WWW.PLANTSERVICES.

COM

Mobile and tablet devices attract a new wave of maintenance applications to the plant floor

Apps of Steel
Decisions Make the Data / p.23
JUNE 2011

9 Vibration Questions / p.41 New Motors & Drives / p.45 3 Future Energy Risks / p.50

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CONNECT TO CONTROLLERS WITH DRIVERS FOR: • All AutomationDirect PLCs/PACs • Allen-Bradley C-more touch panels in 6" to 15" sizes are a practical way to give plant personnel easy access to controls and data. Check out the powerful yet easy-to-use configuration software by downloading a demo version at: http://support.automationdirect.com/demos.html ALL C-MORE PANELS INCLUDE: • Analog resistive touch screen with unlimited touch areas • One USB A-type and one USB B-type port • Serial communications interface FULL-FEATURED MODELS ADD: • 10/100Base-T Ethernet communications • CompactFlash slot for data logging REMOTE ACCESS AND CONTROL BUILT-IN No Additional Hardware required. The C-more Remote Access feature resides in all panels with Ethernet support, and requires no option modules. Access real-time data or initiate an action on a control system from anywhere, any time. (Requires software and firmware version 2.4 or later*, and an
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How To Keep Your Electronics Cool
When hot weather causes the electronics inside a control cabinet to fail, there is a panic to get the machinery up and running again. There are several cooling options out there and it’s important to know the facts.
Line up of cooLers that are prone to bad behavior
$$$$$$ $$$$$ $$$$ $$$ $$ $
¢

Opening the panel door and aiming a fan at the circuit boards is a bad idea. • It is an OSHA violation that presents a shock hazard to personnel • The fan blows hot, humid, dirty air at the electronics • The cooling effect is minimal • It is likely to fail again since the environment is still hot

These coolers are prone to failure in dirty, industrial environments when dust and dirt clogs the filter. • It takes almost a day to install • Vibration from machinery causes refrigerant leaks and component failures • Compressor life expectancy is typically 2.5 years of continuous operation • It requires a floor drain for the condensation • Average cost to replace a bad compressor is $750

These have serious limitations. On hot summer days when the temperatures of the room and inside of the enclosure are about equal, there’s not enough difference for effective heat exchange. • They fail when dust and dirt clogs the filter • The cooling capacity is limited due to ambient conditions

The “plastic box cooler” from a competitor uses an inaccurate mechanical thermostat that’s designed for liquids. This thermostat has a poor ability to react quickly to changes in air temperature. It costs up to 85% more to operate than EXAIR’s ETC Cabinet Cooler® System with the same SCFM rating and Btu/hr. output. • Electronics can overheat before it turns on • It runs far longer than necessary before shutting off • Increased cycle time wastes compressed air

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ance free!

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EXAIR has a complete line of Cabinet Cooler Systems to dependably cool and purge your electrical enclosures. They convert an ordinary supply of compressed air into clean, cold 20 ºF air. They mount in minutes through an ordinary electrical knockout and have no moving parts to wear out. The compressed air filtration that is provided keeps water, oil and other contaminants out of the enclosure.

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• There is no room air filter to clog There • An accurate electrical thermostat control minimizes compressed air use An • All Cabinet Coolers are UL Listed to US and Canadian safety standards • All • They are the only compressed air powered coolers that are CE compliant • They
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Find Us Online or Call: 1-888-272-3946

table of contents
JunE 2011 / Vol. 32, no. 6

features
28 / COVER STORY

Apps of Steel
Mobile and tablet devices attract a new wave of maintenance applications to the plant floor
36 / PumPS

Positive Displacement
Fundamentals, design, and applications of PD pumps
41 / PREDiCTiVE TEChnOlOgiES

Come to Your Sensors
Find the right vibration device like an arrow finds its bull’s-eye
45 / PRODuCT ROunDuP

Don’t let motor Failure Ruin Your Day
Use PdM and condition-based monitoring to avoid downtime

Thought leaders: An interview With Rick baldridge
Rick Baldridge, corporate reliability excellence process leader at Cargill and chair of SMRP is interviewed.

specialists
9 / mR. SuSTAinAbiliTY 27 / TEChnOlOgY TOOlbOx

www.plantservices.com/multimedia/2011/thoughtleaders.html

Fix or Replace
Repairing, rebuilding or reconditioning isn’t always the most sustainable option
21 / humAn CAPiTAl

Portable but Connected
Predictive maintenance technologies integrate the best of both worlds
50 / EnERgY ExPERT

gender ambiguity and cultural norms clash in the industrial workplace
In this edition of In the Trenches, Acme’s first transsexual truck driver gets fired for doing what comes naturally.

www.plantservices.com/articles/2011/02inthetrenches.html

use and misuse of leadership Power
7 sources and the potential consequences of its application
23 / ASSET mAnAgER

3 Risks That Determine Energy Costs
Are you looking through a crystal ball or a rearview mirror?

Plant Services Webinar - Compressed Air Systems
This Plant Services webinar explains how companies have reduced energy consumption from compressed air leaks. Register now.

http://webcast.streamlogics.com/audience/index. asp?eventid=40540712

more Than a Data Aggregator
CMMS includes decisionsupport functionality to make information useful

iSA100 and wireless standards convergence
ISA100 is one of three standards competing in industrial wireless sensing. What is distinctive about ISA100? What are the prospects for convergence of standards?

www.plantservices.com/whitepapers/2011/isa100-wirelessstandards-convergence.html

columns and departments
7 / FROm ThE EDiTOR 13 / WhAT WORKS

The Picture of Safety
PlAnT SERVICES (ISSn 0199-8013) is published monthly by Putman Media, Inc., 555 West Pierce Road, Suite 301, Itasca, Il 60143. Phone (630) 467-1300, Fax (847) 291-4816. Periodicals Postage paid at Itasca, Il and additional mailing offices. Canada Post International Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement no. 40028661. Canadian Mail Distributor Information: Frontier/BWI,Po Box 1051, Fort Erie, ontario, Canada, l2A 5n8. Printed in u.S.A. PoSTMASTER: Send address changes to PlAnT SERVICES, Putman Media, Inc., Po Box 3435, northbrook, Il 60065-3435. SuBSCRIPTIonS: Qualified reader subscriptions are accepted from PlAnT SERVICES managers, supervisors and engineers in manufacturing plants in the u.S. and Canada. To apply for qualified-reader subscriptions, please go to www.plantservices.com. To non-qualified subscribers in the u.S., subscriptions are $96 per year. Single copies are $15. Subscription to Canada and other international are accepted at $200 (Airmail only) © 2011 by Putman Media, Inc. All rights reserved. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part without consent of the copyright owner. In an effort to more closely align with our business partners in a manner that provides the most value to our readers, content published in PlAnT SERVICES magazine appears on the public domain of PlAnT SERVICES’ Website, and may also appear on Websites that apply to our growing marketplace. Putman Media, Inc. also publishes CHEMICAl PRoCESSInG, ConTRol, ConTRol DESIGn, FooD PRoCESSInG, InDuSTRIAl nETWoRKInG, THE JouRnAl, PHARMACEuTICAl MAnuFACTuRInG and WEllnESS FooDS. PlAnT SERVICES assumes no responsibility for validity of claims in items published.

International suppliers need a reason to comply
11 / YOuR SPACE

Organized to Automate
Updated instrument database enables calibration and maintenance

• Vibration monitoring helps to increase MTBF and lower pump maintenance costs • Electric utility discovers quick WirelessHART payback • Real-time data improves lift truck purchase planning and maintenance management
48 / ClASSiFiEDS / AD inDEx

www.PLANTSERVICES.Com JuNE 2011 5

All rights reserved.us/michelleusa or call 866-688-9611 to learn more about us. And more importantly. But there are ways to ensure this moisture doesn’t get downstream and cause equipment malfunction. and how we have earned and will continue to earn our reputation. We all perform best when working within our optimum environment. and cost-effective compressed air technology. aftercoolers. moisture can lead to contamination of your end products. Our mission is to continue to bring sustainable productivity through safer. filters and oil-mist eliminators just to name a few. they are a way of life for us at Atlas Copco. Water is a by-product of compressing air. Simply log onto www. Moisture in your air supply is something that should be avoided at all costs.atlascopco. That’s why we produce such a wide variety of dryers. more energy-efficient. right? And. leading to costly product failures and potentially harming your hard-earned reputation. . © Copyright 2011 Atlas Copco Compressors LLC. I’m Michelle and I have been working with our customers across the United States for the last 10 years. Products that optimize quality in your air supply are not just accessories we offer. our products. manufacturing environments are no different. cleaner.Clear the way for quality air Hi.

Coincidentally. Hewlett-Packard.P. Two weeks before the explosion.S. companies are about safety. a group from Hong Kong.P. Digital Media agajewski@putman. CMRP Editorial Director pstudebaker@putman.net JACK JONES Circulation Director jjones@putman. what does this have to do with OSHA and its picture competition? Foxconn’s plants are suppliers to the U. Technology Mike Bacidore. Creative Services sherner@putman. IL 60143 (630) 467-1300 Fax: (630) 467-1120 MIKE BRENNER Group Publisher mbrenner@putman. Editor in Chief mbacidore@putman. again.S. allegedly due to severe labor conditions. Workplace safety is an important issue that manufacturers should do their best to drive all the way up the international supply chain. Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehaviour (SACOM). Suite 301. however. Fourteen Chinese workers at Foxconn also committed suicide last year. and workplace safety and health may be interpreted and demonstrated in any way the photographer chooses. weeks later. It’s part of the organization’s 40th anniversary celebration. And that gives those U.net JENNIFER DAKAS Art Director jdakas@putman. technology industry. Department of Labor. PUBLICATION SERVICES CARMELA KAPPEL Assistant to the Publisher ckappel@putman. the goal of the contest is to collaborate with the public and raise national awareness about workplace safety and health. companies have a history of requiring supplier compliance on issues ranging from sustainability to quality management. Itasca.S. including Poland. three workers were killed and at least 15 were injured in a blast at the Foxconn plant in Chengdu. (630) 467-1300 x444 WWW.net DAVID BERGER..plantservices.COM JUNE 2011 7 . If ever there was a chance to force change in labor practices and industrial safety standards. that depends on how seriously U.gov) kicked o its Picture It! Safe Workplaces for Everyone photography contest (www. 12. they’re not eligible for the OSHA contest. and Dell. P. OSHA is indeed part of the U. more than a million Foxconn workers manufacture products for companies such as Apple. this is it. China. U. P. e photos. which operates manufacturing plants in a variety of countries.net RUSSELL L. Brazil. KRATOWICZ. Contributing Editor PETER GARFORTH Contributing Editor SHEILA KENNEDY Contributing Editor JOEL LEONARD Contributing Editor BOB SPERBER Editor at Large THE PICTURE OF SAFETY International suppliers need a reason to comply In May. companies quite a big opportunity and considerable leverage. Content ROSE SOUTHARD V.168 jillk@fosterprinting.S... CMRP Executive Editor russk@putman.P. COMPANIES HAVE A HISTORY OF REQUIRING SUPPLIER COMPLIANCE.E. e blast at the plant was attributed to the ignition of highly combustible magnesium dust in a duct. U. How about a new Apple iPad advertising campaign that includes photos of safe work environments of the plants that supply the tech manufacturer? And don’t forget the OSHA photo contest at your own plant. and it’s open to anyone 18 years or older. must be taken in the United States and its territories.net STEPHEN C. Pierce Rd. Mexico. HERNER V. Getting the picture yet? While OSHA is challenging amateur and professional photographers to capture an image of workplace safety and health.net ALEXIS GAJEWSKI Associate Editor.net FROM THE EDITOR MIKE BACIDORE. and Foxconn employees now must sign a promise not to commit suicide. CAPPELLETTI President/CEO JULIE CAPPELLETTI-LANGE Vice President KEITH LARSON V. www. criticized Foxconn’s ventilation and protective equipment at the Chengdu facility.net MIKE BACIDORE Editor in Chief mbacidore@putman.com/oshaphotos).S.PUTMAN MEDIA. And every picture tells a story. INC. osha.net RITA FITZGERALD Production Manager rfitzgerald@putman.net JERRY CLARK V.net JILL KALETHA Reprints Marketing Manager Foster Reprints (866) 879-9144 ext.ENG. Foxconn is the trade name of Taiwan’s Hon Hai Precision Industries. In fact.PLANTSERVICES. So. e competition deadline is Aug. 555 W. India.com EXECUTIVE STAFF JOHN M.. but we’ll be more than happy to accept them here.S. so what does its photo contest have to do with industrial plant safety in China? Well. Circulation jclark@putman. EDITOR IN CHIEF EDITORIALS TAFF PAUL STUDEBAKER. If you have photos from outside the United States. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA.net.P.. Yes. and China.

