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Introduction to the Family of Stainless Steels

Stainless Steels
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Definition Iron Alloy with >11% Cr Very Large Family - >100 Members Other Alloying Elements
Ni, Mo, N, Cu, Nb (Cb), Ti, C

Metallurgy
Ferritic, Martensitic, Austenitic, Duplex, Super
Ferritic, Martensitic are body-centered cubic Austenitic is face-centered cubic

Nickel-Rich Alloys

Corrosion Resistant Alloys


Name
304 304L 321 347 316 316L 316Ti SEA CURE AL 29-4C AL 29-4-2 Alloy 2205 Alloy 2205 Alloy 255 Alloy 2507 Zeron 100 Alloy 254 SMO Alloy 20 Mo-6 Alloy 28 AL-6XN 904L Alloy926 Alloy 1925hMo Alloy 25-6MO Alloy 654 SMO Alloy G-30 Alloy 625 Alloy C-276 Nickel 200 Monel 400 Alloy B3

UNS No.
S30400 S30403 S32100 S34700 S31600 S31603 S31635 S44660 S44735 S44800 S31803 S32205 S32550 S32750 S32760 S31254 N08026 N08028 N08367 N08904 N08926 N08926 N08926 S32654 N06030 N06625 N10276 N02200 N04400 N10665

Alloy Group
Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Super Ferritic Super Ferritic Super Ferritic Duplex Duplex Duplex Super Duplex Super Duplex Super Austenitic Super Austenitic Super Austenitic Super Austenitic Super Austenitic Super Austenitic Super Austenitic Super Austenitic Super Austenitic Nickel Based Nickel Based Nickel Based Nickel Based Nickel Based Nickel Based

C (Max)
0.08 0.03 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.1 0.01 0.15 0.3 0.01

N
---------0.02 0.08 0.14 0.1 0.24 0.2 0.18 0.1 -0.18 -0.15 0.15 0.15 0.45 -------

Cr
18 18 17 17 16 16 16 25 28 28 21 22 24 24 24 19.5 22 26 20 19 19 19 19 24 28 20 14.5 ----

Ni
8 8 9 9 10 10 10 1 -2 4.5 4.5 4.5 6 6 17.5 33 30 23.5 23 24 24 24 21 Bal. Bal. Bal. 99 63 Bal.

Mo
----2 2 2 3 3.6 3.5 2.5 3 2.9 3 3 6 5 3 6 4 6 6 6 7 4 8 15 --26

Cu
------------1.5 -0.5 0.5 2 0.6 -1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 1 ---28 --

Fe
Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. 13 5 4 ---

Other
--Ti Cb --Ti 0.7 Cb+Ti Cb+Ti ---------------Cb W Cb W ----

PRE
18 18 17 17 23 23 23 35 40 40 31 34 35 38 37 42 40 36 42 32 41 41 41 53 41 46 64 ----

Cost Ratio
1.4 to 2 1.4 to 2

1.6 to 2.7 1.6 to 2.7

2 to 4.5 2 to 4.5 2.5 2.6 to 5.2 3.5 to 6.5 3.3 to 7.5 6 3.3 3.3 to 7 3.2 3.3 to 7.5 3.3 to 7.5 3.3 to 7.5 4.5 10 6.5 8 to 15 7.4 to 9 5.7 to 9 9 to 13

How Does Stainless Steel Corrode?


General Corrosion u Occluded Cell Corrosion (Pitting, Crevice Corrosion, Deposit Corrosion) u Stress Corrosion Cracking u Intergranular Corrosion
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General Corrosion
Oxidizing Power Below the Required Level to Passivate u In such a case, SS corrodes like carbon steel u This situation is fairly easy to avoid
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Oxidizing Power vs. Corr. Rate SS in Dilute Sulfuric Acid

Corrosion Rate

Oxidizer Added

Occluded Cell Corrosion


Chloride is the Usual Cause u Mechanism u Crevice Corrosion, Deposit Corrosion u Pitting u Pitting is Different because of the Requirement for Initiation u Once initiated, pitting progresses just like crevice corrosion
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Occluded Cell Corrosion Mechanism

