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Transportation and Installation of Offshore Pipelines, Risers and Facilities for Gumusut-Kakap Project

CONTRACT NO. 591733

Automated Ultrasonic Testing General Procedure J-Lay and Multi-Jointing


Shaw Pipeline Services

DOCUMENT NO.: GKL-500-LA-6180-0004300 VENDOR DOCUMENT NO.: 651 GP Rev


07C 06C 05A 04A 03R 02R 01R

Revised Date
06/5/2011 22/4/2011 15/4/2011 03/12/2010 17/12/2009 30/10/2009 10/09/2009

Description
RE-ISSUED APPROVED FOR CONSTRUCTION APPROVED FOR CONSTRUCTION ISSUED FOR CONSTRUCTION ISSUED FOR CONSTRUCTION RE-ISSUED FOR REVIEW RE-ISSUED FOR REVIEW ISSUED FOR REVIEW

SASB Originator
GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT

SASB Checker
GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT GARY CORBETT

SASB Approver
GUNAWAM SUWARNO GUNAWAM SUWARNO GUNAWAM SUWARNO GUNAWAM SUWARNO MARK STANCICH MARK STANCICH MARK STANCICH

Transportation & Installation of Offshore Pipelines, Risers and Facilities for Gumusut-Kakap Project Automated Ultrasonic Testing General Procedure J-Lay and Multi-Jointing Shaw Pipeline Services

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GKL-500-LA-6180-0004300

REV 07C

This is an electronically generated document which has been reviewed and approved in accordance with SapuraAcergy Management System for the Transportation and Installation of Offshore Pipelines, Risers and Facilities for Gumusut-Kakap Project. An audit trail of review and approval is available within the electronic system. The Sharepoint Latest Revision of this document is the CONTROLLED COPY at all times. When printed it is considered a FOR INFORMATION ONLY copy, and it is the holders responsibility that he / she holds the latest valid version. SSPC shall have access to the CONTROLLED COPY of the documentation through SASB Sharepoint Extranet Site. , SapuraAcergy Or A Subsidiary Thereof, Copyright 2009 And Design Right Reserved. Copying, Distribution And/Or Disclosure Of The Confidential Information Contained Herein Is Prohibited Without Written Permission Of The Proprietor.

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Automated Ultrasonic Testing General Procedure J-Lay and Multi-Jointing


Shaw Pipeline Services Project # 651
Client: Contractor: Owner: Project Name: Location: Specifications and References: Procedure Prepared by: Procedure Reviewed by: Procedure Approved by: ASNT Level III #: SapuraAcergy Sdn Bhd SapuraAcergy Sdn Bhd Sabah Shell Petroleum Company Limited Gumusut - Kakap Project, J-Lay And Multi-Jointing Malaysia API 1104 19th Edition, DEP 37.81.40.32-EPP Oleg Volf Steve Ellis Oleg Volf 94945

Shaw Pipeline Services (USA) Head Office 4250 N Sam Houston Pkwy E Suite 180 Houston, TX 77032 USA Tel: (832) 601-0850 Fax: (281) 442-1593 Shaw Pipeline Services (USA) Western Hemisphere Office 5435 S 101st East Ave Tulsa, OK 74146-5732 USA Tel: (918) 627-8288 Fax: (918) 627-0020 Shaw Pipeline Services (Canada) 8010 - 40 Street SE Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2C 2Y3 Tel: (403) 279-2400 Fax: (403) 279-2045

Shaw Pipeline Services (UK) Eastern Hemisphere Office Shaw House Beevor Road Great Yarmouth, Norfolk NR30 3PS UK Tel: 44 1493 858 577 Fax: 44 1493 852 522 Shaw Pipeline Services (Middle East) P.O. Box 1789 Suite 402 Al Reem Plaza, Buhaira Corniche Sharjah, UAE Tel: 971 6574 4199 Fax: 971 6573 7379 Shaw Pipeline Services (Far East) 101 Thomson Road #17-01/02 United Square Singapore 307591 Tel: 65 6732 2355 Fax: 65 6732 9073

e-mail: shaw@sps.shawcor.com www.shawpipeline.com 2008 Shaw Pipeline Services Shaw Pipeline Services (SPS) produced this document. SPS controls each copy and it remains the property of SPS. SPS prohibits reproducing, storing in a retrieval system, or transmitting in any form or by any means any part of this publication without prior written permission.

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Revision Record
Revision 0 01 02 03 04 05 Date
September 10, 2009 October 30, 2009 December 17, 2009 January 26, 2010 December 3, 2010 December 22, 2010

06

March 15, 2011

May 6, 2011

Description Document created. Incorporate Client comments Incorporate Client comments Incorporate Client comments Incorporate Client comments Incorporate Client comments Revise per client comments:3.2.1 Client to approve all changes made to the AUT system once the baseline calibration is completed prior to production.6.3 Reference onshore multi-joint welds and require scribe lines. 6.4.2 interval between scans not more than 30 minutes. Client imposes maximum calibration requirements for all production welds. 6.5.2.1 reference multi-joint welds. 9 The USIP State Utility report added to list. Added Appendix I to include Interpretation Guidelines for near OD Surface Flaws Revision 0

Approval Oleg Volf Oleg Volf Edward Briggs Edward Briggs Edward Briggs Edward Briggs

Edward Briggs

Edward Briggs

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Table of Contents
1. Scope ................................................................................................................................................ 7 1.1 Definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7 1.1.1 Contractor ............................................................................................................................. 7 1.1.2 Client..................................................................................................................................... 7 1.1.3 Flowline (FL) ......................................................................................................................... 7 1.1.4 Steel Catenary Riser (SCR) ................................................................................................. 7 2. Method of Testing ............................................................................................................................ 7 3. Inspection System Descriptions .................................................................................................... 7 3.1 Ultrasonic Instrumentation (General) .......................................................................................... 7 3.1.1 Flaw Detectors ...................................................................................................................... 8 3.1.2 Coupling Monitors ................................................................................................................. 8 3.2 Transducers (General) ................................................................................................................ 9 3.2.1 Transducer Selection and Utilization .................................................................................... 9 3.2.2 Transducer Performance .................................................................................................... 10 3.2.3 Transducer Design ............................................................................................................. 10 3.2.3.1 Transducer Acceptance Criteria .................................................................................. 11 3.2.3.1.1 Beam Angle ........................................................................................................... 11 3.2.3.1.2 Frequency .............................................................................................................. 11 3.2.3.1.3 Beam Width ........................................................................................................... 11 3.2.3.1.4 Beam Squint .......................................................................................................... 11 3.2.3.1.5 Longitudinal Angle Beam....................................................................................... 11 3.2.3.1.6 Surface Waves ...................................................................................................... 11 3.2.3.1.7 Side Lobes ............................................................................................................. 11 3.2.3.1.8 Subsidiary Maxima ................................................................................................ 11 3.2.3.1.9 Pulse Shape .......................................................................................................... 11 3.2.3.1.10 Pulse Length .......................................................................................................... 11 3.3 Coupling .................................................................................................................................... 12 3.4 Ultrasonic Scanning Head ........................................................................................................ 12 3.5 Calibration Standards (General) ............................................................................................... 12 3.5.1 Calibration Standard Specifications ................................................................................... 12 3.5.2 Calibration Standard Tolerances ........................................................................................ 12 3.5.2.1 Machining Checks ........................................................................................................ 12 3.5.2.2 Velocity Checks............................................................................................................ 12 3.6 Recording and Display System (General)................................................................................. 13 3.6.1 Operator Control Panel....................................................................................................... 13 3.6.2 Graphical User Interface (GUI) ........................................................................................... 13 3.6.3 Data Storage....................................................................................................................... 13 3.6.4 Graphical Printout ............................................................................................................... 13 3.7 System Spares .......................................................................................................................... 14 4. Inspection Personnel .................................................................................................................... 14 5. Inspection Set Up .......................................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Transducer Positioning and Primary Reference Sensitivity ...................................................... 14 5.2 Gate Settings ............................................................................................................................ 15 5.3 Graphical User Interface Recording Threshold ........................................................................ 15 5.4 Circumferential Scanning Velocity ............................................................................................ 15 5.5 Couplant Monitoring Channels .................................................................................................. 16 5.6 Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) .............................................................................................. 16 5.7 Inspection Requirement For The Long Seam Area .................................................................. 16 6. Field Inspection ............................................................................................................................. 17 6.1 Weld Number ............................................................................................................................ 17 6.2 Surface Condition...................................................................................................................... 17 6.3 Reference Line .......................................................................................................................... 17
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6.4 Calibration ................................................................................................................................. 17 6.4.1 Qualification ........................................................................................................................ 17 6.4.2 Calibration Frequency ........................................................................................................ 18 6.4.3 Circumferential Position Accuracy ...................................................................................... 18 6.4.4 Lateral Beam Spread.......................................................................................................... 19 6.4.5 Transducer Surface Position Changes ............................................................................... 20 6.4.6 Scanning Sensitivity ........................................................................................................... 20 6.4.7 Fill Channel Transducers.................................................................................................... 20 6.5 Re-Examination......................................................................................................................... 20 6.5.1 Coupling Monitor Sensitivity ............................................................................................... 20 6.5.2 Calibration Sensitivity ......................................................................................................... 21 6.5.2.1 Failed Calibration J-Lay and SCR Welds .................................................................... 21 6.5.2.2 Failed Calibration ......................................................................................................... 21 6.6 Interpretation of Daily Defects ................................................................................................... 21 6.6.1 TOFD Linear Indications in Pipeline Production Welds ..................................................... 22 6.6.2 TOFD Linear Indications in Repaired Weld ........................................................................ 22 6.6.3 TOFD Non-Linear Indications ............................................................................................. 22 6.6.4 TOFD Linear Indications in Procedure and Welder Qualification Welds ........................... 22 6.6.5 TOFD Linear Indications In SCR Welds ............................................................................. 23 6.6.6 Parent Material Indications Recorded by TOFD................................................................. 23 6.7 Inspection of Weld Repairs to flowlines and cap repairs to non-critical scrs ........................... 23 6.8 Acceptance Criteria ................................................................................................................... 23 7. Inspection Record and Documentation Summary ..................................................................... 23 7.1 Daily Inspection Reports ........................................................................................................... 23 7.1.1 Ultrasonic Weld Inspection Report Mechanized Welding (Form 200) ............................ 24 7.1.2 InFocus Repair Report (Form 201) ................................................................................. 24 7.1.3 InFocus Daily Master Calibration Report (Form 202) ...................................................... 24 7.2 System Control Manual ............................................................................................................. 24 7.2.1 InFocus Scanner Transducer Parameters (Form 203) ................................................... 24 7.2.2 InFocus Scanner Changes (Form 204) ........................................................................... 24 7.2.3 Ultrasonic Instrument Vertical Linearity Test (PROC-CW-VL) (Form 206) ........................ 24 7.2.4 Ultrasonic Instrument Horizontal Linearity Test (PROC-CW-HL) (Form 207) .................... 24 7.2.5 USIP 20 Electronic Calibration Test (PROC-CW-EC) (Form 208) ..................................... 24 7.2.6 Essential Equipment Check List (Form 210) ...................................................................... 24 7.3 Supporting Documentation and Procedures ............................................................................. 24 7.3.1 PROC-CW-CBIP ................................................................................................................ 24 7.3.2 PROC-CW-MVM ................................................................................................................ 24 7.4 Technician Qualification Manual ............................................................................................... 25 7.5 Log Book ................................................................................................................................... 25 8. Health & Safety Executive ............................................................................................................ 25 9. Project Forms................................................................................................................................. 26 9.1 Form 200 Ultrasonic Weld Inspection Report / Mechanized Welding ................................... 27 9.2 Form 201 InFocus / Repair Report ........................................................................................ 28 9.3 Form 202 InFocus / Daily Master Calibration Report............................................................. 29 9.4 Form 203 InFocus / Scanner Transducer Parameters .......................................................... 30 9.5 Form 204 InFocus / Scanner Changes .................................................................................. 31 9.6 Form 206 Ultrasonic Instrument Vertical Linearity Test (PROC-CW-VL) .............................. 32 9.7 Form 207 Ultrasonic Instrument Horizontal Linearity Test (PROC-CW-HL).......................... 33 9.8 Form 208 USIP 20 Electronic Calibration Test (PROC-CW-EC) ........................................... 34 9.9 Form 209 Essential Equipment Change List ......................................................................... 35 9.10 Form 210 Essential Equipment Check List ............................................................................ 36 9.11 USIP Settings Report ................................................................................................................ 37 Appendix I GUMUSUT Interpretation Guideline For Near OD Surface Defects Revision 0 ... 38

