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Mobile and tablet devices attract a new wave of maintenance applications to the plant oor

Apps of Steel
Decisions Make the Data / p.23
JUNE 2011

9 Vibration Questions / p.41 New Motors & Drives / p.45 3 Future Energy Risks / p.50

C-more operator touch panels offer:


Clear TFT 65K color displays (6-inch STN models also available) Analog touch screen for maximum flexibility Easy-to-use software

CONNECT TO CONTROLLERS WITH DRIVERS FOR: All AutomationDirect PLCs/PACs Allen-Bradley C-more touch panels in 6" to 15" sizes are a practical way to give plant personnel easy access to controls and data. Check out the powerful yet easy-to-use conguration software by downloading a demo version at: http://support.automationdirect.com/demos.html ALL C-MORE PANELS INCLUDE: Analog resistive touch screen with unlimited touch areas One USB A-type and one USB B-type port Serial communications interface FULL-FEATURED MODELS ADD: 10/100Base-T Ethernet communications CompactFlash slot for data logging REMOTE ACCESS AND CONTROL BUILT-IN No Additional Hardware required. The C-more Remote Access feature resides in all panels with Ethernet support, and requires no option modules. Access real-time data or initiate an action on a control system from anywhere, any time. (Requires software and firmware version 2.4 or later*, and an
Ethernet C-more panel) ControlLogix CompactLogix MicroLogix 1100/1400 Ethernet ENI Adapter for SLC Series FlexLogix SLC 5/05 Ethernet MicroLogix

Modbus RTU and TCP/IP Ethernet GE 90/30 SNPX (90/30, 90/70. Micro90, VersaMax Micro) Omron Host Link Adapter (C200/C500), FINS Serial and Ethernet Selected Mitsubishi FX Series, Q Series Siemens S7-200 PPI and S7-200/300 Ethernet (ISO over TCP/IP)

www.automationdirect.com/c-more
www.automationdirect.com Go online or call to get complete information, request your free catalog, or place an order.

1-800-633-0405
10-inch TFT 12-inch TFT 15-inch TFT

C-more touch panel line-up:


* Software and rmware are downloadable for authorized customers from: www.automationdirect.com

6-inch STN grayscale

6-inch TFT 65,538 colors

8-inch TFT

Starting at: $399

Starting at: $499

$999

$1,595

$1,895

$2,295

How To Keep Your Electronics Cool


When hot weather causes the electronics inside a control cabinet to fail, there is a panic to get the machinery up and running again. There are several cooling options out there and its important to know the facts.
Line up of cooLers that are prone to bad behavior
$$$$$$ $$$$$ $$$$ $$$ $$ $

Opening the panel door and aiming a fan at the circuit boards is a bad idea. It is an OSHA violation that presents a shock hazard to personnel The fan blows hot, humid, dirty air at the electronics The cooling effect is minimal It is likely to fail again since the environment is still hot

These coolers are prone to failure in dirty, industrial environments when dust and dirt clogs the filter. It takes almost a day to install Vibration from machinery causes refrigerant leaks and component failures Compressor life expectancy is typically 2.5 years of continuous operation It requires a floor drain for the condensation Average cost to replace a bad compressor is $750

These have serious limitations. On hot summer days when the temperatures of the room and inside of the enclosure are about equal, theres not enough difference for effective heat exchange. They fail when dust and dirt clogs the filter The cooling capacity is limited due to ambient conditions

The plastic box cooler from a competitor uses an inaccurate mechanical thermostat thats designed for liquids. This thermostat has a poor ability to react quickly to changes in air temperature. It costs up to 85% more to operate than EXAIRs ETC Cabinet Cooler System with the same SCFM rating and Btu/hr. output. Electronics can overheat before it turns on It runs far longer than necessary before shutting off Increased cycle time wastes compressed air

Reliable and mainten

ance free!

EXAIR Cabinet Cooler Systems


EXAIR has a complete line of Cabinet Cooler Systems to dependably cool and purge your electrical enclosures. They convert an ordinary supply of compressed air into clean, cold 20 F air. They mount in minutes through an ordinary electrical knockout and have no moving parts to wear out. The compressed air filtration that is provided keeps water, oil and other contaminants out of the enclosure.

THE VIDEO! w w w.exair.com /8 5/44 08 5.ht m

WATCH

There is no room air filter to clog There An accurate electrical thermostat control minimizes compressed air use An All Cabinet Coolers are UL Listed to US and Canadian safety standards All They are the only compressed air powered coolers that are CE compliant They
www.exair.com/85/440.htm

If you would like to discuss an application, contact an Application Engineer at:

Manufacturing Intelligent Compressed Air Products Since 1983 11510 Goldcoast Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-1621 (800) 903-9247
fax: (513) 671-3363 E-mail: techelp@exair.com www.exair.com

@Exair

Dont let

RISING OIL PRICES


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Find Us Online or Call: 1-888-272-3946

table of contents
JunE 2011 / Vol. 32, no. 6

features
28 / COVER STORY

Apps of Steel
Mobile and tablet devices attract a new wave of maintenance applications to the plant floor
36 / PumPS

Positive Displacement
Fundamentals, design, and applications of PD pumps
41 / PREDiCTiVE TEChnOlOgiES

Come to Your Sensors


Find the right vibration device like an arrow finds its bulls-eye
45 / PRODuCT ROunDuP

Dont let motor Failure Ruin Your Day


Use PdM and condition-based monitoring to avoid downtime

Thought leaders: An interview With Rick baldridge


Rick Baldridge, corporate reliability excellence process leader at Cargill and chair of SMRP is interviewed.

specialists
9 / mR. SuSTAinAbiliTY 27 / TEChnOlOgY TOOlbOx

www.plantservices.com/multimedia/2011/thoughtleaders.html

Fix or Replace
Repairing, rebuilding or reconditioning isnt always the most sustainable option
21 / humAn CAPiTAl

Portable but Connected


Predictive maintenance technologies integrate the best of both worlds
50 / EnERgY ExPERT

gender ambiguity and cultural norms clash in the industrial workplace


In this edition of In the Trenches, Acmes first transsexual truck driver gets fired for doing what comes naturally.

www.plantservices.com/articles/2011/02inthetrenches.html

use and misuse of leadership Power


7 sources and the potential consequences of its application
23 / ASSET mAnAgER

3 Risks That Determine Energy Costs


Are you looking through a crystal ball or a rearview mirror?

Plant Services Webinar - Compressed Air Systems


This Plant Services webinar explains how companies have reduced energy consumption from compressed air leaks. Register now.

http://webcast.streamlogics.com/audience/index. asp?eventid=40540712

more Than a Data Aggregator


CMMS includes decisionsupport functionality to make information useful

iSA100 and wireless standards convergence


ISA100 is one of three standards competing in industrial wireless sensing. What is distinctive about ISA100? What are the prospects for convergence of standards?

www.plantservices.com/whitepapers/2011/isa100-wirelessstandards-convergence.html

columns and departments


7 / FROm ThE EDiTOR 13 / WhAT WORKS

The Picture of Safety


PlAnT SERVICES (ISSn 0199-8013) is published monthly by Putman Media, Inc., 555 West Pierce Road, Suite 301, Itasca, Il 60143. Phone (630) 467-1300, Fax (847) 291-4816. Periodicals Postage paid at Itasca, Il and additional mailing offices. Canada Post International Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement no. 40028661. Canadian Mail Distributor Information: Frontier/BWI,Po Box 1051, Fort Erie, ontario, Canada, l2A 5n8. Printed in u.S.A. PoSTMASTER: Send address changes to PlAnT SERVICES, Putman Media, Inc., Po Box 3435, northbrook, Il 60065-3435. SuBSCRIPTIonS: Qualified reader subscriptions are accepted from PlAnT SERVICES managers, supervisors and engineers in manufacturing plants in the u.S. and Canada. To apply for qualified-reader subscriptions, please go to www.plantservices.com. To non-qualified subscribers in the u.S., subscriptions are $96 per year. Single copies are $15. Subscription to Canada and other international are accepted at $200 (Airmail only) 2011 by Putman Media, Inc. All rights reserved. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part without consent of the copyright owner. In an effort to more closely align with our business partners in a manner that provides the most value to our readers, content published in PlAnT SERVICES magazine appears on the public domain of PlAnT SERVICES Website, and may also appear on Websites that apply to our growing marketplace. Putman Media, Inc. also publishes CHEMICAl PRoCESSInG, ConTRol, ConTRol DESIGn, FooD PRoCESSInG, InDuSTRIAl nETWoRKInG, THE JouRnAl, PHARMACEuTICAl MAnuFACTuRInG and WEllnESS FooDS. PlAnT SERVICES assumes no responsibility for validity of claims in items published.

International suppliers need a reason to comply


11 / YOuR SPACE

Organized to Automate
Updated instrument database enables calibration and maintenance

Vibration monitoring helps to increase MTBF and lower pump maintenance costs Electric utility discovers quick WirelessHART payback Real-time data improves lift truck purchase planning and maintenance management
48 / ClASSiFiEDS / AD inDEx

www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 5

Clear the way for quality air

Hi, Im Michelle and I have been working with our customers across the United States for the last 10 years. Products that optimize quality in your air supply are not just accessories we offer; they are a way of life for us at Atlas Copco. Thats why we produce such a wide variety of dryers, aftercoolers, filters and oil-mist eliminators just to name a few. We all perform best when working within our optimum environment, right? And, manufacturing environments are no different. Moisture in your air supply is something that should be avoided at all costs. Water is a by-product of compressing air. But there are ways to ensure this moisture doesnt get downstream and cause equipment malfunction. And more importantly, moisture can lead to contamination of your end products, leading to costly product failures and potentially harming your hard-earned reputation. Our mission is to continue to bring sustainable productivity through safer, cleaner, more energy-efficient, and cost-effective compressed air technology. Simply log onto www.atlascopco.us/michelleusa or call 866-688-9611 to learn more about us, our products, and how we have earned and will continue to earn our reputation.

Copyright 2011 Atlas Copco Compressors LLC. All rights reserved.

PUTMAN MEDIA, INC. 555 W. Pierce Rd., Suite 301, Itasca, IL 60143 (630) 467-1300 Fax: (630) 467-1120 MIKE BRENNER Group Publisher mbrenner@putman.net

FROM THE EDITOR


MIKE BACIDORE, EDITOR IN CHIEF

EDITORIALS TAFF
PAUL STUDEBAKER, CMRP Editorial Director pstudebaker@putman.net MIKE BACIDORE Editor in Chief mbacidore@putman.net RUSSELL L. KRATOWICZ, P.E. CMRP Executive Editor russk@putman.net ALEXIS GAJEWSKI Associate Editor, Digital Media agajewski@putman.net STEPHEN C. HERNER V.P., Creative Services sherner@putman.net JENNIFER DAKAS Art Director jdakas@putman.net DAVID BERGER, P.ENG. Contributing Editor PETER GARFORTH Contributing Editor SHEILA KENNEDY Contributing Editor JOEL LEONARD Contributing Editor BOB SPERBER Editor at Large

THE PICTURE OF SAFETY


International suppliers need a reason to comply
In May, the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA, www. osha.gov) kicked o its Picture It! Safe Workplaces for Everyone photography contest (www.plantservices.com/oshaphotos). Coincidentally, weeks later, three workers were killed and at least 15 were injured in a blast at the Foxconn plant in Chengdu, China. Yes, OSHA is indeed part of the U.S. Department of Labor, so what does its photo contest have to do with industrial plant safety in China? Well, that depends on how seriously U.S. companies are about safety. Foxconn is the trade name of Taiwans Hon Hai Precision Industries, which operates manufacturing plants in a variety of countries, including Poland, India, Mexico, Brazil, and China. Fourteen Chinese workers at Foxconn also committed suicide last year, allegedly due to severe labor conditions, and Foxconn employees now must sign a promise not to commit suicide. Two weeks before the explosion, Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehaviour (SACOM), a group from Hong Kong, criticized Foxconns ventilation and protective equipment at the Chengdu facility. e blast at the plant was attributed to the ignition of highly combustible magnesium dust in a duct. So, again, what does this have to do with OSHA and its picture competition? Foxconns plants are suppliers to the U.S. technology industry. In fact, more than a million Foxconn workers manufacture products for companies such as Apple, Hewlett-Packard, and Dell. And that gives those U.S. companies quite a big opportunity and considerable leverage. If ever there was a chance to force change in labor practices and industrial safety standards, this is it. Getting the picture yet? While OSHA is challenging amateur and professional photographers to capture an image of workplace safety and health, the goal of the contest is to collaborate with the public and raise national awareness about workplace safety and health.