Stress Corrosion Cracking


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Requires tensile stress + Specific Environment Chloride or hot, strong caustic Increased Risk at Higher Temp., Stress Level, chloride level, Lower pH Empirical Correlations Corrective Actions
Modify Environment Relieve Stress Change Alloy - Higher Ni content or Duplex

Chloride SCC Limits 304, 316


SCC Limits - 304/316
10000 1000 Chlorides ppm 100 10 1 0 0.1 Process Inlet Temperature C 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

McIntyre - All Data Sakai - 3 Year Data Sakai - 6 Year Data Sakai - Shell Side Sakai - Tube Side

Intergranular Corrosion
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Occurs In Specific Environments, in Presence of Grain Boundary Precipitates Precipitates Form in 800 to 1600 F Range Area parallel to weldment most Common Weld Decay Corrective Actions Lower Carbon in Alloy, Add Ti or Nb to Alloy, Quench Anneal after Welding Unusual with Modern Alloys Tend to be Low C

Examples
SS in Sea Water u SS in Cooling Tower Water u Corrosion Under Insulation u SS Polymer Reactor u SS in HCN Stripper Column
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The Rules Use of Common SS in Sea Water


Dont u If Unavoidable, and Tmax >60 C, to have a chance of success
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Sterilize Water Water on Tube Side Horizontal Exchanger Water Velocity (Actual), Continuous, High as Possible, Definitely >6 ft/sec

The Rules Use of Common SS in CTW


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Use 316 or 316L Mount Exchanger Horizontal Water on Tube Side if Possible Keep Water Flow Continuous, Velocity High If Exchanger Must be Vertical, Water on Shell Side
Vent Top Tube Sheet If Process T>60 C, Use a Better Alloy

The Problem with Vertical, Shell- Side Water Exchangers


Hot Process Inlet
Tube Sheet Vent

Process In

Water Level

Water Out

Concentration and deposition at interface on hot wall causes pitting, crevice corrosion and/or stress corrosion cracking. Water In

Process Out

Figure 2-7 The Problem with Vertical, Shell Side Water Exchangers

Corrosion Under Insulation

Absorber/Stripper System

Polymer Treatment Reactor

Common Austenitic Stainless Steels

Name UNS No. C (Max) Cr


304 304L 321 347 316 316L 316Ti S30400 S30403 S32100 S34700 S31600 S31603 S31635 0.08 0.03 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.03 0.08 18 18 17 17 16 16 16

Ni
8 8 9 9 10 10 10

Mo
----2 2 2

Fe
Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal.

Other
--Ti Cb --Ti 0.7

PRE Cost Ratio


18 18 17 17 23 23 23 1.4 to 2 1.4 to 2

1.6 to 2.7 1.6 to 2.7

PRE is Pitting Resistance Equivalent. PRE=Cr+3.3*Mo+13*N Cost Ratio is Approximate Ratio of Fabricated Cost to Carbon Steel

Super Austenitic Stainless Steels


Name
Alloy 254 SMO Alloy 20 Mo-6 Alloy 28 AL-6XN 904L Alloy926 Alloy 1925hMo Alloy 25-6MO Alloy 654 SMO

UNS No. C (Max) N


S31254 N08026 N08028 N08367 N08904 N08926 N08926 N08926 S32654 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

Cr

Ni Mo Cu Fe PRE Cost Ratio


3.3 to 7.5 6 3.3 3.3 to 7 3.2 3.3 to 7.5 3.3 to 7.5 3.3 to 7.5 4.5

0.18 19.5 17.5 6 0.5 Bal. 42 0.1 22 33 5 2 Bal. 40 -26 30 3 0.6 Bal. 36 0.18 20 23.5 6 -- Bal. 42 -19 23 4 1 Bal. 32 0.15 19 24 6 0.5 Bal. 41 0.15 19 24 6 0.5 Bal. 41 0.15 19 24 6 0.5 Bal. 41 0.45 24 21 7 0.3 Bal. 53

