CHAPTER 1: APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF MODERN LEADERSHIP

INTRODUCTION GENERAL OUTLINE DETAILED OUTLINE KEY TERMS ANSWERS TO “QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION AND REVIEW” ACTIVITY/EXERCISE 1-1 Introduction This chapter begins by providing several definitions of leadership. Then it categorizes and puts into context the pertinent literature and multiple approaches to leadership. In a recently completed mega-analysis, Shriberg developed a schema for the 12 elements of leadership. Each is briefly described and references are made to how these elements are presented in the book. General Outline Definition of Leadership Categorization of Leadership Approaches Leadership Profile Miep Gies: Hider, Helper King Hussein: A Monarch Turns International Peacemaker Nelson Mandela: Enduring To Triumph Detailed Outline Definition of Leadership The essential theme of this section is that there is not one universal definition of leadership. Several definitions offered by others are presented, including the author’s favorite, which is, “Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their shared purposes.” The authors state that perhaps the most accepted definition of leadership is, “a leader is defined as any person who influences individuals and groups within an organization, helps them in the establishment of goals and guides them towards the achievement of these goals…” (Nahavandi, 2003). The authors note that just as there is no one universally accepted definition of leadership, there are also numerous ways to categorize the literature on leadership, which is discussed in the next section. Categorization of Leadership Approaches This section details a schema the authors have created to categorize modern approaches to leadership as reflected in the leadership literature. In this model, leadership study is divided into twelve categories. These categories do not reflect a particular hierarchy (e.g., the first category is not necessarily more important than the

second category) but they do reflect, in a general sense, the historical popularization of each of the approaches. The twelve categories are listed and briefly described below: Twelve Approaches to Leadership 1. Trait Theory and Other Psychological Approaches Trait theory approaches leadership by examining the individual characteristics of leaders and attempts to glean from these characteristics common factors found in leaders. Psychological approaches to leadership are discussed in much depth in Chapters Four and Five, which focus on intelligence theories, motivational theories, and personality theories as they relate to leadership. 2. Group and Team Leadership The concept of teams and team building is now central to leadership. Teams are defined by the authors as two or more people who have developed processes to accomplish one or more specific goals. Teams can take a variety of forms and directions and effective team functioning is discussed at numerous points in the text, in particular Chapter 10. 3. Situational Leadership Theories Situational leadership theory posits that the most skilled leaders are able to adapt their approach to specific situations. For example, some people and some situations will respond more positively to a supportive approach, while other persons and other situations require more directive techniques. Situational leadership is discussed in more depth in Chapter 9. 4. Organizational Development, Change, and Leadership This branch of leadership theory focuses primarily on the process of helping an organization to effectively meet its goals. In this text, there are original essays by several leaders (Gordon Barnhart, John Pepper, Stephen Covey, James Kouzes, and Barry Posner) who have made their mark by writing about the process of large-scale change or leading organizational change efforts. . 5. Leadership Versus Management This text takes the position that leadership and management overlap but also have different functions. To complete a task or administer an organization successfully, both leadership skills and management skills are needed. Chapter 9 is devoted to management in relation to leadership. In this text it is argued that the world is overmanaged and under-led. 6. Politics, Power, and Leadership

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The term politics implies understanding and resolving human factors involved in decision-making. The field of political science is often seen as “applied leadership” and good leaders clearly must be politically savvy. Power theorists are often divided into “power over” and “power with” approaches. “Power over” theorists often discuss authority and responsibility and whether or not they can be delegated. They discuss using power wisely and appropriately to accomplish goals and objectives. “Power with” writers believe in empowering others. Chapter 8 discusses Power and Leadership from the Top and, along with Chapters 11 and 12, presents a variety of approaches to power sharing and empowering. 7. Charismatic Leadership This branch of leadership study focuses on those leaders who lead by inspiration and often by sheer personality (e.g., John F. Kennedy). Models of charismatic leadership are discussed in greater depth in Chapter 6. 8. Vision, the Human Condition, and Leadership Can a leader lead if there is no goal to lead toward? Increasingly, the field of “visioning” has been coming into vogue and leaders who both articulate and move society toward a vision for the future are often widely admired. The concept of vision is discussed throughout our text and highlighted in Chapters 13 and 14. 9. Leadership Formulas Scan any bookstore and you will see a variety of books that provide formulas for successful leadership (e.g., Stephen Covey’s Seven Habits of Highly Effective People). This text includes lists in several places, but also explicitly challenges readers to create their own theory of leadership and, by extension, to create their own formula that guides their approach to leadership. 10. Ethical Leadership Scandals such as those faced by Enron, Arthur Anderson, and the Roman Catholic Church, are becoming a regular feature of daily news coverage and these and other scandals have raised the issue of what must leaders do to be ethical? Chapter 2 of this text is entitled “Ethical Leadership” and this chapter, along with Chapter 3, “Leadership in a Global and Multicultural Society,” form the foundational chapters of this text. If leaders are not ethical, they cannot be considered effective leaders no matter their other skills. 11. Leadership in Limited Time and Space Leaders do not have an infinite amount of time to bring about the goals they seek. In the real world, much of everyone’s time is invested with projects that are limited in time—they begin and they end! Project leadership requires all the skills and