U.S. COMPANIES HAVE A HISTORY OF REQUIRING SUPPLIER COMPLIANCE.


U.S. companies have a history of requiring supplier compliance on issues ranging from sustainability to quality management. Workplace safety is an important issue that manufacturers should do their best to drive all the way up the international supply chain. And every picture tells a story. How about a new Apple iPad advertising campaign that includes photos of safe work environments of the plants that supply the tech manufacturer? And dont forget the OSHA photo contest at your own plant. Its part of the organizations 40th anniversary celebration, and its open to anyone 18 years or older. e competition deadline is Aug. 12, and workplace safety and health may be interpreted and demonstrated in any way the photographer chooses. e photos, however, must be taken in the United States and its territories. If you have photos from outside the United States, theyre not eligible for the OSHA contest, but well be more than happy to accept them here.

PUBLICATION SERVICES
CARMELA KAPPEL Assistant to the Publisher ckappel@putman.net JERRY CLARK V.P., Circulation jclark@putman.net JACK JONES Circulation Director jjones@putman.net RITA FITZGERALD Production Manager rtzgerald@putman.net JILL KALETHA Reprints Marketing Manager Foster Reprints (866) 879-9144 ext.168 jillk@fosterprinting.com

EXECUTIVE STAFF
JOHN M. CAPPELLETTI President/CEO JULIE CAPPELLETTI-LANGE Vice President KEITH LARSON V.P., Content ROSE SOUTHARD V.P., Technology

Mike Bacidore, Editor in Chief mbacidore@putman.net, (630) 467-1300 x444


WWW.PLANTSERVICES.COM JUNE 2011 7

Like new, all over again.

Upgrading existing equipment saves time and money.


If your company is like most, it has reduced capital and operating budgets but still expects things to run like they always have. Square D Services from Schneider Electric has a demonstrated ability to help. Our nationwide team of trained technicians can upgrade existing switchgear no matter the make or model. By using proven technology like Masterpact
Equipment de-energized during upgrade

replacement circuit breakers, we can revitalize aging equipment without the need for prolonged shutdownssaving you time and money. From equipment startup to corrective action and custom equipment solutions or maintenance, Square D Services is available 24/7, 365 days a year. Find out what we can do for you.

Download our NEW White Paper: Extend the Life of Existing Switchgear.
Visit www.SEreply.com Key Code a961v
2011 Schneider Electric. All Rights Reserved. Schneider Electric, Masterpact, Square D, and the D-in-a-square logo are trademarks owned by Schneider Electric Industries SAS or its afliated companies. 998-4084_US

Mr. SuStainability
paul studebaker, cmrp

Fix or replace
repairing, rebuilding or reconditioning isnt always the most sustainable option
Walking out of my house on Sunday morning, May 22, I
more energy or the energy balance was too close to call. If the remanufactured item is less energy-efficient than a new product, the extra energy used over its lifetime generally cancels out the savings from the manufacturing stage. This is a big deal in motor rewinds, as new motors tend to be several percent more efficient than the ones that are wearing

couldnt tell whether or not the rapture had occurred. My family and I, as well as many of my neighbors, were still evident, but that was no surprise. Monday mornings traffic was a little lighter than usual, and my coworkers showed up, but again, thats no proof that the truly righteous had, or had not, been taken. Absolutely none of the usual email had gone missing. But when I went to start my lawnmower, I saw a sign that, indeed, the apocalypse had arrived. For the first time in 29 years, the old Honda HRA214 SX would not start, because it wouldnt make a spark. For all those years, so long as I put a little Stabil in the gas, that mower would start on the second pull the first time out in the spring and on the first pull for the rest of the season. But this year, the old beast has become, relatively speaking, a parts-eating machine: a new blade, a new foam sock for the air cleaner, even a new pair of front wheel bushings. At this rate, I might have to replace the original spark plug. A replacement ignition coil costs $80, which is pretty pricey. It still makes economic sense to fix the mower rather than buy a new one, but is it the right thing to do from a sustainability point of view? When I bought the mower in 1982, I used it a lot more often. Now, I just run it about 15 minutes a week to do edges and tight areas where my riding mower doesnt fit. When it was new, its four-stroke, overhead-valve efficiency and emissions were state-of-the-art in a market full of two-strokes and flatheads. Now, I could probably do the job with an electric mower. Back then, I needed the self-propulsion. Now I could use the exercise of pushing. Even if the alternative was simply replacing it with a new, gas-powered, self-propelled mower, fixing the old one might not be the most sustainable choice. A new mower would probably be lighter and more efficient. It might leak less oil and gasoline fumes and have cleaner exhaust. Besides, running to the Honda dealer for parts burns a lot of gas. A recent MIT study of remanufacturing versus replacement (www.plantservices/rebuildvsreplace) looked at 25 cases in eight categories, from motor rewinds to retreading tires and refilling ink cartridges. Reconditioning by itself almost always saved energy over a new component, but researchers found that, when lifecycle energy consumption was considered, more than half of the rebuilds either used

When liFecycle energy conSuMption WaS conSiDereD, More than halF oF the rebuilDS either uSeD More energy or the energy balance WaS too cloSe to call.

out. This has some folks wondering if an older motor can be rewound to be more efficient, and motor experts say its not likely (www.plantservices.com/rewindmotorefficiency). New motors have differences in design, materials, bearings, and precision that old motors just cant match. But if the component in question doesnt consume energy, the MIT researchers say you can usually be confident that reconditioning is the more sustainable option. Thats the case with most of the electrical components that are reconditioned by members of the Professional Electrical Apparatus Recyclers League (PEARL), who met May 15 to discuss, among other things, why LEED doesnt recognize using remanufactured electrical equipment as a way to earn points for incorporating recycled materials in a new structure (www.plantservices.com/pearl). You can get credit for using staves of old-growth redwood from recycled water towers hauled in from California instead of steel siding, but not for freshly rebuilt, certified switchgear or circuit breakers. Go figure. As for my mower, for me, the fix-or-replace decision boils down, as it often does, to knowledge and infrastructure. I have the manual and a collection of accessories, and I understand how that old machine works even better now that I had to find and test the coil. Weve been through a lot of grass together, and thats green enough for me.
contact editorial Director paul Studebaker, cMrp, at pstudebaker@putman.net.
www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 9

Take a vibration expert along

New Fluke 810 Vibration Tester: When you need an answer now
Control unplanned downtime, prevent recurring problems, set repair priorities and manage your resources with an entirely new approach to vibration testing. The new Fluke 810 helps you locate and diagnose common mechanical problems and prioritize repair actions in three simple steps.:

SETUP

Vibration testing has never been easier

The 810 asks for basic machine information you already know. Its onboard Info feature gives you eld tips for setting up and taking measurements like a pro.

2 3

MEASURE

Fluke 810 ts easily into your maintenance routine.

Use it to quickly troubleshoot problems or monitor machine conditions.

DIAGNOSE

No more guessing your machines condition.

With the press of a button, the Fluke 810 identies the root cause, its location, and how severe it is. Fix it right the rst time. The Fluke 810 is the most advanced troubleshooting tool for mechanical maintenance teams.

See for yourself at www.uke.com/report or call 1-800-44-FLUKE

Fluke. Keeping your world up and running.

2010 Fluke Corporation. Specications are subject to change without notice. Ad 3542778C

yOur spaCe

Organized tO autOmate
updated instrument database enables calibration and maintenance
By Kenneth marse, galata Chemicals

assigning maintenance responsibility to an outside contractor might make economic sense, but that group must have information about plant equipment and systems. When long-term employees are no longer around to tell why a pump sometimes cavitates or warn that a sensor line plugs frequently, the new technicians do a lot of wheel-spinning. After the maintenance department at the Galata Chemicals plant in Taft, Louisiana, was downsized in 2007, most records pertaining to the process control system fell into disarray. While the contractor was qualified, it couldnt find needed information. Technical documentation was almost nonexistent, control-loop piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs) couldnt be found, and there was no way to determine how many field devices were in use. In some cases, dual records existed, but they werent identical. Another factor was the time spent reacting to emergencies. The new group was fighting fires to keep the plant running and neglecting routine maintenance. The cost of the contract service turned was much higher than anticipated.
asset management revitalized

cations, and the instrumentation system had some structure. Now, all 1,650 instruments have unique tag numbers. Anyone can find any information needed for troubleshooting, determine the operating condition of any device and the associated process equipment, and can predict when an asset should be repaired or replaced. Using the principles of predictive maintenance, the contractor now was able to provide the maintenance needed to prevent the unexpected fires.

WHen its time fOr a CaliBratiOn, speCifiC variaBles are dOWnlOaded tO tHe teCHniCians dOCumenting CaliBratOr.
alarm management

Two actions were taken almost simultaneously. I was hired in June 2008 as a control systems specialist with authority over instrument calibration and maintenance. The company also brought in a systems consultant from Emerson Process Management (www.emersonprocess.com), our control system supplier. His assignment was to help with instrumentation questions, but he was soon asked to restore the asset management software. Our first task was reconstructing the instrument database in the AMS Suite: Intelligent Device Manager asset management software, the system implemented in 1998 to maintain spec sheets, P&IDs, and calibration records. The instruments were entered into the database as conventional devices, meaning that information the plants HART-based smart devices generated wasnt being used for maintenance. Later, the HART-enabled devices were turned on, making field-generated diagnostics available, but different device tags were assigned for this purpose. The numbers never were linked, causing confusion. Using the general application launcher in the AMS Device Manager, we segregated the HART-enabled devices and linked the loop sheets, specifications, P&IDs, maintenance manuals, and calibration procedures. We eliminated dupli-

AMS Device Manager monitors the smart devices and raises alarms if any exceed preset operating limits. Alarms can indicate trouble brewing, and we monitor them daily. I can retrieve diagnostic information from any suspect device. An I&E technician can check the device and the equipment it monitors. Any of these steps can trigger predictive maintenance if conditions call for it. In quite a few cases, instruments or process equipment problems have been discovered before the control system operators knew they existed. Catching a potential problem before it occurs avoids a great deal of troubleshooting and eliminates downtime. Calibrations are now completed on schedule following Emersons written procedures. When its time for a calibration, specific variables are downloaded to the technicians documenting calibrator. The results of each calibration are uploaded to the database, becoming part of the historical file. We now have accurate, up-to-date calibration records that satisfy corporate requirements and state regulatory agencies. We avoid potential environmental problems. Were now taking care of nearly 2,000 field devices with one instrument tech, an apprentice, and two electricians. Process control is more consistent, and equipment reliability better, product quality higher, and productivity greater.
Kenneth marse is control systems specialist at galata Chemicals (www.galatachemicals.com) in Hahnville, louisiana. Contact him at kenneth.marse@galatachemicals.com.
www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 11

Super-E Motors

EISA Compliant Since 1983


Since our beginning in 1920, Baldor has led the industry in developing industrial electric motors that deliver greater performance and reliability while using less electricity. That commitment continued in 1983 with the introduction of our Super-E line of motors. In horsepower ratings from fractional to 15,000, Baldor offers the broadest choice of energy efficient motors available in the world.