Find out what we can do for you. Download our NEW White Paper: “Extend the Life of Existing Switchgear. we can revitalize aging equipment without the need for prolonged shutdowns—saving you time and money. 998-4084_US . Masterpact. and the D-in-a-square logo are trademarks owned by Schneider Electric Industries SAS or its affiliated companies. If your company is like most. By using proven technology like Masterpact™ Equipment de-energized during upgrade replacement circuit breakers. Schneider Electric.com Key Code a961v ©2011 Schneider Electric. it has reduced capital and operating budgets but still expects things to run like they always have. Square D Services is available 24/7. Square D™ Services from Schneider Electric™ has a demonstrated ability to help.Like new. All Rights Reserved. Upgrading existing equipment saves time and money.SEreply. Our nationwide team of trained technicians can upgrade existing switchgear no matter the make or model.” Visit www. Square D. . From equipment startup to corrective action and custom equipment solutions or maintenance. 365 days a year. all over again.

overhead-valve efficiency and emissions were state-of-the-art in a market full of two-strokes and flatheads. When it was new. Monday morning’s traffic was a little lighter than usual. but again. I needed the self-propulsion. self-propelled mower. For all those years. among other things. so long as I put a little Stabil in the gas. fixing the old one might not be the most sustainable choice. It might leak less oil and gasoline fumes and have cleaner exhaust. May 22. even a new pair of front wheel bushings.plantservices. but is it the right thing to do from a sustainability point of view? When I bought the mower in 1982. www. relatively speaking. who met May 15 to discuss. more than half of the rebuilds either used When liFecycle energy conSuMption WaS conSiDereD. As for my mower. and motor experts say it’s not likely (www. for me.Mr.com/pearl). Now. and I understand how that old machine works — even better now that I had to find and test the coil.com/rewindmotorefficiency). I used it a lot more often. as well as many of my neighbors. I more energy or the energy balance was too close to call. SuStainability paul studebaker. contact editorial Director paul Studebaker. I saw a sign that.Com JuNE 2011 9 . the old beast has become. but not for freshly rebuilt. This has some folks wondering if an older motor can be rewound to be more efficient. A new mower would probably be lighter and more efficient. or had not. cMrp. I have the manual and a collection of accessories. indeed. the apocalypse had arrived. Now I could use the exercise of pushing. to knowledge and infrastructure. I just run it about 15 minutes a week to do edges and tight areas where my riding mower doesn’t fit. a parts-eating machine: a new blade. as it often does. the fix-or-replace decision boils down. that’s no proof that the truly righteous had. the extra energy used over its lifetime generally cancels out the savings from the manufacturing stage. why LEED doesn’t recognize using remanufactured electrical equipment as a way to earn points for incorporating recycled materials in a new structure (www. Besides. out.plantservices/rebuildvsreplace) looked at 25 cases in eight categories. and precision that old motors just can’t match. Back then. certified switchgear or circuit breakers. We’ve been through a lot of grass together. At this rate. materials. a new foam sock for the air cleaner. as new motors tend to be several percent more efficient than the ones that are wearing couldn’t tell whether or not the rapture had occurred. its four-stroke.plantservices. But this year. rebuilding or reconditioning isn’t always the most sustainable option Walking out of my house on Sunday morning. which is pretty pricey. Absolutely none of the usual email had gone missing. at pstudebaker@putman. been taken. because it wouldn’t make a spark. Even if the alternative was simply replacing it with a new. If the remanufactured item is less energy-efficient than a new product.net. But when I went to start my lawnmower. But if the component in question doesn’t consume energy. Reconditioning by itself almost always saved energy over a new component. My family and I. New motors have differences in design. Now. and that’s green enough for me. from motor rewinds to retreading tires and refilling ink cartridges. bearings.PLANTSERVICES. but researchers found that. gas-powered. You can get credit for using staves of old-growth redwood from recycled water towers hauled in from California instead of steel siding. That’s the case with most of the electrical components that are reconditioned by members of the Professional Electrical Apparatus Recyclers League (PEARL). For the first time in 29 years. the MIT researchers say you can usually be confident that reconditioning is the more sustainable option. More than halF oF the rebuilDS either uSeD More energy or the energy balance WaS too cloSe to call. the old Honda HRA214 SX would not start. This is a big deal in motor rewinds. when lifecycle energy consumption was considered. and my coworkers showed up. I might have to replace the original spark plug. Go figure. A replacement ignition coil costs $80. were still evident. running to the Honda dealer for parts burns a lot of gas. A recent MIT study of remanufacturing versus replacement (www. cmrp Fix or replace repairing. but that was no surprise. that mower would start on the second pull the first time out in the spring and on the first pull for the rest of the season. It still makes economic sense to fix the mower rather than buy a new one. I could probably do the job with an electric mower.

its location. Ad 3542778C .fluke.com/report or call 1-800-44-FLUKE Fluke. Its onboard Info feature gives you field tips for setting up and taking measurements like a pro. Specifications are subject to change without notice. 3 See for yourself at www. Keeping your world up and running. Fix it right the first time.® ©2010 Fluke Corporation. 2 DIAGNOSE No more guessing your machine’s condition. and how severe it is. 2 3 MEASURE Fluke 810 fits easily into your maintenance routine. The Fluke 810 is the most advanced troubleshooting tool for mechanical maintenance teams. set repair priorities and manage your resources with an entirely new approach to vibration testing.: 1 1 SETUP Vibration testing has never been easier The 810 asks for basic machine information you already know. With the press of a button. Use it to quickly troubleshoot problems or monitor machine conditions. The new Fluke 810 helps you locate and diagnose common mechanical problems and prioritize repair actions in three simple steps. the Fluke 810 identifies the root cause.Take a vibration expert along New Fluke 810 Vibration Tester: When you need an answer now… Control unplanned downtime. prevent recurring problems.

speCifiC variaBles are dOWnlOaded tO tHe teCHniCian’s dOCumenting CaliBratOr. determine the operating condition of any device and the associated process equipment. we segregated the HART-enabled devices and linked the loop sheets. We avoid potential environmental problems.Com JuNE 2011 11 . maintenance manuals. causing confusion. meaning that information the plant’s HART-based smart devices generated wasn’t being used for maintenance.galatachemicals. Catching a potential problem before it occurs avoids a great deal of troubleshooting and eliminates downtime. Process control is more consistent. In quite a few cases. Alarms can indicate trouble brewing. Contact him at kenneth.com. but they weren’t identical. an apprentice.emersonprocess. Using the principles of predictive maintenance.650 instruments have unique tag numbers. The cost of the contract service turned was much higher than anticipated.yOur spaCe Organized tO autOmate updated instrument database enables calibration and maintenance By Kenneth marse. product quality higher. louisiana. Another factor was the time spent reacting to emergencies.000 field devices with one instrument tech. When it’s time for a calibration. up-to-date calibration records that satisfy corporate requirements and state regulatory agencies.marse@galatachemicals. and there was no way to determine how many field devices were in use. Now. the HART-enabled devices were turned on. Using the general application launcher in the AMS Device Manager. and can predict when an asset should be repaired or replaced. becoming part of the historical file. and equipment reliability better. it couldn’t find needed information. the new technicians do a lot of wheel-spinning. I was hired in June 2008 as a control systems specialist with authority over instrument calibration and maintenance. but that group must have information about plant equipment and systems. The new group was fighting fires to keep the plant running and neglecting routine maintenance. the contractor now was able to provide the maintenance needed to prevent the unexpected fires. We’re now taking care of nearly 2. dual records existed. Louisiana. and calibration procedures. P&IDs. galata Chemicals assigning maintenance responsibility to an outside contractor might make economic sense. An I&E technician can check the device and the equipment it monitors. specific variables are downloaded to the technician’s documenting calibrator. P&IDs. our control system supplier. After the maintenance department at the Galata Chemicals plant in Taft. The results of each calibration are uploaded to the database. and the instrumentation system had some structure. but he was soon asked to restore the asset management software.PLANTSERVICES. While the contractor was qualified. making field-generated diagnostics available. Later. and we monitor them daily. We eliminated dupli- AMS Device Manager monitors the smart devices and raises alarms if any exceed preset operating limits. When long-term employees are no longer around to tell why a pump sometimes cavitates or warn that a sensor line plugs frequently. and calibration records. We now have accurate. control-loop piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs) couldn’t be found. The numbers never were linked. His assignment was to help with instrumentation questions. Our first task was reconstructing the instrument database in the AMS Suite: Intelligent Device Manager asset management software. The company also brought in a systems consultant from Emerson Process Management (www. asset management revitalized cations. WHen it’s time fOr a CaliBratiOn. all 1.com) in Hahnville. www. and productivity greater. instruments or process equipment problems have been discovered before the control system operators knew they existed. Technical documentation was almost nonexistent. In some cases. the system implemented in 1998 to maintain spec sheets. but different device tags were assigned for this purpose. Any of these steps can trigger predictive maintenance if conditions call for it. specifications. Anyone can find any information needed for troubleshooting. alarm management Two actions were taken almost simultaneously.com). I can retrieve diagnostic information from any suspect device. Calibrations are now completed on schedule following Emerson’s written procedures. most records pertaining to the process control system fell into disarray. was downsized in 2007. Kenneth marse is control systems specialist at galata Chemicals (www. and two electricians. The instruments were entered into the database as conventional devices.

S.Super-E Motors ® EISA Compliant Since 1983 Since our beginning in 1920. quieter and longer with better reliability than any other industrial motor. the act addressed new energy savings regulations that will directly affect the electric motors you use in your facilities. Baldor offers the broadest choice of energy efficient motors available in the world. there’s a Super-E to meet even the most demanding applications. Baldor will help you comply today because we’ve been ready since 1983. Baldor Super-E motors were recognized by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency as the first premium efficiency motor line to meet their stringent criteria.com for additional information. premium bearings and low-loss fans. Baldor has led the industry in developing industrial electric motors that deliver greater performance and reliability while using less electricity. which became law in December 2010. annealed laminations of superior-grade steel. Log on today and receive your free copy of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 document. Quality Is in the Details Super-E premium efficient motors represent quality to the highest degree. enabling Baldor’s Super-E motors to run cooler. ©2011 Baldor Electric Company baldor. our award-winning BE$T Baldor Energy Savings Tool CD and our Super-E product line brochure.com . every Super-E motor meets the compliance standards for the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Log on today to baldor. Because electric motors consume more than 63% of electricity used by U.000. Are You EISA Ready? When you choose Baldor’s Super-E motors. NRC in Canada and IEC 60034-30 IE3 in Europe. In horsepower ratings from fractional to 15. Every Super-E motor is designed and built to meet or exceed the efficiency levels defined by NEMA in the USA. as well as motors used in new equipment design. Look inside a Super-E and you’ll find premium-grade copper windings. For any design or application. That commitment continued in 1983 with the introduction of our Super-E line of motors. our Method to Reduce Energy Costs case study. industry. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 is now in effect. And. Many years ago. you’re ready and compliant immediately.