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1. SCOPE
This document describes the methods and procedures Shaw Pipeline Services (SPS) follows when performing ultrasonic non-destructive testing of mechanized pipeline girth welds and associated repairs. This section describes the inspection methodology relating to the Shell document DEP 37-81-40-32EPP Dated March 2006. This will include the SPS statement on HSE. A detailed instruction for operators is included within the SPS operator training manual. This document may be reviewed at the SPS Houston office upon request. 1.1 DEFINITIONS 1.1.1 CONTRACTOR

Contractor shall mean SapuraAcergy Sdn Bhd (SASB). 1.1.2 CLIENT

Client shall mean Sabah Shell Production Company Ltd (SSPC). 1.1.3 FLOWLINE (FL)

This is not specific to flowlines. FL in SPS terms is an AUT inspection for welds that are not fatigue sensitive. 1.1.4 STEEL CATENARY RISER (SCR)

This is not specific for SCR type pipeline inspection. SCR in SPS terms is an AUT inspection for welds that are fatigue sensitive. SCR calibration blocks are fabricated to have additional (smaller) surface notches. SCR transducer setups must adhere to stricter requirements for probe standoffs and dB variations. SCR qualified operators must have greater experience and additional training.

2. METHOD OF TESTING
The inspection will be accomplished with a mechanized system utilizing pulse-echo and/or pitch-catch techniques with an ultrasonic "A" scan presentation. A separate Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) channel will also be used. The system will include a fully automatic recording system to indicate the location of imperfections and the effectiveness of acoustic coupling. Shaw Pipeline Services (SPS) shall supply the Contractor with a hard copy of each weld inspected, and will include a judgment of acceptability. The Client will have access to weld data at any time for review and confirmation of data integrity.

3. INSPECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONS


3.1 ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENTATION (GENERAL)

The ultrasonic instrumentation shall provide an adequate number of inspection channels to ensure a complete examination of the weld through thickness in one or two (ID and OD) circumferential scans, depending on the diameter and wall thickness combination. Each instrument or inspection channel will provide a linear "A" scan presentation, either independent or individually selectable.
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A System Control Manual will be maintained at the inspection location covering all relevant system data. Screen height and horizontal linearity checks shall be performed at the beginning of each period of extended use, or every three months, whichever is less. Linearity checks shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM E-317 Standard Practice for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Testing Instruments and Systems without the Use of Electronic Measurement Instruments or EN 12668 Non-destructive Testing Characterization and verification of Ultrasonic Examination Equipment. Characterization and verification of ultrasonic examination equipment. Instrument linearity shall fall within the range indicated by the particular standard used. A sample of the instrument linearity recording forms will appear in the Project Forms section of this document. As a minimum, each inspection channel shall be selective for the following: Pulse-echo, pitch-catch mode, or through thickness mode Gate position and length; start and finish time for a minimum of 2 gates Gain Recording threshold between 0% and 100% of full screen height

Three recordable signal outputs per gate shall be available. They will perform the following functions: Indicate the presence of a signal exceeding a preset threshold limit Analog/digital signal height amplitude Analog/digital "time of flight" 3.1.1 FLAW DETECTORS

SPS utilizes independent or multi-channel flaw detectors for each transducer in the system. Each instrument or channel exhibits, but is not limited to the following: Independent display (for individual flaw detectors only) Amplitude and "time of flight" signal outputs Adjustable: o delay o range o velocity o gain o frequency o gate start and stop o pulse repetition frequency

The UT instrument(s) are positioned for unconstrained adjustment and viewing. 3.1.2 COUPLING MONITORS

SPS incorporates proprietary coupling monitors in their inspection system. Each monitor is coupled to a flaw detector pair. The monitors incorporate independent RF amplifiers, allowing for gain control independent of the flaw detector. Each monitor displays coupling signals in 2 dB increments. The couplant monitor amplifiers are linearized along with the main inspection system. Additional signal output to the Operator Evaluation Interface is also performed.

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3.2

TRANSDUCERS (GENERAL)

All transducers employed in the ultrasonic system shall meet performance requirements stipulated by the Client. All transducers with the same requirements will maintain the same part number (Part # refers to a series i.e.: 740 series means 740, 741, 742 etc.). As a minimum, each transducer shall maintain a unique serial number. This serial number will reference the following: Manufacturers name Transducer type Frequency Crystal size and shape

If removable transducer wedges are utilized, each shall maintain a unique serial number. This serial number will reference the following: Manufacturers name Wedge material and velocity Incident angle Exit point

All wedges with the same requirements will maintain the same part number. Two part probe/wedge combination transducers are utilized. This allows for wedge only changes in the event of unacceptable wear. All wedges maintain four point carbide runners to minimize deterioration. Transducer selection is based on optimized beam sizes for the intended target. The project specific transducer array will be submitted to the Client prior to the commencement of work. The project specific transducer array Primary Setup Table(s) will be submitted to the Client in the applicable Inspection and Test Plan(s) prior to the commencement of work. This information is also available in the configuration file. SPS utilizes a configuration file that summarizes the results of the aforementioned variables. This file is termed TP-XXXX where XXXX reflects the appropriate configuration number. The latest revisions of the configuration file are controlled by Shaw Pipeline Services and are available at the work site or upon request. 3.2.1 TRANSDUCER SELECTION AND UTILIZATION

For each pipe diameter, thickness, and material velocity combination a Transducer Specification for Initial Setup is produced. The configuration file identifies but is not limited to the following: Steel path distance to each respective reflector Surface position placement including: o index to weld center o clearance to bead and coating o spacing for transducer arrangements Gate settings including: o start o stop o distance Transducer/wedge angles
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Material velocities

The information on this form is a guideline for transducer/wedge selection and is used by the Operator for primary setup. The Operator may make adjustments from the guideline to accommodate existing field conditions. The Shaw Supervisor shall authorize these adjustments, and changes made shall be documented. Any changes shall be limited to minor modification to probe position, gate length, transducer spacing, and wedge angle. The Client must approve changes other than these. The final production set-up will be recorded on form 203 Scanner Transducer Parameters, and the client will approve all changes to the AUT system after the baseline calibration is completed prior to production. 3.2.2 TRANSDUCER PERFORMANCE

Prior to the project start, the following checks will be performed and recorded in order to monitor transducer performance: Surface position from the weld center with reference to the wedge front Signal to noise values in the gated (inspection) region to be at least 20 dB weaker than the signal from the reference reflector at the target distance, to determine the signal to noise value: o each transducer shall be positioned at its relevant calibration reflector and the amplitude shall be set to 80% of full screen height the transducer shall then be moved off of the calibration reflector to an area clear of any reflectors the background noise level will then be brought up to 80% of full screen height the difference in the two gain settings will be the value recorded as the signal to noise value, i.e.: calibration reflector = 50 dB, area of no reflectors = 80 dB, signal to noise value = 30 dB

Baseline gain settings

This information will reside in the System Control Manual, which shall reside at the inspection facility. A record of all wedge/probe changes and transducer measurements shall be made available to the Client. Transducer, wedge, and carbide wear points shall be examined for wear, both physically and by monitoring calibration scans and baseline gain settings on an ongoing basis. Initial dB settings will be recorded on Form 203 Scanner Transducer Parameters prior to production, and any deviations recorded on Form 202 Daily Master Calibration Report. Any change of more than 3 dB will be cause for remedial action. Any change in instrumentation delay and/or gain causing side-to-side values to be out of tolerance shall be investigated. If it is determined the cause is wedge relate, the wedge shall be adjusted, sanded, or replaced. 3.2.3 TRANSDUCER DESIGN

The manufacturer performs the following transducer criteria. The probe manufacturer provides the reporting and recording of these results with the probe certification.