Every Super-E motor is designed and built to meet or exceed the efficiency levels defined by NEMA in the USA, NRC in Canada and IEC 60034-30 IE3 in Europe. Many years ago, Baldor Super-E motors were recognized by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency as the first premium efficiency motor line to meet their stringent criteria. And, every Super-E motor meets the compliance standards for the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which became law in December 2010.

Baldor will help you comply today because weve been ready since 1983.

Are You EISA Ready?


When you choose Baldors Super-E motors, youre ready and compliant immediately. For any design or application, theres a Super-E to meet even the most demanding applications. Log on today and receive your free copy of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 document, our Method to Reduce Energy Costs case study, our award-winning BE$T Baldor Energy Savings Tool CD and our Super-E product line brochure.

Quality Is in the Details


Super-E premium efficient motors represent quality to the highest degree. Look inside a Super-E and youll find premium-grade copper windings, annealed laminations of superior-grade steel, premium bearings and low-loss fans, enabling Baldors Super-E motors to run cooler, quieter and longer with better reliability than any other industrial motor.

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 is now in effect. Because electric motors consume more than 63% of electricity used by U.S. industry, the act addressed new energy savings regulations that will directly affect the electric motors you use in your facilities, as well as motors used in new equipment design. Log on today to baldor.com for additional information.

2011 Baldor Electric Company

baldor.com

what works

a refined taste in reliability


Vibration monitoring helps to increase Mtbf and lower pump maintenance costs
the ConocoPhillips ferndale Washington Refinery (www.conocophillips.com) is an integrated, single-train fuels refinery with a capacity of 110,000 barrels/day and it has about 1,000 pieces of equipment. The rotating equipment group has three reliability engineers, a part-time PdM technician, and a maintenance superintendent. The plant had no vibration monitoring program and used a reactive maintenance approach. The team was so busy responding to hot problems that there was no time to make long-term improvements. Operations had little confidence in its pumps and motors. It was a common expectation that even spared equipment had to be repaired and returned to service the same day. The result was a lot of overtime as the team routinely spent weekends overseeing machine repairs. It became apparent that something had to change. The plant needed to get away from run-to-failure and move to a strategic, proactive approach to reliability and uptime. The plant investigated oil analysis and thermography and concluded that, for the machinery and the types of failures seen, vibration monitoring offered the highest potential return. The team also recognized the necessity of regular, repetitive data collection to establish statistical baseline data from which deviations could be recognized. In my opinion, vibration monitoring is the cornerstone to identifying machinery problems, says Ryan R. Barnes, maintenance superintendent of rotating equipment services at the refinery. How else can you stand next to a running piece of equipment and determine, without shutting it down, that it suffers from impeller unbalance or misaligned shafts, or is at the early stages of bearing damage? The team searched for a vibration monitoring system that emphasized accurate and repeatable data collection and easy analysis. It considered several approaches to data collection. One was to use Ferndale operators or machinists to collect the vibration data and have reliability engineers or contractors perform the analysis. The other was to outsource the condition monitoring program. The team decided to hire a committed, on-site data collector to be involved with everything from data collection to working with an outside vendor to handle primary analysis. This way the data collector wouldnt be pulled away for repairs or operator rounds. The plant has a small staff, so it was critical the vibration monitoring system be fast, accurate, and repeatable, and most importantly, diagnose potential problems easily.
After reviewing available monitoring offerings, ConocoPhillips Ferndale selected the Azima DLI vibration data collector with ExpertAlert software. Triaxial data acquisition can collect vibration data in three dimensions in less than 20 seconds per test location. This includes both low (0-10 orders) and high (0-100 orders) frequency ranges. Technicians aim the bar code scanner at the label glued to the pump base or foundation and the data collector begins

the Plant has a sMall staff, so it was CritiCal the Vibration Monitoring systeM be fast, aCCurate, and rePeatable.
recording immediately. The labels withstand years of harsh outdoor conditions. Test pads with a screw-mounted connection to the transducer ensure repeatable vibration data, especially in the higher frequencies. The bronze pads have an alignment notch to orient the transducer. Vibration monitoring needs a data screening technique. Azima DLI uses an analysis program called ExpertAlert. It uses statistical analysis to compare the accumulated baseline spectral peaks against the test data using a complex set of rules. About 25% of the data collected generates a significant diagnostic report that requires follow-up manual analysis. It was imperative to have one person, with interest, enthusiasm, accountability, training, and certification, who owned and was responsible for the program. In addition to collecting and analyzing data, this person analyzes the machine problems that arise and track the metrics needed to refine the program and recommend plant improvements. During the past 16 years, unplanned machine failures have diminished to near zero. The pump MTBF rate increased from 22 months to 52 months in a 10-year period after implementing the Azima DLI condition monitoring system. The annual maintenance costs for pump repairs dropped from $1,300,000/yr to $600,000/yr within 10 years. Nearly every maintenance job at the plant is planned. Equipment failures are few, and overtime has been eliminated. The ConocoPhillips Ferndale plant has come a long way. What was once a run-to-failure plant now has a 91% onstream availability with a staff of five machinists.
www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 13

ITS WHATS ON

THE INSIDE
You may not have a Donaldson Torit dust collector, but you can still have the performance of Donaldson Torit ltration. No matter the make, model, size or style, there is a Donaldson Torit lter ready to answer the call. In fact, we keep more than 90,000 replacement lters in stock, and with our Ready 2 Ship program, your lter will be out the door within 24 hours. For the best lter selection and performance, you dont have to look far; your search ends with Donaldson Torit.

THAT COUNTS

Learn more:
Donaldson.com/Ready2ShipFilters 800.365.1331
2011 Donaldson Company, Inc.

whaT works

on TargET
Electric utility discovers quick wirelessharT payback
Progress Energy, an electric utility serving the southeast, has its SWAT team, the Performance Testing Group, to stamp out inefficiency. With four engineers and technicians led by Dick Fletcher, the team manager, it travels among 32 plants, testing, troubleshooting, and verifying equipment performance. Field testing requires portable data acquisition systems that collect data from many field devices. Typically, the test records time-stamped data through a gateway to a laptop-based spreadsheet-type application. Test equipment must be portable and flexible enough to operate with a constantly changing number of instruments and scan rates.
ThE ProblEm wiTh hard wirEs

tory, collect multidrop mode data digitally, simplify equipment installation, and get an easily configurable system. These objectives exceeded Fletchers initial expectations. The project focus in the early, research phase was mainly upon wired multiplexer-based systems, because the wireless equipment that we were initially aware of was expected to be out of our financial reach, says Fletcher.

TEsT sETuP was arduous bEforE ProducTs had imPlEmEnTEd ThE wirElEssharT sPEcificaTion.
imPlEmEnTing wirElEssly

The group maintained 240 transmitters, mainly for temperature and pressure, hardwired to HART multiplexers to accommodate cable runs to conduct tests. Testing entailed days for setup and another for teardown. Some multiplexers were failing because of wear and tear. The wiring risked damage as cables were used and reused connecting more than 100 instruments across the plant and roadways. With the introduction of the WirelessHART protocol and network adapters, the group sought to replace its test equipment to go wireless. Fletcher explains that the engineers had a major investment in HART Smart Transmitters. The logical thing to do was get a common data acquisition system shared across the system, he says. He set short-term goals for a new system that could handle a variety of instruments, with special emphasis on high-accuracy pressure and temperature. The system also had to be easy to configure, because every plant had its own configuration. And the system would have to interface with standard commercial instruments using standard protocols. Fletcher also set longer-term goals to achievie remote data flow over the corporate wide-area network (WAN) for remote testing. But first, they had to show proof of concept.
ProjEcT objEcTivEs

Test setup was arduous before products had implemented the WirelessHART specification. One such adapter, the MACTek Bullet, allowed Fletchers group to connect eight HART-enabled devices in an all-digital multidrop network mode. Knowing this, the Performance Testing Group hoped to achieve several objectives: create a common data acquisition system, share equipment, minimize hardware inven-

Like everyone else in these economically challenging times, we had to get the best bang for the buck, says Fletcher, and that meant that we had to maintain compatibility with our existing investment in HART-enabled transmitters. When we were planning our purchase, we learned that MACTek had working prototypes of the Bullet. The prototype, introduced in 2009, supports six HART transmitters in HART multidrop mode. It has since expanded to eight. For either iteration, this capability meant a wireless gateway could replace the failing multiplexers, and fewer cables would be needed for test installations. The economics of a hybrid wireless-wired HART system became more feasible for us to consider, says Fletcher. The resulting system communicates HART data, including process variables, through the Emerson gateway, to a laptop PC, where data goes to an Excel spreadsheet using Matricon Analytics plug-in Excel Reporter, an OPC plug-in. Fletcher has one caveat to using the wireless network adapters. Because WirelessHART technology uses the same 2.4-GHz frequency band as Wi-Fi, users should be aware of the range limits and possibility of interference between objects and antennas. He also notes that a WirelessHART network can take 10 or 20 minutes to get fully established with all HART subdevices reporting, and that Wi-Fi was designed for speed, while WirelessHART was designed for data reliability.
bEnEfiTs

The advantages of the system were apparent, from up-front cost to long-term data acquisition system reliability. Another
www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 15

what works
wireless adapter provided the same kind of capability, but each handled only one transmitter. The cost of the hardware for the 240 transmitters the group maintains was roughly $180,000. Instead, the Bullets, which handle eight devices each, cost $158,000 less. The multidrop capability was key to project approval.
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While HART is a hybrid analog/digital specification, wireless data transmission is all-digital. This allows HART technology to enter the world of digital bus functionality. The wireless multidrop mode doesnt use the analog signal; instruments use the 4-20 mA signals for power, but process variables are transmitted digitally. So, the technology might open the door for new applications previously thought to be the domain of digital fieldbus networks, such as condition monitoring and asset management. A MACTek Bullet transmitting data on eight multidropped instruments once every 8 seconds makes real-time data acquisition a possibility. Fletcher notes the protocol is built for redundancy and reliability. For his testing purposes, he sets up the MACTek to poll Bullet transmitters every 16 seconds and for his gateways to poll at 20-second intervals.
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Fletcher is considering expanding the scope of testing to other tests and diagnostic capabilities. With the proof of concept, Fletcher is in discussions to consider permanently installed Bullets in key locations. This can yield benefits at the plant level and beyond, if remote access is granted. The Web interface in the wireless gateways gives us good diagnostics and data on the Bullet radios and the HART devices, says Fletcher. Further gains stand to be realized if we can get the gateways linked to the corporate wide-area network. The basic principle is to connect the gateways to the corporate WAN instead of a laptop. Engineers could then evaluate data being collected at any plant without traveling to it. Alternately, the WAN approach also could allow the group or others in the company to make additional or more in-depth evaluation at any time.