and certification. It considered several approaches to data collection. During the past 16 years. accountability. aCCurate. vibration monitoring offered the highest potential return. unplanned machine failures have diminished to near zero. and rePeatable. single-train fuels refinery with a capacity of 110. diagnose potential problems easily. The other was to outsource the condition monitoring program. What was once a run-to-failure plant now has a 91% onstream availability with a staff of five machinists. and most importantly. who owned and was responsible for the program.what works a refined taste in reliability Vibration monitoring helps to increase Mtbf and lower pump maintenance costs the ConocoPhillips ferndale Washington Refinery (www. Barnes. “How else can you stand next to a running piece of equipment and determine. so it was CritiCal the Vibration Monitoring systeM be fast. www. The plant had no vibration monitoring program and used a reactive maintenance approach. The pump MTBF rate increased from 22 months to 52 months in a 10-year period after implementing the Azima DLI condition monitoring system. The plant investigated oil analysis and thermography and concluded that. Technicians aim the bar code scanner at the label glued to the pump base or foundation and the data collector begins the Plant has a sMall staff. Vibration monitoring needs a data screening technique. and a maintenance superintendent. ConocoPhillips Ferndale selected the Azima DLI vibration data collector with ExpertAlert software. “In my opinion. on-site data collector to be involved with everything from data collection to working with an outside vendor to handle primary analysis. and overtime has been eliminated.Com JuNE 2011 13 . repetitive data collection to establish statistical baseline data from which deviations could be recognized. a part-time PdM technician. It became apparent that something had to change. The plant has a small staff.000 barrels/day and it has about 1. About 25% of the data collected generates a significant diagnostic report that requires follow-up manual analysis. This way the data collector wouldn’t be pulled away for repairs or operator rounds. proactive approach to reliability and uptime. accurate.000/yr to $600. with interest.300. for the machinery and the types of failures seen. Test pads with a screw-mounted connection to the transducer ensure repeatable vibration data. It was imperative to have one person. Equipment failures are few. Nearly every maintenance job at the plant is planned. so it was critical the vibration monitoring system be fast. maintenance superintendent of rotating equipment services at the refinery. vibration monitoring is the cornerstone to identifying machinery problems. The plant needed to get away from run-to-failure and move to a strategic. This includes both low (0-10 orders) and high (0-100 orders) frequency ranges. especially in the higher frequencies.000 pieces of equipment. or is at the early stages of bearing damage?” The team searched for a vibration monitoring system that emphasized accurate and repeatable data collection and easy analysis. Azima DLI uses an analysis program called ExpertAlert.PLANTSERVICES. The team was so busy responding to “hot” problems that there was no time to make long-term improvements. The rotating equipment group has three reliability engineers. The annual maintenance costs for pump repairs dropped from $1.conocophillips.com) is an integrated. enthusiasm.” says Ryan R. In addition to collecting and analyzing data. training. The ConocoPhillips Ferndale plant has come a long way. The labels withstand years of harsh outdoor conditions. It was a common expectation that even spared equipment had to be repaired and returned to service the same day. The result was a lot of overtime as the team routinely spent weekends overseeing machine repairs. without shutting it down. The team decided to hire a committed. After reviewing available monitoring offerings. recording immediately. that it suffers from impeller unbalance or misaligned shafts. The team also recognized the necessity of regular.000/yr within 10 years. and repeatable. It uses statistical analysis to compare the accumulated baseline spectral peaks against the test data using a complex set of rules. Triaxial data acquisition can collect vibration data in three dimensions in less than 20 seconds per test location. One was to use Ferndale operators or machinists to collect the vibration data and have reliability engineers or contractors perform the analysis. Operations had little confidence in its pumps and motors. The bronze pads have an alignment notch to orient the transducer. this person analyzes the machine problems that arise and track the metrics needed to refine the program and recommend plant improvements.

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imPlEmEnTing wirElEssly The group maintained 240 transmitters.” says Fletcher. Field testing requires portable data acquisition systems that collect data from many field devices.Com JuNE 2011 15 . and get an easily configurable system.” says Fletcher. minimize hardware inven- “Like everyone else in these economically challenging times. and that Wi-Fi was designed for speed.” The prototype. Test equipment must be portable and flexible enough to operate with a constantly changing number of instruments and scan rates. including process variables. The system also had to be easy to configure. Knowing this. For either iteration. they had to show proof of concept. ThE ProblEm wiTh hard wirEs tory. and fewer cables would be needed for test installations. the team manager. users should be aware of the range limits and possibility of interference between objects and antennas.4-GHz frequency band as Wi-Fi.whaT works on TargET Electric utility discovers quick wirelessharT payback Progress Energy. where data goes to an Excel spreadsheet using Matricon Analytics’ plug-in Excel Reporter. “The economics of a hybrid wireless-wired HART system became more feasible for us to consider. through the Emerson gateway. the Performance Testing Group.” he says. It has since expanded to eight. the test records time-stamped data through a gateway to a laptop-based spreadsheet-type application. With the introduction of the WirelessHART protocol and network adapters. When we were planning our purchase. Typically. with special emphasis on high-accuracy pressure and temperature. the MACTek Bullet. the group sought to replace its test equipment to go wireless. because every plant had its own configuration. troubleshooting. One such adapter. Testing entailed days for setup and another for teardown. share equipment. Fletcher also set longer-term goals to achievie remote data flow over the corporate wide-area network (WAN) for remote testing. research phase was mainly upon wired multiplexer-based systems. Fletcher explains that the engineers had a major investment in HART Smart Transmitters. it travels among 32 plants. “and that meant that we had to maintain compatibility with our existing investment in HART-enabled transmitters. because “the wireless equipment that we were initially aware of was expected to be out of our financial reach. we learned that MACTek had working prototypes of the Bullet. has its SWAT team. ProjEcT objEcTivEs Test setup was arduous before products had implemented the WirelessHART specification. But first. The resulting system communicates HART data.PLANTSERVICES. TEsT sETuP was arduous bEforE ProducTs had imPlEmEnTEd ThE wirElEssharT sPEcificaTion. we had to get the best bang for the buck. He set short-term goals for a new system that could handle a variety of instruments. introduced in 2009. These objectives exceeded Fletcher’s initial expectations. while WirelessHART was designed for data reliability. an OPC plug-in. testing. the Performance Testing Group hoped to achieve several objectives: create a common data acquisition system. Because WirelessHART technology uses the same 2. Fletcher has one caveat to using the wireless network adapters. mainly for temperature and pressure. supports six HART transmitters in HART multidrop mode. to a laptop PC. The wiring risked damage as cables were used and reused connecting more than 100 instruments across the plant and roadways. collect multidrop mode data digitally. this capability meant a wireless gateway could replace the failing multiplexers. Some multiplexers were failing because of wear and tear. And the system would have to interface with standard commercial instruments using standard protocols. Another www. simplify equipment installation. to stamp out inefficiency. allowed Fletcher’s group to connect eight HART-enabled devices in an all-digital multidrop network mode. “The logical thing to do was get a common data acquisition system shared across the system. hardwired to HART multiplexers to accommodate cable runs to conduct tests. and verifying equipment performance. The project focus in the early. an electric utility serving the southeast.” says Fletcher. bEnEfiTs The advantages of the system were apparent. With four engineers and technicians led by Dick Fletcher. from up-front cost to long-term data acquisition system reliability. He also notes that a WirelessHART network can take 10 or 20 minutes to get fully established with all HART subdevices reporting.

” The basic principle is to connect the gateways to the corporate WAN instead of a laptop. instruments use the 4-20 mA signals for power. the Sheraton Wildhorse Pass Resort & Spa in Chandler.000. Engineers could then evaluate data being collected at any plant without traveling to it. the WAN approach also could allow the group or others in the company to make additional or more in-depth evaluation at any time. Future potential Register now and be SKF’s guest at the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series race at Phoenix International Raceway on November 13th! www. To register or learn more. located on an expanse of spectacular Arizona landscape surrounded by ancient vistas and roaming wild horses. So. For his testing purposes. 2011 Need to stay up to speed on the latest reliability trends and technologies? Don’t miss Asset Management 2011. but each handled only one transmitter. but process variables are transmitted digitally. Arizona • November 14-16.” says Fletcher. The wireless multidrop mode doesn’t use the analog signal. take the Bullet Bus Driving Operational Productivity Phoenix. if remote access is granted.skfusa. Fletcher is in discussions to consider permanently installed Bullets in key locations. a global conference focused on driving operational productivity through Asset Efficiency Optimization (AEO). Alternately. cost $158.amcna2011. This can yield benefits at the plant level and beyond. the Bullets. which handle eight devices each. A MACTek Bullet transmitting data on eight multidropped instruments once every 8 seconds makes real-time data acquisition a possibility. the technology might open the door for new applications previously thought to be the domain of digital fieldbus networks. he sets up the MACTek to poll Bullet transmitters every 16 seconds and for his gateways to poll at 20-second intervals. such as condition monitoring and asset management. wireless data transmission is all-digital. “Further gains stand to be realized if we can get the gateways linked to the corporate wide-area network. The cost of the hardware for the 240 transmitters the group maintains was roughly $180. Fletcher notes the protocol is built for redundancy and reliability. Instead. This year’s conference will take place at a truly unique resort. 16 June 2011 www. visit www. Arizona (near Phoenix).what works wireless adapter provided the same kind of capability. “The Web interface in the wireless gateways gives us good diagnostics and data on the Bullet radios and the HART devices.000 less. This allows HART technology to enter the world of digital bus functionality.com While HART is a hybrid analog/digital specification. The multidrop capability was key to project approval.Com .PLAnTSeRVICeS. With the proof of concept.com Fletcher is considering expanding the scope of testing to other tests and diagnostic capabilities.

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Raymond’s technicians also help facilities incorporate new technologies. During a year. then we’re more cost-efficient and productive. data might indicate that a facility’s lift trucks require wheel and tire replacements more often than other facilities.000 hours. The system also can help determine replacement component strategies. and electric pallet trucks that the company began using the iWarehouse system’s iTrack module.” says Jeff Earnhart. Work orders are consolidated. assess when it’s appropriate to service or reassign equipment. executive vice president of operations for Bunzl North America. supermarkets. Technicians there enter maintenance work order data into the iWarehouse system’s iTrack module to be reviewed and approved by the distribution center manager. handled regionally by a network of Raymond service centers. “We wanted to get better control and understanding of our equipment. in terms of capital expenditures. “The system allows us to determine the root cause of a problem. “If it’s an older building. Bunzl also uses the data to determine if a facility has the 18 June 2011 www. “Our distribution center managers will access the website and analyze the costs of individual units of equipment and the age of the equipment. Louis. and nothing is considered too insignificant. vice president of distribution and warehousing for Bunzl North America. “If we can better plan for maintenance or even reduce and eliminate avoidable maintenance situations.what works Fleet. retailers.com). . Bunzl’s operators use so many Raymond lift trucks. At some locations. a lift truck might be in operation for 80 hours. Raymond’s iWarehouse fleet optimization system helps determine the true cost of lift truck ownership.” says Rick Castetter. and others. The cost analysis helps to determine whether any facility has too many or too few trucks to meet throughput requirements. and Bunzl receives a single invoice every other week.Com right number and mix of trucks.” says Earnhart. and evaluate maintenance trends. the data from which would help the company improve lift truck fleet management and its cost elements. disposable supplies. to determine whether to keep the equipment for another year or if it’s starting to cost more than it should to keep it running.bunzldistribution.” Bunzl relies on Raymond’s assistance for preventive maintenance and repairs. Don’t FaIl Me now real-time data improves lift truck purchase planning and maintenance management In a five-day.” Data DelIvery An on-board module tracks lift truck data that determines the unit cost to operate. Leveraging lift truck operating statistics properly can help managers run a more efficient operation and increase productivity.PLAnTSeRVICeS. wouldn’t really know how much a unit cost to operate. with headquarters in St. two-shift work week. ‘How many hours am I using it? What’s my cost per hour? How many times has this been repaired? When was the last time this repair was done?’ It was a manual process. it will operate for more than 2. orderpickers. For example. says Castetter. and cleaning and safety products to food processors. “Managers at each distribution center.” he says. “They couldn’t answer certain questions. there could be cracks and uneven areas in the floors that damage tires and wheels. convenience stores. Bunzl North America (www. Bunzl reduced its maintenance costs by more than 10%. Data proDuces cost savIngs Earnhart says iTrack provides multiple avenues of cost savings. unless they had their own homegrown spreadsheets for tracking every month. supplies food packaging.” It’s helpful at the corporate and the individual distribution center level to use the data to determine what is needed to budget for next year.

