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Different Deﬁnitions of Interactivity in the Literature
Name Alba et al. 1997 Field Marketing Context*: Behavioral or mediated interactivity Interactive electronic home shopping (mediated interactivity). Deﬁnition Facets (either stated explicitly or implied in the discussion)
“In deﬁning Interactive Home Shopping, we • Response time conceptualize interactivity as a continuous construct • Response contingency capturing the quality of two-way communication between two parties.” Two facets are response time and response contingency. Interactive marketing is “the immediately iterative • Core dimension—ability to control information process by which customer needs and desires are [Hierarchical traversal versus linear presentation of uncovered, met, modiﬁed and satisﬁed by the providing information.] ﬁrm.” None. Structural properties that can help distinguish FtF from HCI and CMC: participation, mediation, contingency, media and information richness, geographic propinquity, synchronicity, identiﬁcation, parallelism, anthromorphism. Operationalized as “interaction involvement” and “mutuality.” By “interactivity” is meant, in the media realm, some form of interdependent message exchange (based on Rafaeli 1988). Structural properties of media that enable interdependent interaction examined in this work: mediation, proximity, modality, and context richness. Three properties that create the qualitative experience of interactivity: • Interaction involvement • Mutuality • Individuation [Interaction and mutual involvement are explored.] Dynamic qualities by which interactivity is experienced as interactive: • Degree of involvement • Interaction ease • Mutuality [Others, such as richness, spontaneity, expectedness, and desirability, may also have an inﬂuence.]
Bezjian-Avery, Calder, and Iacobucci 1998 Burgoon et al. 2000
Advertising and marketing using interactive systems such as the Internet (mediated interactivity). HCI, CMC, and FtF communication (both behavioral and mediated interactivity).
Burgoon et al. 2002
Emerging communication technologies and FtF (behavioral and mediated interactivity).
Coyle and Thorson 2001 Deighton 1996
“Interactivity in commercial Web sites” (mediated).
Steuer’s (1992) deﬁnition is used: “[T]he extent to • Range which users can participate in modifying the form and • Mapping content of a mediated environment in real time.” • Speed
Marketers’ use of the Web The term “interactive” points to two features of • Individual-level communication (as opposed to mass to practice interactive communication: the ability to address an individual, and communication) marketing (mediated the ability to gather and remember the response of that • Degree of contingency or responsiveness interactivity). individual.Those two features make possible a third: the ability to address the individual once more in a way that takes into account his or her unique response. Consumer marketing using Addressability and responsiveness make a medium • Addressability the Internet; using database interactive. “Addressable” means the communication is • Responsiveness technologies interphased directly addressable to individuals (not broadcast to all with Internet technologies who can receive it); responsiveness means it is alert to (mediated interactivity). the receiver’s response (it is no longer indifferent to its effect on the receiver).
Table 1 (continued )
Context*: Behavioral or mediated interactivity Strategy and the economics of information (mediated interactivity). New media with particular reference to “designed mediated experiences” (mediated interactivity, based on behavioral interactivity). Facets (either stated explicitly or implied in the discussion) • Dialogue
Name Evans and Wurster 1997 Heeter 2000
Deﬁnition Interactivity is one aspect of richness of information; it refers to dialogue as opposed to monologue.
Interactivity not deﬁned. An interaction is an episode • Actions followed by reactions or series of episodes of physical actions and reactions of an embodied human with the world, including the environment and objects and beings in the world; conceptualization of interactivity is based on this. Focus only on “physical interactivity” (actions and reactions that can be observed), as opposed to perceived interactivity. Use Rafaeli’s deﬁnition: “Interactivity is an expression of the extent that in a given series of communication exchanges, any third (or later) transmission (or message) is related to the degree to which previous exchanges referred to even earlier transmissions.” • Feedback
Hoffman and Novak 1996
Computer-mediated communication (mediated interactivity).
