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Palliation – alleviation of symptoms and avoidance of life threatening toxicity Tumor susceptibility and the growth cycle 4 Phases of the Cell Cycle 1. M phase – period of mitosis (cell division) 2. G1 phase – interval during which RNA, protein synthesis and cellular growth occurs 3. S phase – DNA synthesis 4. G2 phase – synthesis of cellular components required for mitosis 5. Go- resting state where cell is not dividing 2. Trimetrexate antimalarial agent, also a potent inhibitor of DNHFR 6 – Mercaptopurine the thiol analog of the purine hypoxanthine. It is converted to the corresponding nucleotide – 6-thioinosinic acid 6 TIMP which inhibits the formation of adenine and guanine from Inosinic monophosphate (IMP). Fate: 6 MP is converted to thiouric acid in the liver (this reaction is catalyzed by xanthine oxidase)
6- Thioguanine (6 TG)
2 Types of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents base on its effect on cell cycle 6. -
MECH = converted to 6 –thioguanine 5 Phosphate (6-thioGMP) which replace guanine nucleotide and inhibit DNA synthesis Fluorouracil (5 FU) Inhibits thymidylate synthetase thus interferes DNA production Floxuridine (FUDR or 5 FUDR) MECH= 5 FU is a pyrimidine analog. Interferes the conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid. 5 FU must be converted to 5 FdUMP-( 5 Fluorodeoxyuridine monphosphate,) which competes with deoxyuridine monophosphate for the enzyme thymidylate synthetase. 5 FU is metabolized in the liver to CO2 which is then expired.
Cell – cycle specific drugs – drugs that inhibit cell replication during a phase of a cycle. Example: Methotrexate – inhibits DNA synthesis during Sphase(Antimetabolite) Others: Bleomycin, Antibiotics, Vinca Alkaloids - They are effective for Cancer with a high growth fraction (e.g – hematologic cancers) Cell-cycle non specific – agents that are active while the cancer cells are dividing but whose action spans more than one phase of the cycle as well as within Go. • Example: Mechlorethamine, cisplatin, nitrosourceas • they are effective for both high growth fraction as well as low fraction malignancies e.g solid tumors
ANTI CANCER DRUG CLASSIFICATION: I. ANTIMETHABOLITES – are structural analogs of naturally occurring substances – inhibits DNA synthesis. They are S-phase specific (except 5FU) They act in 2 ways: a. By incorporation into a metabolite pathway and formation of a false metabolite b. By inhibition of the catalytic function of an enzyme or enzyme system Antimetabolite a) Folate antagonist : Methotrexate, Trimetrexate b) Purine derivatives : Mercaptopurine ,Thioguanine c) Pyrimidine derivative : Fluorouracil (5 FU), Floxuridine, Cytarabine 1. Methotrexate Mechanism of Action – competes with folic acid for the active binding sites on dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme
CYTARABINE ( CYTOSINE ARABINOSIDE, ARA –C) Analog of 2 –deoxycytidine • S- CYCLE SPECIFIC • MECHANISM OF ACTION –an pyrimidine antimetabolite ,phoshorylated to the active cytotoxic nucleotide cytosine arbinase triphosphate, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase
Given parenterally ,not orally because it is deaminated to a noncytotocic product in the intestinal mucosa uses – is an imporatnt component for the treatment of acute leukemias Toxicities – GIT irritation , myelosuppresion , neurotoxicity (cerebellar dysfunction and peripheral neuritis)
II. ALKYLATING AGENTS –are cycle phase nonspecific
Pharmacokinetic: converted to polyglutamated metabolite which also inhibits DHFR also converted to a 7-OH derivative by hydroxylation – less water soluble – may lead to crystalluria in acidic urine, and may cause renal damage. Major route of elimination – kidneys. •
MECHANISM OF ACTION – form covalent bonds with nucleophilic sites on nucleic acid, phosphate, amino acid and proteins through the formation of carbonium ion which attack the N7 POSITION OF GUANINE THIS LEADS TO DNA MISREADING , ABNORMAL BASE PAIRING , DNA INTERSTRAND CROSS LINKING AND DNA STRAND BREAKAGE
TOXICITY : adrenal insufficiency pulmonary fibrosis and skin pigmentation
STREPTOZIN- has high affinity for beta cells of islet of langerhans of pancreas
10. DACARBAZINE –used in treatment regimen in hodgkins
disease as part of the abvd regimen(adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine,decarbazine) ALKYLATING AGENTS A. NITROGEN MUSTARD : 1. MECHLORETHAMINE 2. CHLORAMBUCIL 3. CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE 4. MEPHALAN 5. IFOSFAMIDE B. NITROSOUREAS 1. LOMUSTINE 2. CARMUSTINE 3. STRETOZOCIN C. TRIAZINES DACARBAZINE ALKYL SULFONATE : BUSULFAN PLATINUM DERIVATIVE CISPLATIN CARBOPLATIN METHYLHYDRAZINE PROCARBAZINE MECHLORETHAMINE III -Antibiotics – Binds to DNA by intercalation. Inhibit DNA or RNA synthesis cycle phase non specific 1. Dactinonomycin (Actinomycin D) focus a complex with DNA involving selective binding to and intercalation between the guanine-cytosine segments Causes also single stranded breaks in DNA
2. Plicamycin(Mithramycin) – comes from Streptomyces plicatus. Toxic specific for asteoclasts and lowers serum calcium Bleomycin Sulfate – derive from S. Verticillus. It is antitumor, anti viral and anti bacterial. It is a mixture of different copper chelating glycopeptide -