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Personal power is an indication of the Leader action Uses sanctions inappropriately. Power can be quickly lost if the leader misuses power. Position power is the power that is given to leaders by their organizations. regardless of performance Team doesn’t perceive the leader will use sanctions Team feels there is no need to work harder if everyone gets the same reward rewards become expected. and bosses of the leader and others. • reward power (position) — the ability to provide rewards or recognition to gain compliance • legitimate power (position) — the right to influence the activities of others based on job title or position • expert power (personal) — respect gained based on skills. A leader must use power wisely and justly or it can become a liability rather than an asset. Tom Moriarty. Without a source of power there can be no leadership.PLANTSERVICES.. is president of Alidade MER. Personal power is linked to our personality.. www. CmrP UsE And MisUsE of LEAdERshiP PoWER 7 sources and the potential consequences of its application We can define leadership as influencing the activities level of commitment others have toward the leader. if you’re only concerned with immediate success — for instance. CMRP. and our integrity. P.E. Personal power is power given to the leader by other people. A leader should contemplate the best sources of power to be employed to achieve success and effectiveness. misuses corrective feedback Typical effects Team loses respect for the leader The boss notes the leader can’t handle sanction authority The leader loses respect from peers Threatens sanctions but never follows through Gives rewards to everyone. .com and (321) 773-3356. if a fire breaks out and you need to make sure a volatile process is safely shut down. Good leaders work to build their sources of power. We can define two different types of power bases: position and personal. A leader should be able to incorporate these power sources appropriately. expertise. Contact him at tjmpe@alidade-mer. In most other situations you need to move among the sources of power. team.Com JuNE 2011 21 These are some examples of the negative fallout that can come from the abuse of power. or experience • referent power (position and personal) — positive personal traits or integrity • information power (position and personal) — possession of or access to. P. peers.E. “Is there one best source of power?” The answer is yes. In this case. position power is the best choice. peers. and they use their power to influence others wisely. That includes subordinates. It only takes one incompetent act to result in an instantaneous loss of power. and team Effect on power reduces referent power with boss. valuable information • connection power (position and personal) — access to others who can provide rewards or sanctions. So now you should be asking yourself.hUMAn CAPiTAL Tom moriarTy. as opposed to being performance-based The boss notes the leader is abusing the rewards system reduces coercive power with the team reduces reward power with team reduces referent power with boss. There are seven sources of power: • coercive power (position) — the ability to impose sanctions or punishment to gain compliance of others toward accomplishing a goal. And we can define power as a leader’s potential to influence the activities of others toward accomplishing a goal. It is the power granted to leaders based on their job title. our competence. and peers might also erode coercive power A LEAdER shoULd ConTEMPLATE ThE bEsT soURCEs of PoWER To bE EMPLoyEd To AChiEvE sUCCEss And EffECTivEnEss.

So your business can be as agile as your thinking.youragileassets.is your erp a pain in THe asseT? ease your pain. an entire ERP package or even integrate EAM seamlessly with your legacy ERP system. Most ERP software does a poor job at enterprise asset management (EAM) tasks like maintenance and asset lifecycle management. iFs—For aGiLe Business www. So you can implement EAM with components of ERP. fully integrated enterprise resources planning (ERP) suite.com . Only IFS Applications offers class-leading EAM as part of an agile.

and take appropriate action. samples. Condition monitoring capability allows operators. For example. compliance goes below. and links to relevant information. in facilities. but our software is flexible enough to build any report. technicians. and predefined reports to assist in extracting knowledge. the user can double-click on it to provide a detailed report and zoom in on the root cause with a series of double-clicks. say. Many companies suffer information overload when they implement advanced packages. if PM compliance dips below. Management must change the corporate culture to take advantage of the powerful systems at its disposal. and engineers to react quickly to abnormal or suboptimal situations. waiting for a call from the field or shop floor to deal with a problem. the CMMS can initiate a work order or send an email to the Collecting information from thousands of field or shopfloor devices doesn’t optimize operations. The hottest software feature is the dashboard interface that allows users to configure the look and feel of a personal page on the CMMS. workflow capability. an email can be sent to the maintenance manager. key messages. If the graphic shows a problem. Others try a spin: “We don’t supply tools or templates. Dashboards provide the visibility needed to optimize operations through better decision making. such as a speedometer or stoplight graphic depicting variables. 80%.Com JuNE 2011 23 . alarms and warnings. if a reading strays outside control limits. Some provide tools. For example. Condition monitoring maintenance supervisor. WorkfloW management must Change the Corporate Culture to take advantage of the poWerful systems at its disposal. Workflow isn’t only useful for monitoring shop-floor measures. This includes condition monitoring features. CMMS vendors know this phenomenon. and engineering at every level. If the dashboard is configured properly. or combination thereof. Competition. For example. templates.PLANTSERVICES. measure. Some CMMS vendors work hard to provide superb decision-support functionality. condition. analysis and reporting tools.david berger. including table summary reports. Behavior takes more time and effort to change than technology. and assets. an email can be sent to the COO. where operators take on responsibility for minor maintenance tasks? The opposition stems from a power struggle at the management level and a fear that jobs will be lost or changed. and sophisticated monitoring and control systems make it hard to separate their duties. 70%. programmable logic controllers (PLCs). a critical function is to monitor and control four aspects of operations — products. mobile solutions. environment. The user can configure display formats. say. there’s a need for better decision-support systems. in that data can be routed and actions taken in a predefined manner. Optimization is the goal. The range for each is user-definable.eng. and role ambiguity between operations and maintenance is nothing new. maintenance. KPIs. If it drops below. processes. and the ability to easily integrate with other operational systems. A workflow engine can perform any user-defined transfer of data and actions. and a new definition of roles and responsibilities that match the new reality. supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). P. Workflows can be triggered by condition or trend in one or more variables. determine the root cause. based on any userdefined event. tension. but it also can be a useful management tool. and proprietary data collection systems can track the four aspects. say. Low-level systems such as human-machine interfaces (HMIs). The vigilant CMMS optimizes operations through quick response. It’s not clear what to do with the new data. analysis and reporting A sophisticated workflow engine some CMMS vendors offer enhances the condition monitoring capability. an email can be sent to the plant manager. If PM If the objective is optimization. Maintenance technicians no longer sit around reading the paper. and so on. We need better cooperation between operations. But operations seem to be more concerned with the first three than with the assets and rely heavily on maintenance to monitor or control key assets. and in the field growing. users can identify problems. 90%. why so much union resistance to total productive maintenance (TPM).” as if the two are mutually exclusive. on demand. www. asset manager more than a data aggregator Cmms includes decision-support functionality to make information useful With complexity on the shop floor.

reading RFID.com -DAY SAME PING SHIPLABLE AI YOUR PARTNER FOR CUSTOM ENGINEERED BEARING PROTECTION When you work with Inpro/Seal. calibration. Field or shop. manufacturing execution systems. provides the information required. localized support you deserve – every time.COM .oor workers are completely alienated by mobile solutions that require scrolling through reams of data on tiny screens. quality control. you can be assured that you’ll receive the responsive.on. companies get signi cant productivity improvements if the so ware renders properly on the device. Some mistakenly think of a mobile device as a small remote terminal with access to the CMMS. and PLC systems. Data storage and data entry costs are lower because there’s less duplication. and ERP systems. But it doesn’t end there.inpro-seal. some CMMS vendors simply build the required interface as the need arises.oor data systems such as HMI. SCADA. such as taking and attaching pictures. and reading bar codes. INTEGRATION #1 IN BEARING ISOlATORS www. Others formed partnerships with companies that can build the appropriate interfaces to ensure seamless integration between partners. users have easier access to the data to make better decisions. and takes advantage of the powerful features. at david@wmc.Eng. Our global sales network works alongside customers. Finally. as well as systems such as time and attendance. 24 JUNE 2011 WWW. applying years of experience in rotating equipment to design the right solution for each unique application. recording GPS coordinates. partner. Some CMMS vendors integrate these applications into their products via so ware. However. building management systems. personalized service every time you contact Inpro/Seal. P.PLANTSERVICES.000 bearing isolators… you won’t be our only customer.. Western Management Consultants. is doesn’t do justice to the power of the mobile solution. regardless of where it resides. is includes eld and shop.ca. Integration means greater accuracy and timeliness of shared data because it’s entered only once at its source. Email Contributing Editor David Berger.ASSET MANAGER MOBILE SOLUTIONS Another useful tool for optimizing operations is the mobile device. With an installed base of over 4. Most importantly. Others acquired or have been acquired by a company such as an ERP provider or plant automation company that o ers one or more of these applications.000. geographic information systems. you can expect that level of knowledgeable. AV An important CMMS trend is bridging islands of automation in operations. but you’ll certainly feel like it. asset tracking/locating.

That’s ingenuity.com/find/distributors See a video demonstration Download an application note www. Inc.agilent. That’s Agilent. They’re packed with essential features to improve usability and provide the correct measurements you need fast—in the conditions you really work in.agilent. Agilent U1272A Yes/Industry first Yes Yes (USB) Yes Yes Fluke 87V Yes/No No No No No Yes/Industry first Yes Yes (USB) No Yes Agilent and our Distributor Network Right Instrument. Buy from an Authorized Distributor www.com/find/BestDMM . Right Expertise. Field-ready Agilent handhelds are perfectly engineered for imperfect conditions.Backlit for low-light conditions High contrast for bright conditions Dust resistant Water resistant Don’t try this with our competition. Delivered Right Now. Agilent U1271A Alerts: Audio/Backlight Easy fuse replacement PC interface Stray voltage reduction Water and dust resistance Table compares products of equal AC/DC voltage and current measurement capabilities with comparable price © 2010 Agilent Technologies.

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flir.PLANTSERVICES. It supports hands-free. analyzes. “One of our hardware partners is Echelon. The metamaterial could potentially improve the images that are generated in non-destructive.berkeley. and time synchronous averaging. and mechanical systems.” says Mark Goodman. Usability: Performance and usability upgrades were made to Azima DLI’s Alert machinery condition assessment software. a time-consuming manual process that’s affordable compared to traditional infrared cameras.com www. particularly in the area of data collection. Berkeley. electrical. the CSI 2600 can detect rolling element and gearbox problems. but also hardware.extech. product manager for Emerson. A redesign of the DCX and DCA-60 data collection user interface improves functional and navigation efficiency and provides access to more information.emersonprocess.com www. Affordability: Infrared thermometers provide a numerical temperature readout of single spot. Infor EAM offers out-of-the-box connections from devices that supply a PLC.infor. phase imbalance.uesystems.com www. “While traditional multi-channel devices focus on turbomachinery. and previously recorded baseline sounds. “Previously. voice- Detecting that and triggering corrections is increasingly sophisticated.edu www. where rule-based work orders for predictive maintenance can be generated automatically. and manual or audio note taking was required to integrate these readings for inspection reports.Com JuNE 2011 27 . Also. “While the data can be downloaded to a host computer. scientists developing a metamaterial that uses evanescent sound waves for super-resolution acoustic imaging. vice president of engineering for UE Systems.com www. and collects data by touch. building automation. Emerson offers the CSI 2600 Machinery Health Expert. “We knew we had to provide not just software and services. and metering data to the Infor EAM software. MeterLink from Extech Instruments automates sharing Extech electrical and environmental meter diagnostics and Flir infrared camera diagnostics.000 Touch from UE Systems is a handheld. allowing expanded diagnostics and an unlimited number of machine test locations. or other asset conditions that requires maintenance.com www. Energy spikes that i. global PR manager for Extech Instruments. a portable tool capable of unattended. the on-board features provide for field analysis of fluid.” says Rebelo. The Ultraprobe 15. you can get a visual with thousands of pixels of data in a single image. price as a premium infrared unit. MeterLink records meter readings instantly and directly via Bluetooth into the infrared images. The Flir i3 point-and-click thermal imager retails for $1. “Now. ultrasonic testing.Technology Toolbox Sheila Kennedy PorTable buT connecTed Predictive maintenance technologies integrate the best of both worlds assets can exhibit subtle changes before failure occurs.echelon. full-featured inspection system that measures. such as baseline data. “It identifies early indication of bearing wear and features transient analysis.” Adding connectivity between devices also improves productivity.com. A low-priced imager has the potential to replace toolbox thermometers.” says Deane Horn. order tracking. which can be viewed on the spectral analysis screen.” says Andre Rebelo.” Ultrasound image clarity is the target of University of California. controlled data collection with optional verbal feedback. images of test points.LON SmartServer is a standards-based energy manager.com www. at Sheila@addcomm. “The operating software enables inspectors to review important route information. fault frequency overlays. The system accommodates complex notes and can record and play voice notes.” Connectivity: Continuous monitoring and measuring can predict and circumvent degradation between PM cycles. reference web SiTeS: www. Portability: Sometimes a two-channel portable vibration data collector is inadequate and a permanent monitoring system is impractical. continuous online monitoring and recording of 24 channels. for about the same ulTraSonic uniTS wiTh TouchScreen caPabiliTieS SimPlify inSPecTionS. Technology improvements are prominent in several recent product announcements.195. the automated diagnostic system technology has been improved.com www. email contributing editor Sheila Kennedy.” says Johnny Bofilios. whose i.dliengineering. Infor’s director of asset sustainability.LON reveals could be indicative of high motor temperature. Ultrasonic units with touchscreen capabilities simplify inspections. managing director of additive communications. a camera would scan for a hot spot and a meter would collect electrical readings.

