Interpretation of Dreams Human behavior was strongly determined by past experiences and internal forces of which people were largely unaware

*psychoanalysis, a method by which a therapist and patient could probe deeply into the patients memory to discover and/or resolve past experiences or problems that drive their unconscious mind and therefore actions

Social Darwinism and Racism


Charles Darwins theories were applied to human society in a radical way by nationalists and racistscreating Social Darwinism British philosopher Herbert Spencer argued that social progress came from the struggle for survival Many nationalists also embraced this ideal to explain international and global interactions and exploitations

The German Houston Stewart Chamberlain believed that modern day Germans were the only pure successors of the Aryans, who were portrayed as the original creators of Western Culture Historical corruption or mistake? The danger of misunderstanding the past

Anti-Semitism and Zionism


Since the Middle Ages, the Jews had been portrayed as the murderers of Christ and subjected to mob violence In Germany and Austria-Hungary during the 1880s and 1890s, new parties arose that used antiSemitism to win the votes of people Russian Jews were forced to live in certain regions of the country and endured persecutions and *pogroms Zionism and Palestine

Culture of Modernity
Writers and artists between 1870 and 1914 rebelled against the traditional literary and artistic styles leading to *modernism

Literature
At the beginning of the twentieth century, a group of writers known as the *symbolists cause a literary revolution Poetry inuenced by the ideas of Freud The external world was only a collection of symbols that reected the true realitythe individuals mind

Painting
By the late nineteenth century, artists were seeking new forms of expression to reect their changing views of the world *Impressionism and Claude Monet *Postimpressionism and Vincent van Gogh *Pablo Picasso and cubism

Objectives: 1. Describe how innovative artistic movements during the late 1800s and early 1900s rejected traditional styles 2. Explain how extreme nationalism and racism led to an increase in anti-Semitism 3. Summarize how developments in science changed how people saw themselves and their world