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250 HP engine for unmanned helicopter

with reduced infrared signature



Advisor - Dr. Boris Glezer

Jessica Yana (aerothermodynamic/ stress specialist)
Yonatan Lobovikov (designer)
Akiva Sharma (combustor/heat exchanger specialist)
GAS TURBINE DESIGN PROJECT
Preview
1. Project goals and objectives
2. Component selection
3. Thermodynamic cycle
4. Compressor geometry
5. Turbine geometry
6. Cooling
7. Stress analysis
8. Combustion chamber & heat exchanger
9. Design
10. Competiting products
Project Goals and Objectives
Overall mission : fly autonomously to the battlefield, provide fighting
troops with ammunition and evacuate wounded to rear hospital
Output power 250HP
Light weight
Simple design
Compact
Low cost
Reduced heat signature
Dusty enironment (low altitude mission)
Components Selection Compressor
Centrifugal Compressor:
Compact design
Lower weight
Lower cost (size and weight lower)
Higher efficiency
2 stages (Improved efficiency)
1 shaft (more simple - cheaper)
Components Selection Turbine
Axial Turbine:
suitable for high temperatures
Better efficiency
First two stages drive the compressor
Third (last) stage Provide output power (via gear box)
Components Selection Hot Section
Spiral Recuperator
Compact
Lightweight
Combustor
Annular combustor
Simple design
Thermodynamic Cycle - Scheme
Thermodynamic Cycle - Inputs
Flight conditions
Standard atmosphere
Mach 0.2
Additional parameters selected (hystorical data)
Pressure ratio 9
TIT 1400K
Thermal efficiency 38%
Fuel to air ratio (converged value) 0.015
Cooling air
Stage 1 nozzle & blade 2.3%
Stage 2 blisk1%
Stage 1 blisk2%
Losses & Efficiency
PRESSURE LOSSES
Air intake 3%
Exhaust 5%
Combustion chamber 3.5%
Heat exchanger 5%
EFFICIENCY
Compressor 0.75
Turbine 0.85
HEX effectiveness 0.85
Mechanical losses 1%
Thermodynamic Cycle - Outputs
0.75kg/s
0.23kg / kW-hr
air
m
SFC
=
=
St. T(K) PR
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
o
r

1 290 2.5
2 400 3.6
T
u
r
b
i
n
e

1 1400 1.44
2 1195 2.5
3 1036 6.85
Compressor Parameters
First
stage
Second
stage
Mass flow rate [kg/s] 0.75 0.75
Pressure ratio 3.5 2.6
Inlet temperature [K] 290K 400K
efficiency 0.85 0.85
Rotation speed [rpm] 63,000 63,000
Total diameter [mm] 174 144
Compressor Geometry
First
stage
Second
stage
Total diameter [mm] 174 144
Eye root diameter [mm] 40 40
Eye tip diameter [mm] 154.8 125
Root incidence angle [deg] 27.3 27.3
Tip incidence angle [deg] 7.6 9.4
Impeller channel depth [mm] 23 7
Turbine Parameters
1
st

stage
2
nd

stage
Power
turbine
Mass flow rate
[kg/s]
0.76 0.76 0.76
Pressure ratio 1.44 2.5 6.85
Inlet temperature
[K]
1400 1191 1036
efficiency 0.85 0.85 0.85
Rotation speed
[rpm]
63 000 63 000 40 000
Total diameter
[mm]
183.1 190.4 245
2
4
blade tip tip
a
mRT
h D D
PU t
= +
Turbine Geometry
1
st
stage 2
nd
stage Power turbine
St. Rot. St. Rot. St. Rot.
Total diameter [mm] 183.1 183.1 187 193.8 232 244.5
No. of blades 24 33 26 37 18 32
Mean blade height [mm] 8.1 8.1 9.3 9.6 20 22.2
Blade chord [mm] 16 6.2 17 7.4 40 18
L.E diameter [mm] 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 2.0 2.3

root
[deg] 10 27 10 21 10.5 54

tip
[deg] 10 25 9.5 19 9.5 46

root
[deg] 39 48.5 43 48.5 46 51.5

tip
[deg] 36 46 40.5 45.5 43 43
Pitch to chord ratio chart
2 /
b m
N R s t =
Height to chord ratio:
Stator ~ 2
Rotor ~ 1.3
umber of blades

Turbine Flow Path
Untwisted blades
Cooling
Swirl cooling method
Metal temperature limit =1250K=950C
1
st
stage (nozzle and blade) had to be cooled
Cooling air
Stage 1 nozzle & blade 2.3%
Stage 2 blisk1%
Stage 1 blisk2%


( )
1
1250
0.03 4.5%
100
TIT K
x

= =
Life Time Prediction - Uncooled Blades
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1
2
c tip
r R r o = O
185
C
Mpa o =
350
C
Mpa o =
Blade temperature
Stage 2 1076K
age 3 877K
Centrifugal stress (max)
Stage 2 185Mpa
Stage 3 350Mpa
Life time estimation
Critic section at the root
Material Waspalloy
Stage 2: 10 000 hours (SF=1.3)
Stage 3: 20 000 hours (SF=1.3)