com) in Pittsburgh. users monitor and compare processes. eastern region. It allows you to carry every picture ever taken anywhere you go. With an Apple iPad or iPhone. “When you snap a picture of a problem with your Flir camera. so we began investigating opportunities . Contributing Editor Steel FactoryTalk visualization system from any location. the i-View can detect it.” says Rob Brooks. VENDOR OFFERINGS ARE MANY AND VARIED Mobile and tablet devices attract a new wave of maintenance applications to the plant floor Interest in industrial mobility can be credited to the con uence of trendy devices. we expect that hundreds of users will be using the device.Apps of By Sheila Kennedy.” says Ed Kochanek. Rugged devices were the rst to hit the plant oor. “If you need to know immediately when there’s a fault in a line valve. scroll through. and environment are huge. “We recognized the inevitability of melding between consumer and industrial technologies via mobile apps. or a drive stops working. you can call it up on your iPhone via Wi-Fi from the oor and email it to any number of recipients. president of So dB (www.” says André L’Espérance.PLANTSERVICES. or a motor seizes. e new wave in mobility is smart apps.” Coatings and specialty products manufacturer PPG Industries uses Motorola’s MC9000 rugged handheld mobile computers for mobile human-machine interface (HMI) and asset management. com) in Quebec City. safety.ppg. director of sales. or iPod touch without cables or swapping SD cards. “Although we’re just in the infancy of enabling the mobile operator and technician in our facility. training manager for ProSo Technology (www. “It allows us to be an innovator by integrating signal technology into a modern tablet PC. and tech-savvy “Millennials” — also known as Generation Y — now entering the workforce.” says Chris Hines. process control supervisor for PPG Industries (www.com). it’s easier to store.com) “ e app is generating great excitement with our customers. but getting the highest return on your mobility investment requires matching the strategy to your particular environment.so db. in real time. Applications (apps) to foster operations and maintenance e ciency abound for both rugged and consumer-grade wireless technologies. and radios from Motorola to improve communications and security. analyze. chose DAP Technologies’ M8910 rugged tablet computer for acoustic and vibration measurement. Quebec.” e ProSo i-View is a mobile app for Apple devices that enables remote process monitoring and control with real-time process data. and share pictures. proso -technology. ir. a manufacturer of acoustical equipment.COM e Flir Viewer App can send thermal images and data from a Flir E-Series or T-Series camera directly to an iPhone. iPad. One wholesale brewery is pilot testing Aurora Mobile Apps from Aurora Industrial Automation to access its Rockwell Automation 28 JUNE 2011 WWW. “Once it’s fully deployed. such as the status of the mash ltration system. for Flir Systems (www. With an iPhone or iPad. the potential bene ts in e ciency. So dB. lower-cost connectivity.

we used iPads in the booth to display live data from three ow instruments using an app developed speci cally for the show. remote access to plantWWW. e system recognizes when the user is connecting with a smartphone. “We collect information from the customer’s site. marketing communications manager for Endress+Hauser (www. mobility has its advantages. It gives real-time. Meridium’s tablet application framework allows maintenance data to be synchronized in real time.” e SKF Microlog Inspector System simpli es data collection and remote data transfer for condition monitoring. “At last year’s Automation Fair. NEW APPS ARE EMERGING At least three companies are testing Aurora Mobile Apps. com). “Previously. and maintenance. product manager for remote support at Rockwell Automation (www.1 devices and can connect automatically and wirelessly to a central server using a LAN. Rockwell Automation’s installed base evaluation (IBE) service is faster because of its partnership with Meridium.CATEGORY / TOPIC to leverage these tools to complement our solutions and our customers’ applications. the new iPad/iPhone app from Aurora Industrial Automation. analyze it. Wi-Fi. you needed an Internet connection and now all you need is a phone connection.” says Jon Furniss.rockwellautomation. “Customers thought it was great. Mobile apps are bene cial to maintenance contractors. or 3G/GPRS cellular data network. Rockwell Automation product manager for installed base evaluations. “Using tablets for data collection allows IBEs to be done in half the time. inspections. It runs on Windows Mobile 6. Rockwell Automation customers can access the support center from a smartphone. e program currently supports Dell-branded tablets.” adds Korpela. and provide recommendations on how to optimize MRO in their facilities and manage obsolescence risk. ere’s no application to download. or other device and presents the small-screen user interface with the same capabilities as a traditional connection. com).endress.” says Jessica Korpela. read-only. and now we have to gure out how we can turn it into something more.” When vendor support is needed. safety.us.COM JUNE 2011 29 . Trial apps are good for gauging interest.” says Jeremy Farrow.PLANTSERVICES. tablet.

aberdeen.com) Research Director Ralph Rio found high interest in mobility in his March 2011 survey of industrial maintenance.” adds Scott Brady.Mobile ApplicAtions / Condition Monitoring floor data through certain Rockwell Automation FactoryTalk visualization systems using an Internet browser. “The impact of this newfound mobility on business processes will be significant. The same person might need to perform safety rounds. for enterprise applications at Aberdeen Group (www.” says David Crump.” The productivity potential is immense.com).interstates. senior manager of publications.” Of the respondents. Now.com).” A role for consuMer devices Eric Miller.daptech. such as smartphones and iPads. “We’re currently testing the use of mobile video cameras so that when our engineers call with questions from the plant floor. IT. three-quarters have already implemented mobility software for EAM functions or plan to do so within one to three years (Figure 1).com).” says Furniss. Additionally. you know when steps are skipped.PLAnTSeRVICeS. and wireless at SKF Condition Monitoring Center (www.” Aberdeen’s Prouty agrees that companies are increasingly willing to try lower-cost. “It’s a result of the proliferation of mobile devices. recognizes that consumer devices are gaining in prominence. we can see what they’re doing.com).” explains Ruby. “You’re not tied to one spot. flexible consumer devices.” A big opportunity in mobility is adding discipline to standard processes. the economy changed the manufacturing environment. And we’re investigating instant translations to convert online chat to the local language in real time automatically. Further innovations are underway at Rockwell Automation’s support center. If you’re out in the plant or even hundreds of miles away. Why so much interest? For one. skf. chief technologist/project manager for Interstates (www. portables. It reportedly won’t be made available on the iTunes library until the iPad and comparable device security features are improved. mobility can help to drive visibility. Mobility eliminates the paper trail.000 plants globally.Com First and foremost. “Before. says Jerry Steenhoek. quality inspections. but we’ve been left with a scaled-down workforce. marketing communications manager at Opto 22 (www. and executive professionals.com). ARC Advisory Group (www. “Instead of turning in a sheet of paper at the end of the day. “It’s natural that business users want to leverage the tools that allow the seamless exchange of data wirelessly and ease of communication in enterprise settings. 30 June 2011 www. It enforces discipline.com). you might have suspected not every item was being inspected. vice president of sales for DAP Technologies (www. “Mobile technology is doing what the laptop did for the office 20 years ago.arcweb. they expect them at work. explains June Ruby. We can’t afford to let people sit in a control room. manufacturing principal for the Motorola Solutions Industry Solutions Group (www. you have all the data that’s available in the office at your fingertips.” he says. research director. opto22. “Demand and production is ramping up. and they’re hardened for industrial use. when information could be lost or misread. in consumer markets and our everyday lives. A . when inspections are performed using a mobile device with a bar code scanner. “We’re looking into having customers send SMS texts for technical support. the data is entered once and is immediately accessible.motorolasolutions. largely because a mobile workforce equals a more productive workforce.” MotivAtors for Mobility prActicAl benefits The appeal of mobility is catching. says Kevin Prouty. because Millennials in the workforce grew up with computers and handheld devices. and track processes. “Survey Results for EAM Systems: Current Practices and Future Plans. representing more than 5. and we’re investigating whether social media is a place for technical support.

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“Enterprise-grade device manufacturers benefit from those experiences because the customers validate the use case. says Ruby. and feature lockdown. there’s still room for improvement. “Most customers . and increased repair and replacement costs..Com user access control. “The perceived notion that a rugged tablet should cost the same as an iPad is a misconception.” says DAP’s Miller. Aurora observes that in an industrial setting. Why rugged still rules SUMMIT 800. Device price shouldn’t be a primary concern. “It was one of the only tablet PCs that would allow for integration of our custom digital signal processor board. and DAP’s computers are rugged enough to be used in the field in all kinds of weather and conditions.com INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS The main reasons that Soft dB decided to partner with DAP was the modularity and ruggedness of its computers.749. master data management Mobility software Warranty management Training and certification tracking Analytics or data mining RFID asset serialization 14% 35% 12% 30% 77% 17% 44% 75% 34% 15% 19% 68% 21% 15% 20% 56% 14% 8% 31% 53% Have now 2011 budget 14% 6% 29% 49% Cloud 8% 6% computing 0% 18% 20% 32% 40% 60% In 3 years 100% 80% Figure 1. Mobile ApplicAtions / CondiTion MoniToRinG Mobile eAM Predictive maintenance 36% 17% 31% 84% Increase reliability and reduce down time of your critical rotating equipment with synthetic lubricants from Summit Industrial Products.” she explains.PLAnTSeRVICeS. The high failure rates for consumer models in these markets produce a domino effect of downtime.5823 www. including with consumer devices. “A consumer model might cost less up front. (Source: ARC Advisory Group) A Complete Line Of Full Synthetic Lubricants: Air. Gas & Refrigeration Compressor Lubricants Gear & Bearing Lubricants Hydraulic Oils R&O Lubricants Blower Lubricants Turbine Oils Barrier Fluids High Temperature Chain Oils Oven Conveyor Chain Oils Vacuum Pump Oils Air Tool Oils ISO 9001 : 2008 Certified notable iPad advantage is that its battery charge lasts much longer than most laptop batteries. longer and more efficient. Companies that ban camera devices for proprietary or classified reasons effectively eliminate most consumer-grade devices from consideration. Our lubricants keep your equipment running cooler.Summit Synthetic Lubricants for.” While industrial PDAs are taking on some cell phone characteristics. smoother. Three-quarters of ARC survey respondents already have implemented mobility software for EAM functions or plan to do so within three years.klsummit. Motorola is glad people are exploring new ways to use mobility. Asset info.. Aurora would like to see additional security features in the consumer devices relative to 32 June 2011 www. usage tracking. lost productivity.” says L’Espérance. but it isn’t built for the challenges of field service or industrial use. an iPad’s 10-hr charge could last a few days.

com Sullair Corporation is a subsidiary of Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation. (NYSE: UTX) . integrity. managing and controlling your compressed air systems. Trust your knowledgeable Sullair distributor to give you the best system for your application. So dependable.sullair. They not only provide all the pieces.sullairinfo.com/distributor This integrated system helps you reduce your energy costs and improve productivity by TM www. Always air. and always a perfect fit. but assemble them into a complete package that will optimize your system performance. Sullair offers total compressed air systems with each component of the system carefully matched for capacity and pressure to provide maximum performance and energy efficiency. the total Sullair Stationary Air Power System provides you with our exclusive air quality guarantee.The benefits of a Sullair Stationary Air Power System: reliability. Locate your sullair distributor at: www. a United Technologies Company. Always there. Sullair offers: I I I I I I Plant air audits Energy efficient products Compressed air system controls Equipment to monitor and manage systems Air distribution products After-purchase support analyzing.

