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MGMT ESSAY 15 TOPICS

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
1. Replace each rule of thumb method with a scientific method 2. Managers should scientifically select, train, teach and develop workers 3. Managers should cooperate with workers to ensure work has been done according to the scientific method developed 4. Almost equal work distribution between manager and workers

FAYOLISM 5 FUNCTIONS
PLANNING Defining goals, establish strategies, develop plans and coordinate activities ORGANISING Arranging and structuring work COMMANDING Implementing plans to personnel

COORDINATING Involves working with people

CONTROLLING Evaluation and correction of performance

McGREGORS THEORY X AND THEORY Y


Theory X Employees are lazy and unmotivated Close supervision from managers required Well-defined rewards and punishments for control Theory Y Employees do what is good for the company, self-motivated Managers need to provide opportunities Authority should be decentralisation

MINTZBERGS MANAGERIAL ROLES

DESICIONAL

INFORMATIONAL

INTERPERSONAL

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION


Recruitment & Derecruitment Recruitment The process of locating, identifying and attracting capable applicants Derecruitment Reducing the size of an organisation Recruitment Sources Low cost Candidates already familiar with organisation Limited supply Wide distribution Many unqualified candidates Can generate strong candidates May not increase diversity of employees Many candidates Only entry-level positions

Internal search

Advertisements Employee Referrals Employee Agencies

+ + + + +

Resignation Dismissal Redundancy (or retrenchment) Redeployment Lay-off Selection Selection

Derecruitment Sources Voluntary termination of employment Involuntary termination of employment Dismissal due to a unneeded role, not the fault of the employee Transfer of an employee, maybe downward Temporary involuntary termination

After recruitment is a process that involves predicting and choosing from a pool of candidates who will be most suitable. Rejecting a suitable candidate (reject error) or accepting a candidate who does not perform (accept error) Provides both positive and negative information about the job and company Selection Devices Can predict job performance Can be subject to bias Good at predicting supervisory positions Simulates jobs, good for evaluating managerial potential

Selection Errors

Realistic Job Preview

Application Forms Interviews Written Test Performance/Simulation Test

EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS


Compensations include rewards, benefits and incentive payments Skill-based pay pay based on job skills demonstrated by employees Variable pay pay based contingent on employee performance Profit Sharing Group Incentives/Awards

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
Performance management system Performance appraisal Performance feedback establishing performance standards and appraisal techniques obtaining information on employee performance the presentation of feedback

Performance Appraisal Methods Written Essay is a written description of employees strengths and weaknesses Critical Incident focuses on critical behaviour Graphic Rating Scale employee rated based on different performance factors Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scale employee rated based on actual behaviours demonstrated Multi-person Comparison ratings based on comparisons with other employees Management by Objectives rated based on goals achieved 360-Degree Appraisal uses feedback from supervisors and employees co-workers

UTILITARIANISM
Make crap up.

TUCKMAN AND JENSENS FRAMEWORK


PLANNING People join the group, defining group purpose, structure, leadership PERFORMING Performing the task at hand STORMING Conflict stage, control over the group NORMING Group structure solidifies, assimilate to common expectations

ADJOURNING Group begins to disband, wrapping up activities

HERSEY AND BLANCHARDS SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP


Situational Leadership Model Readiness TELLING High-task, Low-relationship leadership focuses on followers readiness the ability and willingness of followers to accomplish a task SELLING High-task, High-relationship leadership PARTICIPATING Low-task, High-relationship leadership DELEGATING Low-task, Low-relationship leadership

JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL


SKILL VARIETY job has variety of activities TASK SIGNIFICANCE job has substantial impact TASK IDENTITY degree that the job is required for completion of a task AUTONOMY degree of freedom at work JOB FEEDBACK degree which job provides feedback

PERSONALITY THEORIES
Big 5 Model EXTROVERSION Sociable Gregarious Assertive Talkative Expressive ADJUSTMENT Emotionally stable Non-depressed Secure Content AGREEABLENESS Courteous Trusting Good-natured Tolerant Cooperative Forgiving INQUISITIVENESS Curious Imaginative Artistically sensitive Broad-minded Playful

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS Dependable Organised Persevering Thorough Achievement orientated

Myer-Briggs Type Indicator SOCIAL INTERACTION Extrovert Introvert GATHERING DATA Sensing Intuitive DECISION MAKING Feeling Thinking STYLE OF DECISION MAKING Perceptive Judgemental

ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
Make more crap up.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sender Message Encoding Channel Noise Receiver The person who wants to convey some information The information that is to be conveyed Information converted into symbolic form The medium used to transfer the message Any disturbances during the message transfer The recipient of the message

7. Decoding The translation of the message

TEMPORAL SCOPE AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA


More trust in face-to-face communication, compared to virtual communication More team member exchange in face-to-face, compared to virtual communication Communication was generally more effective with more team member exchange, not necessarily information sharing.

POWER
Power is the capacity of A to influence B, and for B to act in accordance to As wishes Largely based on Bs dependency on A

LEADERSHIP AND POWER


Legitimate power: Coercive power: Reward power: Expert power: Referent power: authority the responsibility to punish or control, based on fear ability to distribute rewards expertise, skill or knowledge desirable personal traits or resources

LEADERSHIP
FIEDLER MODEL OF LEADERSHIP
LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS Degree of confidence TASK STRUCTURE Formalisation of tasks given to subordinates POSITION POWER Degree of influence over power-based activites

PATH-GOAL THEORY
DIRECTIVE LEADER Sets expectations of subordinates, specific guidance SUPPORTIVE LEADER Friendly, shows concern for followers PARTICIPATIVE LEADER Consults group before making a team suggestion ACHEIVEMENTORIENTED LEADER Expects highest performance from followers, sets challenging goals

Unlike Fielder model, path-goal theory assumes the leader is flexible.

TRANSACTIONAL-TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS
Transactional leaders: Transformational leaders: guide and motivate through social exchanges to work towards goals stimulate and inspire followers to view old problems in new ways

STRATEGY
THREE TYPES OF ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE
1. Changing Structure 2. Changing Technology 3. Changing People

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS

S TRENGTHS WEAKNESSES O PPORTUNITIES T HREATS