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what works

Fleet, Dont FaIl Me now


real-time data improves lift truck purchase planning and maintenance management
In a five-day, two-shift work week, a lift truck might be in operation for 80 hours. During a year, it will operate for more than 2,000 hours. Leveraging lift truck operating statistics properly can help managers run a more efficient operation and increase productivity. Bunzl North America (www.bunzldistribution.com), with headquarters in St. Louis, supplies food packaging, disposable supplies, and cleaning and safety products to food processors, supermarkets, retailers, convenience stores, and others. Raymonds iWarehouse fleet optimization system helps determine the true cost of lift truck ownership; assess when its appropriate to service or reassign equipment; and evaluate maintenance trends. At some locations, Bunzl reduced its maintenance costs by more than 10%. We wanted to get better control and understanding of our equipment, says Rick Castetter, vice president of distribution and warehousing for Bunzl North America. If we can better plan for maintenance or even reduce and eliminate avoidable maintenance situations, then were more cost-efficient and productive.
Data DelIvery

An on-board module tracks lift truck data that determines the unit cost to operate.

Bunzls operators use so many Raymond lift trucks, orderpickers, and electric pallet trucks that the company began using the iWarehouse systems iTrack module, the data from which would help the company improve lift truck fleet management and its cost elements. Managers at each distribution center, unless they had their own homegrown spreadsheets for tracking every month, wouldnt really know how much a unit cost to operate, says Jeff Earnhart, executive vice president of operations for Bunzl North America. They couldnt answer certain questions. How many hours am I using it? Whats my cost per hour? How many times has this been repaired? When was the last time this repair was done? It was a manual process. Its helpful at the corporate and the individual distribution center level to use the data to determine what is needed to budget for next year, in terms of capital expenditures, says Castetter. Our distribution center managers will access the website and analyze the costs of individual units of equipment and the age of the equipment, to determine whether to keep the equipment for another year or if its starting to cost more than it should to keep it running, he says. Bunzl also uses the data to determine if a facility has the
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June 2011 www.PLAnTSeRVICeS.Com

right number and mix of trucks. The cost analysis helps to determine whether any facility has too many or too few trucks to meet throughput requirements.
Data proDuces cost savIngs

Earnhart says iTrack provides multiple avenues of cost savings, and nothing is considered too insignificant. The system also can help determine replacement component strategies. For example, data might indicate that a facilitys lift trucks require wheel and tire replacements more often than other facilities. If its an older building, there could be cracks and uneven areas in the floors that damage tires and wheels, says Earnhart. The system allows us to determine the root cause of a problem. Bunzl relies on Raymonds assistance for preventive maintenance and repairs, handled regionally by a network of Raymond service centers. Technicians there enter maintenance work order data into the iWarehouse systems iTrack module to be reviewed and approved by the distribution center manager. Work orders are consolidated, and Bunzl receives a single invoice every other week, Raymonds technicians also help facilities incorporate new technologies.

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UsE And MisUsE of LEAdERshiP PoWER


7 sources and the potential consequences of its application
We can define leadership as influencing the activities
level of commitment others have toward the leader. Personal power is linked to our personality, our competence, and our integrity. There are seven sources of power: coercive power (position) the ability to impose sanctions or punishment to gain compliance

of others toward accomplishing a goal. And we can define power as a leaders potential to influence the activities of others toward accomplishing a goal. Without a source of power there can be no leadership. We can define two different types of power bases: position and personal. Position power is the power that is given to leaders by their organizations. It is the power granted to leaders based on their job title. Personal power is power given to the leader by other people. That includes subordinates, peers, and bosses of the leader and others. Personal power is an indication of the
Leader action Uses sanctions inappropriately, misuses corrective feedback Typical effects Team loses respect for the leader The boss notes the leader cant handle sanction authority The leader loses respect from peers Threatens sanctions but never follows through Gives rewards to everyone, regardless of performance Team doesnt perceive the leader will use sanctions Team feels there is no need to work harder if everyone gets the same reward rewards become expected, as opposed to being performance-based The boss notes the leader is abusing the rewards system reduces coercive power with the team reduces reward power with team reduces referent power with boss, peers, and team Effect on power reduces referent power with boss, team, and peers might also erode coercive power

A LEAdER shoULd ConTEMPLATE ThE bEsT soURCEs of PoWER To bE EMPLoyEd To AChiEvE sUCCEss And EffECTivEnEss.
reward power (position) the ability to provide rewards or recognition to gain compliance legitimate power (position) the right to influence the activities of others based on job title or position expert power (personal) respect gained based on skills, expertise, or experience referent power (position and personal) positive personal traits or integrity information power (position and personal) possession of or access to, valuable information connection power (position and personal) access to others who can provide rewards or sanctions. A leader should be able to incorporate these power sources appropriately. A leader should contemplate the best sources of power to be employed to achieve success and effectiveness. So now you should be asking yourself, Is there one best source of power? The answer is yes, if youre only concerned with immediate success for instance, if a fire breaks out and you need to make sure a volatile process is safely shut down. In this case, position power is the best choice. In most other situations you need to move among the sources of power. Power can be quickly lost if the leader misuses power. A leader must use power wisely and justly or it can become a liability rather than an asset. It only takes one incompetent act to result in an instantaneous loss of power. Good leaders work to build their sources of power, and they use their power to influence others wisely.
Tom Moriarty, P.E., CMRP, is president of Alidade MER. Contact him at tjmpe@alidade-mer.com and (321) 773-3356.
www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 21

These are some examples of the negative fallout that can come from the abuse of power.

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Cmms includes decision-support functionality to make information useful
With complexity on the shop floor, in facilities, and in the field growing, theres a need for better decision-support systems. Some CMMS vendors work hard to provide superb decision-support functionality. This includes condition monitoring features; workflow capability; analysis and reporting tools; mobile solutions; and the ability to easily integrate with other operational systems.
Condition monitoring

maintenance supervisor. Workflows can be triggered by condition or trend in one or more variables. The vigilant CMMS optimizes operations through quick response. Workflow isnt only useful for monitoring shop-floor measures, but it also can be a useful management tool. For example, if PM compliance dips below, say, 90%, an email can be sent to the maintenance manager. If it drops below, say, 80%, an email can be sent to the plant manager. If PM

If the objective is optimization, a critical function is to monitor and control four aspects of operations products, processes, environment, and assets. Low-level systems such as human-machine interfaces (HMIs), supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), programmable logic controllers (PLCs), and proprietary data collection systems can track the four aspects. But operations seem to be more concerned with the first three than with the assets and rely heavily on maintenance to monitor or control key assets. Competition, tension, and role ambiguity between operations and maintenance is nothing new, and sophisticated monitoring and control systems make it hard to separate their duties. Behavior takes more time and effort to change than technology. For example, why so much union resistance to total productive maintenance (TPM), where operators take on responsibility for minor maintenance tasks? The opposition stems from a power struggle at the management level and a fear that jobs will be lost or changed. Optimization is the goal. Management must change the corporate culture to take advantage of the powerful systems at its disposal. Maintenance technicians no longer sit around reading the paper, waiting for a call from the field or shop floor to deal with a problem. Condition monitoring capability allows operators, technicians, and engineers to react quickly to abnormal or suboptimal situations. We need better cooperation between operations, maintenance, and engineering at every level, and a new definition of roles and responsibilities that match the new reality.
WorkfloW

management must Change the Corporate Culture to take advantage of the poWerful systems at its disposal.
compliance goes below, say, 70%, an email can be sent to the COO, and so on. A workflow engine can perform any user-defined transfer of data and actions, based on any userdefined event, condition, measure, or combination thereof.
analysis and reporting

A sophisticated workflow engine some CMMS vendors offer enhances the condition monitoring capability, in that data can be routed and actions taken in a predefined manner. For example, if a reading strays outside control limits, the CMMS can initiate a work order or send an email to the

Collecting information from thousands of field or shopfloor devices doesnt optimize operations. Many companies suffer information overload when they implement advanced packages. Its not clear what to do with the new data. CMMS vendors know this phenomenon. Some provide tools, templates, samples, and predefined reports to assist in extracting knowledge. Others try a spin: We dont supply tools or templates, but our software is flexible enough to build any report, on demand, as if the two are mutually exclusive. The hottest software feature is the dashboard interface that allows users to configure the look and feel of a personal page on the CMMS, including table summary reports, KPIs, alarms and warnings, key messages, and links to relevant information. The user can configure display formats, such as a speedometer or stoplight graphic depicting variables. The range for each is user-definable. If the graphic shows a problem, the user can double-click on it to provide a detailed report and zoom in on the root cause with a series of double-clicks. If the dashboard is configured properly, users can identify problems, determine the root cause, and take appropriate action. Dashboards provide the visibility needed to optimize operations through better decision making.
www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 23

ASSET MANAGER

MOBILE SOLUTIONS

Another useful tool for optimizing operations is the mobile device. Some mistakenly think of a mobile

device as a small remote terminal with access to the CMMS. is doesnt do justice to the power of the mobile solution. Field or shop- oor

workers are completely alienated by mobile solutions that require scrolling through reams of data on tiny screens. However, companies get signi cant productivity improvements if the so ware renders properly on the device, provides the information required, and takes advantage of the powerful features, such as taking and attaching pictures, recording GPS coordinates, reading RFID, and reading bar codes.
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An important CMMS trend is bridging islands of automation in operations. is includes eld and shop- oor data systems such as HMI, SCADA, and PLC systems, as well as systems such as time and attendance, asset tracking/locating, calibration, quality control, manufacturing execution systems, building management systems, geographic information systems, and ERP systems. Integration means greater accuracy and timeliness of shared data because its entered only once at its source. Data storage and data entry costs are lower because theres less duplication. Most importantly, users have easier access to the data to make better decisions, regardless of where it resides. Some CMMS vendors integrate these applications into their products via so ware. Others acquired or have been acquired by a company such as an ERP provider or plant automation company that o ers one or more of these applications. Others formed partnerships with companies that can build the appropriate interfaces to ensure seamless integration between partners. Finally, some CMMS vendors simply build the required interface as the need arises.
Email Contributing Editor David Berger, P.Eng., partner, Western Management Consultants, at david@wmc.on.ca.