” Advanced communications provide more benefits. flexibility to increase productivity and consolidate the A big opportunity in Mobility is Adding discipline to stAndArd processes. Gloves and fat fingers are a particular hindrance for Apple devices.PLAnTSeRVICeS. Motorola Solutions suggests exploring its use case.Com . which runs on Android devices. Lower Micron Ratings are Available • Models with Flow Ranges of 15 SCFM to 2000 SCFM Rated Up To 250psi are Standard • Differential Pressure Gauge Built In to Indicate Required Maintenance • Mounting Hardware Included for Easy Installation • Weep Drain is Standard. the right device is a two-way radio providing voice communication.” says DAP’s Miller. and now the data can be fed via GSM card. DAP suggests using computers like theirs that offer ruggedness to increase uptime and decrease maintenance costs. and is it a Class I or Class II hazardous area? Will the device access intellectual property. Dry Compressed Air Starts with The Extractor/Dryer ® Manufactured by LA-MAN Corporation • Point of Use Compressed Air Filter to Improve and Extend Equipment Life • Removes Moisture and Contaminates to a 5-Micron Rating. or Mi-Fi — a mini-router that acts like a mobile Wi-Fi hot spot for cell phones. phone card. not a virtual one. says SKF’s Brady. “It takes the question of how to connect out of the equation. 34 June 2011 www. How long do you expect the devices to be in service before you do a refresh? If you’ve chosen cellular service. the vendor takes over the installation. With SaaS. Consumer-grade device competition is growing fast. Best-in-class companies are significantly more likely to customize and simplify the screens. and the mobile connectivity. “Mobility in ERP 2011. Will the device be assigned to someone or part of a shared collection? Will the environment have carpet or concrete floors. there’s an app for planning and managing wireless networks. says Aberdeen’s Prouty.” says ARC’s Rio. “Cell phones are supporting faster and faster speeds. backups.” choose the right device Before selecting a device.” get the App right Clean.” explains Motorola’s Ruby.” Shrinking a regular ERP screen to fit on a mobile device is one of the first reasons for users rejecting the system.Mobile ApplicAtions / Condition Monitoring quickly realize that the reality of rolling out the mobile solution across an enterprise calls for an enterprise-grade device. according to the 2011 Aberdeen Group report. takes the entered radio and hardware variables and calculates the theoretical link signal strength between two sites so that adjustments to improve the link quality can be made. The ProSoft RadioLinx Calculator. the application’s user interface must fit the screen. helping customers upload and download data from remote locations because they don’t have to worry about internal firewall security. SKF hosts software as a service (SaaS). If infrastructure isn’t your strong suit. “Apple devices have their limitations and might lose favor to suitable Androids as they emerge. real-time coverage? 1/5/2006 7:44 AM Page 2 Document1.qxd number of devices needed. Coincidentally. “Others might need a rugged mobile computer with a screen and keypad to access and update work orders and look up the equipment’s maintenance history. and wireless USB. and modularity so the computers work the way the business needs them to work. which allows for the connection of multiple peripherals and the wireless transmission of data at speeds similar to a wired connection. is one carrier enough or do you need multiple carriers for full. as well as the iPhone and iPad.” he says.” SKF found that customers want to use existing device investments. You don’t need an IT infrastructure if you have cell signals. “For some users. many feel strongly about having a real keypad with tactile feedback. “For instance. a low-power sensor technology. Float Drain or Electronic Drain Valves Optional Regardless of the device. requiring data encryption and the ability to be wiped clean if it’s lost or stolen? Will IT have visibility to monitor and troubleshoot the device and access to push down security patches and upgrades? The total cost of ownership is another consideration. “DAP is among the first to offer integrated ZigBee wireless technology.

” says Ken Brunnbauer. “We’ll be using more mobile devices because this replaces older.com. “Moving forward.” says L’Espérance. and relied on components that are no longer supported. email contributing editor Sheila kennedy. Rockwell Automation commercial programs manager for the services and support business. “Mobile access applications are subject to security levels in the IT infrastructure. at sheila@addcomm.” says Endress’ Farrow. “You can expect nearly all of the functionality automation engineers currently have with a PC to be brought to a variety of different mobile platforms.Security iS Job 1 The question every company must ask is how to protect the mobile device and the data it accesses. “Our next task is to figure out which apps we could provide that would be beneficial to an end user.” As people continue to become more comfortable with the technology. and how does it fit into our business and what we offer?” Others. A multi-pronged approach is desirable. Opto 22’s vision of mobility is expansive. and VPN tunneling to secure its process data. they might not work as designed because of established security configurations. tablet and smartphone apps will become more commonplace. www. managing director of additive communications.PLANTSERVICES. Rockwell Automation could potentially log into its camera to help determine the cause.” says Crump. Planning for security upfront is essential. are actively exploring new possibilities. encryption. acquire smarter devices.Com JuNE 2011 35 .” SKF recommends bringing the IT person into the sales discussion. it won’t be limited simply to viewing data. like Rockwell Automation. “What is it they want or expect to be able to do with this sort of technology. existing technology that was heavier and more cumbersome. Vendors such as Endress+Hauser and Interstates are weighing the benefits of wireless apps. One idea is to have customers install TiVo-like devices to capture and stream data. and build wireless infrastructures into facilities. Looking forward Soft dB intends to increase its investment in mobility. allowing them to review what happened within a period of time before and after a fault. ProSoft i-View makes cumulative use of security features such as passwords. says Interstates’ Steenhoek. had an inferior user interface. “Without the right planning.

org. Users nd them to be the solution to many pumping challenges. and ruggedness. However. in which a moving piston forces liquid out of a closed cylinder through inlet and outlet valves. they o en aren’t as well understood as other pump types.COM . In portions of their operating range. 36 JUNE 2011 WWW.pumplearning. installation.PLANTSERVICES. user-convenient. Each module. applications. design and applications of PD pumps By Hydraulic Institute PD Pump Members Positive displacement pumps are used in multiple CENTRIFUGAL VERSUS PD PUMPS industries. Material is highly visual and interactive and is designed to allow the student to take full advantage of the latest Web technology. This user-focused website includes e-learning courses. designed to stand alone or be combined with others. uid. ese products merit consideration in your pumpselection process. controlled-volumemetering. To help you understand the de nitions. ANSI/HI standards perform a vital function in pump-industry commerce and serve important roles in minimizing misunderstandings in the marketplace. The website. thereby converting sha work into pressure. With the development of “Positive Displacement Pumps: Fundamentals. simplicity. is the knowledge center of the Hydraulic Institute.POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT Fundamentals. Pressure rises as liquid is forced through the discharge into the system.org provides knowledge seekers with many resources and opportunities to gain the most current intelligence on pumps and pumping systems delivered in state-of-the-art. Technologies in the positive displacement (PD) family handle a broad range of horsepower. where gradually decreasing kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy. and rotary PD pumps. and pressure. and testing procedures. An example is reciprocating motion. Design and Applications. maintenance. the Hydraulic Institute published 10 ANSI/ HI Standards covering air-operated. A PD pump doesn’t rely on a velocity change. webcasts. operation. affordable formats. The Hydraulic Institute’s PD pump e-learning modules offer extensive materials that allow for expanded and detailed understanding of PD pump technology and applications. conferences and jointly sponsored programs with other organizations that feature recognized industry experts. pumplearning. HI has also relaunched its centrifugal pump e-learning course. Pumplearning. reciprocating.org. because of size. these pumps are the single technology that can provide the pumping solution (Figure 1). www. includes an examination and completion certificates suitable for submitting for professional development hours or continuing education credit. Reciprocating pumps represent one form of PD technology.” The Hydraulic Institute (HI) has extended its mission to include the development of a pump knowledge and educational portfolio in serving member companies and pump professionals. ABOUT THE HYDRAULIC INSTITUTE’S LEARNING MODULES A centrifugal pump impeller moves liquid from the pump suction to a discharge. www. the largest association of pump producers in North America and the standard-setting resource for member companies and pump users worldwide. Both five-module courses are available at HI’s educational portal.

bucket roller. repeatable.000 psi. at constant speed. These are reciprocating PD pumps configured to dispense an accurate volume of liquid during a specified time period using any of several mechanisms. This family is distinguished by its lack of inlet and discharge valves. whereas centrifugal pumps are variable-flow devices.000 Reciprocating Pressure (PSI) 6. Many of these industries are representative of multiple markets. each with its own features and benefits. as an example.000 15. It’s important to emphasize that PD pumps. adjustable flow rates. Oil and gas.500 Rotary 2. These are available in a number of pumping principles. And PD system design requirements are very different from those for centrifugal pumps. www.000 gpm and pressures from a few psi to more than 70. but the generally accepted view is that more than nine out of 10 PD applications are in six industrial markets: • oil and gas • water and wastewater treatment • chemical • food. often called a chemical-injection feed pump or dosing pump.PLANTSERVICES. This chart shows the regions where the three pump technologies can function at their best. PD pumps can be used almost anywhere.Com JuNE 2011 37 . beverage. What’s your regime? +100. or slipper Axial Radial Flexible turbo Flexible vane Flexible liner Single Multiple External Internal Single Multiple Single Multiple Simplex Duplex Double-acting Double-acting Single-acting Piston Plunger Piston Plunger Simplex Duplex Simplex Duplex Multiplex Simplex Duplex Mechanically coupled Hydraulically coupled Multiplex Manual control Automatic control Single-acting Double-acting Packed plunger Packed piston Diaphragm Vane Piston Flexible member Lobe Gear Circumferential piston Screw PD pumps often are called “pumping solution products. A rotating element inside a chamber drives the fluid. This pump type offers accurate.000 Q(GPM) +250.000 figure 2.500 Centrifugal (Rotodynamic) 4. There are many types of positive displacement pumps that can find application in the plant. has distinctly Rotary pumps figure 1. PumPing solution Products extended family Air operated Steam Reciprocating pumps Power Diaphragm Bellows Piston Horizontal Vertical Horizontal Vertical Horizontal Controlled volume Vertical Blow case Blade. are constant-flow devices. For example. rotary PD pumps handle viscous fluids (3 million SSU).Performance / PumPs Positive displacement Rotary pumps constitute the second PD category. The third category is the controlledvolume metering pump (CVMP). For example. PD pumps handle flow rates from less than 1 gpm to 15. and certain designs require pulsation control. whereas reciprocating pumps handle waterthin liquids. pharmaceutical • power • marine/medical/OEM.” because they perform that function for applications across a range of process conditions. PD pumps require some type of pressure protection.

The reasons to select PD pumps. such as vane or air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD). With variable viscosity liquids. e food and beverage market is another market with multiple segments that include beverage. PD pumps handle viscosities of several million SSU.. pressure conditions. year after year with unbeatable dependability. grouped by fluid characteristics. Multi-phase ow: A centrifugal pump 38 JUNE 2011 WWW. Forget the mess. Each delivers outstanding performance and an excellent return on investment.. GORMAN-RUPP pumps have proven themselves in major applications throughout the world. In fact. Flow and efficiency in a rotary pump. bakery.COM . whereas frictional losses degrade centrifugal pump flow rate and efficiency with fluids that have a viscosity above 500 SSU.just what you would expect from the world’s leader in self-priming pumps. They mount high and dry at floor level for easy maintenance with hand tools.PERFORMANCE / PUMPS di erent applications for PD pumps across its segments: exploration. such as oil. however. but widely varied applications serve as examples. have viscosities that vary with temperature. Solids-handling capability: Progressing-cavity pumps handling the high-solids-content sludge in a waste treatment plant and coal slurry pipelines use reciprocating pumps to handle uids with a solids contents that can be as high as 40% by weight. confectionary. Table 1 is a matrix of the 12 reasons compared to the primary markets of PD pumps. Some might surprise you. Low-shear pumping: In many uid applications. dairy and meat packaging. environmental system requirements. You might nd this to be a surprising PD pump characteristic. in some applications it is critical. pipeline. liquid shear isn’t a problem. too. however.PLANTSERVICES. a moderately small change in viscosity can have a large effect on centrifugal pump e ciency but little e ect on PD pump e ciency. centrifugal pumps. PD pumps excel in the handling of shear-sensitive uids. our Super T and Ultra V Series® pumps reprime themselves with a partially filled pump and a bone-dry suction line. processing and distribution marketing. Be aware of the reasons that positive-displacement pumps might be the best solution to a specific pumping problem. It’s important to recognize the broad range of applications in which both types could be used with selection based on the user’s desired results. Other liquids. BENEFITS OF PD PUMPS Some applications should use PD pumps and others should use Our rugged self-priming pumps work day after day. o en are used for thin uids. typically increase with viscosity. Low and variable viscosity: PD pumps. and flow control are summarized below. production. High viscosity: Certain rotary technologies and air-operated piston pumps easily handle viscous fluids.

durability and longevity are properties worth looking for in test equipment. WWW. the pump loses its prime and the uid stops. Verify the motor circuit and insulation with the Baker/SKF Static Motor Analyzer .As we transition to SKF durability. Monitor motors online from your office with the SKF Online Motor Analysis System . High pressure: Beyond the range of centrifugal pumps Slightly used workhorse Reliability.MARKET APPLICATIONS VS. Obtain results on efficiency estimation and torque analysis with the SKF Dynamic Motor Analyzer-EXP4000.bakerinst. needs a constant source of liquid. To obtain more information on these instruments contact us at 800/752-8272 or at our website at www. REQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS MATRIX High viscosity Exploration Production Pipleline Oil & Gas Processing Marketing Water & wastewater Chemical Food & beverage Thermo & hydro Diesel General Industrial Low & variable viscositry Sheer reduction Solids handling Multiphase flow High pressure Low flow Efficiency Sealless pumping Selfpriming Constant flow Accurate Repeatable • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Table 1.PLANTSERVICES.COM JUNE 2011 39 . a gas bubble forms. These are the pump-application characteristics that prompt specific industries to select positive-displacement pumps. but not all processes can provide it.NetEP Through the years Baker Instrument has been known for developing test instruments that hold up and saves money in the harshest environments.com.AWA. reliability and longevity will continue to be our focus. We pride ourselves in continually following that tradition and developing analyzers to provide maintenance professionals with the right tool to efficiently keep rotating electrical machinery operating without downtime. With insu cient liquid at the pump suction. Power Positive displacement pumps can handle a high percentage of air or gas entrainment.