Liu and Shrum 2002
“The emphasis of the current deﬁnition is on providing a concrete picture of consumers’ on-line communication” (mediated). WWW (mediated).
“The degree to which two or more communication • Two-way communication parties can act on each other, on the communication • Active control medium, and on the messages and the degree to which • Synchronicity. [Note: “system responsiveness is such inﬂuences are synchronized.” essential” to this dimension.]
McMillan and Hwang 2002
None. Different deﬁnitions in the literature are reviewed.
• Direction of communication (encompassing the concepts of responsiveness and exchange) • User control (“the way humans control computers and other new media”) • Time • Control over the communication process
New media (mediated interactivity).
“[T]he quality of electronically mediated communication characterized by increased control over the communication process by both the sender and the receiver, either can be a microprocessor.” “[T]he extent to which communication reﬂects back on itself, feeds on and responds to the past.”
Newhagen and Rafaeli 1996
Communication on the Internet (mediated interactivity).
Mediated interactivity of CMCs; FtF (behavioral) interactivity also.
“Interactivity is an expression of the extent that in a given series of communication exchanges, any third (or later) transmission (or message) is related to the degree to which previous exchanges referred to even earlier transmissions.” Interactivity merges speaking with listening (Rafaeli 1997).
• Feedback • Responsiveness [implied]
New communication technologies (mediated interactivity) Virtual reality (mediated interactivity)
“The capability of new communication systems (usually • Feedback containing a computer as one component) to talk back to the user, almost like an individual participating in a conversation.” “[T]he extent to which users can participate in modifying the form and content of a mediated environment in real time” (p. 84). Speed of response is one important characteristic. Number of parameters that can be modiﬁed (range) is another factor contributing to interactivity, referring to the amount of change that can be effected on the mediated environment. Finally, mapping affects interactivity, referring to the way in which human actions are connected to actions within a mediated environment. • Speed of response • Range—the number of parameters that can be modiﬁed • Mapping—the way in which human actions are connected to actions within a mediated environment
Williams, Rice, and Rogers 1988 Zack 1993
Communication systems (mediated interactivity) Mediated interactivity of communication media and (behavioral) FtF interactivity.
“The degree to which participants in a communication • Control process have control over, and can exchange roles, in • Exchange of roles their mutual discourse is called interactivity.” • Mutual discourse No deﬁnition. Bases discussion on interaction theory • Channel bandwidth in the sociology literature, and Rogers’s (1986) • Degree of personalization or social presence interactive model of the communication process, • Structural organization of interaction (e.g., deﬁned as one in which “participants create and share continuous feedback) information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding.”
Note: HCI = human–computer interaction; CMC = computer-mediated communication; FtF = face-to-face; WWW = World Wide Web. * The original context of each deﬁnition is important. For an explanation of behavioral and mediated interactivity, please see the “Background” section. Brieﬂy, behavioral interactivity refers to face-to-face (nonmediated) interactivity: mediated interactivity refers to technology-mediated interactivity.
Source: Johnson, G. J., Bruner II, G.C, & Kumar, A. (2006). Interactivity and its facets revisited. Journal of Advertising;
Appendix 2.1. Human to Human interaction. Source: David Armano (2008a)
Apendix 2.2 Social media introduce new models of value creation Source: MIG (2007)
Apendix 2.3. Influence ripples. Source: David Armano (2008b)
Appendix 2.4 Source: http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html
Appendix 2.5. The 4 C’s of blogging.
