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& Probability
Chapter Overview and Learning Objectives
1. Solve problems involving mean, standard deviation and variance
2. Apply the rules of probability
3. Interpret and calculate conditional probabilities of events.
4. Determine the independence of events and use independence to calculate probabilities.
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 137
STATISTICS
4.2 Data Representation
4.2.1 Discrete and Continuous
Discrete data is data which can only take certain values, or can be counted. The number of
people in a room can only be 1, 2, 3, … and not 1.23, 1.57, 10.22, …. The following are
examples of discrete data:
Number of car on a road,
Number of children in a family,
The shoe sizes of students in a class.
Continuous data can be assumed as any of floating values. The data is acquired through the
process of measuring. Examples of continuous data are:
Weight of people,
Speeds of motor boats at a particular part of a race,
The times taken by each of student to run 100m.
Ungrouped data Grouped data
Data Frequency
2 – 4 5
5 – 7 6
8 – 10 10
11 – 13 8
14 – 16 4
17 – 19 3
Data Frequency
2 8
3 4
5 6
7 7
8 2
9 5
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 138
4.2.2 Frequency Distribution
One way of representing the distribution of data is by a frequency table. This is a table that
summarizes the data into some order.
Example 4.1:
The number of rejects, in the last 30 days, from an assembly line has yielded the following data:
36 37 49 30 36 35
40 42 44 37 33 42
37 41 44 42 30 36
37 37 36 30 44 31
30 42 41 44 39 42
Construct a frequency distribution table.
Solution
Summarize the data and make sure you record the frequency of the given data.
Number of rejects Frequency (f)
30 4
31 1
33 1
35 1
36 4
37 5
39 1
40 1
41 2
42 5
44 4
49 1
¿
f 30
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 139
Example 4.2:
The diameters, in mm, of 20 pipes is as follows:
40.6 40.7 40.9 41.0 41.1
41.4 41.5 41.7 41.2 41.2
41.9 41.3 41.4 41.6 41.8
41.6 41.2 40.5 40.5 41.9
From a frequency distribution table, group the data into five classes.
Solution
Hint: Find the smallest and largest values. If we use classes of 0.3, then we will get five classes.
Diameter (mm) Frequency (f)
40.45 – 40.75 4
40.75 – 41.05 2
41.05 – 41.35 5
41.35 – 41.65 5
41.65 – 41.95 4
¿
f 20
Class width = Upper class boundary – Lower class boundary = 40.75 – 40.45 = 0.3
The histogram for this data is the plot of the frequency at vertical axis, and the grouped diameter
of pipes at horizontal axis.
.
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 140
4.3 DATA SUMMARIES
4.3.1 Averages (Mean)
UNGROUPED DATA:
n
x x x
n
x
x
n
+ + +
= = =
¿
...
ns observatio of number
ns observatio of sum
2 1
GROUPED DATA:
When the data has been grouped into intervals and the midpoints of the intervals are denoted by
,
i
x
¿ ¿
¿
+ + +
= = =
f
x f x f x f
f
fx
x
n n
...
ns observatio of number
ns observatio of sum
2 2 1 1
Example 4.5:
Given a data set: 3, 2, 4, 2, 6, 8, 10, 5. Find the average.
Solution
5
8
40
8
5 10 8 6 2 4 2 3
= =
+ + + + + + +
= x
Example 4.6:
Consider data set of weights of 30 students. Find the mean.
Weight (x) Frequency (f) (f x)
42 1 42
46 8 368
48 10 480
50 6 300
52 5 260
¿
= 30 f 1450 =
¿
fx
Solution
42(1) 46(8) 48(10) 50(6) 52(5)
30
42 368 480 300 260 1450
48.33 kg
30 30
x
+ + + +
=
+ + + +
= = =
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 141
Example 4.7:
Consider data set of weights of 30 students. Find the mean of grouped data.