E. F. 1.
(Similar to Dactinomycin). It inhibits the synthesis of DNA dependent RNA synthesis
Binds with DNA to produce single & double stranded breaks DNA is cleaved at guanine-cytosine and guanine-thymine seq.
coverted spontaneously into a reactive cytotoxic product. acts on all phase but most sensitive is G1 and S PHASE CLINICAL USES : use in combination with other anti cancer agents in the MOPP regimen(Mechlorethamine, Oncovin or Vincristine, Procarbazine, Prednisone
A nitrogen mustard that is biotransformed by the hepatic cychrome p450 into hydroxylated intermediates : phosphoramide , the active alkylating agent (anti- cancer) and acrolein which can cause hemorrhagic cystitis TOXICITY : hemorrhagic cystitis (prevention of this is by vigorous hydration and the use of mercaptoethanesulfonate (mesna)) -cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary toxicity 4. a. Doxorubicin (adriamycin) b. Daunorubicin Are anthracycline antibiotics
Mech. Of Action: CHLORAMBUCIL – SLOWEST ACTING ALKYLATING AGENT IFOSFAMIDE – A DERIVATIVE OF CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE CARMUSTINE (BCNU) AND LOMUSTINE (CCNU) • ARE NITROSOUREAS WITH HIGH LIPOPHILICITY THAT FACILITATES CNS ENTRY • USE –TREATMENT OF BRAIN TUMORS CISPLATIN AND CARBOPLATIN • Cisplatin is given intraveneously, cleared unchanged by the kidney 2. 3.
Intercalation in the DNA – the drug inserts between adjacent base pairs and binds to sugar- PO4 backbone of DNA, thus blocking DNA synthesis Binds to cell membrane and alters the function of transport process Generation of Oxygen radicals or superoxide
USE – component in the treatment regimen for testicular carcinoma, cancers of the bladder, lung and ovary. TOXICITY : git distress ,mild hematoxicity ,but neurotoxic (pheripheral neuritis and acoustic nerve damage )and nephrotoxic . renal damage may be reduce by the use of mannitol and forced hydration . Carboplatin is less nephrotoxic ,less likely to cause tinnitus and hearing loss but has a greater myelosuppresant actions
Mitomycin - comes from Streptomyces Calspitosus contains quinone, a urethane and an aziridine
Active most in cell cycle in late G and early S phase. Potentiates cardiotoxic effect of Doxorubicin
MECH OF ACTION =a reactive agent that forms hydrogen peroxide ,which generates free radicals that cause dna strand scission orally active, penetrates most tissues ,including csf. eliminated via hepatic metabolism USE= component of mopp regimen for the treatment of hodgkins disease TOXICITY =myelosuppresant ,git irritation ,cns dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy and skin reactions . can cause a disulfiram like reaction with ethanol , it is also leukemogenic
IV – Plant derivatives 1. Vinca Alkaloids a. Vinblastine b. Vincristine Source: periwinkle plant (vinca rose) - Both cycle and phase specific Mitotic spindle
Block mitosis in Metaphase Binds to Tubulin inhibit assembly of microtubules thus the failure of mitotic spindle cells in S phase are most sensitive
BUSULFAN –AN ALKYL SULFONATE
USE = treatment regimen for myelogenous leukemia
Epipodophylltoxins Etoposide (VP-16) Teniposide (VM-26) Synthetic derivatives of the extract of the American mandrake plant
Appears to arrest cells in G2 phase Cause dose dependent break on DNA strands Probably act through inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II are spindle poisons but act differently from vinca alkaloids. They prevent microtubule disassembly into tubulin monomers
Rifuximab = a monoconal antibody to a surface protien in HodgKins lymphoma cells. Trastuzumab = is a monoclonal antibody to a surface protien in breast cancers that overexpress the HER2 protien. Can cause cardiac dysfunction, including CHF Therapeutic Usefulness: ALL, chorio CA, BukKitts Lymphoma in Children, breast, neck and head CA ALL (acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia) Acute myelocytic leukemia CA of colon, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, gastric CA Acute myclogenous leukemia. Wilm’s tumor, chorio CA, soft tissue sarcomas ALL, HodgKins, breast and Lung CA AML Testicular tumors (w) vinblastine and cisplatin Bone tumor HodgKin (MOPP regimen Mechlorethamine, Oncovin, Prednisone, Procarbazine) BurKitts and Breast CA lymphoma malignant glioma ALL, Wilms tumor, Ewings, Soft tissues sarcoma and HodgKins testicular CA, Hodgkin malignant melanoma Hodgkins (combine with Doxorubicin)
Taxanes: Paclitaxel, docetaxel Given IV--Clinical use: used in advanced breast and ovarian cancers
2. 6 Mercaptopurine 3. 6 THioguanine 4. 5 Fu 5. Cytarabine 6. Dactinomycin 7. Doxorubicin
Toxicity: Paclitaxel: causes neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, a high incidence of peripheral neuropathy and possible hypersensitivity reactions during infusion. Docetaxel: neurotoxicity and BMS
V – Miscellaneous Agent Mechanism of Action 1. Amsacrine cytotoxic, binds to DNA through intercalation and has base specificity on A-T pairs more effective in cycling cells Hydrolyzes blood asparaginase which is necessary for growth and function of cells, thus tumor cells are deprived of this nutrient required for protein synthesis.