Source: David Armano (2008c) http://darmano.typepad.com/logic_emotion/2008/04/micro-interacti.html
Source: Lawer (2006) http://chrislawer.blogs.com/chris_lawer/2006/05/eight_styles_of.html
Appendix 3.1. The questionnaire
Consumer research: The influence of Social Media and Web 2.0 applications on marketing communications - the UK consumer's perspective
The questionnaire should take no longer than two (2-3) minutes to complete. All data collected will be strictly confidential and used for academic purpose only! 1. Gender Male 2. Age 15-24 25-34 35-44 Over 45 Female
3. Your income (annual): Over £ 70 000 £45 000 - 70 000 £ 25 000 - 45 000 £ 10 000 - 25 000 £ 10 000 or less 4. Time per week spent on Social Media Sites (Blogs; Social networks (Facebook and etc.); Content Communities (YouTube, Flickr, Wikipedia, and etc.) Forums, RSS) Less than 1 Hour 7 - 9 Hours 1 - 3 Hours 10 - 20 Hours 4 - 6 Hours More than 20 Hours
5. Social Media sites, applications and tools I use: (IMPORTANT! must change the place for at least one of the options - rank them from the most used to the least used) Blogs Micro Blogs (Twitter, Plurk and etc.) Social Networks (Facebook, MySpace, Bebo and etc.) Content communities (Youtube, Flickr, Wikipedia, Digg, Slideshare, Delicious and etc.) Forums / bulleting boards ( epinions, ReviewCenter and etc.) Content aggregators (sites based on personalized RSS and Widgets - iGoogle, My Yahoo, Netvibes, and etc.) 6. Using at (please tick all that aplicable): Home School / University Work On the Go (Mobile phone, iPod and etc.)
7. How are you using Social Media properties? You are: "Creator" - Publish a blog/website; upload your created videos/music; write articles or stories and post them; "Critic" - Post ratings/reviews; comment on blogs and forums; contribute to articles or wikis. "Collector" - Use RSS feeds, add tags to web pages or photos; "Joiner" - Maintain a profile/ an account on social media site (Social network, Content community); "Spectator" - Read blogs or customer reviews, watch video or listen to audio (podcasts); 8. Are you a member of any online community? Yes No
9. What kind of content do you prefer to interact with (share, rate, comment) ? User Generated Content (Blogs, Wikis, Content posted by other users (audio/video)) Company provided content (Tv/Radio shows, Newspapers, Company's Newsletters) A mixture of both (i.e Blogs in "Guardian" or "IBM" website) No difference 10. First Step. You are most likely to start interacting/communicating with the company through social media properties (Blogs, Social Networks, Content Comunitiese (YouTube, Flickr) and etc.) if: Company provides me with information about the possibility to do that I approach the company on social media site myself Friends recommend me to do that Other 11. What are the reasons that keep you engaged with the company through social media properties? (please tick all that applicable) The are different tools and platforms provided by the company (Social network, Blog , Wiki and etc.) The content is relevant to me The content is popular among other users or friends The content is updated frequently There is a reword for participation Other
12. What are the personal reasons to participate in conversation or interact with company through Web 2.0? (maximum 3 answers) Personal satisfaction and actualization (express myself) Brand myself Develop myself The feeling of power and influence Sense of belonging to the community Possible reward from the company 13. Web 2.0 applications and services should be used by company to approach me for these purposes: Strongly Agree Advertising & PR Branding Selling Custumer service Product or Service cocreation Market research Creating and maintaining relationship Generating feedback (reviews, recommendations) Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
14. How would you like to interact with the company through Social Media sites? (On which platforms - what type of content you would like to find/share) Audio (i.e. podcasts) Blogs MicroBlogs (Twiter and etc.)Video Social Networks Content Networks (Wiki, Youtube, Flickr and etc.) Oppinions Networks (Review sites and etc.) RSS Widgets 15. After the interaction between company and you through social media properties you are more likely: (please tick all that applicable) interact more with the company buy more products from the company recommend the company to your friends trust the company more (enter into better relationship) be encouraged to interact with other companies through Web 2.0 other Video Graphich (i.e. pictures) Text (i.e comments)
16. The main obstacles to interact with the company on Social Media sites: Privacy concerns Time consuming Poor content (only branded content, untrusted sources and etc.) Technical capabilities (don't know how to do that - crate a blog or etc.) Not enough information about the platforms and applications Do not want to share any information with strangers Other 17. Please say if you are agree or dissagree with each of the following statements? Strongly Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Agree Disagree I am willing to give personal information in order to receive better (customized, direct) content/messages or service The advertising messages received through the social media sites are more relevant than through other channels The messages received through social media from - the users - are very likely to adjust my attitudes towards products or services The messages received through social media from - the company - are very likely to adjust my attitudes towards products or services The messages received through social media stimulates you to spread them (Word of Mouth)?