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JUNE 2011 WWW.PLANTSERVICES.COM

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Sheila Kennedy

PorTable buT connecTed


Predictive maintenance technologies integrate the best of both worlds
assets can exhibit subtle changes before failure occurs.
price as a premium infrared unit, you can get a visual with thousands of pixels of data in a single image, says Rebelo. Usability: Performance and usability upgrades were made to Azima DLIs Alert machinery condition assessment software, particularly in the area of data collection. A redesign of the DCX and DCA-60 data collection user interface improves functional and navigation efficiency and provides access to more information. It supports hands-free, voice-

Detecting that and triggering corrections is increasingly sophisticated. Technology improvements are prominent in several recent product announcements. Portability: Sometimes a two-channel portable vibration data collector is inadequate and a permanent monitoring system is impractical. Emerson offers the CSI 2600 Machinery Health Expert, a portable tool capable of unattended, continuous online monitoring and recording of 24 channels. While traditional multi-channel devices focus on turbomachinery, the CSI 2600 can detect rolling element and gearbox problems, says Deane Horn, product manager for Emerson. It identifies early indication of bearing wear and features transient analysis, fault frequency overlays, order tracking, and time synchronous averaging. Connectivity: Continuous monitoring and measuring can predict and circumvent degradation between PM cycles. Infor EAM offers out-of-the-box connections from devices that supply a PLC, building automation, and metering data to the Infor EAM software, where rule-based work orders for predictive maintenance can be generated automatically. We knew we had to provide not just software and services, but also hardware, says Johnny Bofilios, Infors director of asset sustainability. One of our hardware partners is Echelon, whose i.LON SmartServer is a standards-based energy manager. Energy spikes that i.LON reveals could be indicative of high motor temperature, phase imbalance, or other asset conditions that requires maintenance. Adding connectivity between devices also improves productivity. MeterLink from Extech Instruments automates sharing Extech electrical and environmental meter diagnostics and Flir infrared camera diagnostics. Previously, a camera would scan for a hot spot and a meter would collect electrical readings, and manual or audio note taking was required to integrate these readings for inspection reports. MeterLink records meter readings instantly and directly via Bluetooth into the infrared images, says Andre Rebelo, global PR manager for Extech Instruments. Affordability: Infrared thermometers provide a numerical temperature readout of single spot, a time-consuming manual process thats affordable compared to traditional infrared cameras. A low-priced imager has the potential to replace toolbox thermometers. The Flir i3 point-and-click thermal imager retails for $1,195. Now, for about the same

ulTraSonic uniTS wiTh TouchScreen caPabiliTieS SimPlify inSPecTionS.


controlled data collection with optional verbal feedback. The system accommodates complex notes and can record and play voice notes. Also, the automated diagnostic system technology has been improved, allowing expanded diagnostics and an unlimited number of machine test locations. Ultrasonic units with touchscreen capabilities simplify inspections. The Ultraprobe 15,000 Touch from UE Systems is a handheld, full-featured inspection system that measures, analyzes, and collects data by touch. The operating software enables inspectors to review important route information, such as baseline data, images of test points, and previously recorded baseline sounds, which can be viewed on the spectral analysis screen, says Mark Goodman, vice president of engineering for UE Systems. While the data can be downloaded to a host computer, the on-board features provide for field analysis of fluid, electrical, and mechanical systems. Ultrasound image clarity is the target of University of California, Berkeley, scientists developing a metamaterial that uses evanescent sound waves for super-resolution acoustic imaging. The metamaterial could potentially improve the images that are generated in non-destructive, ultrasonic testing.
email contributing editor Sheila Kennedy, managing director of additive communications, at Sheila@addcomm.com. reference web SiTeS:

www.emersonprocess.com www.infor.com www.echelon.com www.extech.com

www.flir.com www.dliengineering.com www.uesystems.com www.berkeley.edu

www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 27

Apps
of
By Sheila Kennedy, Contributing Editor

Steel
FactoryTalk visualization system from any location. With an Apple iPad or iPhone, users monitor and compare processes, such as the status of the mash ltration system, in real time.
VENDOR OFFERINGS ARE MANY AND VARIED

Mobile and tablet devices attract a new wave of maintenance applications to the plant floor

Interest in industrial mobility can be credited to the con uence of trendy devices, lower-cost connectivity, and tech-savvy Millennials also known as Generation Y now entering the workforce. Applications (apps) to foster operations and maintenance e ciency abound for both rugged and consumer-grade wireless technologies, but getting the highest return on your mobility investment requires matching the strategy to your particular environment. Rugged devices were the rst to hit the plant oor. So dB, a manufacturer of acoustical equipment, chose DAP Technologies M8910 rugged tablet computer for acoustic and vibration measurement. It allows us to be an innovator by integrating signal technology into a modern tablet PC, says Andr LEsprance, president of So dB (www.so db. com) in Quebec City, Quebec. Once its fully deployed, we expect that hundreds of users will be using the device. Coatings and specialty products manufacturer PPG Industries uses Motorolas MC9000 rugged handheld mobile computers for mobile human-machine interface (HMI) and asset management, and radios from Motorola to improve communications and security. Although were just in the infancy of enabling the mobile operator and technician in our facility, the potential bene ts in e ciency, safety, and environment are huge, says Rob Brooks, process control supervisor for PPG Industries (www.ppg. com) in Pittsburgh. e new wave in mobility is smart apps. One wholesale brewery is pilot testing Aurora Mobile Apps from Aurora Industrial Automation to access its Rockwell Automation
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JUNE 2011 WWW.PLANTSERVICES.COM

e Flir Viewer App can send thermal images and data from a Flir E-Series or T-Series camera directly to an iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch without cables or swapping SD cards. When you snap a picture of a problem with your Flir camera, you can call it up on your iPhone via Wi-Fi from the oor and email it to any number of recipients, says Ed Kochanek, director of sales, eastern region, for Flir Systems (www. ir.com) e app is generating great excitement with our customers. With an iPhone or iPad, its easier to store, scroll through, analyze, and share pictures. It allows you to carry every picture ever taken anywhere you go. e ProSo i-View is a mobile app for Apple devices that enables remote process monitoring and control with real-time process data. If you need to know immediately when theres a fault in a line valve, or a motor seizes, or a drive stops working, the i-View can detect it, says Chris Hines, training manager for ProSo Technology (www. proso -technology.com). We recognized the inevitability of melding between consumer and industrial technologies via mobile apps, so we began investigating opportunities

CATEGORY / TOPIC

to leverage these tools to complement our solutions and our customers applications. e SKF Microlog Inspector System simpli es data collection and remote data transfer for condition monitoring, inspections, safety, and maintenance. It runs on Windows Mobile 6.1 devices and can connect automatically and wirelessly to a central server using a LAN, Wi-Fi, or 3G/GPRS cellular data network. Trial apps are good for gauging interest. At last years Automation Fair, we used iPads in the booth to display live data from three ow instruments using an app developed speci cally for the show, says Jeremy Farrow, marketing communications manager for Endress+Hauser (www.us.endress. com). Customers thought it was great, and now we have to gure out how we can turn it into something more. When vendor support is needed, mobility has its advantages. Rockwell Automation customers can access the support center from a smartphone. Previously, you needed an Internet connection and now all you need is a phone connection, says Jon Furniss, product manager for remote support at Rockwell Automation (www.rockwellautomation.

com). eres no application to download. e system recognizes when the user is connecting with a smartphone, tablet, or other device and presents the small-screen user interface with the same capabilities as a traditional connection. Mobile apps are bene cial to maintenance contractors. Rockwell Automations installed base evaluation (IBE) service is faster because of its partnership with Meridium. We collect information from the customers site, analyze it, and provide recommendations on how to optimize MRO in their facilities and manage obsolescence risk, says Jessica Korpela, Rockwell Automation product manager for installed base evaluations. Meridiums tablet application framework allows maintenance data to be synchronized in real time. Using tablets for data collection allows IBEs to be done in half the time, adds Korpela. e program currently supports Dell-branded tablets.
NEW APPS ARE EMERGING

At least three companies are testing Aurora Mobile Apps, the new iPad/iPhone app from Aurora Industrial Automation. It gives real-time, read-only, remote access to plantWWW.PLANTSERVICES.COM JUNE 2011 29

Mobile ApplicAtions / Condition Monitoring

floor data through certain Rockwell Automation FactoryTalk visualization systems using an Internet browser. It reportedly wont be made available on the iTunes library until the iPad and comparable device security features are improved, and theyre hardened for industrial use. Further innovations are underway at Rockwell Automations support center. Were looking into having customers send SMS texts for technical support, and were investigating whether social media is a place for technical support, says Furniss. Were currently testing the use of mobile video cameras so that when our engineers call with questions from the plant floor, we can see what theyre doing. And were investigating instant translations to convert online chat to the local language in real time automatically.
MotivAtors for Mobility

prActicAl benefits

The appeal of mobility is catching. ARC Advisory Group (www.arcweb.com) Research Director Ralph Rio found high interest in mobility in his March 2011 survey of industrial maintenance, IT, and executive professionals, Survey Results for EAM Systems: Current Practices and Future Plans. Of the respondents, representing more than 5,000 plants globally, three-quarters have already implemented mobility software for EAM functions or plan to do so within one to three years (Figure 1). Why so much interest? For one, because Millennials in the workforce grew up with computers and handheld devices, they expect them at work, explains June Ruby, manufacturing principal for the Motorola Solutions Industry Solutions Group (www.motorolasolutions.com). Additionally, the economy changed the manufacturing environment. Demand and production is ramping up, but weve been left with a scaled-down workforce. We cant afford to let people sit in a control room. The same person might need to perform safety rounds, quality inspections, and track processes, explains Ruby.
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June 2011 www.PLAnTSeRVICeS.Com

First and foremost, mobility can help to drive visibility. Mobility eliminates the paper trail, says Jerry Steenhoek, chief technologist/project manager for Interstates (www.interstates.com). Instead of turning in a sheet of paper at the end of the day, when information could be lost or misread, the data is entered once and is immediately accessible. The productivity potential is immense. The impact of this newfound mobility on business processes will be significant, largely because a mobile workforce equals a more productive workforce, says David Crump, marketing communications manager at Opto 22 (www. opto22.com). Mobile technology is doing what the laptop did for the office 20 years ago, adds Scott Brady, senior manager of publications, portables, and wireless at SKF Condition Monitoring Center (www. skf.com). Youre not tied to one spot. If youre out in the plant or even hundreds of miles away, you have all the data thats available in the office at your fingertips. A big opportunity in mobility is adding discipline to standard processes, says Kevin Prouty, research director, for enterprise applications at Aberdeen Group (www.aberdeen.com). Before, you might have suspected not every item was being inspected. Now, when inspections are performed using a mobile device with a bar code scanner, you know when steps are skipped. It enforces discipline.
A role for consuMer devices

Eric Miller, vice president of sales for DAP Technologies (www.daptech.com), recognizes that consumer devices are gaining in prominence. Its a result of the proliferation of mobile devices, such as smartphones and iPads, in consumer markets and our everyday lives, he says. Its natural that business users want to leverage the tools that allow the seamless exchange of data wirelessly and ease of communication in enterprise settings. Aberdeens Prouty agrees that companies are increasingly willing to try lower-cost, flexible consumer devices. A

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notable iPad advantage is that its battery charge lasts much longer than most laptop batteries. Aurora observes that in an industrial setting, an iPads 10-hr charge could last a few days.
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The main reasons that Soft dB decided to partner with DAP was the modularity and ruggedness of its computers. It was one of the only tablet PCs that would allow for integration of our custom digital signal processor board, and DAPs computers are rugged enough to be used in the field in all kinds of weather and conditions, says LEsprance. Companies that ban camera devices for proprietary or classified reasons effectively eliminate most consumer-grade devices from consideration. Aurora would like to see additional security features in the consumer devices relative to
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June 2011 www.PLAnTSeRVICeS.Com

user access control, usage tracking, and feature lockdown. Device price shouldnt be a primary concern. The perceived notion that a rugged tablet should cost the same as an iPad is a misconception, says DAPs Miller. A consumer model might cost less up front, but it isnt built for the challenges of field service or industrial use. The high failure rates for consumer models in these markets produce a domino effect of downtime, lost productivity, and increased repair and replacement costs. While industrial PDAs are taking on some cell phone characteristics, theres still room for improvement. Motorola is glad people are exploring new ways to use mobility, including with consumer devices, says Ruby. Enterprise-grade device manufacturers benefit from those experiences because the customers validate the use case, she explains. Most customers

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Mobile ApplicAtions / Condition Monitoring

quickly realize that the reality of rolling out the mobile solution across an enterprise calls for an enterprise-grade device.
choose the right device

Before selecting a device, Motorola Solutions suggests exploring its use case. Will the device be assigned to someone or part of a shared collection? Will the environment have carpet or concrete floors, and is it a Class I or Class II hazardous area? Will the device access intellectual property,