PRE is Pitting Resistance Equivalent. PRE=Cr+3.3*Mo+13*N Cost Ratio is Approximate Ratio of Fabricated Cost to Carbon Steel

Some Nickel Based Alloys


Name
Alloy G-30 Alloy 625 Alloy C-276 Nickel 200 Monel 400 Alloy B3

UNS No. C (Max) Cr


N06030 N06625 N10276 N02200 N04400 N10665

Ni

Mo Cu Fe Other PRE Cost Ratio


4 8 15 --26 1 ---28 -13 Cb W 5 Cb 4 W --- --- -41 46 64 ---10 6.5 8 to 15 7.4 to 9 5.7 to 9 9 to 13

0.03 28 Bal. 0.1 20 Bal. 0.01 14.5 Bal. 0.15 -- 99 0.3 -- 63 0.01 -- Bal.

PRE is Pitting Resistance Equivalent. PRE=Cr+3.3*Mo+13*N Cost Ratio is Approximate Ratio of Fabricated Cost to Carbon Steel

Ferritic & Duplex Stainless Steels

Name
SEA CURE AL 29-4C AL 29-4-2 Alloy 2205 Alloy 2205 Alloy 255 Alloy 2507 Zeron 100

UNS No. Alloy Group C (Max)


S44660 S44735 S44800 S31803 S32205 S32550 S32750 S32760 Super Ferritic Super Ferritic Super Ferritic Duplex Duplex Duplex Super Duplex Super Duplex 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.05

N
--0.02 0.08 0.14 0.1 0.24 0.2

Cr
25 28 28 21 22 24 24 24

Ni Mo Cu
1 -2 4.5 4.5 4.5 6 6 3 3.6 3.5 2.5 3 2.9 3 3 -----1.5 -0.5

Fe
Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal.

Other PRE Cost Ratio


Cb+Ti Cb+Ti ------35 40 40 31 2 to 4.5 34 2 to 4.5 35 2.5 38 2.6 to 5.2 37 3.5 to 6.5

PRE is Pitting Resistance Equivalent. PRE=Cr+3.3*Mo+16*N Cost Ratio is Approximate Ratio of Fabricated Cost to Carbon Steel

Nomenclature
Trade Names Carpenter 20Cb3, etc. u Common Names - Alloy Chemistry Only
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AISI 304, 316, 310, etc. Chemistry only UNS S30400, S31600, S31000
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Specifications - Chemistry + Mechanical + Manufacture


ASTM A-249-02
Alloy Base + Product Form + Year

Nomenclature Many Systems Example UNS S30400, 304 SS


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Trade Names
EN 1.4301, 3R12, 5R10, B8, B8A, Polarit 725, 15 more

Specifications
AMS 27 ASME 13 ASTM 51 SAE 3

Changes from Modern Steel Mill Practices


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Tighter Control of Alloy Chemistry


+/- 0.2% now vs. 0.5% then

Raw Material Recycled Scrap now vs. ore then u Annealing Practices Shorter time at temperature and slower quench now u Pickling Practices Spray and Flush now vs. Immersion then

Result of Changes in Mill Practices


Desired Alloy Content at Low End of Spec. u Unspecified Elements Can Be Present May Change Corrosion Resistance u Annealing May Not Be Fully Effective u Pickling Practice May Create a Thin Surface Layer of Low Alloy Content May Allow Corrosion to Initiate
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Summary
SSs are Commonly and Successfully Used u SSs Can and Do Fail u Failure Risk Can be Minimized by Proper Selection Procedures u Resources
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In-House Experts Consultants Suppliers

Alloying Elements
Ferrite Formers vs. Austenite Formers u Ferrite Formers
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Cr Resistance to oxidizers, Pitting, High Temperature Mo Resistance to Corrosion, especially Pitting Ti, Nb Control Carbide Ppt., tendency toward intergranular corrosion

Alloying Elements, Cont.


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Austenite Formers
Nickel Conveys Resistance to SCC Carbon Higher level improves high temp. strength, but can contribute to intergranular corr Manganese Nitrogen Improves resistance to pitting

Misc.
S, Se Improve Machinability, but hurt corr. Restistance