Weight(kg) Frequency (f)
2029 1
3039 8
4049 10
5059 6
6069 5
¿
= 30 f
Solution
Find the midpoint of the intervals/weight before calculating the mean of grouped data.
Weight(kg) Frequency
(f)
Midpoint
(x)
f x
2029 1 24.5 24.5
3039 8 34.5 276
4049 10 44.5 445
5059 6 54.5 327
6069 5 64.5 322.5
¿
= 30 f
¿
=1395 fx
5 . 46
30
1395
= = =
¿
¿
f
fx
x
Thus, the average weight of the students is 46.5 kg.
4.3.2 Mode
The mode of a set of numbers is the value which occurs most often and denoted by
.
x .
Sometimes the mode can be described for qualitative data. The mode also can be divided into
two groups.
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 142
GROUPED DATA:
When data has been grouped in classes and a frequency curve is drawn to fit the data, the mode
is the value of x corresponding to the maximum point on the curve.
(
¸
(
¸
A + A
A
+ =
.
2 1
1
c L x
where L = the lower boundary of the mode class
c = the size of the mode class
1
A = the frequency difference between the mode class and the class before it
2
A
=
the frequency difference between the mode class and the class after it
The class which has the highest frequency is called the mode class.
Example 4.8:
The mode of the set 4,6,3,1,2,5,7,3 is 3
Example 4.9:
Find out the mode for the frequency distribution table below:
Class Frequency
15
610
1115
1620
2125
2630
2
4
9
7
5
3
Total 30
Solution
Mode,
(
¸
(
¸
A + A
A
+ =
.
2 1
1
c L x
07 . 14
) 7 / 5 ( 5 5 . 10
=
+ =
.
x
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 143
4.3.3 Median
UNGROUPED DATA:
The median depends on the number of values n. If n is odd, then the median is the )
2
1
(
+ n
th
value. But if n is even, then the median is arithmetic mean of the
2
n
th value and the ) 1
2
( +
n
th
value.
GROUPED DATA:
The median of frequency distribution data can be described as:
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
¿
+ =
÷
j
j
f
f
F
c L x
1 2
~
Where
L
= the lower boundary of the median class
c = the size of the median class
1 ÷ j
F = the sum of frequencies of all classes lower than the median class
j
f
= the frequency of the median class
Example 4.10:
Find the median of this data 4,6,3,1,2,5,7,3
Solution
Arrange in order of magnitude.
1,2,3,3,4,5,6,7
As n=8 (even), the median is the mean of the 4th and 5th value.
Therefore, the median is 3.5
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 144
Example 4.11:
Find the median for the frequency distribution table below:
Class Frequency
15
610
1115
1620
2125
2630
2
4
9
7
5
3
Total 30
Solution
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
¿
+ =
÷
j
j
f
f
F
c L x
1 2
~
5 . 15
) 0 ( 5 5 . 15
7
15
2
30
5 5 . 15
=
+ =
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
4.3.4 Variance and Standard deviation
The standard deviation from the mean is used widely in statistics to indicate the degree of
dispersion. It takes into account the deviation of every value from the mean. Small standard
deviation tells that most of the data is close to the mean. While large standard deviation shows
that much of the data is far from the mean. Refer
Figure 5 Figure 6
Mean Mean
Small SD Large SD
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 145
UNGROUPED DATA:
( )
( )
2
2
2
Variance
1
Standard deviation
1
x x
s
n
x x
s
n
÷
= =
÷
÷
= =
÷
¿
¿
GROUPED DATA:
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
2
2
2
2
2
Variance
1 1
Standard deviation
1 1
fx fx
s
f f f
fx
fx
s
f f f
= = ÷
÷ ÷
= = ÷
÷ ÷
¿ ¿
¿ ¿ ¿
¿ ¿
¿ ¿ ¿
Example 4.12:
The marks of an examination are given by the following data: 12, 27, 13, 21, 36, 56, 53, 55, 59,
83, 92, 75, 67, 80, 91, 99, 84, and 77. Evaluate the standard deviation for this data.