For some users, the right device is a two-way radio providing voice communication, explains Motorolas Ruby. Others might need a rugged mobile computer with a screen and keypad to access and update work orders and look up the equipments maintenance history. SKF found that customers want to use existing device investments. DAP suggests using computers like theirs that offer ruggedness to increase uptime and decrease maintenance costs, flexibility to increase productivity and consolidate the

A big opportunity in Mobility is Adding discipline to stAndArd processes.


requiring data encryption and the ability to be wiped clean if its lost or stolen? Will IT have visibility to monitor and troubleshoot the device and access to push down security patches and upgrades? The total cost of ownership is another consideration. How long do you expect the devices to be in service before you do a refresh? If youve chosen cellular service, is one carrier enough or do you need multiple carriers for full, real-time coverage?
1/5/2006 7:44 AM Page 2

Document1.qxd

number of devices needed, and modularity so the computers work the way the business needs them to work. Consumer-grade device competition is growing fast. Apple devices have their limitations and might lose favor to suitable Androids as they emerge, says ARCs Rio. For instance, many feel strongly about having a real keypad with tactile feedback, not a virtual one. Gloves and fat fingers are a particular hindrance for Apple devices.
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Regardless of the device, the applications user interface must fit the screen. Best-in-class companies are significantly more likely to customize and simplify the screens, according to the 2011 Aberdeen Group report, Mobility in ERP 2011. Shrinking a regular ERP screen to fit on a mobile device is one of the first reasons for users rejecting the system, says Aberdeens Prouty. You dont need an IT infrastructure if you have cell signals, says SKFs Brady. Cell phones are supporting faster and faster speeds, and now the data can be fed via GSM card, phone card, or Mi-Fi a mini-router that acts like a mobile Wi-Fi hot spot for cell phones, he says. It takes the question of how to connect out of the equation. Advanced communications provide more benefits. DAP is among the first to offer integrated ZigBee wireless technology, a low-power sensor technology, and wireless USB, which allows for the connection of multiple peripherals and the wireless transmission of data at speeds similar to a wired connection, says DAPs Miller. Coincidentally, theres an app for planning and managing wireless networks. The ProSoft RadioLinx Calculator, which runs on Android devices, as well as the iPhone and iPad, takes the entered radio and hardware variables and calculates the theoretical link signal strength between two sites so that adjustments to improve the link quality can be made. If infrastructure isnt your strong suit, SKF hosts software as a service (SaaS), helping customers upload and download data from remote locations because they dont have to worry about internal firewall security. With SaaS, the vendor takes over the installation, backups, and the mobile connectivity.

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June 2011 www.PLAnTSeRVICeS.Com

Security iS Job 1

The question every company must ask is how to protect the mobile device and the data it accesses. A multi-pronged approach is desirable. ProSoft i-View makes cumulative use of security features such as passwords, encryption, and VPN tunneling to secure its process data. Planning for security upfront is essential. Mobile access applications are subject to security levels in the IT infrastructure, says Ken Brunnbauer, Rockwell Automation commercial programs manager for the services and support business. Without the right planning, they might not work as designed because of established security configurations. SKF recommends bringing the IT person into the sales discussion.
Looking forward

Soft dB intends to increase its investment in mobility. Well be using more mobile devices because this replaces older, existing technology that was heavier and more cumbersome, had an inferior user interface, and relied on components that are no longer supported, says LEsprance. Vendors such as Endress+Hauser and Interstates are weighing the benefits of wireless apps. Our next task is

to figure out which apps we could provide that would be beneficial to an end user, says Endress Farrow. What is it they want or expect to be able to do with this sort of technology, and how does it fit into our business and what we offer? Others, like Rockwell Automation, are actively exploring new possibilities. One idea is to have customers install TiVo-like devices to capture and stream data, allowing them to review what happened within a period of time before and after a fault. Rockwell Automation could potentially log into its camera to help determine the cause. Opto 22s vision of mobility is expansive. Moving forward, it wont be limited simply to viewing data, says Crump. You can expect nearly all of the functionality automation engineers currently have with a PC to be brought to a variety of different mobile platforms. As people continue to become more comfortable with the technology, acquire smarter devices, and build wireless infrastructures into facilities, tablet and smartphone apps will become more commonplace, says Interstates Steenhoek.
email contributing editor Sheila kennedy, managing director of additive communications, at sheila@addcomm.com.

www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 35

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
Fundamentals, design and applications of PD pumps
By Hydraulic Institute PD Pump Members

Positive displacement pumps are used in multiple

CENTRIFUGAL VERSUS PD PUMPS

industries. Users nd them to be the solution to many pumping challenges. However, because of size, simplicity, and ruggedness, they o en arent as well understood as other pump types. Technologies in the positive displacement (PD) family handle a broad range of horsepower, uid, and pressure. ese products merit consideration in your pumpselection process. To help you understand the de nitions, applications, installation, operation, maintenance, and testing procedures, the Hydraulic Institute published 10 ANSI/ HI Standards covering air-operated, controlled-volumemetering, reciprocating, and rotary PD pumps.
ABOUT THE HYDRAULIC INSTITUTES LEARNING MODULES

A centrifugal pump impeller moves liquid from the pump suction to a discharge, where gradually decreasing kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy. A PD pump doesnt rely on a velocity change. Pressure rises as liquid is forced through the discharge into the system, thereby converting sha work into pressure. An example is reciprocating motion, in which a moving piston forces liquid out of a closed cylinder through inlet and outlet valves. Reciprocating pumps represent one form of PD technology. In portions of their operating range, these pumps are the single technology that can provide the pumping solution (Figure 1).

ANSI/HI standards perform a vital function in pump-industry commerce and serve important roles in minimizing misunderstandings in the marketplace. With the development of Positive Displacement Pumps: Fundamentals, Design and Applications, The Hydraulic Institute (HI) has extended its mission to include the development of a pump knowledge and educational portfolio in serving member companies and pump professionals. The Hydraulic Institutes PD pump e-learning modules offer extensive materials that allow for expanded and detailed understanding of PD pump technology and applications. HI has also relaunched its centrifugal pump e-learning course. Material is highly visual and interactive and is designed to allow the student to take full advantage of the latest Web technology. Both ve-module courses are available at HIs educational portal, www.

pumplearning.org. Each module, designed to stand alone or be combined with others, includes an examination and completion certicates suitable for submitting for professional development hours or continuing education credit. The website, www.pumplearning.org, is the knowledge center of the Hydraulic Institute, the largest association of pump producers in North America and the standard-setting resource for member companies and pump users worldwide. Pumplearning.org provides knowledge seekers with many resources and opportunities to gain the most current intelligence on pumps and pumping systems delivered in state-of-the-art, user-convenient, affordable formats. This user-focused website includes e-learning courses, webcasts, conferences and jointly sponsored programs with other organizations that feature recognized industry experts.

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JUNE 2011 WWW.PLANTSERVICES.COM

Performance / PumPs

Positive displacement

Rotary pumps constitute the second PD category. A rotating element inside a chamber drives the fluid. This family is distinguished by its lack of inlet and discharge valves. These are available in a number of pumping principles, each with its own features and benefits. The third category is the controlledvolume metering pump (CVMP), often called a chemical-injection feed pump or dosing pump. These are reciprocating PD pumps configured to dispense an accurate volume of liquid during a specified time period using any of several mechanisms. This pump type offers accurate, repeatable, adjustable flow rates.
PumPing solution Products

extended family
Air operated Steam Reciprocating pumps Power Diaphragm Bellows Piston Horizontal Vertical Horizontal Vertical Horizontal Controlled volume Vertical Blow case Blade, bucket roller, or slipper Axial Radial Flexible turbo Flexible vane Flexible liner Single Multiple External Internal Single Multiple Single Multiple Simplex Duplex Double-acting Double-acting Single-acting Piston Plunger Piston Plunger Simplex Duplex Simplex Duplex Multiplex Simplex Duplex Mechanically coupled Hydraulically coupled Multiplex Manual control Automatic control

Single-acting Double-acting Packed plunger Packed piston Diaphragm

Vane Piston Flexible member Lobe Gear Circumferential piston Screw

PD pumps often are called pumping solution products, because they perform that function for applications across a range of process conditions. For example, rotary PD pumps handle viscous fluids (3 million SSU), whereas reciprocating pumps handle waterthin liquids. PD pumps handle flow rates from less than 1 gpm to 15,000 gpm and pressures from a few psi to more than 70,000 psi. Its important to emphasize that PD pumps, at constant speed, are constant-flow devices, whereas centrifugal pumps are variable-flow devices. And PD system design requirements are very different from those for centrifugal pumps. For example, PD pumps require some type of pressure protection, and certain designs require pulsation control. PD pumps can be used almost anywhere, but the generally accepted view is that more than nine out of 10 PD applications are in six industrial markets: oil and gas water and wastewater treatment chemical food, beverage, pharmaceutical power marine/medical/OEM. Many of these industries are representative of multiple markets. Oil and gas, as an example, has distinctly

Rotary pumps

figure 1. There are many types of positive displacement pumps that can find application in the plant.

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+100,000

Reciprocating

Pressure (PSI)

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Rotary

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www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 37

PERFORMANCE / PUMPS

di erent applications for PD pumps across its segments: exploration, production, pipeline, processing and distribution marketing. e food and beverage market is another market with multiple segments that include

beverage, bakery, confectionary, dairy and meat packaging.


BENEFITS OF PD PUMPS

Some applications should use PD pumps and others should use

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centrifugal pumps. Its important to recognize the broad range of applications in which both types could be used with selection based on the users desired results. Be aware of the reasons that positive-displacement pumps might be the best solution to a specific pumping problem. The reasons to select PD pumps, grouped by fluid characteristics, pressure conditions, environmental system requirements, and flow control are summarized below. Table 1 is a matrix of the 12 reasons compared to the primary markets of PD pumps. Some might surprise you. High viscosity: Certain rotary technologies and air-operated piston pumps easily handle viscous fluids, whereas frictional losses degrade centrifugal pump flow rate and efficiency with fluids that have a viscosity above 500 SSU. Flow and efficiency in a rotary pump, however, typically increase with viscosity. PD pumps handle viscosities of several million SSU. Low and variable viscosity: PD pumps, such as vane or air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD), o en are used for thin uids. Other liquids, such as oil, have viscosities that vary with temperature. With variable viscosity liquids, a moderately small change in viscosity can have a large effect on centrifugal pump e ciency but little e ect on PD pump e ciency. Low-shear pumping: In many uid applications, liquid shear isnt a problem; however, in some applications it is critical. PD pumps excel in the handling of shear-sensitive uids. Solids-handling capability: Progressing-cavity pumps handling the high-solids-content sludge in a waste treatment plant and coal slurry pipelines use reciprocating pumps to handle uids with a solids contents that can be as high as 40% by weight. You might nd this to be a surprising PD pump characteristic, but widely varied applications serve as examples. Multi-phase ow: A centrifugal pump

38

JUNE 2011 WWW.PLANTSERVICES.COM

MARKET APPLICATIONS VS. REQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS MATRIX


High viscosity Exploration Production Pipleline Oil & Gas Processing Marketing Water & wastewater Chemical Food & beverage Thermo & hydro Diesel General Industrial Low & variable viscositry Sheer reduction Solids handling Multiphase ow High pressure Low ow Efciency Sealless pumping Selfpriming Constant ow Accurate Repeatable

Table 1. These are the pump-application characteristics that prompt specic industries to select positive-displacement pumps.

needs a constant source of liquid, but not all processes can provide it. With insu cient liquid at the pump suction, a gas bubble forms, the pump loses its prime and the uid stops.