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3.2.3.1

TRANSDUCER ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA 3.2.3.1.1 BEAM ANGLE

The direction of the beam must be within 1.0 for probe angles less than or equal to 45 degrees and within 1.5 for probe angles greater than 45. The beam angle for TOFD must be within 5. 3.2.3.1.2 FREQUENCY

The probe frequency must remain within 10% of the nominal frequency. 3.2.3.1.3 BEAM WIDTH

The measured beam width shall be within 1 mm of the identified beam width at the intended target path for use. 3.2.3.1.4 BEAM SQUINT

The deviation from normal will not exceed 1.5 for single crystal probes or 2 for twin crystal probes. Measurements will be accomplished using a qualification wedge where removable wedges are utilized. 3.2.3.1.5 LONGITUDINAL ANGLE BEAM

The longitudinal angle beam must be at least 35 dB weaker than the shear beam when measured at a 100 mm range from the probe interface, unless the longitudinal waveform is purposely specified. 3.2.3.1.6 SURFACE WAVES

For beam angles less than 65, the surface wave must be at least 34 dB weaker than the shear wave. For beam angles greater than or equal to 65 it must be at least 24 dB weaker, both measured at a 100 mm range. 3.2.3.1.7 SIDE LOBES

The side lobes must be at least 20 dB weaker than the main beam, except angles greater than 64 shall be at least 15 dB weaker than the main beam. 3.2.3.1.8 SUBSIDIARY MAXIMA

Fluctuations in echo amplitude shall not exceed that caused by interference grass. 3.2.3.1.9 PULSE SHAPE

The pulse shall be single peaked with any secondary peaks in the tail of the pulse at least 20 dB less than the main peaks. 3.2.3.1.10 PULSE LENGTH The duration of the pulse measuring those amplitudes greater than 10% of the peak shall not exceed 2.5 microseconds.

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3.3

COUPLING

SPS will utilize potable water for coupling. Environmentally safe wetting agents may be added. No residue will remain on the pipe surface after the liquid has evaporated. 3.4 ULTRASONIC SCANNING HEAD

The scanning head provides, but is not limited by the following fixtures: Individual positioning and adjustment of each transducer required in the system A distance encoder for identifying flaw locations and the monitoring of scanning speeds Coupling flow controls 3.5 CALIBRATION STANDARDS (GENERAL)

These details can be found in the Inspection and Test Plan. 3.5.1 CALIBRATION STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

For each pipe diameter, thickness, and material velocity combination a Calibration Standard Dimensional Layout is produced. This form identifies but is not limited to the following: Calibration standard position layout including: o reflector types o position o size Calibration reflector dimensions and machining tolerances

This form, along with layout drawings, will be included for each calibration standard required. 3.5.2 CALIBRATION STANDARD TOLERANCES

The calibration block shall have the same surface condition as that of the production weld, or production welds must have the same surface condition as the calibration block. 3.5.2.1 MACHINING CHECKS

Calibration standards machining tolerances will be verified in accordance with SPS procedure PROC-CW-CBIP. Machining tolerances for calibration reflectors shall be as follows: Hole Diameter Flatness of FBH All pertinent angles (Angular Tolerance) Notch (slot) depth Notch (slot) length Center Position of All Targets (Reference Reflectors) Hole depth 3.5.2.2 VELOCITY CHECKS 0.2 mm 0.1 mm 1 0.1 mm 0.5 mm 0.1 mm 0.2 mm

Velocity checks are performed on each calibration standard. The checks are performed in accordance with SPS procedure PROC-CW-MVM. For pipe with a long seam, attenuation differences between the long seam and pipe greater than 2 dB or angle changes greater than 1.5 require a modified inspection technique in the long seam region. Refer to Section 5.7

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3.6

RECORDING AND DISPLAY SYSTEM (GENERAL)

The recording system shall be InFocus; the prescribed version of software for the project shall be InFocus AutoMark 2.1.26. The software version shall not change during the project without the approval of the Client. The recording system shall provide the following: Clearly indicate the location of indications relative to the marked start position of the weld, with a 10 mm accuracy Distance measurement from the marked start position is in a clockwise orientation when viewing the pipeline in the downstream direction Each transducer shall exhibit a separate recording channel for defect evaluation Each transducer pair shall exhibit a recording of acoustic coupling 3.6.1 OPERATOR CONTROL PANEL

The control panel allows for the following: Inspection software interfacing Transducer pneumatic positioning Scanner head: o stop o start o speed control Acoustic coupling control 3.6.2 GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI)

The GUI is the mechanism utilized by the operator to perform flaw evaluation. The following information is distance aligned and displayed in "real time": Transducer analog/digital amplitude for each required channel Transducer "time of flight" data for each required channel Transducer mapping for root and volumetric channels Coupling monitoring for each transducer pair An unrectified Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) channel utilizing a 256 gray scale B-scan

All flaw information can be color adjusted to expedite weld evaluation. Flaw marking is performed within the GUI. 3.6.3 DATA STORAGE

All weld inspections are stored on magnetic or optical media on two independent sources. Weld inspections can be reviewed or reprinted at any time, simulating the original. Additionally all weld data is archived on CD. Weld data files will be transferred to Company upon request. Contractor shall be notified of any data transfers to Company. 3.6.4 GRAPHICAL PRINTOUT

A graphical printout is produced after completion and evaluation of each inspected weld. This printout may be used by the operator to aid evaluation, and is presented to the Client for audit purposes.

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3.7

SYSTEM SPARES

SPS maintains sufficient spares of all integral system components to minimize downtime in the event of equipment failure. This shall include computer, Monitor, CIM, PCM, SCM, multi-channel flaw detector, remote pulser chassis, compressor, scanner, SHC, and transducers. A listing of equipment spares can be found in the System Control Manual, which shall reside at the inspection facility.

4. INSPECTION PERSONNEL
Credentials of ultrasonic inspection personnel, including qualification and experience, shall be provided to the Client for prior approval. SPS will not substitute personnel without prior approval of the Client. For each project, SPS will designate a project Supervisor, Operators and Scanner Technicians. The Supervisor shall meet the requirements of SNT-TC-1A Level II UT or EN 473 Level II (Manual Ultrasonic Certification) with additional with qualifications in mechanized UT in accordance with SPS Written Practice as per ASNT SNT-TC-1A. The Supervisor will have access to technical support from SPS qualified Level III. The Supervisor shall be responsible for the following: Conduct of the ultrasonic personnel Performance of the inspection equipment Required part spares Inspection recording and records

The Operator shall meet the requirements of ASNT-SNT-TC-1A Level II or EN 473 Level II (Manual Ultrasonic Certification) with additional qualifications in mechanized UT in accordance with SPS CWWPTR- Written Practice Training Requirements. The Operator shall be responsible for the following: Equipment calibration Perform production inspection Inspection results evaluation Inspection reports Operator assistance Scanner set up Scanner maintenance

The Scanner Technician shall be responsible for the following:

5. INSPECTION SET UP
5.1 TRANSDUCER POSITIONING AND PRIMARY REFERENCE SENSITIVITY

The Transducer Specification for Initial Setup sheet (the part of configuration file) determines transducer positioning and initial settings. The latest revisions of configuration file are controlled by Shaw Pipeline Services and are available at the work site or upon request. The Operator as the basis for scanner setup uses the Transducer Specification for Initial Setup. The Transducer Specification for Initial Setup represents the calculated position for setup. It is used only as a guideline. The system shall be optimized for field inspection using the calibration standard.