Time is money. smooth and efficient. Most companies spend 50% of their time managing less than 10% of their spend. are available for PD pumps. of course. At Barnes Distribution. non-corrosive materials and built-in pressure relief valves. low ow. which have no sha seals.PLANTSERVICES.ow device. manufacturers provide products with special options. Because these pumps also must meet many other requirements.barnesdistribution. over 55. By bringing you more than 1. repeatable measurement: Because a PD pump is a constant. Other designs that have no sha penetration include peristaltic and diaphragm pumps.com. Some PD units have duty-cycle limits that users should investigate. As a leading full-service distributor of maintenance. we’ll help you drive out cost and drive in productivity. So if you’re looking for a partner to provide a total inventory management solution. designs that limit slip are useful for metering uids into or out of systems. E ciency: For viscous uids that PD and centrifugal pumps can handle. we’ll come to work for you. the positive-displacement option o en can Put Barnes BLUE to work for you. e ciency demand: Any of the previous three individual characteristics are reason enough to use PD pumps. Accurate. even if the system pressure varies. if the application features all three simultaneously. the PD pump solution becomes the obvious choice. Call us today at 800-GET-MROP or visit us on the web at www. Constant ow/variable pressure: At a constant speed. such as jacketing.PERFORMANCE / PUMPS are many chemical.COM . PD pumps aren’t only self-priming. But. VFDs must be rated with that understanding. call on Barnes’ Blue. Figure 2 provides an overview of the pressure and capabilities among pump technologies. Sealless pumping: Magnetic drives and canned motor pumps.com Cleveland. which is a desirable condition in certain systems. It might also need ow variation. Self-priming: e PD pump’s ability to self-prime is useful because it allows exibility in system layout and eliminates the need for suction-priming systems. Low ow: PD pump technology easily handles ows below 100 gpm and pressures greater than 200 psi. 40 JUNE 2011 WWW. ere’s a universe of standard positive-displacement solutions in addition to the baker’s dozen described in this article. which typically is obtained mechanically or electronically by speed variation. Ohio be 10 points to 40 points more energye cient than the centrifugal pump. they also have excellent suction li capabilities (raising liquids on the suction side) and are capable of drawing down to near vacuum.000 parts and supplies and a custom designed managed inventory services program. we’ll help your operation run fast.000 sales and service employees. sandblasting and high-pressure water-cutting applications in which PD pump technology dominates. 800-GET-MROP • www. requires accuracy and repeatability. is application. PD pumps deliver nearly constant ow. High pressure. And managing your own small parts inventory is costing you both. In variable-speed applications. to name a few. repair and operating supplies.barnesdistribution. It’s important to note PD pumps are constant-torque devices. we’ll deliver a total solution that extends far beyond nuts and bolts.

By discovering the answers to the following nine questions./sec or 0-2 in. you can narrow your search signi cantly. DCS. as a result. even the best piezoelectric sensor will WWW. velocity. such as vertical pumps. Analysts nd raw vibration readings to be useful because it contains all the information in the vibration signal. you’ll be able to nd the best vibration monitoring solution. by nature. THE MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE OR RANGE OF THE VIBRATION BEING MEASURED DETERMINES THE SENSOR RANGE THAT CAN BE USED. What are you actually trying to measure? In other words. By determining which signal variety is required for your application. QUESTION 3: WHAT IS THE VIBRATION FREQUENCY? Physical structures and dynamic systems respond di erently to varying excitation frequencies. act as high pass lters./sec. A vibration sensor is no di erent. but stop for a second. as it applies to your personal application. BSME.PLANTSERVICES. Also.COM JUNE 2011 41 . or triaxial measurement? QUESTION 2: WHAT IS THE VIBRATION AMPLITUDE? is might seem obvious at rst. SCADA. e overall RMS or peak values are useful in control e maximum amplitude or range of the vibration being measured determines the sensor range that can be used. and PI because of their continuous 4-20 mA signal. Does your application require uniaxial. Some applications use both. Typical accelerometer sensitivities are 100 mV/g for a standard application (50 g range) and 500 mV/g for a low-frequency or low-amplitude application (10 g range). some applications.PREDICTIVE TECHNOLOGIES / RELIABILITY Find the right vibration device like an arrow finds its bull’s-eye SENSORS By Frank Pereny. are you measuring vibration in terms of acceleration. General industrial applications with 4-20 mA transmitters commonly use a range of 0-1 in. IMI Sensors COME TO YOUR Selecting the best accelerometer for a speci c predictive maintenance application can be a daunting task. what are your goals? What are you expecting to get? What are you going to do with the data? Vibration can be monitored with accelerometers that provide raw vibration data or transmitters that provide the calculated overall root mean square (RMS) vibration. and. the true peak amplitudes and vibration frequencies. e process typically can be ltered down to a series of nine qualifying questions. or displacement? Have you considered that some industrial sensors can output temperature along with vibration? Lastly. biaxial. even for the most seasoned walk-around warrior. QUESTION 1: WHAT DO YOU WANT TO MEASURE? systems such as PLC. Piezoelectric materials. ideally are monitored in more than one vibration axis.

it’s a good idea to test the sensors at pressure for one hour. A sensor that acts as a dynamic system with one degree of freedom exhibits natural frequencies.9 mV/g Sensitivity Plot Temperature: 72°F (22°C) Relative Humidity: 50% 60000 180000 240000 x Data Points CPM figure 1. Charge-mode accelerometers are available for use in very high temperature applications. Question 4: What is the environment temPerature? Applications with extremely high temperatures can pose a threat to the electronics built into accelerometers and 4-20 mA transmitters. Charge-mode accelerometers with integral hard-line cable are available for applications hotter than 500° F.com Industrial accelerometers with integral polyurethane cable are completely submersible in liquid for permanent installation.Com . Applications requiring complete submersion need integral cable. Inc. Question 5: Will it be submersed in liQuid? Please contact us for more information.000 cps. dB With Lutz through thick and thin Lutz B70V-Series progressive cavity pumps are available for high viscous products up to 60. F ReQ. It’s critical to select a sensor with a usable frequency range that includes every frequency you’re interested in measuring. leading to significant change in sensitivity and possible saturation. corresponds to a higher-cost unit.4 0. have a low-frequency limit near 0.8 -1.4 0.com · e-Mail: info@lutzpumps. EX models available.3 2. For high-pressure applications.8 150 100 50 0 CPM 6 10 100 Data Points 1. while the lower plot. 1160 Beaver Ruin Road · Norcross.(%) x 600 900 1800 3000 ReF.2 Hz.000 12.1 -0. with its continuous calibration line. Most industrial accelerometers have single. such as gas turbine vibration monitoring. with capacities up to 30 gpm.8 0.PLAnTSeRVICeS. Lutz Pumps. such as cutting fluid on machine tools. GA 30093-4898 Phone: (770) 925-1222 · Tollfree: (800) 843-3901 · Fax: (770) 923-0334 www. Integral cable is normally required as well if the application is sprayed rather than being completely submersed. but instead have remote charge amplifiers.3 1.000 Temperature: 66°F (19°C) Relative Humidity: 41% frequency (cPm) dev.lutzpumps. The signal is greatly amplified at the natural frequency.0 -0. These have no built-in electronics. 42 June 2011 www.4 -0. the upper plot corresponds to a low-cost accelerometer that was calibrated at one point.Predictive technologies / Reliability obvious difference Sensitivity Plot 202. 18000 30000 2.or double-pole RC filters to combat saturation excitation at the resonant frequency. Extensive 24 page catalog now available.

precision units typically receive a full calibration. This allows a group of low-cost sensors to provide accurate. Regarding frequency. a precision accelerometer typically has frequency ranges in ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERRED PRODUCTS HELPING TO GREEN THE WORKPLACE • NO VOC OR LOW VOC CONTENT • NO HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS • NO OZONE DEPLETING CHEMICALS • NO SARA REPORTABLE INGREDIENTS www. For example. It’s strongly recommended that you check a chemical compatibility chart for any suspect chemicals. the sensitivity response is plotted with respect to the usable frequency range. Consider using PTFE cable with corrosion-resistant boot connectors if your application is in an environment with harmful chemicals. mV/g). Customers with data acquisition systems often will normalize the inputs with respect to the calibrated sensitivity. repeatable data.Question 6: Will it see harmful chemicals or debris? multidirectional Industrial accelerometers can be constructed with corrosion. This is an example of a low-profile accelerometer with a side connection to jacketed cable.Com JuNE 2011 43 . precision accelerometers have tighter tolerances on some specifications such as sensitivity and frequency range.PLANTSERVICES.and chemical-resistant stainless steel bodies. Question 7: a precision or loW-cost sensor? There are two main differences between low-cost and precision accelerometers. Integral armor-jacketed cables offer excellent protection for cables that might come into contact with debris such as cutting chips or workers’ tools. Low-cost accelerometers receive a single-point calibration and the sensitivity is shown only at a single frequency. a precision accelerometer (Figure 1) might have a nominal sensitivity of 100 mV/g ± 5% (95 mV/g to 105 figure 2. First. while a low-cost accelerometer might have a sensitivity of 100 mV/g ± 10% (90 mV/g to 110 mV/g). that is. Second.

but consider factors such as space available and where a maintenance engineer can operate safely. Compare the type of approval needed with the sensor’s published approvals to ensure it meets your needs. The answers to these nine questions can greatly narrow your search to the best solution for the application. call 1-877-978-7246 • Live. which can be helpful when working with integral cable. BsMe.com Receive Training Schedule Updates Email: PlantS@AmericanTrainco.000 Trained Since 2002 • 25+ Maintenance Related Topics • Top Notch.S.com and (800) 959-4464. Additionally.Com . But consider factors sucH as space availaBle and wHere a Maintenance engineer can operate safely. Remember to keep in mind that some combination of answers might be mutually exclusive.AmericanTrainco. He can be reached at fpereny@pcb.com). 44 June 2011 www.PLAnTSeRVICeS.predictive tecHnologies / Reliability which the maximum deviation is 5% while low-cost sensors might offer a 3 dB frequency band.com or call: 1-877-978-7246 and mention ‘Plant Services’ © 2011 American Trainco. a low-cost sensor might offer excellent frequency response. A low-profile accelerometer (Figure 2) with a locknut design allows them to be oriented in any direction. Even so. For example. Facility and Building Maintenance g Trainin actical Pr Coming minars Se Area! o Your t Go Online and See Our Entire Schedule To get your own copy. specialized applications might have other considerations. its performance. frank pereny. a particular model might not carry the proper ATEX certification for your hazardous area application.500 Seminar Dates to Choose from in the U. Inc. is an application engineer for iMi sensors (www. “Real World” Instructors • Over 1. and Canada www. the sensor will need to be installed on equipment in the space available.imi-sensors. Question 9: do you need special approvals? criteria doesn’t exist. a solution for each sensor geoMetry Has little effect on its perforMance. Sensor geometry has little effect on with CSA and ATEX approvals for use in hazardous areas. Question 8: top or side exit. Instructor Led Seminars • Public Seminars • Training at Your Facility • Specialized “Hands-On” Courses • Over 100. that is. low-profile connection? Ultimately. Accelerometers and 4-20 mA transmitters are both available Training for Industrial.