8. Daunorubicin 9. Bleomycin 10. Plicamycin 11. Mechlorethamine
2. 2. Asparaginase (LAsparaginase) -
12. Cyclophosphamide 13.Lomustine/Carmustine 14. Vincristine 15. Vinblastine 16. Dacarbazine)
17. Streptozocin 18. Etoposide
Pancreatic cell carcinoma Oat cell carcinoma of lungs
Treatment Choices for Cancer responsive to Systemic Agents 1. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) For Remission: maintenanceMethotrexare, Thioguanine 2. Acute Myelocytic and myelomonocytic leukemia 3. Chronic Myelocytic leukemia Induction: Combination Chemo Adults: Vincristine, Prednisone, Daunorubicin,Asparagin ase For children: w/o aspaginase Combination Chemo Cytarabine Daunorubicin or idarubicin Hydroxyurea; alpha interferon (Busulfan, Mercaptopurine, thioguanine, cytarabine,plicamycin) 4. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia 5. Hairy cell 6. HodgKins dis (stages III & IV) Chlorambucil+ Prednisone or fludarabine Alpha interferon cladribine Combination Chemo (ABVD) 1. Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) 2. Bleomycin 3. Vinblastin 4. Dacabazine
Vl – Hormones – mainly Palliative Antagonize or lower concentration of normally occuring hormones in hormone dependent tumors 1. Adrenocorticosteroids – useful in acute leukemia in children and malignant lymphoma. 2. Aminogluthethimide (cytadren) inhibits synthesis of adrenocorticosteroids when administered with hydrocortisone can effectively reduce estradiol levels useful in advanced carcinoma of the breast (estrogenreceptor(+) tumors 3. Mitotane(O,P –DDD) (Lysodren) Selectively attacks adrenocortical cells use in palliative treatment of inoperable adrenocortical carcinoma 4. Progestins– useful in the management of endometrical CA. (Hydroxy Progesterone Megestrol) 5. Estrogens – use to treat prostatic CA. (estradiol, diethylstilbesterol) Estramustine – a nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, use as a palliative treatment of advanced prostatic carcinoma. 6. Androgens - use to treat carcinoma of the breast in both premenopausal and past menopausal women. (Testosterone fluoxymesterone) 7. Tamoxifen – antiestrogen – competes with estrogen for binding with receptor - use in CA of breast, estrogen(+) receptors 8. Gonadotropin – reduces circ. Gonadotropins and testosterone. Effective in prostatic carcinoma. VII- Aromatase Inhibitors: Anastrozole and letrozole inhibit aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione (an androgenic precursor) to estrone (an estrogenic hormone) Uses: Advanced breast cancer Toxicity: Nausea, diarrhea, hot flashes, bone and back pain, dyspnea and peripheral edema. VIII- Monoclonal Antibodies:
Combination Chemo (MOPP) 1. 2. 3. 4. Mechlorethamine Vincristine Prednisone 4. Procarbazine
7. Non HodgKins lymphoma
Combination Chemotheraphy - Cyclophosphamide - Vincristine - Doxorubicin - Prednisone
Combination Chemotherapy - Melaphalan + Prednisone or 1. Melaphalan
2. Cyclophosphamide 3. Carmustine 4. Vincristine 5. Doxorubicin 6. Prednisone 9. Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia Chlorabucil or Combination Chemotherapy 1.Cyclophosphamide 2. Vincristine 3. Prednisone 10. Polycythemia Vera 11. carcinoma of Lung (small cell) Hydroxyurea Combination Chemotherapy Cisplatin and etoposide (palliative – Radiation) 12. Non-small cell Lung CA 113. Carcinoma of the head and neck 14. Carcinoma of the Esophagus Advance – Cisplatin + Vinorelbine Localized – Cisplatin + Vinblastin Combination Chemotherapy 1. Cisplatin and 5 FU Combination Chemotherapy 1. 5 FU 2. Cisplatin 15. Carcinoma of the Stomach and Pancreas Stomach – Etoposide: 5FU w/ leucovorin (ELF) Pancreas – 5 FU or ELF 16. Carcinoma of the colon Colon - Fuorouracil + levamisole (adjuvant) or w/ leucovorin Rectum – 5FU w/ radiation therapy (adjuvant) 17. Carcinoma of the kidney 18.Carcinoma of the bladder Vinblastine Combination Chemotherapy 1. Methotrexate 2.Vinblastine 3. Doxorubicin 4. Cisplatin CMF regimen: Cyclophosphamide plus 19. Breast Carcinomamethotrexate& fluoouracil, or doxorubicin (stages I &II) for methotrexate CAF regimen: tamoxifen if hormone receptor positive 20. Breast carcinoma (stages III & IV) - As above paclitaxel, plus trastuzumab(if HER2 protein) w/ or w/o aromatase inhibitors
