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WiMAX Technology Introduction:

What is WiMax? WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL. The technology is specified by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., as the IEEE 802.16 standard. WiMax Forum It is a non-profit industry body dedicated to promoting the adoption of this technology and ensuring that different vendors products will interoperate. It is doing this through developing conformance and interoperability test plans and certification program. WiMAX Forum Certified means a service provider can buy equipment from more than one company and be confident that everything works together. WiMax Technology WiMAX is expected to provide fixed , nomadic, portable and, eventually, mobile wireless broadband connectivity without the need for direct line-of-sight (LOS) with a base station. In a typical cell radius deployment of three to ten kilometers, WiMAX Forum Certified systems can be expected to deliver capacity of up to 40 Mbps per channel, for fixed and portable access applications. Mobile network deployments are expected to provide up to 15 Mbps of capacity within a typical cell radius deployment of up to three kilometers. Why is it Interesting? Simultaneously support hundreds of businesses with T-1 speed connectivity and thousands of homes with DSL speed connectivity.

Promise of potential low cost and flexibility in building broadband networks. Scalability, as extra channels and base stations can be added incrementally as bandwidth demand grows. Support for both voice and video as well as Internet data. Semiconductor vendors envisage WiMax-enabled chips appearing in PCs in 2006 and in notebook computers and PDAs by 2007 Wi-Fi: The Predecessor of WiMax Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) is a set of technologies that are based on the IEEE 802.11a,b, and g standards. Wi-Fi is considered to be one of the first widely deployed fixed broadband wireless networks. The Wi-Fi architecture consists of a base station that wireless hosts connect to in order to access network resources. As long as the users remain within 300 feet of the fixed wireless access point, they can maintain broadband wireless connectivity.
802.16 Date Completed December 2001 802.16a January 2003 802.16-2004 June 2004 802.16e-2005 December 2005

Spectrum

10-66 GHz

< 11 GHz

< 11 GHz

< 6 GHz

Operation

LOS

Non-LOS

Non-LOS

Non-LOS Mobile Up to 15 Mbps 1-3 miles

and

Bit Rate Cell Radius

32-134 Mbps 1-3 miles

Up to 75 Mbps 3-5 miles

Up to 75 Mbps 3-5 miles

INFRASTRUCTURE OF WIMAX
A WIMAX tower: similar in concept to a cell-phone tower. A single WIMAX tower can provide coverag a very large area, as big as 3,000 square miles (~8,000 square km). A WIMAX receiver: The receiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA card, or could be built into a laptop.

DESIGNE: The WiMAX base station is mounted on a tower or tall building to broadcast the wireless signal The subscriber receives the signals on a WiMAX enabled notebook, mobile Internet device (MID), or even a WiMAX modem.

HOW IT WORKS ?
A WIMAX tower station can connect directly to the internet using a high-bandwidth, wired connection. It can also connect to another WIMAX tower using a line-of-sight, microwave link. This connection to a second tower, along with the ability of single tower to cover up to 3,000 square miles, is what allows WIMAX to provide coverage to remote rural areas.

MODES OF OPERATION
WiMax can provide 2 forms of wireless service NON LINE Of SIGHT: It is Wi-Fi sort of service, where a small antenna on a computer connects to the tower. Uses lower frequency range (2 to 11 GHz).

LINE OF SIGHT: where a fixed antenna points straight at the WiMax tower from a rooftop or pole. The LOS connection is stronger and more stable, so it is able to send a lot of data with fewer errors. Uses higher frequencies, with ranges reaching a possible 66 GHz

WIMAX MIMO
WiMAX MIMO refers to the use of Multiple Input Multiple Output communications (MIMO) technology This refers to the technology where there are multiple antennas at the base station and multiple antennas at the mobile device.

Typical usage of multiple antenna technology includes cellular phones with two antennas, laptops with two antennas, as well as CPE devices with multiple sprouting antennas.

Spatial Multiplexing Instead of transmitting the same bit over two antennas, this method transmits one data bit from the first antenna, and another bit from the second antenna simultaneously, per symbol.

OFDM
The WiMAX physical layer is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. OFDM is the transmission scheme of choice to enable high-speed data, video, and multimedia communications and is used by a variety of commercial broadband systems, including DSL, WiFi, Digital Video Broadcast-Handheld (DVB-H), and MediaFLO, besides WiMAX. OFDM is an elegant and efficient scheme for high data rate transmission in a non-line-of-sight or multipath radio environment.

SPECTRUM ALLOCATION
Works on both licenced and unlicenced frequencies Access any frequency below 66GHz Wimax forum licensed three frequency: 2.3GHz,2.5GHz and 3.5 GHz Unlicensed frequency :5.4GHz is a approved profile INDIA uses a mix frequencies of 2.5GHz and 3.3GHz

COMPETING TECHNOLOGY Parameters WiMax Frequency Range Data Transfer Rate Users 2 - 11 GHz ~31 miles 70mbps

Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz ~100 m

3G 1700-2100 MHz Varies

11 ~ 55mbps 1-14mbps

10,000s +

> 10

10,000+

WiMax Applications
According to WiMax Forum it supports 5 classes of applications: 1)Multi-player Interactive Gaming. 2)VOIP and Video Conference 3)Streaming Media 4)Web Browsing and Instant Messaging 5)Media Content Downloads

ADVANTAGES
1)Efficient bandwidth 2)Less interference 3) Operates in both licensed and unlicensed frequencies 4) High speed internet access 5) Would connect the remote areas without cabling

Limitations
So far one of the biggest restrictions to the widespread acceptance of WiMAX has been the cost of Wimax CPE (Wimax Receiver). This is not only the cost of Wimax CPE (Wimax Receiver) itself, but also that of installation.

Conclusion
WiMAX could bring broadband access into the homes and businesses of millions of people in rural and developing markets. Provide high-speed mobile data and telecommunicationsservices.