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Options for Performance Enhancement II - Turbine Upgrades Considerations for the HRSG

Electric Power 2005 Track 8 Gas Turbine Based Power Plants Session 8C Keith C. Kaufman Senior Thermal Engineer Vogt Power International, Inc.

A Babcock Power Inc. Company

Upgrading the gas turbine can have significant impacts on an existing HRSG:
Thermal design and performance Gas-side effect on ductwork Burner systems supplementary firing Emissions systems CO and SCR catalysts Changes in start-up procedure Sound emissions requirements and control Need to evaluate impacts early in upgrade process

Vogt Power International

4/6/05

EP 2005

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Thermal Performance:
In addition to the change in delivered steam flow conditions, the following also need to be considered Tube metal temperatures Fin metal temperatures

Steam/water velocities
Design pressures => related wall thickness calculations Circulation

Drum and steam separation design (e.g. number of separators)


Safety valve capacities Valve class

Recirculation system capacity


Vogt Power International 4/6/05 EP 2005 Page 3

Gas-side Impacts:
Change in GT typically means higher exhaust gas flow rates & temperatures to the HRSG Change in gas-side pressure drop across modules Overall inlet duct design => flow distribution to tube modules Axial- vs. side-discharge GT Need for distribution grid? Liner and liner attachment design

Liner and attachment materials


Higher flow rates => higher velocities & turbulence Structural vibration considerations

Duct insulation (exterior casing temperature requirements)


Vogt Power International 4/6/05 EP 2005 Page 4

Supplementary firing and duct burner:


Change in GT exhaust gas conditions can impact supplementary firing Flow distribution into burner must meet burner vendor requirements for proper operation across load range Is the burner upstream of heating surface or interstage? Requirement for distribution grid? Is same level of supplementary firing still required more or less?

Impact on tube metal temperatures


Combined change in GT and burner operation will affect thermal performance

Vogt Power International

4/6/05

EP 2005

Page 5

Emissions control systems:


Is there a change in plant permitting for CO or NOx? Does existing CO and/or SCR catalyst handle new turbine exhaust? Need to evaluate effect of change in exhaust gas temperature on catalyst performance Does new GT change gas velocity distribution into the catalyst or the AIG? If ammonia flow rates need to change, are the AIG, valving, and fans adequately sized?

GSPD across catalyst will increase with higher GT flow rates

Vogt Power International

4/6/05

EP 2005

Page 6

Engineering tools are required to evaluate these impacts:

Thermal performance software for detailed evaluation of impact to, and performance of, tube modules

Flow modeling to evaluate effect of new GT flow conditions on flow distribution into heating surface, burners, and emissions equipment
Structural/FEM analysis to evaluate any required changes in equipment loading or structural steel

Vogt Power International

4/6/05

EP 2005

Page 7