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Each transducer will be positioned at its operating distance away from the simulated weld centerline on the calibration standard and adjusted to provide a peak signal from its target reflector in the transducers inspection zone. The peak signal response shall be adjusted to 80% of full screen height for each channel. This shall be considered the primary reference level. Instrument gain settings will then be recorded. System filter will be set, and not altered after calibration. System filter is for removal of background electronic noise, and has no effect on amplitude linearity. All changes to the primary reference levels will be recorded. A sample form can be found in Project Forms section. The signal to noise ratio in the gated area shall be at least 20 dB. 5.2 GATE SETTINGS

Using the calibration standard, each detection gate will be set to cover a sound path suitable to the specific inspection zone for each inspection channel. These settings are identified on the Transducer Specifications for Initial Setup Form. All detection gates shall be set to extend at least through the centerline of the weld. For certain channels, i.e. volumetric detectors, the gates must extend through the weld width. The operator shall verify, through the 2D display, that the total weld volume is covered and no gates are short of their intended coverage. These settings may be altered if geometry indications dictate. The Shaw Supervisor shall authorize these adjustments, and changes made shall be documented. The Client shall be informed prior to any alterations to gate parameters. These alterations shall be accompanied with a complete justification as to the reason and consequence of these alterations. The Client may designate specific gate settings. These settings will be identified on the Transducer Specifications for Initial Set-up Form Gate setting tolerances are as follows: Amplitude gates prior to, and after interface or reflector: 0.25 mm TOF gates prior to, and after interface or reflector: 0.25 mm 5.3 GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE RECORDING THRESHOLD

Recording threshold for all flaw evaluation channels will be 20% of full screen height. Evaluation levels and scanning sensitivity for all inspection channels are identified in the Inspection and Test Plan unless specifically approved in writing by the Client. 5.4 CIRCUMFERENTIAL SCANNING VELOCITY

The maximum circumferential scanning velocity (Vc) shall be determined by: Vc < Wc * Where: Wc = the narrowest -6 dB beam width at the appropriate operating distance(s) of all transducers. PRF = Effective pulse repetition rate per transducer. Scanning speeds shall not exceed 100 mm/sec. PRF 3

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5.5

COUPLANT MONITORING CHANNELS

For each transducer pair instrument gain shall be adjusted to produce a transmittal signal to 40% FSH (recordable threshold level) when utilized in the through transmission mode. 10 dB should be added to bring the signal to the reference level. Minor additional gain adjustments may be required in the event of unique surface conditions that affect the reference level. The recording level of acoustic couplant shall be in increments of 2 dB. 5.6 TIME OF FLIGHT DIFFRACTION (TOFD)

The TOFD transducer pair shall be setup according to the Transducer Specification for Initial Setup. The Transducer Specification for Initial Setup represents the calculated position for setup. It is used only as a guideline. The TOFD transducer pair shall be setup such that the refracted longitudinal wave shall provide sufficient coverage, which shall be verified by identifying known reflectors on the calibration standard. Each transducer will be positioned at its operating distance away from the simulated weld centerline on the calibration standard and the sensitivity shall be set such that the acoustic grain scatter is discernible on the digitizer scale over the coverage area. In addition, it shall be set so that the smallest root notches and 5 mm OD TOFD notch, if available, are clearly discernible, with a response at least 6 dB higher than the background noise. All calibration blocks shall have 5 mm OD TOFD notches, depending on the thickness of the test piece, there may be additional TOFD notches that are - wall thickness deep. The sensitivity shall be set to where the OD TOFD notches are clearly discernible and the response shall be at least 6 dB higher than the background noise. If only one scanner is used, the smallest root notch and the 5mm OD notch, if available, must be discernible and at least 6 dB greater than background. If wall thickness requires an ID and an OD scanner, the TOFD on the ID scanner must detect the smallest root notch and the mid wall TOFD notch. The TOFD on the OD scanner must detect the mid wall notch and the OD notch (but no requirement for the ID notch).

All changes to the primary reference levels will be recorded. 5.7 INSPECTION REQUIREMENT FOR THE LONG SEAM AREA

For the inspection of 18.00 Oil Export Line welds in DSAW line pipe, Shaw Pipeline Services shall determine the velocity and attenuation changes in the long seam weld compared to base pipe material. For attenuation changes greater than 2dB and or refracted angle changes greater than 1.5 a dedicated inspection process for the long seam area will be required. When the long seam Cap, Top Fill or Root channel velocities fall within tolerance, then the pulseecho information from the standard corresponding channels shall be used to inspect the long seam areas. Where a problem exists and if possible, the original transducer angle may be changed to bring the velocity difference within tolerance. Where this is not practicable SPS proposes the following approach: For the long seam area only, TOFD will be the primary inspection for the region below the TOFD lateral wave. Resolved defects with a phase change will be given a vertical height, while unresolved defects with no phase change will be given a vertical height of less than
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1mm. Defect interaction must be considered for defects found in the long seam area (with TOFD) with defects found outside the long seam area. Additional channels will be utilized to supplement the TOFD inspection of the long seam area in the zones, which inspect the lateral wave area (Top Fill and Cap) and in the Root. Where additional LS channels are utilized, interaction with indications detected in their corresponding channel outside the long seam area must be considered.

6. FIELD INSPECTION
6.1 WELD NUMBER

SPS will assign a unique number to each inspected weld as specified by the Contractor. 6.2 SURFACE CONDITION

The Contractor will ensure the scanning area is free of spatter and other conditions that may interfere with the movement of the transducers, the coupling, or the transmission of acoustic energy into the material. SPS will record any areas inconsistent with these requirements. The surface temperature of the pipe will be between 5 C and 85C (185F) prior to performing weld inspections. Temperature shall be confirmed by use of Tempil sticks and/or appropriate temperature measurement device. 6.3 REFERENCE LINE

Prior to welding, for all welding procedure qualification welds, J-Lay production welds, including SCR welds, and onshore multi-joint welds a reference line shall be scribed on the pipe surface at a distance of 40 0.5 mm from the end preparation. All markings shall be done on the inspection band side of the weld. A scribing jig shall be used to ensure accurate measurements are made. The 0 starting point and the scanning direction shall also be clearly marked on the surface of the pipe. Placement of the inspection band will be accomplished utilizing preset spacers. The band shall be placed within 0.5 mm tolerance. For welds with no scribe lines, the Company may choose to require the weld be cut out and rewelded, or the Company may require multiple scans of the weld with the band at different relative settings, referenced from about the nominal weld center. For all cases where no scribe lines are evident the Company shall be informed and approval requested prior to commencing offset scans In instances where the scribe line is not evident, multiple scans of the weld shall be performed with the band offset at different relative settings from the nominal weld center (Offset scans shall consist of setting the AUT band at weld cap center as reference, then additional scans carried out at +1 mm/ +2 mm and 1mm / - 2mm from nominal weld center in order to achieve full weld coverage.. 6.4 CALIBRATION 6.4.1 QUALIFICATION

With the system optimized, the calibration standard shall be scanned. The following dictates a successful calibration:

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An analog/digital recording of between 70% and 100% FSH for each detection channel in their correct GUI position Circumferential position accuracy of the recorded reflectors relative to each other, within 2 mm Position accuracy within 10 mm of the zero start Amplitude and TOF gates prior to, and after interface or reflector: 0.25 mm The calibration scan should be started at the same position for each subsequent pass 6.4.2 CALIBRATION FREQUENCY

During the first 20 welds for each diameter and wall thickness range, a calibration scan shall be performed after each inspected weld. Thereafter, at the Clients discretion during J-Lay Flow-line production, the frequency may be reduced to a minimum of one calibration scan for every 10 consecutive welds. During production, calibration intervals will not exceed 30 minutes. For J-lay, calibration verification will be preformed prior to and immediately after each weld however the calibration out from the previous weld may be used as the calibration into the next weld so long as the calibration interval shall not exceed one hour. For SCR welds and fatigue-sensitive flow-line welds, a calibration shall be performed prior to and immediately after every weld. For every weld fabricated onshore a calibration scan shall be performed. In addition, the calibration shall be verified and the USIP parameter data file shall be archived prior to the shutting down of any equipment, following any changes to system components, at the beginning and at the completion of each shift.. Instrument gain settings from the calibration shall be recorded if a deviation from baseline is noted. Recording will be provided on Client approved form. Chart recordings for each calibration scan shall be included sequentially with the weld inspection charts. A calibration scan will be performed subsequent to each repair or rejected weld. Client discretion shall impose In the event that a calibration scan reveals that the equipment has been out of calibration, the Client shall be advised immediately, and the equipment shall be re-calibrated and all welds since the last valid calibration shall be re-scanned. 6.4.3 CIRCUMFERENTIAL POSITION ACCURACY

The positional accuracy of the inspection system shall be verified on every calibration scan, and a minimum of once per inspection shift on the pipe. The position check shall be performed as follows: A common reference point will be identified on the ultrasonic scanner. Index marks will be placed on the calibration block start and stop points; the scanner stop position will be visually checked by the scanner technician after each calibration scan A full circumferential distance will be verified on the pipe comparing the scanner encoder reading with a manual measurement
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The actual circumference of the pipe shall be measured with an approved measuring tape The accuracy of the electronic measuring system shall be within 10 mm of the actual circumference measurement of the pipe The accuracy of the electronic measuring system shall be within 10 mm of the actual run distance on the calibration run Results will be recorded on client approved form. All welds shall be checked for circumferential position accuracy, the scanner technician shall confirm the inspection scan overrun distance exceeds 25 mm on every inspected weld. 6.4.4 LATERAL BEAM SPREAD

Possible overestimating of defect length has not been considered in establishing allowable defect lengths and the Operator should consider lateral beam spread in defect evaluation as shown below.

