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Water Reuse 2030

Identifying Challenges

C.J. McClelland, P.E. University of Colorado


Karl Linden, University of Colorado Jrg Drewes, Colorado School of Mines Stuart Khan, University of New South Wales Joel Smith, Stratus Consulting Bob Raucher, Stratus Consulting 14th A Annual l Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference 25 May 2010 Tampa Bay, Florida

Water Reuse Worldwide

Countries Implementing Water Reuse


Jiminez, Blanca, and Takashi Asano, eds. 2008. Water Reuse: An International Survey of current practice, issues and needs. London, United Kingdom: IWA Publishing.

The State of Water Reuse

Water Reuse Today


Water Rights g Social Issues Water Supply Water Demand Regulations Economics Opportunities Environment Public Perception Technology Climate Change Water Resources g Management

Energy

Trends
Introduction

Water Reuse 20 Years From Now


Water Rights g Social Issues Water Supply Water Demand Regulations Economics

Environment

Water Reuse

Opportunities Public Perception Technology

Energy Climate Change Water Resources g Management

Trends
Introduction

Water Reuse 2030 Project


Key Challenges & Opportunities

Scenario Studies Expert Workshops Survey y Literature


Introduction

The Water Reuse 2030 Project


Overview of Survey Results Factor A l i F t Analysis Results of Scenario Studies Strategies for the Future
Introduction

Surveys

Australia Participants

Survey Results

US Participants
5

1 55 6 14 3 7
StatesinWater 7 ReuseFoundation Database NumberofSurvey N b fS Participants

1 7 2 1 1

Survey Results

Drivers of Water Reuse

Survey Results

End Uses of Recycled Water


Australia United States

Survey Results

The Key Issues and Problems When Implementing Water R I l ti g W t Reuse


Australia
1. Financing/Economics 2. 2 Institutional Issues 3. Regulatory Problems 4. 4 Public Concern 5. Process Selection 6. 6 Legal Issues 7. Odor

United States
1. Financing/Economics 2. 2 Regulatory Problems 3. Institutional Issues 4. 4 Public Concern 5. Process Selection 6. 6 Legal Issues

Process Installation 8. Other


7.
Survey Results

Vision of 2030
Standard Solution More Varied Uses More Agricultural & Environmental Uses Direct Potable is an option p Residuals Recycled

Public Perception
MoreAcceptable Reuseismoreof anecessity Moreofthe publicis bli i educated

Higherwater quality Lowerenergy use Candealwith micropollutants p DualPiped Distribution

Regulations
Reuserequired inmanyareas Varyfromstate tostate ZeroOcean outfalls Emerging Contaminants willshapewater reusepractices

Use

Technology

Survey Results

Changes or Advancements Necessary for Water Reuse by 2030


Australia
Improved Handling of Residuals and Solids Energy and Efficiency Adjustment of Pricing Schemes Financing and Subsidies Treatment Process Improvements Public Perception g Technological Advancements Regulatory Changes Water Rights Law Reform Institutional Changes

United States
Regulatory Changes Financing and Subsidies Treatment Process Improvements Public Perception Technological Advancements Institutional Changes Adjustment of Pricing Schemes Energy and Efficiency Water Rights Law Reform Improved Handling of Residuals and Solids
Survey Results

Expert Workshops

Expert Workshops p p
Issues affecting water reuse g Factor Analysis Scenario studies Identify challenges Adaptation strategies and research opportunities
Expert Workshops

Attendees-Denver, Colorado Attendees Denver,


WateReuse Foundation Stratus Consulting Denver Water University of Colorado at Boulder WA State Department of Ecology Colorado School of Mines University of New South Wales

UOSA

Metro Wastewater

HDR Engineering

West Basin MWD

CH2M Hill

GE Water and Process Technology

Southern Nevada Water Authority

Nellor Environmental Associates

Aurora Water

MWH

Water Research Foundation

CDM

Sandia National Labs

Black & Veatch

Carollo Engineers Water Environment Research Foundation

US Bureau of Reclamation Metro W t t M t Wastewater Reclamation District

Gwinnett County, Georgia

Katz & Associates

WEF Reuse Committee

Orange County Water District

U.S.EPA

Veolia

Siemens

BOR

UCAR

Expert Workshops

Attendees-Brisbane, Australia Attendees Brisbane,


WateReuse Foundation Stratus Consulting International Water Association University of Colorado at Boulder Colorado School of Mines

University of New South Wales-Australia

Water Services Association of Australia

Hebrew University Israel

Water CorporationAustralia

Department of Health, South Australia

Water Secure-Australia

City of San Jose, California

Singapore PUB

Griffith UniversityAustralia

CSIRO - Australia

Australian Water Association A i ti

University of Queensland-Australia Q l d A t li

National Water Commission-Australia C i i A t li

Dept. of Environment and Resource Management

University of Applied Science of NW Switzerland

CRC - Australia

Veolia Water Australia Water-Australia

Expert Workshops

Factor Analysis
Factors from literature and surveys y Discussed and analyzed in the expert workshops p
Interactions with water reuse Interrelationships with each other

Each was rated: Impact upon water reuse ater Predictability


Expert Workshops

Impact
Impact
VeryHigh High ModerateHigh Moderate LowModerate Low

Expert Workshops

Impact p
Social

Water Rights & Allocations Energy & Technology Political, Regulatory & Institutional Water Supply & Demand