Solution
12 27 13 ... 77
60
18
x
+ + + +
= =
04 . 28 12 . 786
12 . 786
1 18
) 60 77 ( ... ) 60 27 ( ) 60 12 (
2 2 2
2
= =
=
÷
÷ + + ÷ + ÷
=
s
s
This is considered a large standard deviation, as you can observe that the exam marks are quite
widespread from the mean of 60.
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 146
Example 4.13:
Consider data set of weights of 30 students. Find the standard deviation.
Weight(kg) Frequency (f)
2029 1
3039 8
4049 10
5059 6
6069 5
Solution
Midpoint(x)
Frequency
(f)
fx
2
x
2
fx
24.5 1 24.5 600.25 600.25
34.5 8 276 1190.25 9522
44.5 10 445 1980.25 19802.5
54.5 6 327 2970.25 17821.5
64.5 5 322.5 4160.25 20801.25
¿
= 30 f
¿
=1395 fx
¿
= 5 . 68547
2
fx
265 . 11
8966 . 126
) 1 30 )( 30 (
) 1395 (
1 30
5 . 68547
) 1 )( (
) (
1
5 . 46
30
1395
2
2 2
=
=
÷
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
÷
=
= = =
¿ ¿
¿
¿
¿
¿
¿
f f
fx
f
fx
s
f
fx
x
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 147
PROBABILITY
Example 4.14:
Find the sample space for the gender of the children if a family has three children. Use B for boy
and G for girl, use a tree diagram to find the sample space for the gender of three children in a
family.
Solution
Third child Outcomes
Second B BBB
child
First B
Child G BBG
B B BGB
G G BGG
B GBB
B G GBG
G
B GGB
G G GGG
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 148
The probability of any event E is
space sample in the outcomes of number total
E in outcomes of number
This probability is denoted by
) (
) (
) (
S n
E n
E P =
Probability Rule 1
The probability of any event E is a number (either a fraction or decimal) between
and including 0 and 1. This is denoted by 1 ) ( 0 s s E P
Probability Rule 2
If an event E cannot occur (i.e., the event contains no members in the sample space),
its probability is 0.
Probability Rule 3
If an event E is certain, then the probability of E is 1.
Example 4.18:
When a single die is rolled, what is the probability of getting a number less than7?
Solution
Since all outcomes  1,2,3,4,5, and 6 are less than 7, the probability is
1
6
6
) 7 ( = = than less number P
The event of getting a number less than 7 is certain.
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 149
Addition Rule 1
When two events A and B are mutually exclusive, the probability that A or B will
occur is
A P( or ) B = A P( ) + ) (B P
Example 4.22:
A box contains 3 glazed doughnuts, 4 jelly doughnuts, and 5 chocolate doughnuts. If a person
selects one doughnut at random, find the probability that is either a glazed doughnut or a
chocolate doughnut.
Solution
Since the box contains 3 glazed doughnut, 5 chocolate doughnuts, and a total of 12 doughnuts, P
(glazed or chocolate) = P (glazed) + P (chocolate) =
3
2
12
5
12
3
= + . The events are mutually
exclusive.
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 150
Addition Rule 2
If A and B are not mutually exclusive, then
A P( or ) B = A P( ) + ) (B P  A P( and ) B
Example 4.24:
In a hospital unit there are 8 nurses and 5 physicians; 7 nurses and 3 physicians are females. If a
staff person is selected, find the probability that subject is a nurse or a male.
Solution
The sample shown here
Staff Females Males Total
Nurses 7 1 8
Physician
10
3
3
2
13
5
The Probability is
nurse P( Or male) = P (nurse) + P (male)  P (male nurse)
=
13
10
13
1
13
3
13
8
= ÷ +
Multiplication Rule 1
When two events are independent, the probability of both occurring is
) ( B and A P = ) ( ) ( B P A P  )
Example 4.25:
A coin is flipped and a die is rolled. Find the probability of getting a head on the coin and 4 on
the die.