To assess beam spread, the calibration reference reflector is sized based on the recordable threshold level and from this, and the actual size of the reflector is subtracted to give a correction factor for that channel. This would be repeated for each inspection channel. This correction factor will be utilized for weld evaluation. Note: If two indications are spaced closer than the width of the beam, the lateral beam spread correction must be conservative. That is, the beam spread correction can be applied to one indication or partly to both indications, but total beam spread cannot be applied separately to both defects. Lateral beam spread correction for TOFD indications shall be calculated using the following methods: Linear TOFD indications without a phase reversal in the 5 9mm zone at the top of the weld shall be compensated for beam spread determined from the OD TOFD notch, up to a maximum value of 4mm. Linear TOFD indications without a phase reversal in the 9mm zone at the bottom of the weld shall be compensated for beam spread determined from the smallest root notch, up to a maximum value of 4mm.
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Linear TOFD indications without a phase reversal bounded within the top or bottom zones shall be compensated to the most conservative of the ToFD notch or smallest root notch for beam spread up to a maximum value of 4mm. Linear TOFD indications with a phase reversal, indicating a diffracted response, shall be compensated to the most conservative of the ToFD notch or smallest root notch for beam spread up to a maximum value of 4mm. 6.4.5 TRANSDUCER SURFACE POSITION CHANGES

SPS will record any shifts in transducer position from the baseline measurements as recorded in the relevant part of the System Control Manual. These changes may include repositioning transducers because of geometry indications from a specific welding procedure. These changes will be recorded as they occur, and will be limited to changes greater than +/1.0 mm. 6.4.6 SCANNING SENSITIVITY

The Scanning Sensitivity Tables are located in the applicable individual ITP (Inspection and Test Plans) part of the procedure. 6.4.7 FILL CHANNEL TRANSDUCERS

The limits on fill-channel transducer pairs (upstream/downstream) shall be maintained with the scanner transducers during production inspection as follows: The distance to centerline measurements shall not vary more +/- 2 mm for Flowline inspection The distance to centerline measurements shall not vary more than +/- 2 mm for SCR inspection The response gain shall not vary more than +/- 3 dB 6.5 RE-EXAMINATION

The Re-examination of a weld or welds may be required if a significant loss of couplant occurs or a calibration does not meet the tolerance requirements for the project. The criteria for weld reexamination are detailed below. 6.5.1 COUPLING MONITOR SENSITIVITY

A drop in echo amplitude exceeding -10 dB from the reference level through a clean weld, over a circumferential distance exceeding the maximum allowable linear imperfection length specified for the applicable height bracket in the acceptance criteria shall be re-examined. Re-examination of a loss of couplant may be accomplished by reversing the scanner over the loss of couplant area in the course of the scan. Hi/Low and the presence of mill weld reinforcement, which is not flush with the parent material, can cause loss of signal in the couplant monitors. These geometric features can also be seen in the data channels. Couplant loss exceeding the minimum allowable linear defect length and height must be resolved by surface cleaning, sanding or use of TOFD to assess this area. TOFD may only be used to quantify coupling loss in the region from the bottom of Fill1 as defined by the calibration block design in the ITP, to the bottom of the lateral wave as defined by the scan. In the event that the coupling loss is in the root, hot pass region or with a zone that falls within the lateral wave, manual UT shall be used to finalize the
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weld evaluation. In any case where there is fading of the lateral wave TOFD may not be used.. The area of loss of coupling shall be considered a defect and this length/height defect shall be considered for interaction with any other defect per the applicable interaction rules. Company approval is required in every case. 6.5.2 CALIBRATION SENSITIVITY

Calibration sensitivity shall be within 70%-100% of full screen height. Channels with calibration exceeding 100% do not represent failed calibration, but the operator shall adjust gain settings, when appropriate, to ensure that the channel is not over-sensitive. The operator will ensure that at no time the sensitivity for any channel is in excess of +3 dB of 100% full screen height. For channels with sensitivity below 70% of full screen height, the channel calibration has failed. 6.5.2.1 FAILED CALIBRATION J-LAY AND SCR WELDS

SCR, Multi-joint and J-lay production welds examined at sensitivity below 70% of full screen height shall be re-examined after appropriate adjustments made to bring the calibration back to reference level. 6.5.2.2 FAILED CALIBRATION

In the event that a calibration scan reveals that the equipment has been out of calibration, the Client shall be advised immediately, and the equipment shall be recalibrated and all welds since the last valid calibration shall be re-scanned. 6.6 INTERPRETATION OF DAILY DEFECTS

SPS Operators, according to the defect acceptance criteria provided by the Client, shall evaluate indications of weld imperfections. The AUT operator should maintain a diagram showing the weld pass zones versus the AUT zones to aid in interpretation. Vertical height (in mm) for a single zone indication will be based on maximum signal response reading from the inspection software (InFocus). Vertical height for indications in two zones shall be calculated by adding the height from each zone, then subtracting the applicable overtrace from the lower amplitude indication. Indications in three zones shall be sized using the combined height of the upper and lower inspection zones, after subtracting overtrace from both, and adding it to the full zone height of the middle inspection zone. Overtrace shall be taken from the most recent calibration scan and the maximum overtrace subtracted cannot exceed 40% of full screen height. If the signature in multiple channels indicates separate potential defects, overtrace corrections shall not be applied. When evaluating indications for reject disposition, the system shall demonstrate calibration sensitivity within 10% screen height of the 80% reference level. If a transducers sensitivity exceeds these limits, but is still within the calibration tolerances, and the impact of the sensitivity difference may alter the evaluation, then a rescan will be required. If the sensitivity difference would not alter the evaluation, then a rescan would not be required. Indications produced on the recording system that are present for reasons other than weld imperfections, but exceed length tolerances, shall be evaluated as to their nature. The evaluation will be recorded on the hard copy printout. The Operator will provide a hard copy print out for each weld. Additional copies will be produced for each defective weld. Copies will be forwarded to the following:
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Client QC department Client NDT department 6.6.1 TOFD LINEAR INDICATIONS IN PIPELINE PRODUCTION WELDS

After analysis of all of the focused probe data, the AUT operator shall scan the total TOFD display. All TOFD indications should have some level of correlation with the focused probe data. This correlation may be subtle for cases where there is little or no focused probe response, but strong TOFD indication due to very small height such as inter-pass lack of fusion, or cold lap. For these types of very small height indications, the operator shall rely on the focused probe data as the primary method to assess the indication. The vertical height of very small flaws with a single-phase change cannot be determined with TOFD. In case it would be required to size height of specific point reflectors with TOFD, single-phase indications shall be treated as having a height smaller than 1.0 mm (or less than the smallest specified height in the acceptance criteria). Sometimes, potential cracks, off-bevel lack of fusion defects with significant vertical height, burn-through, or other potential injurious defects that may be visible in the TOFD display but have no correlation with the focused probe data. For these types of indications, the operator shall use the TOFD to define defect length and height if the potentially injurious defect is not adequately represented in the focused probe data. If any TOFD indication has a potential of being crack-like defect, regardless of length or height, the weld must be rejected. TOFD indications of burn-through must be evaluated to the appropriate criteria. 6.6.2 TOFD LINEAR INDICATIONS IN REPAIRED WELD

For repaired welds, all TOFD linear indications must be correlated with the focused probe data. If there is no correlation or limited correlation, due to the potential flaws exhibiting unexpected orientation because of revised or irregular geometry. Then the TOFD indicated length and height must be used to evaluate the indication For indications such as cold lap where the PE channels have little or no amplitude, TOFD produce a strong signal due to the orientation of the indication with top, and bottom signals overlap, the defect height shall be considered less than the smallest specified height in the acceptance criteria. 6.6.3 TOFD NON-LINEAR INDICATIONS

The AUT operator shall scan the TOFD display for potential cracks, copper, or other defects not covered in section 6.6.1 that may be visible in the TOFD display but have no correlation with the focused probe data. For these types of defects, the operator shall use the TOFD to define defect length and height if the defect is not adequately represented in the focused probe data. Each of these flaw types shall be evaluated to the appropriate criteria. If any TOFD indication has a potential of being crack-like defect, regardless of length or height shall be reported to client and assessed against current project criteria. 6.6.4 TOFD LINEAR INDICATIONS IN PROCEDURE AND WELDER QUALIFICATION WELDS For qualification welds, all TOFD linear indications must be correlated with the focused probe data. If there is not correlation, then the TOFD indicated length and height must be used to evaluate the indication. If there is some correlation but the TOFD indications have greater height and/or greater length than indicated in the focused probe channel(s), then the TOFD length and/or heights shall be used to evaluate the indication to the qualification criteria. In
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addition, if any TOFD indication could be a potential crack-like defect, regardless of length or height, the weld must be rejected. If the TOFD indication indicates a burn-through, the weld must be rejected. 6.6.5 TOFD LINEAR INDICATIONS IN SCR WELDS

For SCR welds or other welds with specific ECA based acceptance criterias identified by Client, all TOFD linear indications must be correlated with the focused probe data. If there is no correlation or limited correlation, then the TOFD indicated length and height must be used to evaluate the indication if TOFD provides greater length and/or height values. For indications such as cold lap where the PE channels have little or no amplitude and TOFD topand bottom signals overlap, the defect height shall be considered to be the smallest specified height in the acceptance criteria. If any TOFD indication could be a potential crack-like defect, regardless of length or height, the weld must be rejected. If the TOFD indication indicates a burn-through, the weld must be rejected. 6.6.6 PARENT MATERIAL INDICATIONS RECORDED BY TOFD

Parent material indications, may appear in the TOFD display with little or no correlation with the PE probe data. For this type of indication, the following applies: The cause of these indications must be investigated. This means scanning of the parent material using TOFD probes or additional manual UT. If it is confirmed that the indications originate from the parent material, the Client shall be notified immediately. An attenuation check shall be carried out as to check the reliability of the PE probe data. If attenuation losses are apparent outside of the tolerance of the AUT procedure, it may be considered to re-scan the weld with additional gain to compensate these losses. As AUT is not specifically targeted to detect or evaluate parent material flaws, the Client shall determine which viable course of action shall be taken. 6.7 INSPECTION OF WELD REPAIRS TO FLOWLINES AND CAP REPAIRS TO NONCRITICAL SCRS

Repair areas will be marked using the inspection scanner, and confirmed with a tape measure. SPS will utilize the same scanner array that accomplished the original inspection for evaluating all defective welds. The process for the inspection of the repaired weld will be the same as when it was originally examined. If the repair is such that the re-welded area interferes with the transducers so that a good inspection is compromised, then slight offsetting of the scanner may be required. AUT, MUT, and ToFD shall be used to evaluate any indication in the repair area and the most conservative evaluation shall be used to disposition the repair area. The repair area will be evaluated according to the workmanship and or ECA criteria as defined by Client. 6.8 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

The Client provides the acceptance criteria for all production pipeline welds and repaired pipeline welds. The Client specified criteria defines all acceptance criteria and the rules of data interpretation to be followed by the Operators.