15. Vinblastine 16. Progesterone 17. Tamoxifen 18. Estrogen 19. Busulfan 20. Cisplastin 21. Procarbazine 22. L-asparaginase 23. Etoposide 24. Fluoxmesterone
- BMS - fluids retention, hypertension - nausea and vomiting - thromboembolic accidents - skin pigmentation, pulmonary fibrosis, adrenal insuffiency - Nephrotoxicity (renal toxicity) and acoustic nerve dysfunction - BMS, CNS depression - Allergic reactions, fever, pancreatitis, thrombocytopenia BMS, allergic reaction - Cholestatic jaundice
Principles of Combination Therapy 1. Each drug should be active when used alone against the particular cancer. 2. The drugs should have different mechanism of action. 3. Cross – resistance between drugs should be minimal. 4. The drugs should have different toxic effects. Combination Chemotherapy 1. HodgKin's disease a. MOPP regimen Mechlorethamine, Oncovin (vincristine), Procarbazine, Prednisone b. ABVD regimen, Adriamycin, (Doxorubicin) Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Decarbazine 2. 3. 4. a. Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma COP regimen – Cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, Prednisone Testicular Cancer – PVB regime, Plationol, Vinblastine, Bleomycin Breast Cancer CMF regimen – Cyclohosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil with or without Tamoxifen b. CAF – in which Adriamycin(Doxorubicin) replaces Methotrexate
Additional Strategies for cancer Chemotherapy
Pulse therapy – involves intermittent treatment with very high doses of an anti-cancer drug-are too toxic to be used continuously. Intensive drug treatment is every 3-4 weeks. This type of regimen is used in therapy of: 1. acute leukemia 2. testicular CA 3. Wilms tumor Recruitment and Synchrony – the strategy of recruitment involves initial use of CCNS drug to achieve a significant log kill, which results in the recruitment into cell division of previously resting cells in the GO phase. With subsequent administration of CCS drug that is achieve against dividing cells. Syncrony – example the use of vinca alkaloids to holds cancer cell in the M phase and subsequent treatment of another CCS drug such as the S-phase specific Cytarabine which results in a greater killing effect on the neoplastic cell population
Dose limiting adverse effects of Chemotherapetic agents 1. Methotrexate - Bone marrow suppression (BMS) - oral and GI ulceration - acute renal failure - hepatotoxicity 2. 6 Mercaptopurine 3. 6 Thioguanine 4. 5 FU 5. Cytarabine 6. Dactinomycin 7. Doxorubicin 8. Bleomycin 9. Plicamycin 10. Mitomycin 11. Mechlorethamine 12. Cyclohosphamide 13. Nitrosoureas 14. Vincristine - BMS, oral and GI ulcers - BMS - BMS, oral and GI ulcers dacryocystitis - BMS, CNS toxicity - BMS, stomatitis, oral ulcers - BMS, cardiotoxicity - Pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis - BMS, hemorrhagic cystitis - BMS, trombocytopenia, leukopenia - BMS - BMS, hemorrhagic cystitis - Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia - Peripheral neuropathy
Rescue Therapy – use to alleviate toxic effects of anticancer drugs.
Leucovorin – bypasses the dihydrofolate steps reductase in folic acid synthesis thus reducing toxicity of antifolate agents. Mercaptoethanosulfonate(mesna) - “Traps” acrolein released from Cyclophosphamide thus reducing hemorrhagic cystitis. Dexrazoxane – a free radical “trapper” that protect against cardiac toxicity due to anthracyclines (doxorubicin)
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