Power

Positive displacement pumps can handle a high percentage of air or gas entrainment. High pressure: Beyond the range of centrifugal pumps

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WWW.PLANTSERVICES.COM JUNE 2011 39

PERFORMANCE / PUMPS

are many chemical, sandblasting and high-pressure water-cutting applications in which PD pump technology dominates. Figure 2 provides an overview of the pressure and capabilities among pump technologies.

Low ow: PD pump technology easily handles ows below 100 gpm and pressures greater than 200 psi. E ciency: For viscous uids that PD and centrifugal pumps can handle, the positive-displacement option o en can

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be 10 points to 40 points more energye cient than the centrifugal pump. High pressure, low ow, e ciency demand: Any of the previous three individual characteristics are reason enough to use PD pumps. But, if the application features all three simultaneously, the PD pump solution becomes the obvious choice. Sealless pumping: Magnetic drives and canned motor pumps, which have no sha seals, are available for PD pumps. Other designs that have no sha penetration include peristaltic and diaphragm pumps. Self-priming: e PD pumps ability to self-prime is useful because it allows exibility in system layout and eliminates the need for suction-priming systems. PD pumps arent only self-priming, they also have excellent suction li capabilities (raising liquids on the suction side) and are capable of drawing down to near vacuum. Constant ow/variable pressure: At a constant speed, PD pumps deliver nearly constant ow, even if the system pressure varies, which is a desirable condition in certain systems. Accurate, repeatable measurement: Because a PD pump is a constant- ow device, designs that limit slip are useful for metering uids into or out of systems. is application, of course, requires accuracy and repeatability. It might also need ow variation, which typically is obtained mechanically or electronically by speed variation. eres a universe of standard positive-displacement solutions in addition to the bakers dozen described in this article. Because these pumps also must meet many other requirements, manufacturers provide products with special options, such as jacketing, non-corrosive materials and built-in pressure relief valves, to name a few. Some PD units have duty-cycle limits that users should investigate. Its important to note PD pumps are constant-torque devices. In variable-speed applications, VFDs must be rated with that understanding.

40

JUNE 2011 WWW.PLANTSERVICES.COM

PREDICTIVE TECHNOLOGIES / RELIABILITY

Find the right vibration device like an arrow nds its bulls-eye

SENSORS
By Frank Pereny, BSME, IMI Sensors

COME TO YOUR

Selecting the best accelerometer for a speci c predictive maintenance application can be a daunting task, even for the most seasoned walk-around warrior. e process typically can be ltered down to a series of nine qualifying questions. By discovering the answers to the following nine questions, as it applies to your personal application, youll be able to nd the best vibration monitoring solution.

THE MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE OR RANGE OF THE VIBRATION BEING MEASURED DETERMINES THE SENSOR RANGE THAT CAN BE USED.
QUESTION 1: WHAT DO YOU WANT TO MEASURE?

systems such as PLC, DCS, SCADA, and PI because of their continuous 4-20 mA signal. Some applications use both. By determining which signal variety is required for your application, you can narrow your search signi cantly. Also, are you measuring vibration in terms of acceleration, velocity, or displacement? Have you considered that some industrial sensors can output temperature along with vibration? Lastly, some applications, such as vertical pumps, ideally are monitored in more than one vibration axis. Does your application require uniaxial, biaxial, or triaxial measurement?
QUESTION 2: WHAT IS THE VIBRATION AMPLITUDE?

is might seem obvious at rst, but stop for a second. What are you actually trying to measure? In other words, what are your goals? What are you expecting to get? What are you going to do with the data? Vibration can be monitored with accelerometers that provide raw vibration data or transmitters that provide the calculated overall root mean square (RMS) vibration. Analysts nd raw vibration readings to be useful because it contains all the information in the vibration signal, the true peak amplitudes and vibration frequencies. e overall RMS or peak values are useful in control

e maximum amplitude or range of the vibration being measured determines the sensor range that can be used. Typical accelerometer sensitivities are 100 mV/g for a standard application (50 g range) and 500 mV/g for a low-frequency or low-amplitude application (10 g range). General industrial applications with 4-20 mA transmitters commonly use a range of 0-1 in./sec or 0-2 in./sec.
QUESTION 3: WHAT IS THE VIBRATION FREQUENCY?

Physical structures and dynamic systems respond di erently to varying excitation frequencies. A vibration sensor is no di erent. Piezoelectric materials, by nature, act as high pass lters, and, as a result, even the best piezoelectric sensor will
WWW.PLANTSERVICES.COM JUNE 2011 41

Predictive technologies / Reliability

obvious difference

Sensitivity Plot
202.8 150 100 50 0 CPM 6 10 100 Data Points 1,000 12,000 Temperature: 66F (19C) Relative Humidity: 41%

frequency (cPm)

dev.(%)

600 900 1800 3000 ReF. F ReQ. 18000 30000

2.3 2.3 1.4 0.8 0.0 -0.1 -0.8 -1.4 -0.4 0.9

mV/g

Sensitivity Plot
Temperature: 72F (22C) Relative Humidity: 50%

60000 180000 240000

x
Data Points

CPM

figure 1. the upper plot corresponds to a low-cost accelerometer that was calibrated at one point, while the lower plot, with its continuous calibration line, corresponds to a higher-cost unit.

dB

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have a low-frequency limit near 0.2 Hz. A sensor that acts as a dynamic system with one degree of freedom exhibits natural frequencies. The signal is greatly amplified at the natural frequency, leading to significant change in sensitivity and possible saturation. Most industrial accelerometers have single- or double-pole RC filters to combat saturation excitation at the resonant frequency. Its critical to select a sensor with a usable frequency range that includes every frequency youre interested in measuring.
Question 4: What is the environment temPerature?

Applications with extremely high temperatures can pose a threat to the electronics built into accelerometers and 4-20 mA transmitters. Charge-mode accelerometers are available for use in very high temperature applications. These have no built-in electronics, but instead have remote charge amplifiers. Charge-mode accelerometers with integral hard-line cable are available for applications hotter than 500 F, such as gas turbine vibration monitoring.
Question 5: Will it be submersed in liQuid?

Please contact us for more information. Lutz Pumps, Inc. 1160 Beaver Ruin Road Norcross, GA 30093-4898 Phone: (770) 925-1222 Tollfree: (800) 843-3901 Fax: (770) 923-0334 www.lutzpumps.com e-Mail: info@lutzpumps.com

Industrial accelerometers with integral polyurethane cable are completely submersible in liquid for permanent installation. For high-pressure applications, its a good idea to test the sensors at pressure for one hour. Applications requiring complete submersion need integral cable. Integral cable is normally required as well if the application is sprayed rather than being completely submersed, such as cutting fluid on machine tools.

42

June 2011 www.PLAnTSeRVICeS.Com

Question 6: Will it see harmful chemicals or debris?

multidirectional

Industrial accelerometers can be constructed with corrosion- and chemical-resistant stainless steel bodies. Consider using PTFE cable with corrosion-resistant boot connectors if your application is in an environment with harmful chemicals. Its strongly recommended that you check a chemical compatibility chart for any suspect chemicals. Integral armor-jacketed cables offer excellent protection for cables that might come into contact with debris such as cutting chips or workers tools.
Question 7: a precision or loW-cost sensor?

There are two main differences between low-cost and precision accelerometers. First, precision units typically receive a full calibration, that is, the sensitivity response is plotted with respect to the usable frequency range. Low-cost accelerometers receive a single-point calibration and the sensitivity is shown only at a single frequency. Second, precision accelerometers have tighter tolerances on some specifications such as sensitivity and frequency range. For example, a precision accelerometer (Figure 1) might have a nominal sensitivity of 100 mV/g 5% (95 mV/g to 105

figure 2. This is an example of a low-profile accelerometer with a side connection to jacketed cable.

mV/g), while a low-cost accelerometer might have a sensitivity of 100 mV/g 10% (90 mV/g to 110 mV/g). Customers with data acquisition systems often will normalize the inputs with respect to the calibrated sensitivity. This allows a group of low-cost sensors to provide accurate, repeatable data. Regarding frequency, a precision accelerometer typically has frequency ranges in

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predictive tecHnologies / Reliability

which the maximum deviation is 5% while low-cost sensors might offer a 3 dB frequency band. Even so, a low-cost sensor might offer excellent frequency response.
Question 8: top or side exit, low-profile connection?

Ultimately, the sensor will need to be installed on equipment in the space available. Sensor geometry has little effect on

with CSA and ATEX approvals for use in hazardous areas. Compare the type of approval needed with the sensors published approvals to ensure it meets your needs. The answers to these nine questions can greatly narrow your search to the best solution for the application. Remember to keep in mind that some combination of answers might be mutually exclusive, that is, a solution for each

sensor geoMetry Has little effect on its perforMance, But consider factors sucH as space availaBle and wHere a Maintenance engineer can operate safely.
its performance, but consider factors such as space available and where a maintenance engineer can operate safely. A low-profile accelerometer (Figure 2) with a locknut design allows them to be oriented in any direction, which can be helpful when working with integral cable.
Question 9: do you need special approvals?

criteria doesnt exist. For example, a particular model might not carry the proper ATEX certification for your hazardous area application. Additionally, specialized applications might have other considerations.
frank pereny, BsMe, is an application engineer for iMi sensors (www.imi-sensors.com). He can be reached at fpereny@pcb.com and (800) 959-4464.

Accelerometers and 4-20 mA transmitters are both available

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June 2011 www.PLAnTSeRVICeS.Com

product roundup

dont lEt motor FAilurE ruin your dAy


use predictive or condition-based monitoring to avoid downtime
At your plant, as at others, electric motors and drives are
Ac induction tEFc motors
Quantum LMV AC induction TEFC motors are designed for petrochemical, power, mining, and process industry pumps, blowers, compressors, and conveyors. These motors meet NEMA, IEEE 841, IEC, CSA, API 547 and 541 4th ed., Div 1&2, ATEX and IEC Ex-n Zone 2 standards. The motors feature lower-than-IEEEspecified vibration levels, improved airflow, and low noise levels (< 88 dBA at 3,600 rpm standard, < 85 dBA low-noise option).
GE (800) 541-7191 / www.gemotors.com

probably the most widely used devices. Motor-driven equipment accounts for the majority of electricity consumed in U.S. manufacturing. They truly are our industrial workhorses. And they are husky. Advanced Energys motor testing laboratory concluded that motors can ride through many momentary power interruptions without risking damage, thereby contradicting a commonly held belief. Three-phase voltage imbalance at the service entrance is another story. Voltage imbalance degrades motor efficiency and is arguably the main cause of overheated windings and premature failure, and its likely that quite a few such connections are unbalanced. Although theres not much you can do about conditions outside the battery limits, if the imbalance originates in-house, you can fix it. Motor controls, on the other hand, can be more sensitive. It takes skilled people to troubleshoot and repair them. As we know, drive technology evolves, so training on that front is essential to keeping your technicians current. Relying only on the idea of on-the-job training might mean a technician needs more than 10 years to gain full competency. In any case, build a good paper trail. Its good documentation that will set you up for continuous improvement. Dont let failures determine what kind of day youre going to have. The only drive maintenance that makes sense is PdM or condition-based maintenance, both of which let you spot incipient failures early enough to have your plan in place. Consider up-front brainstorming to develop a list of ranked failure modes and an idea of how youre going to know theyre on the horizon. Then, monitor, monitor, monitor, and follow through with effective communications. Build momentum and document your successes at energy reduction initiatives using KPIs that have hard numbers and report them to management. They need to know. And its your motor-and-drive knowledge database that is going to be a key element in this effort. It brings meaning to the data and information needed for an effective program. Once you select a compatible supply, drive, motor, and power conditioning hardware, enjoy the benefits by maintaining its efficiency and reliability. Remember, motor repair costs are nothing compared to downtime costs. Purchasing quality motors, drives, and repairs has a long-term payoff. Formulate a plan and commitment to replace inefficient motors with better units that will save money.