7. INSPECTION RECORD AND DOCUMENTATION SUMMARY


7.1 DAILY INSPECTION REPORTS

Shaw Pipeline Services will supply Clients QC with the following reports:
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7.1.1 ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION REPORT MECHANIZED WELDING (FORM 200) This form is includes the disposition of each inspected weld. 7.1.2 INFOCUS REPAIR REPORT (FORM 201)

Each repair is recorded on this form. 7.1.3 INFOCUS DAILY MASTER CALIBRATION REPORT (FORM 202)

This includes a record of each calibration performed and the position in the pipelay that it occurred. 7.2 SYSTEM CONTROL MANUAL

The following information shall reside in the System Control Manual. 7.2.1 INFOCUS SCANNER TRANSDUCER PARAMETERS (FORM 203)

This form includes all the baseline measurements for each transducer used in the system, along with changes as they occur. 7.2.2 INFOCUS SCANNER CHANGES (FORM 204)

This form includes all the changes performed on the AUT scanner. 7.2.3 ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENT VERTICAL LINEARITY TEST (PROC-CW-VL) (FORM 206) This form includes all the performance checks on the multi-channel flaw detector. 7.2.4 ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENT HORIZONTAL LINEARITY TEST (PROC-CWHL) (FORM 207) This form includes all the performance checks on the multi-channel flaw detector. 7.2.5 USIP 20 ELECTRONIC CALIBRATION TEST (PROC-CW-EC) (FORM 208)

This form includes all the performance checks on the multi-channel flaw detector. 7.2.6 ESSENTIAL EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST (FORM 210)

This checklist verifies equipment sent to the job site. 7.3 SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION AND PROCEDURES

The following in-house procedures are utilized in preparation for AUT inspection: 7.3.1 PROC-CW-CBIP

This is the procedure for verification of calibration standard machining tolerances. 7.3.2 PROC-CW-MVM

This is the procedure for material velocity measurements of calibration standards.

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7.4

TECHNICIAN QUALIFICATION MANUAL

The Technician Qualification Manual has a complete listing of all personnel used for the project including CVs and the Certification Records. 7.5 LOG BOOK

The operator shall keep a log book detailing the performance characteristics and identification of instruments, transducers, and inspection setups. All changes in gain, transducer spacing and other system changes shall be documented in the log book or equivalent.

8. HEALTH & SAFETY EXECUTIVE


Shaw Pipeline Services will carry out work in accordance with all of the relevant statutory provisions. All reasonable practical measures will be taken to avoid risk to its employees and others who may be affected by its operations. Operations will be carried out in a safe manner taking into consideration both the companys own employees, members of the public and the environment. Working in a safe manner will minimize injuries, and ill health and hazards to everyone affected by the performance of work will be identified and addressed. The companys Environmental, Health & Safety policy is held by the supervisor and is available to all employees and third parties at each work site, along with all EHS Procedures. All employees will familiarize themselves and abide by all Health, Safety, and Environment rules imposed both by the company and by the relevant client on each work site. Violation of any of these rules, safe working practices and ignoring safety signs and practices will not be tolerated. It is the responsibility of the Supervisor to carry out a risk assessment at the commencement of each project and to take the necessary measures to ensure all risks and hazards are identified are minimized. All employees have a responsibility to ensure that their actions do not constitute a hazard to themselves or others, and that any potential hazards they encounter are reported to the Supervisor. There are a number of specific areas common to any project that must be considered by the Supervisor and all personnel: Equipment must be maintained in good condition and must only be used for the purpose for which it was intended The work areas must be maintained in a clean and tidy condition to avoid any unnecessary hazards It must be ensured that all personnel have received the appropriate training for the tasks they are to carry out, and in relation to the environment in which they are working The correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be available and used by all personnel when performing operations or whilst in an area where specific hazards have been identified Proper and adequate first aid facilities must be available and periodically checked to ensure that the facilities are adequate for the work environment One of the main areas where injuries occur is in the manual handling of equipment and materials; consideration should always be given to methods whereby manual handling can be avoided COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health) data sheets must be available for all hazardous materials (Chemicals, solvents etc) used or stored at the work site; all personnel must be aware of the location of these data sheets and familiarize themselves with those relevant to their own sphere of activity

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9. PROJECT FORMS
The following Forms are utilized in the Project Description(s):
Description Ultrasonic Weld Inspection Report Mechanized Welding InFocus Repair Report InFocus Daily Master Calibration Report InFocus Scanner Transducer Parameters InFocus Scanner Changes Ultrasonic Instrument Vertical Linearity Test (PROC-CW-VL) Ultrasonic Instrument Horizontal Linearity Test (PROC-CW-HL) Ultrasonic Electronic Calibration Test (PROC-CW-EC) Essential Equipment Change List Essential Equipment Check List USIP Settings Report Form Number FORM 200 FORM 201 FORM 202 FORM 203 FORM 204 FORM 206 FORM 207 FORM 208 FORM 209 FORM 210

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9.1

FORM 200 ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION REPORT / MECHANIZED WELDING

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9.2

FORM 201 INFOCUS / REPAIR REPORT

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9.3

FORM 202 INFOCUS / DAILY MASTER CALIBRATION REPORT

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9.4

FORM 203 INFOCUS / SCANNER TRANSDUCER PARAMETERS

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9.5

FORM 204 INFOCUS / SCANNER CHANGES

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9.6

FORM 206 ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENT VERTICAL LINEARITY TEST (PROC-CWVL)

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9.7

FORM 207 ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENT HORIZONTAL LINEARITY TEST (PROC-CW-HL)

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9.8

FORM 208 USIP 20 ELECTRONIC CALIBRATION TEST (PROC-CW-EC)

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9.9

FORM 209 ESSENTIAL EQUIPMENT CHANGE LIST

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9.10 FORM 210 ESSENTIAL EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

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9.11 USIP SETTINGS REPORT

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APPENDIX I GUMUSUT INTERPRETATION GUIDELINE FOR NEAR OD SURFACE DEFECTS REVISION 0 (17 pages to follow)

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Gumusut Interpretation Guideline for Near OD Subsurface Flaws (Rev.0)

1. Introduction
Due to the propensity of possible acoustic interference within the near OD zone or last 5mm of the weld to the OD (i.e. Last Fill zone and/or Cap zone), particular attention must be paid to flaws located within this region in order to achieve the required sizing accuracy. Factors affecting the propensity and/or significance of acoustic cap interference are purely geometric and include cap bevel overlap, flaw angle, flaw depth, flaw location (relative to the bevel) and UT beam angle. Flaws seen within the Last Tandem Fill zone (between 2.0 mm - 5.00 mm from the OD), may show diminished amplitude response due to acoustic cap interference. Even more critical, are flaws located within the last 2.0 - 3.0 mm of weld to the OD. Small flaws located within the Cap zone may show diminished amplitude response if they are located towards the bottom of the Cap zone. This happens when there is good material above the flaw, causing the corner effect to be lost. For this reason, a 1.0 mm flaw at the bottom of the Cap zone (2.0 depth) will show lower amplitude response than the same 1.0 mm flaw at the top of the Cap zone (1.0 mm depth). Small flaws that straddle the Cap and Last Fill zone may suffer diminished amplitude response for both reasons (acoustic cap interference and loss of corner effect). As flaws located here are at the weakest detection point for both channels, flaw sizing here must be completed with caution and conservatism. This is especially true when ToFD data is obscured or not adequate enough to determine the location of the flaw bottom. The purpose of this document is to define methodology to aid in the interpretation and sizing of flaws located within the critical last 5.0 mm of wall thickness towards the OD surface. Two different methodologies and their respective applicable conditions are discussed.

2. Acoustic Interference from the Cap


Several geometric conditions can contribute to acoustic interference from the cap. The following are contributing factors that are important to remember: Wide/Offset Cap as a cap becomes wider or more offset, there is an increasing chance that some or all return (Tx) energy from the tandem will be trapped by the cap. Flaws Inside the Bevel as flaws move away from the bevel and closer to weld center, an increasing amount of return (Tx) energy will be directed toward the cap. Flaw Angle as a flaw becomes more vertical, an increasing amount of return (Tx) energy will be directed toward the cap.

- 1 -- 1 4250 N. Sam Houston Parkway, Suite 180, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. 77032 Tel: (832) 601-0850 Fax: www.shawpipeline.com (281)442-1593

Proximity to OD Surface - as a flaw becomes closer to the OD surface, an increasing amount of return (Tx) energy will be directed toward the cap. UT Beam Angle as UT beam angles decrease, the tandem OD skip point moves closer to weld center increasing the chance that return (Tx) energy will be trapped in the cap. Bevel Angle as bevel angles decrease, angle change at the bevel interface becomes less, moving the OD skip point closer to weld center and increasing the chance that return (Tx) energy will be trapped in the cap. It is important to select a Tx angle that will produce an Rx return angle sufficient enough to clear expected cap widths. A tandem return (Tx) angle of 60 degrees is preferred; tandem return (Tx) angles less than 58 degrees should be avoided.

3. Estimating and Corroborating Flaw Size Using Supporting Channel Data and ToFD
It is important to consider all supporting data from adjacent channel response, ToFD and the top volumetric channel when sizing flaws within the last 5.0 mm towards the OD surface. If not all supporting channel information in this region is considered, flaws within the region can (potentially) be significantly undersized. Supporting channels for the primary zones are as follows: CN Zone Last Fill channel, Top Volumetric channel, ToFD Last Fill Zone CN channel, 2 Last Fill channel, Top Volumetric channel, ToFD Top Volumetric Zone CN channel, Last fill channel, 2
nd nd

Last fill channel, ToFD

It can be seen in Example 1 (below) two locations show low amplitude response, but exhibit significant disruption of the ToFD lateral wave, at approximately 797 mm and at 859mm. This is a good indicator that acoustic interference from the cap has occurred. Five geometric conditions were contributing factors here; the cap was offset to the flaw side (extending 5.5 6.5 mm beyond the flaw), the flaw was positioned inside and at a lesser angle than the bevel, the flaw was near the OD surface and the UT beam angle was too low.