18. The most memorable messages for me are delivered through theses media channels: (combination of 3 options) TV Press Radio Internet (Banners, advertisments on search) Internet with Social Media applications (based on conversations) Outdoor advertisments (Bilboards and etc.) WOM (Word of Mouth) 19. My chances to remember the message are increased by (IMPORTANT! must change the place for at least one of the options - rank them by navigating the arrows) :
1] 2] 3] 4]
The content of the messages The number of channels used (i.e. Tv + Newspaper + Internet + Mobile) The single channel itself (i.e. Tv, Radio, Internet) The tools delivering the message (Social media, Advertising, Pr and etc.)
Appendix 4.1. The technographic groups of Web 2.0 Citizens in the US.
Source: (Li and Bernoff, 2008)
Appendix 4.2. What kind of content do you prefer to interact with (share, rate, comment) ?
Appendix 4.3. The reasons to start interacting/communicating with the company through social media properties
Appendix 4.4. What are the reasons that keep you engaged with the company through social media properties?
Appendix 4.5. What are the personal reasons to participate in conversation or interact with company through Web 2.0?
Appendix 4.6. The actions after the interaction between company and consumer on SMP.
Appendix 4.7. The main obstacles to interact with the company on Social Media sites:
Appendix 4.8. SMP used vs. The actions after the interaction (company-consumer)
Anova: Two-Factor Without Replication SUMMARY Blogs Micro Blogs Social Networks Content communities Forums / bulleting boards Content aggregators interact more with the company buy more products from the company recommend the company to your friends trust the company more be encouraged to interact with other companies through Web 2.0 Count 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 Sum 47 30 56 77 8 27 65 40 68 56 16 Average 9.4 6 11.2 15.4 1.6 5.4 10.83333 6.666667 11.33333 9.333333 2.666667 Variance 14.8 48 18.2 68.3 1.8 1.3 66.56667 19.46667 44.66667 43.46667 5.066667
ANOVA Source of Variation Rows Columns Error Total SS 592.5667 306 303.6 1202.167 df 5 4 20 29 MS 118.5133 76.5 15.18 F 7.807202 5.039526 P-value 0.000325 0.005651 F crit 2.71089 2.866081
Appendix 4.8.1. The most selected answers.
Interact more with the company Blogs Micro Blogs Social Networks Content communities Forums / bulleting boards Content aggregators 13 4 13 25 3 7 Buy more products from the company 9 4 9 13 1 4 Recommend the company to your friends 11 18 16 16 1 6 Be encouraged to interact with other companies through Web 2.0 3 0 5 3 0 5
Trust the company more 11 4 13 20 3 5
Appendix 4.9. The relationship between SMP used vs. Wanted communications from the company.
Anova: Two-Factor Without Replication SUMMARY Blogs Micro Blogs Social Networks Content communities Forums / bulleting boards Content aggregators Advertising & PR Branding Selling Custumer service Product or Service co-creation Market research Creating and maintaining relationship Generating feedback (reviews, recommendations) Count 8 8 8 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Sum 134 38 134 168 26 64 72 67 39 81 67 73 79 86 Average 16.75 4.75 16.75 21 3.25 8 12 11.16667 6.5 13.5 11.16667 12.16667 13.16667 14.33333 Variance 12.78571 0.785714 16.21429 24.85714 1.071429 5.142857 82.4 60.16667 16.3 63.5 45.36667 63.36667 55.76667 83.46667
ANOVA Source of Variation Rows Columns Error Total SS 2167 241.3333 184.6667 2593 df 5 7 35 47 MS 433.4 34.47619 5.27619 F 82.1426 6.534296 P-value 2.5E-18 5.81E-05 F crit 2.485143 2.285235
Appendix 4.9.1. The most selected answers.