Economic

Climate & Environment

Expert Workshops

Impact p
Social

Water Rights & Allocations Energy & Technology Political, Regulatory & Institutional Water Supply & Demand

Economic

Climate & Environment

Expert Workshops

Impact p
Social

Water Rights & Allocations Energy & Technology Political, Regulatory & Institutional Water Supply & Demand

Economic

Climate & Environment

Expert Workshops

Predictability
Social

Water Rights & Allocations Energy & Technology Water Supply & Demand

Economic

Political, Regulatory & Institutional

Climate & Environment

Expert Workshops

Predictability
Social

Water Rights & Allocations Energy & Technology Water Supply & Demand

Economic

Political, Regulatory & Institutional

Climate & Environment

Expert Workshops

Impact versus Predictability

Expert Workshops

Key Factors for Water Reuse y


Water Availability & Demand Regulatory & g y Legal Support Climate and Cli d Environment Policies Water Rights & Allocations Public & Political Attitudes Energy Availability, C y ost & Demand

Population Integrated Resource Mgmt

Economics Research & h Technology Advancement

Common Conclusions
Expansion of the Perceived Role of Water Reuse Advanced Technologies for educating and communicating with the public Supportive Regulatory E S R l Environment Integrated Resource Management Economics need to be considered in more depth E i dt b id d i d th Energy concerns Associations & Institutes to Promote Water Reuse Continued flow of science and innovation

Expert Workshops

Scenario S i Study y

Scenario Studies
Ponder Alternative Futures Not a Prediction Focus on Sensitivity rather than modeling Sensiti it and simulation Consider wide range of issues quantitative and qualitative Translate thinking into action and policy

Scenario Study

Scenario Foundation
Compilation of four different scenario studies:
General Storylines from IPCC emissions scenarios A1b, A2, B1 & B2 Water withdrawal from Shen et al (2008) Resource Management components from Makropoulos et al (2004) Future Water and Food related Issues-Rosegrant, Cai & Cline 2002

Incorporates Conclusions Drawn from Surveys & Workshops Dra n Sur e s

Scenario Study

Water Reuse 2030 Illustrative Scenarios


Current Trends Green Green

Moderate-high Pop. Growth Market-Driven , Local Focus Consumerist High Water & Energy Use Some Regional Climate and Environmental Action Technology Driven Research gy Poorly Coordinated

Low Population Growth Sustainability Driven, Global Focus LowWater & Energy Use Well-coordinated research Universal Guidelines Water is h hl valued W highly l d
Scenario Study

Challenges for the next 20 years


Feeding a growing population g g gp p Ensuring Water and Sanitation Worldwide Decreasing Resources g Climate Change and Effects on Water / Flow Variability Regulatory Inconsistencies g Uninformed public, government officials, and industry representatives Making water reuse a vital part of water provision and the economy
Scenario Study

Opportunities
Widespread Water Reuse Variety f V i t of applications li ti Utilizing multiple types of water sources Flexible Treatment Schemes to meet heterogeneity of the world Technology Advancement & Innovation gy Resource Management & Recovery Universal Guidelines Economics Effective education and communication techniques q Coordinated Research
Scenario Study

Closing Thoughts
Universal views Is our thinking l l h k limited? d Slow Progress hampers water reuse g p How do we shift water related paradigms before it is too late? l ? It is time to think outside the box.

Acknowledgments
WateReuse Foundation, projects WRF-06-017 & WRF-07-03
Anna Durden PAC: Dan Woltering, Brent Haddad, Adam Lovell, Wade Miller, Miller Aik Num Puah Miguel Rocha Puah,

Inland Empire Utilities Agency, Denver Water, Denver Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

Acknowledgments
U.S. Workshop Attendees Bob Angelotti Robert Bastian, Barbara Biggs Guy Carpenter, Katharine Angelotti, Bastian Biggs, Carpenter Cupps, Uzi Daniel, Anna Durden, Kathy Freas, Jeff Garwood, Brian Good, Steve Lohman, Wade Miller, Linda Macpherson, Bruce Moore, Margaret Nellor, Bobby Oligo, Joan Oppenheimer, Chris Rayburn, John Rehring, Mark Rigali, Rigali Alan Rimer Miguel Rocha, Andrew Salveson William Steele William G Rimer, Rocha Salveson, Steele, Shipp, Frank Stephens, Patricia Tennyson, Mike Wehner, Don Vandertulip, Dan Woltering, Amy Woodis, Jeffrey Yang, Herve Bussion, Roman Agguire, Curt Brown, David Yates Australia Workshop Attendees Adam Lovell, Avner Adin, Bob Raucher, Cara Shaw, Carolyn Browning, Catherine Ferrari, David Cunliffe, Don Alcock, Eric Rosenblum, Jenifer Simpson, Harry Seah, Helen Stratton, Ian Hammerton, Jatinder Sidhu, Greg Leslie, John Anderson, John Radcliffe, Diane Weisner, Jurg Keller, Ken Matthews, Mary Rowland, Pang Chee Meng, Paul Rees, Linda Macpherson, Ted Gardner, Thomas Wintgens, Tony Priestly ,Yvan Poussade, CJ McClellend, Jrg Drewes, Karl Linden, Stuart Khan