Example 1

It can be seen that the near surface flaws were detected, but with significantly reduced amplitude response in the Last Tandem Fill channel. However, adjacent channel response and ToFD clearly

indicate a larger flaw than Last Tandem Fill amplitude response alone would suggest. In such a case, flaws must be evaluated based on ToFD and adjacent channel information, or the flaw will be undersized (see Example 1 - Macro Section Photos).

Example 1 - Macro Section Photos


@797 mm

@859 mm

The methodology for estimating and corroborating flaw size using supporting data and ToFD will be discussed as a two step process (below). 3.1 Estimating the Flaw Bottom Using Adjacent Channel Overtrace In Example 1, ToFD indicates a flaw with a bottom at 5.0 mm deep at 797 mm and 4.6 mm deep at 859 mm. This is corroborated by F6 overtrace of the flaw. To estimate the flaw bottom using adjacent channel overtrace response, one must first determine the difference between the calibration overtrace and the flaw overtrace value. In this case, one must compare the F6 overtrace of the F7 hole on the calibration against the overtrace seen on the flaw. The F6 sees the F7 calibration reflector with a 1.4 mm sizing value on the calibration.

To estimate the flaw bottom at 797 mm - take the difference between the F6 calibration overtrace value of the F7 reflector (1.4 mm) and the flaw overtrace (0.5 mm). The difference (-0.9 mm) is then deducted from the bottom depth of the F7 reflector. In this case, the F7 bottom is at 5.1 mm (see TP-2528 Calibration Reflector Positions). Now subtract the 0.9 mm difference from 5.1 mm to determine the flaw bottom, this would be 4.2 mm. Note: If the flaw overtrace was greater than the calibration overtrace, this difference would then be added to the F7 reflector bottom position, placing the flaw deeper than the F7 reflector bottom. To estimate the flaw bottom at 859 mm - take the difference between the F6 calibration overtrace value of the F7 reflector (1.4 mm) and the flaw overtrace (0.2 mm). The difference (-1.2 mm) is then deducted from the bottom depth of the F7 reflector. In this case, the F7 bottom is at 5.1 mm (see TP-2528 Calibration Reflector Positions). Now subtract the 1.2 mm difference from 5.1 mm to determine the flaw bottom, this would be 3.9 mm. Note: If the flaw overtrace was greater than the calibration overtrace, this difference would then be added to the F7 reflector bottom position, placing the flaw deeper than the F7 reflector bottom.

TP-2528 Calibration Reflector Positions

3.2 Estimating the Flaw Top Using Adjacent Channel Overtrace

The flaw top location can also be estimated using the same method. Here, one must again first determine the difference between the calibration overtrace and the flaw overtrace value. In this case, one must compare 1.0 CN overtrace of the F7 hole on the calibration against what is seen on the flaw. The 1.0 CN sees the F7 with a 0.1 mm sizing value on the calibration. To estimate the flaw top at 797 mm - take the difference between the CN calibration overtrace of the F7 reflector (0.1 mm) and the flaw overtrace (0.2 mm). The difference (0.1 mm) is then deducted from the bottom depth of the 1.0 CN reflector (1.0 mm). Subtracting the 0.1 mm difference from 1.0 mm places the flaw top at 0.9 mm from the OD. Comparing this to the flaw bottom (determined above) you would now have an estimated flaw 4.2 mm deep with a VH of 3.3 mm (4.2 depth minus the .9 mm to surface). This flaw would have an OD surface interactive value of 4.2 mm. To estimate the flaw top at 859 mm - take the difference between the CN calibration overtrace of the F7 reflector (0.1 mm) and the flaw overtrace (0.2 mm). The difference (0.1 mm) is then deducted from the bottom depth of the 1.0 CN reflector (1.0 mm). Subtracting the 0.1 mm difference from 1.0 mm places the flaw top at 0.9 mm from the OD. Comparing this to the flaw bottom (determined above) you would now have an estimated flaw 3.9 mm deep with a VH of 3.0 mm (3.9 depth minus the .9 mm to surface). This flaw would have an OD surface interactive value of 3.9 mm.

Comparison of Determined Values

Flaw at 797 mm
Flaw Depth (mm): Flaw VH (mm): Interactive VH (mm):

Macro Section Value 3.9 2.8 3.9 Macro Section Value 3.9 2.1 3.9

CN/F7 Amplitude Only 4.0 0.9 N/A CN/F7 Amplitude Only 2.5 1.0 N/A

Estimation Using Adjacent Channel Overtrace 4.2 3.3 4.2 Estimation Using Adjacent Channel Overtrace 3.9 3.0 3.9

ToFD Only 5.0 5.0 5.0 ToFD Only 4.6 4.6 4.6

Flaw at 859 mm
Flaw Depth (mm): Flaw VH (mm): Interactive VH (mm):

It can be seen from the table above (Comparison of Determined Values), that the estimated values (based on adjacent channel overtrace) are both conservative and much closer to the actual destructive values than the amplitude response has indicated. In this case, ToFD can only determine the flaw depth as the flaw top is too close to the OD to resolve. For this reason, the ToFD VH value is based on the assumption that the flaw is surface interactive. The ToFD value is likely more conservative than the estimated value (using adjacent channel overtrace) as the measurement in ToFD becomes much coarser (0.4 mm steps in this case) as measurement points get closer to the lateral wave. It is quite obvious, if the flaws were sized based on CN and F7 amplitude response alone, they would have been significantly undersized.

3.3 Estimating Flaw Size for Defects Located Inside the bevel should be completed Estimation of flaw size for defects determined to be located inside the bevel with the highest level of conservatism. Amplitude response can easily be diminished or lost completely from primary and supporting tandem channels (due to acoustic cap interference). For this reason, the worst case scenario must be assumed if the flaw-top cannot be resolved in ToFD or determined with other supporting channel information. In this case, use the best, most conservative information to determine the depth of the flaw bottom and then assume the flaw is interactive to the OD surface (flaw depth equals flaw vertical height). Note 1: Caution should be observed when determining if a flaw is located inside the bevel. An increase in wall thickness of 0.5 mm from the calibration reference can easily cause indications seen in a tandem fill to be 1.0 mm (or more) later in time, depending on beam angle. Wall thickness should be confirmed with a UT wall thickness check in this case. Also ensure that the band standoff is correct. Multiple offset scans may be required to get the best information.
Note 1

4. Small Subsurface Defects Located Near the CN/Last Fill Zone Intersection
As mentioned earlier, small flaws at the bottom of the Cap zone or that straddle the Cap and Last Fill zone may suffer diminished amplitude response for two reasons. Proximity to the OD surface may cause acoustic cap interference for the last tandem fill and good material above the flaw may cause loss of the corner effect for the cap PE transducer. Flaws located in this region must be considered to be at the weakest detection point for both channels. For this reason, additional conservatism is required when determining flaw depth and vertical height. Accurate determination of the flaw top location is as critical as the determining the vertical height in this zone due to the high possibility of surface interaction. The most conservative or worst case flaw depth should be considered when determining surface interaction. If the flaw bottom can be resolved in ToFD, but the top cannot be reliably determined, it may be necessary to assume the flaw is interactive to the OD surface (flaw depth equals flaw vertical height). In the case where the flaw bottom cannot be resolved in ToFD, a different approach is required. In this case, the Gumusut SCR Near OD - Subsurface Flaw Calculator should be used. Please see the following examples:

Example 2 - Calibration

Example 2 Scan

Example 2 - Macro Section Photos

In Example 2, the Fill 7 shows good amplitude response on both indications at (approximately) 85 mm and 135 mm. In this case, use of the calculator is not required as the flaw bottoms are resolved in ToFD. It should be noted that the scan and macro circumferential positions differ by approximately 30 mm (macro position value smaller than scan position). To estimate the flaw at 85 mm (macro 55 mm) first locate the flaw bottom in ToFD. In this case, the ToFD bottom is at 3.7 mm. Adjacent channel information helps corroborate this depth, as F6 amplitude response from this flaw is less than the calibration overtrace from the F7 reflector on the calibration. This indicates the flaw bottom is closer to the OD than the bottom of the F7 reflector (5.1 mm). The CN amplitude response from the flaw is less than the calibration overtrace from the F7 reflector, indicating the top of the defect is lower than the top of the F7 reflector (2.1 mm). This also helps corroborate that the flaw is less than 3.0 mm VH. The sizing value from the F7 is 1.3 mm; and since the flaw top appears to be lower than 2.1 mm, it is safe to use ToFD flaw bottom value and the F7 amplitude for flaw height. This leaves us with a buried 1.3 mm VH flaw, 3.7 mm deep. This compares well to the macro section value of a 1.0 mm VH flaw, 3.5 mm deep. To estimate the flaw at 135 mm (macro 106 mm) first locate the flaw bottom in ToFD. In this case, the ToFD bottom is at 4.2 mm. In this case, adjacent channel information does not help corroborate this depth, as the F6 amplitude response from this flaw is greater than that of the F7 reflector calibration overtrace. This indicates the flaw bottom is further from the OD than the bottom of the F7 reflector (5.1 mm). The CN amplitude response from the flaw is the same as the calibration overtrace, indicating the top of the defect is approximately the same as the top of the F7 reflector (2.1 mm). Using adjacent channel response as markers for the flaw top and bottom indicates a larger flaw (3.4 mm VH, 5.5 mm deep) than the F7/F6 amplitude and ToFD (2.2 mm VH, 4.2 mm deep).