Advertising & PR 17 4 13 27 3 8 Branding 15 4 16 22 2 8 Selling 9 4 9 12 2 3 Customer service 17 6 21 23 4 10 Maintaining relationship 18 5 19 22 5 10 Generating feedback 21 6 20 26 4 9
Blogs Micro Blogs Social Networks Content communities Opinion networks Content aggregators
Appendix 4.10.The relationship between the influence on the consumer attitudes and Web 2.0 applications
F-Test Two-Sample for Variances The messages received through social media from - the users are very likely to adjust my attitudes towards products or services 3.55 0.835858586 100 99
Social Media Mean Variance Observations Df F P(F<=f) one-tail F Critical one-tail 3.28 2.425858586 100 99 2.90223565 1.17054E-07 1.394061258
Social Media Mean Variance Observations df F P(F<=f) one-tail F Critical one-tail 3.28 2.425858586 100 99 2.799393869 2.83604E-07 1.394061258
The messages received through social media from - the company are very likely to adjust my attitudes towards products or services 3.11 0.866565657 100 99
ANOVA Source of Variation Rows Columns Error Total
SS 125.22 9.68 43.32 178.22
df 99 1 99 199
MS 1.264848 9.68 0.437576
F 2.890582 22.12188
P-value 1.29347E-07 8.30132E-06
F crit 1.394061 3.937117
Appendix 4.11. The initiatives to communicate through SMP triggers the positive word of mouth.
Anova: Single Factor SUMMARY Groups 2 3 Count 100 100 Sum 214 365 Average 2.14 3.65 Variance 0.747879 1.118687
ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups Total SS 114.005 184.79 298.795 df 1 198 199 MS 114.005 0.933283 F 122.1548 P-value 1.99E-22 F crit 3.888853
Appendix 4.12. The initiator of conversation and media channel preferred by the consumer analysis
Anova: Two-Factor Without Replication SUMMARY 16 32 12 4 3 16 6 19 Count 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 Sum 58 82 29 9 28 29 11 34 Average 9.666667 13.66667 14.5 4.5 14 14.5 5.5 17 Variance 22.26667 42.26667 12.5 4.5 2 40.5 0.5 32
ANOVA Source of Variation Rows Columns Error Total
SS 48 278.6667 44 370.6667
df 1 5 5 11
MS 48 55.73333 8.8
F 5.454545 6.333333
P-value 0.066753 0.032
F crit 6.607891 5.050329
Appendix 4.13. The technographics of the consumer and the preferred media channel analysis.
Anova: Two-Factor Without Replication SUMMARY Creator Critic Collector Joiner Spectator TV Press Radio Internet Internet SM Outdoors Advertisements WOM Count 7 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Sum 44 29 21 109 64 70 41 12 30 45 18 51 Average 6.285714 4.142857 3 15.57143 9.142857 14 8.2 2.4 6 9 3.6 10.2 Variance 15.2381 7.809524 2.666667 71.95238 30.80952 106 23.7 4.3 21 38.5 8.3 47.7
ANOVA Source of Variation Rows Columns Error Total SS 705.3143 478.1714 292.6857 1476.171 df 4 6 24 34 MS 176.3286 79.69524 12.19524 F 14.45881 6.534947 P-value 3.84E-06 0.000345 F crit 2.776289 2.508189
Appendix 4.13.1 The most selected answers.
TV Creator Critic Collector Joiner Spectator 10 8 4 30 18 Press 5 5 4 13 14 Radio 2 1 0 5 4 Internet 6 1 3 13 7 Internet SM 11 6 5 19 4 Outdoors Advertisements 1 2 2 8 5 WOM 9 6 3 21 12