Cooled Blades - Stress
Centrifugal & bending stress
Life time fixed to 10 000 hours
Larson miller chart
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
S
t
r
e
s
s

[
M
P
a
]

Blade section
Blade Section Stress
Safety Factor
Bending Stress
Centrifugal Stress
Cooled Stage Temperatures
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1100 1300 1500
B
l
a
d
e

H
e
i
g
h
t

[
c
m
]

Temperature [K]
Temperature Profile
Metal
Temperature
1D
Gas temperature pattern factor 1.1
Safety margins 30%.
3D
28%
Gas Metal
Gas Coolant
T T
T T
c

= =

Airfoil external heat transfer coefficient 12.4 kW/m


2
K
Cooling effectiveness 28%
cooling flow parameter 0.8
Coolant mass flow rate 2.3%





2
12.37
Nu K kW
h
D m K

(
= =
(

3
17 10 0.023
sec
c air
p
P h A kg
m m
C


= = =
Cooling
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
300 500 700 900 1100 1300
D
i
s
k

r
a
d
i
u
s

[
m
]

Temperature [K]
Blisk metal temperature
stage1
stage 2
stage 3
15
35
55
75
95
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
S
t
r
e
s
s

[
M
P
a
]

Radius [m]
Blisk radial stress
stage 1
stage 2
stage 3
Blisk Life Time Prediction
50
100
150
200
250
300
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
S
t
r
e
s
s

[
M
p
a
]

Radius [m]
Blisk tangential stress
Blisk Life Time Prediction
Critical sction towards the tip
Stage 1 blisk: 42 000 hours (SF=1.5)
Stage 2 blisk: 16 000 hours (SF=1.5)
Stage 3 blisk: 1 560 000 hours (SF=1.5)



Combustor Design Considerations
Performance Objectives:
High combustion efficiency ~ 99%
Low overall system total pressure loss ~
3%
Stable combustion at all operating
conditions
Minimum size, weight, cost.
Effective hot part cooling
Required TIT met
Proper temperature distribution at the
exit
Low emissions
Relightability

Design Parameters
34 . 0 ) 05 . 0 exp( 1 =
A
=
ref
L
D
L
q
P
L
L
PF
6110 . 1
300
75 . 1
3
3
= = O
b
K
T
air
Vol e P
m
016 . 1
*
, *
=

=
pr
combustor out pcombustor pturbine
h
T C TIT C
f
= f / fstoi = 0.255
% 5 . 3
3
3 4
=
A

P
P
SFC = Fuel Flow / Power Produced
= 0.23 kg/kW-hr
Dimensions
Combustor Cross sectional area= 0.0055 m
2
Radius Liner = 0.003 m
Length of Primary Zone = 0.1048 m
Length of Dilution Zone = 0.0698 m
Total Combustor Length = 0.1746 m
Volume = 0.0061 m
3
Air Distribution
:
0.0015m
25 . 1
5 . 0
max
=
(
(

+
=
j g
g
j
m m
m
J
Y
d
Primary Zone Air ~ 24%
Dome Air ~ 5 %
Dilution ~ 28%
Nozzle Air ~ 2 %
Liner Cooling ~ 32%
Turbine Cooling ~ 9%
Recirculation Zone
6943 . 2 tan
) / ( 1
) / ( 1
3
2
2
3
=

= u
sw hub
sw hub
n
D D
D D
S
Materials & Cooling
Combustor Liner - Silicon Nitride
High temperature strength
High oxidation resistance
Low cycle fatigue strength
High cycle fatigue strength
High corrosion resistance
Combustor Housing - Inco 909
Elevated high temperature strength
Low cycle fatigue strength
Thermal Barrier Coating - SN-220
Low emmisivity
Low thermal conductivity
Oxidation resistant
Chemically inert
Resistant to thermal shock
Resistant to wear/erosion

Heat Exchanger
m2 6.04
) * ( 6 . 2
min
= =
U
C NTU
A
)
1
1
)(log
1
1
(

=
r
C
r
C
NTU
c
c
1
1 1
i o
U
h h
=
+
z
i H
k
h Nu
H
| |
=
|
\ .
1.25 0.4
0.023 Re Pr
H H
Nu =
Heat Exchanger - Pressure Drop
f L
P gh A =
2
2
L
L V
h f
H g
| |
| |
=
| |
\ .
\ .
If it is known that for turbulent flow: f = 0.316/Re
1/4
For hot gas, pressure drop of 0.245 atm is obtained.
For cold air the pressure loss is 0.003 atm.
h
L
= frictional head loss [m]
Engine Design
Shafts
1
st
Stage Compressor
2
nd
Stage Compressor
Combustor
Stage 1
Nozzle
Stage 1
Turbine
Stage 1 Turbine
Second & Power Turbines
Second & Power Nozzles
Heat Exchanger
Heat Exchanger
Heat Exchanger
Fuel System
Fuel System
Fuel System
Overall Flow Path
Clearances

Seals
Mountings
Competing products

Power plant of Northrop Grumman UAV helicopter : Roll Royce 250
RR300 designed for light helicopter and general aviation aircraft Optimized in the 240-300
HP power range
Competing products
Questions?