can be more sensitive. Once you select a compatible supply. and repairs has a long-term payoff. baldor (479) 646-4711 / www. Div 1&2.600 rpm standard. and it’s likely that quite a few such connections are unbalanced. electric motors and drives are Ac induction tEFc motors Quantum LMV AC induction TEFC motors are designed for petrochemical. ATEX and IEC Ex-n Zone 2 standards. in TEFC or ODP enclosures.com motors comply with EisA rEGulAtions This NEMA Premium line of motors is designed to help reduce energy consumption and comply with EISA regulations. As we know.com www. Remember. Formulate a plan and commitment to replace inefficient motors with better units that will save money.gemotors. It takes skilled people to troubleshoot and repair them.PLANTSERVICES. They need to know. Consider up-front brainstorming to develop a list of ranked failure modes and an idea of how you’re going to know they’re on the horizon. Voltage imbalance degrades motor efficiency and is arguably the main cause of overheated windings and premature failure. Advanced Energy’s motor testing laboratory concluded that motors can ride through many momentary power interruptions without risking damage. compressors. These motors meet NEMA. drive. Don’t let failures determine what kind of day you’re going to have.nidec-motor.com probably the most widely used devices. They carry a nameplate including both 50 Hz and 60 Hz operating data. A line of vertical motors will be available at premium efficiency levels. 143T through 326T. Then. motors with shAFt GroundinG to prEvEnt bEArinG dAmAGE The Super-E motors with AEGIS Shaft Grounding Rings are designed for end users looking for ways to prevent bearing damage caused by adjustable speed drive-induced currents. GE (800) 541-7191 / www. and power conditioning hardware.baldor. so training on that front is essential to keeping your technicians current.S. on the other hand. as at others.Com JuNE 2011 45 . blowers.. The motors feature lower-than-IEEEspecified vibration levels.product roundup don’t lEt motor FAilurE ruin your dAy use predictive or condition-based monitoring to avoid downtime At your plant. Relying only on the idea of on-the-job training might mean a technician needs more than 10 years to gain full competency. mining. In any case. Three-phase voltage imbalance at the service entrance is another story. enjoy the benefits by maintaining its efficiency and reliability. The only drive maintenance that makes sense is PdM or condition-based maintenance. It’s good documentation that will set you up for continuous improvement. Motor controls. nidec motor (888) 637-7333 / www. < 85 dBA low-noise option). monitor. And they are husky. monitor. Motor-driven equipment accounts for the majority of electricity consumed in U. motor repair costs are nothing compared to downtime costs. thereby contradicting a commonly held belief. power. IEC. and European IE efficiency marks. They truly are our industrial workhorses. and low noise levels (< 88 dBA at 3. if the imbalance originates in-house. drives. monitor. these have the grounding ring installed internally on the motor. API 547 and 541 4th ed. Although there’s not much you can do about conditions outside the battery limits. a NEMA Premium trademark. and conveyors. both of which let you spot incipient failures early enough to have your plan in place. Build momentum and document your successes at energy reduction initiatives using KPIs that have hard numbers and report them to management. The NEMA Premium line also complies with pending Canadian and Mexican standards for use in North American facilities. And it’s your motor-and-drive knowledge database that is going to be a key element in this effort. While most shaft ground applications use a shaft ground on the outside of the motor. motor. build a good paper trail. you can fix it. Purchasing quality motors. It brings meaning to the data and information needed for an effective program. The line is stocked from 1-50 hp. This line features open drip-proof and totally enclosed motors that meet or exceed NEMA Premium requirements. manufacturing. and follow through with effective communications. improved airflow. drive technology evolves. This design is engineered to minimize exposure to the outside elements and keep the ground from being exposed to external forces that might damage the grounding ring. and process industry pumps. CSA. IEEE 841.

500 rpm. and 480 VAC. siemens www. They can be used with PWM-type DC adjustable-speed drives. non-hygroscopic insulation.PLAnTSeRVICeS. 400. high starting torques. the motors also offer other customizable options. Features include linear characteristics.hitachi-america. Available in two flange/shaft combinations. They have rolled steel frames with cast aluminum end bells and are available from 0. sEW Eurodrive (864) 439-8792 / www. Class I. The motors are RoHS and REACH-compliant and UL-listed.automationdirect. a felt wiper ring wicks oil out of the grease and applies a thin oil film to the shaft as the drive runs.produCT rouNdup TENV aNd TEFC pErmaNENT-magNET moTors IronHorse permanent-magnet DC 56C-frame motors feature TENV and TEFC models. When equipped with the grease fitting. and other options make retrofits and other field adjustments simple and fast. reversible rotation. In addition. The DR motor comes in three efficiency levels. and power to 19. The coating and sealing options protect the motors in wet environments.com/industry 46 June 2011 www. automationdirect (800) 633-0405 / www. including brake size. trip avoidance. The motors are shipped with a set of brushes in the motor. A built-in programming function provides the functionality of a PLC built into the inverter. one on each end bushing.sewmotortruth. They’re designed for unfiltered SCR-type rectified AC.amacoil. The motors have Class F insulation and provide stall torque from 75 Nm to 180 Nm.000 hr. speeds to 2. Groups F & G. the windings can operate at 230. Group D hazardous locations.us / (800) 448-2244 . with an extra set included in the box. cost-optimized encoders. Modular brakes. configurable logic on digital inputs.com ExplosioN-prooF moTors This line of XP100 motors are UL and CSA listed for gas and dust ignition-proof environments and are suitable for Division 1.usa. They have ratings from 1 hp through 300 hp and are modifiable. and carry the CE mark. epoxy enamel paint. heavy-usage applications. hazardous area classifications.com liNEar driVEs WiTh shaFT sCrapEr/grEasE FiTTiNg The Uhing linear drives have shaft scrapers/grease fittings to remove grease. The scrapers can be used alone. Class I.Com aC VFd WiTh sENsorlEss VECTor CoNTrol The L700 Series of VFDs uses a control algorithm that develops 150% torque at 0. Users specify the options needed. built-in dynamic braking in models to 30 hp and built-in EMC filter in models to 200 hp.5 Hz. Class II. amacoil (800) 252-2645 / www. and brake wear are suited for control systems. The drive offers micro-surge voltage suppression. The motors are resistant to voltage spikes.com sErVomoTors dEliVEr grEaTEr TorquE dENsiTy AKM 8 servo motors provide higher torque density using potted windings and a one-piece housing that’s 30% shorter.kollmorgen. with bearing lifetime rated at 20.com modular moTor sysTEm The DR motor modular system offers millions of drive combinations. but the combination is recommended for fast. They’re also available for drill rig duty in Division 1. High-resolution feedback options are available. and dynamic braking. The scraper is a rubber O-ring in a Delrin fitting. and corrosion-resistant hardware.33 hp to 2 hp. encoders. Large brushes provide for longer brush life.siemens. The design has castiron construction. Kollmorgen (540) 633-3545 / www. Groups C & D. The variety of sensor and feedback options for speed. It features built-in communication options and can be configured via the front-mounted keypad. hitachi www.8 KW. position. dust. polycarbonate cooling fan. Their designs are engineered to meet or exceed NEMA MG1 — Table 12-12 requirements. and dirt from the shaft while the drive is running. and mounting type.

and encapsulated windings. and conduit box. standard electrical connections and modular assembly designs. and unplug the disconnects. Circumferential conductive microfibers are engineered for flexibility to prevent breakage. output shaft.forcecontrol. Class B rise @1. and performing diagnostics with the cabinet closed. The drive can perform functions usually managed by a PLC and without encoder feedback with asynchronous or synchronous AC motors. and compressors.400 hp.Shaft grounding bearing iSolator The SGi isolator is designed to protect bearings from electrical. The design is engineered to provide internal surge suppression. viewing. The motors are totally enclosed and are available in sizes from 0. in flanged. and custom configurations.schneider-electric. These drives provide autotuning of PI controllers. to 6 in. They have an ambient temperature rating of 50° C without derating. slip off the boots.com StainleSS Steel MotorS These motors are engineered for washdown applications. Simply crimp the disconnects onto the cables and plug them together. thomas & betts (800) 816-7809 / www.PLANTSERVICES. and on-board HMI and navigation wheel for adjustments. To disconnect or de-energize. they’re UL/ULc certified and conform to 2007 EISA efficiency standards. and a smooth exterior with no mounting feet. The drives are suitable for standard NEMA motor mounting and are available for a range of gear ratios.15 service factor. O-rings between end bells and housing. Other features include shaft seals. end bells. Schneider electric (847) 397-2600 / www.com Motor lead diSconnectS The Color-Keyed Kube motor lead disconnects are snap-together connectors that are designed to eliminate the need to cut through insulating tape.and three-phase. or 575 VAC and 690 VAC three-phase operation with 1/2 hp to 1. Highand low-speed modes are selected by energizing the appropriate electrically controlled coils.com drive can be the heart of a control SySteM The Altivar 32 variable-speed drive has a book-style design and ability to attach a self-protected disconnect in tight spaces.bostongear. They’re available for 240 and 480 VAC single. Integral main disconnects and fusing reduce panel space requirements. force control industries (513) 868-0900 / www.danfossdrives. It diverts currents to ground. It includes standard RJ45 connectors for Modbus and CANOpen networks. lubricant loss.us www. All have Class F insulation. A conformal coating protects circuit boards. high torque Use the Two-Speed Drive for applications to 30 hp that require secondary speeds as low as 60:1.875 in. pumps. and contamination damage. It provides an IP56 noncontact isolation seal designed to withstand dust and jetting liquids at temperatures from –22° F to 300° F. as well as disassembling the typical connection from pad to pad. Spring-set braking stops the drive. just cut the cable ties. The unit is available for motor-shaft sizes ranging from 0.com two-Speed driveS offer high turndown. flangeless.5 hp to 3 hp in fan-cooled and non-ventilated models. bypassing bearings and extending motor life. and password protection reduces the potential for unauthorized changes to the settings.tnb. Constructed with 300-series stainless housing. It has embedded Bluetooth technology for monitoring.Com JuNE 2011 47 .com driveS for variable torque applicationS The VLT Automation VT Drives are engineered to save energy with fans. danfoss drives (800) 432-6367 / www. blowers.garlock. They’re color-coded to ensure selecting the correct crimping die and are available for 600-V applications and wire sizes from 16 AWG to 500 kcmil. Bearings are engineered to eliminate axial movement. garlock Sealing technologies (315) 597-3362 / www. boston gear (888) 999-9860 / www.

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cost. Clearly. and others were growing fast. the past experience of reliable. Much of the world’s proven reserves of natural gas are in these regions. and accelerating the development of grid technology to manage these sources. with possible disturbances to suppliers. toledo. or even the actual cost to manage environmental impacts. improves efficiency. but modestly. As much of the world saw a need for low-carbon energy at a time when China. along with the possible investments that could mitigate supply disturbance. Mitigating the actual risks from climate change itself in the form of more frequent and severe weather events. The rearview mirror version results in energy management that incrementally. A rethinking of the nuclear area will inevitably position natural gas as the next lower-carbon fuel of choice on the strategic list. On supply quality. the possible game changer is around climate change. The events in Japan at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactor are an interesting crossover between energy growth. Can any of us predict the impact of a strategic rethink like this on price and availability of both electricity and natural gas? The events in North Africa and the Middle East also are potential game changers. The events of the past few months in North Africa. as well. The speed and scale of installation of renewable sources is growing rapidly.com. and Japan have further clouded the picture. many of which relate directly to energy management. as is so often the case with energy. The first and most obvious risk is the energy operating cost. that the possibility that this might change is rarely even considered. nuclear power was in resurgence as the only viable approach. As they become mainstream. The true cost of energy in a plant comes from three main areas of risk. but also the multiple backup plans needed as the future uncertainty plays out? It’s still the minority who are using the crystal ball. and in North America the rearward view assessment is that this will be forever stalled in lawmaking debate. Predictable Price increases. The continuing concerns over climate change are somewhat muted in the United States at present. but still very loud on a worldwide basis. India. and climate change. the backward-looking version assumes modest. the Middle East. If we now reach for the crystal ball. when increasingly they should be reaching for the crystal ball. If the world market shifts to natural gas as a fuel of choice for electricity. This is the backdrop against which efficiency investments are judged. ohio. and rarely has resilience to unexpected price. predictable price increases. The third is the world now looks increasingly uncertain.PLAnTSeRVICeS. another factor unknown from the rearview mirror. the backward-looking version assumes modest. Peter garforth is principal of garforth international. will these resources be available as a result of the social and political upheavals and even the physical damage to infrastructure. he can be reached at peter@garforthint. not unrelated. Some customers increasingly demand evidence of good sustainability practices from their suppliers. This is now being reconsidered. where volatility is short-lived impact on operating costs to comply with energy-related environmental legislation. and. supply. Have we collectively moved our energy investment habits to take into account not only the incremental benefits of good energy housekeeping. or legislative shocks. customers. Brazil. and the site itself are rarely factored. what does this do for their potential inclusion in a plant’s operating considerations? It doesn’t take a wizard to see this is a part of the puzzle on rethinking the role of nuclear power. Both these aspects of environmental risk are also highly colored by the views of decision makers around the validity of human-induced climate change. increasing reliability. the future energy 50 June 2011 www. The second is the cost of production disturbances through energy supply interruptions or poor supply quality. on environmental legislation. delayed or halted with the long-term outcome highly uncertain. driving down prices.Com . where any volatility is short-lived. resists new technology that could create deep energy gains. resulting in the majority failing the attractiveness test. On costs. predictable supply with minimal interruptions is so much part of the decision making. itself a combination of energy unit price and efficiency.energy exPert peter garforth 3 risks that determine energy costs are you looking through a crystal ball or a rearview mirror? most organizations are still using a rearview mirror to manage energy risks.

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