motors with shAFt GroundinG to prEvEnt bEArinG dAmAGE


The Super-E motors with AEGIS Shaft Grounding Rings are designed for end users looking for ways to prevent bearing damage caused by adjustable speed drive-induced currents. While most shaft ground applications use a shaft ground on the outside of the motor, these have the grounding ring installed internally on the motor. This design is engineered to minimize exposure to the outside elements and keep the ground from being exposed to external forces that might damage the grounding ring. The line is stocked from 1-50 hp, 143T through 326T, in TEFC or ODP enclosures.
baldor (479) 646-4711 / www.baldor.com

motors comply with EisA rEGulAtions


This NEMA Premium line of motors is designed to help reduce energy consumption and comply with EISA regulations. This line features open drip-proof and totally enclosed motors that meet or exceed NEMA Premium requirements. They carry a nameplate including both 50 Hz and 60 Hz operating data, a NEMA Premium trademark, and European IE efficiency marks. A line of vertical motors will be available at premium efficiency levels. The NEMA Premium line also complies with pending Canadian and Mexican standards for use in North American facilities.
nidec motor (888) 637-7333 / www.nidec-motor.com
www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 45

produCT rouNdup
TENV aNd TEFC pErmaNENT-magNET moTors
IronHorse permanent-magnet DC 56C-frame motors feature TENV and TEFC models. They have rolled steel frames with cast aluminum end bells and are available from 0.33 hp to 2 hp. Theyre designed for unfiltered SCR-type rectified AC. They can be used with PWM-type DC adjustable-speed drives. Features include linear characteristics, high starting torques, reversible rotation, and dynamic braking. Large brushes provide for longer brush life. The motors are shipped with a set of brushes in the motor, with an extra set included in the box.
automationdirect (800) 633-0405 / www.automationdirect.com

modular moTor sysTEm


The DR motor modular system offers millions of drive combinations. Users specify the options needed. The coating and sealing options protect the motors in wet environments. The variety of sensor and feedback options for speed, position, and brake wear are suited for control systems. Modular brakes, encoders, and other options make retrofits and other field adjustments simple and fast. The DR motor comes in three efficiency levels. In addition, the motors also offer other customizable options, including brake size, cost-optimized encoders, and mounting type.
sEW Eurodrive (864) 439-8792 / www.sewmotortruth.com

sErVomoTors dEliVEr grEaTEr TorquE dENsiTy


AKM 8 servo motors provide higher torque density using potted windings and a one-piece housing thats 30% shorter. Available in two flange/shaft combinations, the windings can operate at 230, 400, and 480 VAC. The motors have Class F insulation and provide stall torque from 75 Nm to 180 Nm, speeds to 2,500 rpm, and power to 19.8 KW, with bearing lifetime rated at 20,000 hr. The motors are RoHS and REACH-compliant and UL-listed, and carry the CE mark. High-resolution feedback options are available.
Kollmorgen (540) 633-3545 / www.kollmorgen.com

liNEar driVEs WiTh shaFT sCrapEr/grEasE FiTTiNg


The Uhing linear drives have shaft scrapers/grease fittings to remove grease, dust, and dirt from the shaft while the drive is running. The scrapers can be used alone, but the combination is recommended for fast, heavy-usage applications. The scraper is a rubber O-ring in a Delrin fitting, one on each end bushing. When equipped with the grease fitting, a felt wiper ring wicks oil out of the grease and applies a thin oil film to the shaft as the drive runs.
amacoil (800) 252-2645 / www.amacoil.com

ExplosioN-prooF moTors
This line of XP100 motors are UL and CSA listed for gas and dust ignition-proof environments and are suitable for Division 1, Class I, Groups C & D, Class II, Groups F & G, hazardous area classifications. Theyre also available for drill rig duty in Division 1, Class I, Group D hazardous locations. Their designs are engineered to meet or exceed NEMA MG1 Table 12-12 requirements. They have ratings from 1 hp through 300 hp and are modifiable. The design has castiron construction, epoxy enamel paint, polycarbonate cooling fan, non-hygroscopic insulation, and corrosion-resistant hardware. The motors are resistant to voltage spikes.
siemens www.usa.siemens.com/industry 46
June 2011 www.PLAnTSeRVICeS.Com

aC VFd WiTh sENsorlEss VECTor CoNTrol


The L700 Series of VFDs uses a control algorithm that develops 150% torque at 0.5 Hz. A built-in programming function provides the functionality of a PLC built into the inverter. The drive offers micro-surge voltage suppression, trip avoidance, configurable logic on digital inputs, built-in dynamic braking in models to 30 hp and built-in EMC filter in models to 200 hp. It features built-in communication options and can be configured via the front-mounted keypad.
hitachi www.hitachi-america.us / (800) 448-2244

Shaft grounding bearing iSolator


The SGi isolator is designed to protect bearings from electrical, lubricant loss, and contamination damage. It diverts currents to ground, bypassing bearings and extending motor life. Circumferential conductive microfibers are engineered for flexibility to prevent breakage. It provides an IP56 noncontact isolation seal designed to withstand dust and jetting liquids at temperatures from 22 F to 300 F. The unit is available for motor-shaft sizes ranging from 0.875 in. to 6 in. in flanged, flangeless, and custom configurations.
garlock Sealing technologies (315) 597-3362 / www.garlock.com

StainleSS Steel MotorS


These motors are engineered for washdown applications. Constructed with 300-series stainless housing, end bells, output shaft, and conduit box, theyre UL/ULc certified and conform to 2007 EISA efficiency standards. All have Class F insulation, Class B rise @1.15 service factor, and encapsulated windings. Bearings are engineered to eliminate axial movement. Other features include shaft seals, O-rings between end bells and housing, and a smooth exterior with no mounting feet. The motors are totally enclosed and are available in sizes from 0.5 hp to 3 hp in fan-cooled and non-ventilated models.
boston gear (888) 999-9860 / www.bostongear.com

Motor lead diSconnectS


The Color-Keyed Kube motor lead disconnects are snap-together connectors that are designed to eliminate the need to cut through insulating tape, as well as disassembling the typical connection from pad to pad. Simply crimp the disconnects onto the cables and plug them together. To disconnect or de-energize, just cut the cable ties, slip off the boots, and unplug the disconnects. Theyre color-coded to ensure selecting the correct crimping die and are available for 600-V applications and wire sizes from 16 AWG to 500 kcmil.
thomas & betts (800) 816-7809 / www.tnb.com

driveS for variable torque applicationS


The VLT Automation VT Drives are engineered to save energy with fans, pumps, blowers, and compressors. Theyre available for 240 and 480 VAC single- and three-phase, or 575 VAC and 690 VAC three-phase operation with 1/2 hp to 1,400 hp. They have an ambient temperature rating of 50 C without derating. Integral main disconnects and fusing reduce panel space requirements. These drives provide autotuning of PI controllers, and password protection reduces the potential for unauthorized changes to the settings.
danfoss drives (800) 432-6367 / www.danfossdrives.com

two-Speed driveS offer high turndown, high torque


Use the Two-Speed Drive for applications to 30 hp that require secondary speeds as low as 60:1. Highand low-speed modes are selected by energizing the appropriate electrically controlled coils. Spring-set braking stops the drive. The design is engineered to provide internal surge suppression, standard electrical connections and modular assembly designs. The drives are suitable for standard NEMA motor mounting and are available for a range of gear ratios.
force control industries (513) 868-0900 / www.forcecontrol.com

drive can be the heart of a control SySteM


The Altivar 32 variable-speed drive has a book-style design and ability to attach a self-protected disconnect in tight spaces. The drive can perform functions usually managed by a PLC and without encoder feedback with asynchronous or synchronous AC motors. A conformal coating protects circuit boards. It has embedded Bluetooth technology for monitoring, viewing, and performing diagnostics with the cabinet closed. It includes standard RJ45 connectors for Modbus and CANOpen networks, and on-board HMI and navigation wheel for adjustments.
Schneider electric (847) 397-2600 / www.schneider-electric.us
www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 47

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energy exPert
peter garforth

3 risks that determine energy costs


are you looking through a crystal ball or a rearview mirror?
most organizations are still using a rearview mirror to manage energy risks, when increasingly they should be reaching for the crystal ball. The true cost of energy in a plant comes from three main areas of risk. The first and most obvious risk is the energy operating cost, itself a combination of energy unit price and efficiency. The second is the cost of production disturbances through energy supply interruptions or poor supply quality. The third is the
world now looks increasingly uncertain. The events of the past few months in North Africa, the Middle East, and Japan have further clouded the picture. The events in Japan at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactor are an interesting crossover between energy growth, cost, and climate change. As much of the world saw a need for low-carbon energy at a time when China, India, Brazil, and others were growing fast, nuclear power was in resurgence as the only viable approach. This is now being reconsidered, delayed or halted with the long-term outcome highly uncertain. A rethinking of the nuclear area will inevitably position natural gas as the next lower-carbon fuel of choice on the strategic list. Can any of us predict the impact of a strategic rethink like this on price and availability of both electricity and natural gas? The events in North Africa and the Middle East also are potential game changers, and, as is so often the case with energy, not unrelated. Much of the worlds proven reserves of natural gas are in these regions. If the world market shifts to natural gas as a fuel of choice for electricity, will these resources be available as a result of the social and political upheavals and even the physical damage to infrastructure. The continuing concerns over climate change are somewhat muted in the United States at present, but still very loud on a worldwide basis. The speed and scale of installation of renewable sources is growing rapidly, driving down prices, increasing reliability, and accelerating the development of grid technology to manage these sources. As they become mainstream, what does this do for their potential inclusion in a plants operating considerations? It doesnt take a wizard to see this is a part of the puzzle on rethinking the role of nuclear power, as well. Some customers increasingly demand evidence of good sustainability practices from their suppliers, many of which relate directly to energy management, another factor unknown from the rearview mirror. Have we collectively moved our energy investment habits to take into account not only the incremental benefits of good energy housekeeping, but also the multiple backup plans needed as the future uncertainty plays out? Its still the minority who are using the crystal ball.
Peter garforth is principal of garforth international, toledo, ohio. he can be reached at peter@garforthint.com.

the backward-looking version assumes modest, Predictable Price increases, where volatility is short-lived
impact on operating costs to comply with energy-related environmental legislation, or even the actual cost to manage environmental impacts. On costs, the backward-looking version assumes modest, predictable price increases, where any volatility is short-lived. This is the backdrop against which efficiency investments are judged, resulting in the majority failing the attractiveness test. On supply quality, the past experience of reliable, predictable supply with minimal interruptions is so much part of the decision making, that the possibility that this might change is rarely even considered, along with the possible investments that could mitigate supply disturbance. Clearly, on environmental legislation, the possible game changer is around climate change, and in North America the rearward view assessment is that this will be forever stalled in lawmaking debate. Mitigating the actual risks from climate change itself in the form of more frequent and severe weather events, with possible disturbances to suppliers, customers, and the site itself are rarely factored. Both these aspects of environmental risk are also highly colored by the views of decision makers around the validity of human-induced climate change. The rearview mirror version results in energy management that incrementally, but modestly, improves efficiency, resists new technology that could create deep energy gains, and rarely has resilience to unexpected price, supply, or legislative shocks. If we now reach for the crystal ball, the future energy
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