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FRQ phys C

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Physics C: Mechanics

2012 Free-Response Questions

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through programs and services in college readiness and college success including the SAT and the Advanced

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-2-

TABLE OF INFORMATION DEVELOPED FOR 2012

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

Proton mass,

27

1.67 10 kg

p

m

Electron charge magnitude,

19

1.60 10 C e

Neutron mass,

27

1.67 10 kg

n

m

1 electron volt,

19

1 eV 1.60 10 J

Electron mass,

31

9.11 10 kg

e

m

Speed of light,

8

3.00 10 m s c

Avogadros number,

23 -1

0

6.02 10 mol N

Universal gravitational

constant,

11 3 2

6.67 10 m kg s G

<

Universal gas constant, 8.31 J (mol K) R <

Acceleration due to gravity

at Earths surface,

2

9.8 m s g

Boltzmanns constant,

23

1.38 10 J K

B

k

1 unified atomic mass unit,

27 2

1 u 1.66 10 kg 931 MeV c

Plancks constant,

34 15

6.63 10 J s 4.14 10 eV s h

< <

25 3

1.99 10 J m 1.24 10 eV nm hc

< <

Vacuum permittivity,

12 2 2

0

8.85 10 C N m

<

Coulombs law constant,

9 2 2

0

1 4 9.0 10 N m C k p <

Vacuum permeability,

7

0

4 10 (T m) A m p

<

Magnetic constant,

7

0

4 1 10 (T m) A k m p

<

1 atmosphere pressure,

5 2 5

1 atm 1.0 10 N m 1.0 10 Pa

meter, m mole, mol watt, W farad, F

kilogram, kg hertz, Hz coulomb, C tesla, T

second, s newton, N volt, V degree Celsius, C

ampere, A pascal, Pa ohm, W electron-volt, eV

UNIT

SYMBOLS

kelvin, K joule, J henry, H

PREFIXES

VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS FOR COMMON ANGLES

Factor Prefix Symbol

q 0

D

30

D

37

D

45

D

53

D

60

D

90

D

9

10

giga G

sinq 0 1 2

3 5

2 2 4 5 3 2 1

6

10

mega M

cosq 1 3 2

4 5

2 2 3 5 1 2 0

3

10

kilo k

tanq 0 3 3

3 4

1 4 3

3 ~

2

10

centi c

3

10

milli m

6

10

micro m

9

10

nano n

12

10

pico p

The following conventions are used in this exam.

I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is

assumed to be inertial.

II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive

charge (conventional current).

III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at

an infinite distance from the charge.

-3-

ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS DEVELOPED FOR 2012

MECHANICS

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

0

at u u +

2

0 0

1

2

x x t at u + +

( )

2 2

0 0

2a x x u u +

net

m F F a

d

dt

p

F

dt D

[

J F p

m p v

fric

F N m s

[

F r < W d

2

1

2

K mu

dW

P

dt

F v < P

g

U mgh D

2

2

c

a r

r

u

w

r F t

net

I t t a

2 2

I r dm mr

[

cm

m m r r

r u w

I L r p w

2

1

2

K I w

0

t w w a +

2

0 0

1

2

t t q q w a + +

a = acceleration

F = force

f = frequency

h = height

I = rotational inertia

J = impulse

K = kinetic energy

k = spring constant

A = length

L = angular momentum

m = mass

N = normal force

P = power

p = momentum

r = radius or distance

r = position vector

T = period

t = time

U = potential energy

u = velocity or speed

W = work done on a system

x = position

m = coefficient of friction

q = angle

t = torque

w = angular speed

a = angular acceleration

f = phase angle

s

k F x

2

1

2

s

U kx

max

cos( x x t w f + )

2 1

T

f

p

w

2

s

m

T

k

p

2

p

T

g

p

A

1 2

2

G

Gm m

r

F r

1 2

G

Gm m

U

r

2

1 2

0

1

4

q q

F

r

p

F

E

0

[

E A <

v

Q

d

dV

E

dr

0

1

4

i

i

i

q

V

r p

1 2

0

1

4

E

q q

U qV

r p

Q

C

V

0

A

C

d

k

p i

i

C C

1 1

s i i

C C

dQ

I

dt

2

1 1

2 2

c

U QV CV

R

A

r

A

r E J

d

I Ne A u

V IR

i

i

s

R R

1 1

i i

p

R R

P IV

M

q F v B

A = area

B = magnetic field

C = capacitance

d = distance

E = electric field

e = emf

F = force

I = current

J = current density

L = inductance

A = length

n = number of loops of wire

per unit length

N = number of charge carriers

per unit volume

P = power

Q = charge

q = point charge

R = resistance

r = distance

t = time

U = potential or stored energy

V = electric potential

u = velocity or speed

r = resistivity

m

f = magnetic flux

k = dielectric constant

0

m

[

B<

v

d I

I d

d

r

0

3

4

m

p

r

B

I d

[

F B

0 s

B nI m

f

[

B A <

m

d

f

e

[

E<

v

m

d

d

dt

dI

L

dt

e

2

1

2

L

U LI

-4-

ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS DEVELOPED FOR 2012

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY

CALCULUS

Rectangle

A bh

Triangle

1

2

A bh

Circle

2

A r p

2 C r p

Rectangular Solid

V wh A

Cylinder

2

V r p A

2

2 2 S r r p p + A

Sphere

3

4

3

V r p

2

4 S r p

Right Triangle

2 2 2

a b c +

sin

a

c

q

cos

b

c

q

tan

a

b

q

A = area

C = circumference

V = volume

S = surface area

b = base

h = height

A = length

w = width

r = radius

c

a

b

90q

q

d f d f du

dx du dx

( )