In this case, it can be seen that ToFD provides the most accurate depth. In addition, it can also be seen that when the 2nd Last Fill tandem shows an amplitude value exceeding the calibration overtrace of the Last Fill channel reflector, the flaw is low enough in the volume that acoustic interference is unlikely. In this case, the flaw should be sized using the F7/F6 amplitude (to determine VH) and ToFD (for the flaw bottom). This gives us a flaw size of 2.2 mm VH, 4.2 mm deep. Although the flaw is oversized when compared to the macro section value (1.1 mm VH flaw, 4.1 mm deep), based on the available data, a less conservative estimate is not possible. The calibration was within specification, but on the hot side, this added approximately .4 mm to the flaw VH. A rescan with readjusted reference amplitudes would have left us with a buried 1.8 mm VH flaw, 4.2 mm deep, rather than a 4.2 mm surface interactive flaw. This underscores the requirement to rescan a flaw with readjusted reference amplitudes when determination of surface interaction is this close.

5. Using the Gumusut SCR Near OD - Subsurface Flaw Calculator


The Gumusut SCR Near OD - Subsurface Flaw Calculator uses the Infocus amplitude sizing values (see CAUTION below) from the .5 CN and Last Fill channel. It is based on the comparison of amplitude values from the validation scans vs. the macro section values. The calculator should show accuracy within 0.5 mm for VH and depth. The reason for using the calculator is to avoid under-sizing small defects located at the bottom of the Cap zone or that straddle the Cap and Last Fill zones. As mentioned earlier, flaws located in this area may suffer from diminished amplitude; proximity to the OD surface may cause acoustic cap interference for the last tandem fill and good material above the flaw may cause loss of the corner effect for the Cap PE transducer. For this reason, flaws located in this region must be considered to be at the weakest detection point for both the Cap and Last Fill channel. As an example, using just amplitude response alone, you may size a flaw at .7 mm VH buried; when it is actually a 1.4 mm VH, 2.6 mm deep flaw, with just 1.2 mm of good material left above it to the OD surface. Or, in other words, an OD surface interactive flaw with an interactive value of 2.6 mm VH. This is where the calculator comes in. The calculator is only to be used when we detect a small subsurface fusion face flaw near the intersection of the Cap and Last Fill zones (based on mapping and ToF data from the CN, Last Fill and/or Top Volumetric channel) and the where the flaw bottom cannot be resolved or determined using ToFD. The prerequisites that must be present to use the Gumusut SCR Near OD - Subsurface Flaw Calculator are as follows:

The flaw must be located on the fusion face. Remember to confirm the wall thickness if the indication comes in late, as it may still be on the fusion face. .5 CN channel amplitude must be 20% or greater (typically 20-40%). Last Fill channel amplitude does not need to exceed 20%, but must be equal to or greater than the overtrace amplitude seen from the .5 CN notch on the calibration. The flaw bottom cannot be resolved or determined using ToFD.

CAUTION: Do not deduct any overtrace from the Infocus sizing value for the .5 CN or the Last (Top) Tandem Fill channel. Enter only the exact value from Infocus into the calculator or the flaw will be undersized!

It is possible that the visual column of the calculator and numeric section may differ slightly by 0.1 mm. The numeric section of the calculator rounds to the nearest 0.1 mm. If the visual portion indicates the flaw is slightly deeper than the rounded value, this means the flaw is at X +.05 mm. When this happens, it is recommended that the visual column (greater) value be used for an extra level of conservatism, if interaction is close. In the example below, it can be seen that the input flaw values from the .5 CN channel (0.2 mm) and the Last Fill channel (0.3 mm) equate to a much larger flaw than the sum of the two values alone (0.5 mm). Here, you can see the calculator has determined the flaw to be 1.2 mm VH, and 2.5 mm in depth. In this case, it can also be seen that the flaw is not considered to be surface interactive.

Gumusut SCR Near OD Subsurface Flaw Calculator (Example)

Example 3 Calibration

Example 3 Scan

Example 3 - Macro Section Photos

In Example 3, the CN channel shows low amplitude response (downstream side), but exceeds 20% FSH on both indications at 130 mm and 225 mm (macro at 113 mm and 205 mm). The Fill 7 shows low amplitude response on both indications equal to, or greater than CN overtrace value on the calibration and the flaw bottom can not be seen in ToFD (it is obscured by a larger and slightly deeper flaw on the opposite side). Both of these flaws meet the criteria for using the Gumusut SCR Near OD Subsurface Flaw Calculator. It should be noted, that in the following examples, the F7 +2 sizing value has been estimated (by scaling the F7 +1 by approximately 1.2 -1.5 X based on samples from the upstream side) as the F7 +2 channel

was not used on the downstream side (due to limitations in coupon length). It should also be noted that the scan and macro circumferential positions differ by approximately 20 mm. To estimate the flaw at 130 mm (macro 113 mm) first determine the Infocus sizing value from both the .5 CN and Last Fill channel. In this case the values are 0.2 mm and 0.5 mm respectively. Next, enter these values into the calculator.

Flaw @ 130 mm (Macro 113 mm)

The calculator estimates a flaw closer to the macro section value than amplitude values alone would have. The calculator estimated a 1.5 mm VH flaw, 2.8 mm deep. The estimate is conservative, as it predicts surface interaction; however the value still compares very well to the macro section value of a 1.3 mm VH flaw, 2.7 mm deep.

To estimate the flaw at 225 mm (macro 205 mm) first determine the Infocus sizing value from both the .5 CN and Last Fill channel. In this case the values are 0.2 mm and 0.6 mm respectively. Next, enter these values into the calculator.

Flaw @ 225 mm (Macro 205 mm)

The calculator estimates a 1.7 mm VH flaw, 2.9 mm deep (2.9 mm surface interactive). Although the calculated value is slightly less than the macro section value of 1.8 mm VH, 3.1 deep, it is still very close and well within the sizing tolerance of +/- 0.5 mm and also predicts surface interaction.

Example 4 Calibration

Example 4 Scan

Example 4 - Macro Section Photos

In Example 4, the CN channel shows low amplitude response (downstream side), but exceeds 20% FSH on all three indications at approximately 75 mm, 125 mm and 225 mm (macro at 55 mm, 105 mm, and 205 mm). The Fill 7 shows low amplitude response on the indications equal to, or greater than the CN overtrace value on the calibration and the flaw bottom can not be seen in ToFD (it is obscured by a larger and slightly deeper flaw on the opposite side). All three of these flaws meet the criteria for using the Gumusut SCR Near OD Subsurface Flaw Calculator. It should be noted, that in the following examples, the F7 +2 sizing value has been estimated (by scaling the F7 +1 by approximately 1.0 -1.5 X based on samples from the upstream side) as the F7 +2 channel

was not used on the downstream side (due to limitations in coupon length). It should also be noted that the scan and macro circumferential positions differ by approximately 20 mm.

To estimate the flaw at 75 mm (macro 55 mm) first determine the Infocus sizing value from both the .5 CN and Last Fill channel. In this case the values are 0.3 mm and 0.5 mm respectively. Next, enter these values into the calculator.

Flaw @ 75 mm (Macro 55 mm)

The calculator estimates a 1.3 mm VH flaw, 2.4 mm deep (2.4 mm surface interactive). Although the calculated value is more conservative than the macro section value of 0.9 mm VH, 2.0 deep, it is still very close and well within the sizing tolerance of +/- 0.5 mm. It would be very difficult to not consider surface interaction with a flaw this close to the OD surface. As a side note, this flaw was originally dimensioned in the original macro at 1.3 mm VH mm, 2.0 mm depth.

To estimate the flaw at 125 mm (macro 105 mm) first determine the Infocus sizing value from both the .5 CN and Last Fill channel. In this case the values are 0.3 mm and 0.5 mm respectively. Next, enter these values into the calculator.

Flaw @ 125 mm (Macro 105 mm)

The calculator estimates a 1.3 mm VH flaw, 2.4 mm deep (2.4 mm surface interactive). Although the calculated value is more conservative than the macro section value of 0.9 mm VH, 2.5 deep, it is still very close and well within the sizing tolerance of +/- 0.5 mm. It would be very difficult to not consider surface interaction with a flaw this close to the OD surface. As a side note, this flaw was originally dimensioned in the original macro at 1.2 mm VH mm, 2.4 mm depth.

To estimate the flaw at 225 mm (macro 205 mm) first determine the Infocus sizing value from both the .5 CN and Last Fill channel. In this case the values are 0.3 mm and 0.5 mm respectively. Next, enter these values into the calculator.

Flaw @ 125 mm (Macro 105 mm)

The calculator estimates a 1.5 mm VH flaw, 2.8 mm deep (2.8 mm VH surface interactive). Although the calculated value is more conservative than the macro section value of 1.6 mm VH, 2.7 deep, it is still very close and well within the sizing tolerance of +/- 0.5 mm and also predicts surface interaction. As a side note, this flaw was originally dimensioned in the original macro at 1.9 mm VH mm, 2.8 mm depth.

6. Summary It can be seen that judicious use of the methodology and tools presented within this document can greatly enhance the evaluation and sizing of near OD subsurface flaws located within the last 5.0 mm toward the OD surface. It is recommended that in addition to this document, all technicians be familiar with the SPS document Impact of Wide Caps on AUT Rev.0 and also the Gumusut AUT Cap Width Tables included within this package. Any questions or concerns regarding the methodology or tools presented within this document should be directed to:

Gil Chapman Shaw Pipeline Services Houston Texas Ph: (281) 882-2251 E-mail: gchapman@sps.shawcor.com or Zhenzeng Tang Shaw Pipeline Services Houston Texas Ph: (713) 503-5128 E-mail: ztang@sps.shawcor.com