Solution
12
1
6
1
2
1
) 4 ( ) ( ) 4 ( =  =  = P head P and head P
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 151
Multiplication Rule 2
When two events are dependent, the probability of both occurring is
A P( and ) B = ) ( ) ( A B P A P 
Example 4.27:
A box contains 100 cooper plugs, 27 of which are oversize and 16 undersize. A plug is taken
from the box, tested and replaced: a second plug is then similarly treated. Determine the
probability that
(a) Both plug are acceptable
(b) The first is oversize and the second undersize
(c) One is oversize and the other undersize.
Solution
Let A= {oversize plug} and B ={undersize plug}
acceptable 57 ; undersize 16 ; oversize 27 ; 100 = N
(a)
100
57
) acceptable plug first (
1
= P
100
57
) acceptable plug second (
2
= P
2 1 12
) acceptable second and acceptable first ( P P P × =
3249 . 0
10000
3249
100
57
100
57
2 1
= = × = × P P
(b)
100
27
) oversize first (
1
= P
100
16
undersize) second (
2
= P
2 1 12
undersize) second and oversize first ( P P P × =
0432 . 0
10000
432
100
16
100
27
2 1
= = × = × P P
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 152
(c) This section, of course, includes part (b) of the problem, but also covers the
case when the first is undersize and the second oversize.
( )
} oversize) second and undersize first ( ) undersize andsecond oversize first {(
) oversize one and oversize one (
10000
432
100
27
100
16
size secondover and undersize first
100
27
) oversize second ( ;
100
16
) undersze irst (
34
4 3
or P
P
P
P f P
=
× × =
= =
= 0864 . 0
10000
864
10000
432
10000
432
4 3
12
= = × = × P P
4.7.3 Combinations
A combination is a selection of items where order does not matter. Returning to our three letters
A, B, C, we now make selections without regard to the order of the letters in each group, i.e. AB
is now the same as BA, etc. Each group is called a combination, and
n
C
r
, where is n is the total
number of items and r is the number in each selection, gives the number of possible
combinations.
The number of combinations of r items chosen from n different items is denoted by
)! ( !
!
r n r
n
r
n
C
r
n
÷
=


.

\

= (i.e. can be read as choosing r out of n)
It is actually


.

\

÷
= =
)! (
!
!
1
!
1
r n
n
r
P
r
C
r
n
r
n
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 153
Example 4.32:
Find the number of different combinations in each of the following cases. Two girls and two
boys are to be selected from a group of six people consists of
(a) three boys and three girls
(b) four boys and two girls
Solution
(a) The number of choosing the girls = 3
1 1 2
1 2 3
)! 2 3 ( ! 2
! 3
2
3
=
× ×
× ×
=
÷
= C
The number of choosing the boys= 3
1 1 2
1 2 3
)! 2 3 ( ! 2
! 3
2
3
=
× ×
× ×
=
÷
= C
The number of choosing the boys and girls from the group = 9 3 3 = ×
(b) The number of choosing the girls= 1
1 2
1 2
)! 2 2 ( ! 2
! 2
2
2
=
×
×
=
÷
= C
The number of choosing the boys= 6
1 2 2
1 2 3 4
)! 2 4 ( ! 2
! 4
2
4
=
× ×
× × ×
=
÷
= C
The number of choosing the boys and girls from the group = 6 6 1 = ×
Example 4.33:
How many ways can a student choose four out of six questions in an examination?
Solution
n = 6, r = 4
15
1 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 3 . 4
1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6
)! 4 6 ( ! 4
! 6
4
6
=
=
÷
= C
Chapter 4 Elementary Statistics & Probability
Page 154
Example 4.34:
There are 12 peoples entering a room where there are only 10 chairs. How many ways can two
peoples being chosen to remain standing?
Solution
n = 12, r = 2
66
1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 10 . 1 . 2
1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 10 . 11 . 12
)! 2 12 ( ! 2
! 12
2
12
=
=
÷
= C
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