1 n n

d

x nx

dx

( )

x x

d

e e

dx

( )

1

ln

d

x

dx x

( ) sin cos

d

x x

dx

( ) cos sin

d

x x

dx

1

1

, 1

1

n n

x dx x n

n

+

=

+

[

x x

e dx e

[

ln

dx

x

x

[

cos sin x dx x

[

sin cos x dx x

[

2012 AP

2012 The College Board.

Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

-5-

PHYSICS C: MECHANICS

SECTION II

Time45 minutes

3 Questions

Directions: Answer all three questions. The suggested time is about 15 minutes for answering each of the questions,

which are worth 15 points each. The parts within a question may not have equal weight. Show all your work in this

booklet in the spaces provided after each part.

Mech. 1.

Experiment 1. A block of mass 0.30 kg is placed on a frictionless table and is attached to one end of a horizontal

spring of spring constant k, as shown above. The other end of the spring is attached to a fixed wall. The block is

set into oscillatory motion by stretching the spring and releasing the block from rest at time t = 0. A motion

detector is used to record the position of the block as it oscillates. The resulting graph of velocity u versus time t

is shown below. The positive direction for all quantities is to the right.

(a) Determine the equation for ( ) t u , including numerical values for all constants.

(b) Given that the equilibrium position is at 0 x , determine the equation for x(t), including numerical values

for all constants.

(c) Calculate the value of k.

2012 AP

2012 The College Board.

Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

-6-

Experiment 2. The block and spring arrangement is now placed on a rough surface, as shown below. The block

is displaced so that the spring is compressed a distance d and released from rest.

(d) On the dots below that represent the block, draw and label the forces (not components) that act on the block

when the spring is compressed a distance 2 x d and the block is moving in the direction indicated below

each dot.

Toward Away from

the equilibrium position the equilibrium position

(e) Draw a sketch of u versus t in this case. Assume that there is a negligible change in the period and that the

positive direction is still to the right.

2012 AP

2012 The College Board.

Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

-7-

Mech. 2.

You are to perform an experiment investigating the conservation of mechanical energy involving a

transformation from initial gravitational potential energy to translational kinetic energy.

(a) You are given the equipment listed below, all the supports required to hold the equipment, and a lab table.

On the list below, indicate each piece of equipment you would use by checking the line next to each item.

____ Track ____ Meterstick ____ Set of objects of different masses

____ Cart ____ Electronic balance ____ Lightweight low-friction pulley

____ String ____ Stopwatch

(b) Outline a procedure for performing the experiment. Include a diagram of your experimental setup. Label the

equipment in your diagram. Also include a description of the measurements you would make and a symbol

for each measurement.

(c) Give a detailed account of the calculations of gravitational potential energy and translational kinetic energy

both before and after the transformation, in terms of the quantities measured in part (b).

(d) After your first trial, your calculations show that the energy increased during the experiment. Assuming you

made no mathematical errors, give a reasonable explanation for this result.

(e) On all other trials, your calculations show that the energy decreased during the experiment. Assuming you

made no mathematical errors, give a reasonable physical explanation for the fact that the average energy you

determined decreased. Include references to conservative and nonconservative forces, as appropriate.

2012 AP

2012 The College Board.

Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

-8-

Mech. 3.

A ring of mass M, radius R, and rotational inertia

2

MR is initially sliding on a frictionless surface at constant

velocity

0

u to the right, as shown above. At time t = 0 it encounters a surface with coefficient of friction m and

begins sliding and rotating. After traveling a distance L, the ring begins rolling without sliding. Express all

answers to the following in terms of M, R,

0

u , m, and fundamental constants, as appropriate.

(a) Starting from Newtons second law in either translational or rotational form, as appropriate, derive a

differential equation that can be used to solve for the magnitude of the following as the ring is sliding and

rotating.

i. The linear velocity u of the ring as a function of time t

ii. The angular velocity w of the ring as a function of time t

(b) Derive an expression for the magnitude of the following as the ring is sliding and rotating.

i. The linear velocity u of the ring as a function of time t

ii. The angular velocity w of the ring as a function of time t

(c) Derive an expression for the time it takes the ring to travel the distance L.

(d) Derive an expression for the magnitude of the velocity of the ring immediately after it has traveled the

distance L.

(e) Derive an expression for the distance L.

STOP

END OF EXAM

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