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understandings discussed in this text, but, in addition, it requires that these skills be applied in limited time. It also adds the skill of “closure.” See Kloppenborg, Shriberg, and Venkatraman’s Project Leadership to learn about leadership challenges at every stage of a project. Chapter 10 focuses on teaming, and two of the main foci of this chapter are project leadership and leading a virtual team(e.g., the team meets and communicates via the internet from different locales). 12. Multicultural and Global Leadership The greatest challenge of the modern era is to lead and follow people who are different. We argue that all leadership must be based upon a respect and understanding of human differences. Chapter 3, “Leadership in a Global and Multicultural Society,” focuses on this dimension of leadership in greater depth. Leadership Profiles Miep Gies: Hider, Helper Miep Gies, one of many Dutch nationals who risked their lives hiding Jews during World War II, brought food daily to Anne Frank and her family until their discovery in the summer of 1945. Her great courage and selflessness in times which would break anyone’s spirit has continued to the present day; she wants to let no one forget the horrors that she fought so tirelessly against and so continues to lecture all over the world. Martin Luther: A Hammer for Religious Expression Martin Luther’s bold stance on religious expression ensured that he is remembered to this day as an incredibly controversial and influential religious leader. In 1517, Luther’s 95 Theses made its famous public appearance on the doors of the Wittenberg Castle Church and its influence spread quickly across Europe, challenging the supremacy of the church. Martin Luther persevered in spreading his word in spite of the Vatican’s efforts to stop him. His story is an example of how one man’s courage made a profound impact on the world even centuries later. King Hussein: A Monarch Turns International Peacemaker Nearly killed at the age of 16 when an assassin killed his grandfather, King Hussein formally ascended the throne at age 18. By his 21st birthday, this 5’4” leader had already ousted the British army commander he inherited and fended off an attempted military coup. In a region not known for stability, King Hussein would become by the time of his death in 1999 the longest ruling head of state in the world (43 years). If his legacy were simply consolidating his authority while a teenager and building Jordan up to its current extremely influential role in the Middle East, that alone would be the story of an extraordinary leader. However, what transformed King Hussein into a leader for the ages was his ability to become a living symbol of hope for peace in the Middle

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East through his ability to reconcile both with a man who led a war against his rule (Yassir Arafat) and with a man (Yitzhak Rabin) who led—in self-defense—the most damaging military defeat against his nation. Nelson Mandela: Enduring to Triumph South African President Nelson Mandela demonstrated incredible patience and strength in times of great adversity, including twenty-seven years in prison. In the end, he not only maintained his dignity, but triumphed, bringing his people to freedom and himself to his country’s helm, setting an example for any aspiring leader. Key Terms: Charismatic leader: A charismatic leader is one that leads by sheer force of his / her personality and inspire people to do their best. Multicultural leadership: This is practiced when a person is able to respond to diverse cultures by increasing his or her insights into a different population’s needs and world view; equipping one to mobilize an entire group Organizational development: Organizational development is an approach to help organizations be effective by unfreezing them, creating necessary changes, and refreezing them. Politics: Politics refers to the understanding and resolving of human factors involved in decision-making and conflict processes. Power over: This is an approach to power that emphasizes domination of leader over followers. Power with: This is an approach to power that emphasizes empowerment of followers. Project leadership: This is about leading teams created for short periods of time to accomplish a specific task. Situational leadership: This is an approach to leadership that involves balancing the needs of the leader, the needs of the followers, the needs of the situation, and the needs of key stakeholders in the organization. Trait Theory: This is an approach to leadership that involves studying the traits of great leaders and imitating them. Virtual leadership: This is about leading teams comprised of members spread over geographically remote areas.

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