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UGA Math Circle March 07, 2013 Introduction We are going to see a cool technique to solve certain optimization

problems. Are you thinking to use Calculus? No CALCULUS needed! Warm-up problems 1. Show that for x > 0, min(x + 1 ) is 2. x

2. A farmer wishes to put a fence around a rectangular eld and then divide the eld into three rectangular plots by placing two fences parallel to one of the sides. If the farmer can aord only 1000 yards of fencing, what dimensions will give the maximum rectangular area?

Arithmetic Mean-Geometric Mean inequality (A.M-G.M inequality) For n positive numbers, x1 , x2 , ..., xn x1 + x2 + ... + xn n x1 .x2 ...xn n For n = 2, x1 + x2 x1 .x2 2

Can you prove the A.M-G.M inequality for n = 2?

UGA Math Circle March 07, 2013 Activity Sheet No CALCULUS needed! Problems 3. We will investigate whether a Coca-Cola can could be designed to minimize the amount of aluminum used for the volume of soda it contains. i) For a cylindrical can, closed at the top and bottom, with given volume V, nd the ratio h/d of height to diameter that minimizes the total surface area A without using CALCULUS! ii) Is the problem much easier if you are given V= 12 oz. By measuring the height and the diameter of the base of a Coca-Cola can, determine whether it minimizes the surface for the volume it contains. 4. Use the Arithmetic Mean-Geometric Mean inequality to nd the maximum volume of a box made from a 25 by 25 square sheet of cardboard by removing a small square from each corner and folding up the sides to form a lidless box.

Challenge: a) Use the AM-GM inequality to discuss the maximum volume of a box formed from an nXn square sheet of cardboard. b) Can we use the AM-GM inequality when the sheet of cardboard is 20 by 25? 5. Determine the positive integer n, for which the value of n 18 + is the smallest. 2 n 6. Find three positive integers x, y, z such that their sum is 32 and P = xy 2 z is maximum. 7. Find the maximum of the function (1 x)(1 + x)2 in the interval [0,1]. 8. If a, b, c, d are positive integers such that a + b + c + d = 2008, what is the largest possible value for ab + cd + ad + bc.

UGA Math Circle March 07, 2013 Activity Sheet No CALCULUS needed More Problems 9. Use the Arithmetic Mean and Geometric Mean inequality to nd the maximum area of a circular sector with a xed perimeter. 10. Use Arithmetic and Geometric Mean inequality to nd the maximum and minimum values for y = 11. Find the minimum of f (x) = in the range of 0 < x < . 9x2 (sin(x))2 + 4 x sin(x) x 1 + x2

UGA Math Circle March 07, 2013 12. Find the maximum value of ab(72 3a 4b), a > 0, b > 0. 13. Prove that if a, b, c are positive integers, then (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) 8abc. 14. A farmer wants to fence in 60,000 square feet of land in a rectangular plot along a straight highway. The fence he plans to use along the highway costs $2 per foot, while the fence for the other three sides costs $1 per foot. How much of each type of fence will he have to buy in order to keep expenses to a minimum? What is the minimum expense? (Use the AM-GM inequality to nd a solution. No calculus needed.) 15. (Geometric proof for A.M-G.M inequality) Given a right angled triangle, its altitude from the right angle divide the hypotenuse into parts of lengths a and b. Interpret the comparison of the lengths of the altitude and the median from the 90 degrees vertex of a right triangle having hypotenuse of length a+b. Compute the altitude and the median. What conclusion can you draw from your answer.

UGA Math Circle March 07, 2013 Activity Sheet Challenging Problems 16. Use the AM-GM inequality to nd a point on the graph of y = 1 that is closest to the origin. x2

UGA Math Circle March 07, 2013 17. What is the maximum volume of a right circular cylinder that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius r.

UGA Math Circle March 07, 2013 18. Find the minimum for x2 + 1 , x > 0. x

19. Use Arithmetic Mean-Geometric Mean inequality to show that the maximum area of a triangular region with a given perimeter is attained when the triangle is equilateral. 20. A rectangle is bounded by the x-axis and the semicircle y = should the rectangle have so that its area is a maximum? 25 x2 . What length and width

21. A rectangular box is resting on the xyplane with one vertex at the origin. The opposite vertex lies in the plane 6x + 4y + 3z = 24 with x, y, z 0. Find the maximum volume of such a box.