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ManifC!1 and Latent F'unctioru

Sociological Imagin;uion

Conflict Perspccl.h'c Inlcractionut Pcrspcah'(" 111e Sociological Approach

Sociology and th~ Social Scknces Sociology alld Coll1mon Sense'



End)' T hinkcl'S: Comic, MartinC:lu,



,md Spencer
t rnil c Du rkh cim Max Weber

Karl Mal'X
Twcn tiet.h-CcIlI.UIY SocioloKY

I ) E\cr)'d:ly Ik h:wior: FUllcliollalisl, Conl1kt , and In lf:rnctiouisl VieW!!


of Sporl5
1-2 E\'cl")xI:l} Ikhavior. A Feminist View or Public ))Iaces

PERSPECTIVES f unclionaliu I'crs~ti\'c

To attempt to 'Understand human behaviol' is ... the most exciting intellectual challenge in the "World.
Milto/! M . CcrtiOl'l

TIl t &vpt' of S(Jcioiqo': J988

How does the sociological imagination, as a unique fealllre of sociology, distinguish sociolo!,Y from the other social sciences? ' Why is sociolob'Y more tJlan a collec tion o f commonsensc obserwltions? Why do sociologists feg:.lrd suicide as a social as "'cll as an individual act? How did tm ile Dllrkhcim, Ma.x \Vcber. and K;1l'1 ~I arx conU'ibu te to the developme nt of sociological thought? How can the sociological perspecLives of funct ionalism, con fl ict lheol1', and inlc ractionism be used to be ncr understand the world o f SPCIl'tS? What career options <'1I'e avai lable 10 sociologists?

1992, lJOciO\OgiSl David spe nt a cold and wet Saturday afternooll transporting donated food items fl'Olll the parking 101 of a local supermarket in Macomb, Illinois, 10 the baseme nt food pantry of his local church. M ille r "'as impressed by lhc suI). stamia] amount of food t11<1t had bee n donated , and soon leanH. d that the church's pantry was an imp0l1anl source of food for some of his nCighbors, This church regularly disldbules canned and boxed food products to a ny needy person in the comm unit)" Mille r \\'as cu rious as 10 what the source o f these food products was and how widespread such pantri es were,



Since that day, Miller and Richard Sch acfer (Lhis textbook's senior author) have joined forccs to study the food bank system of tJ1C United States, which distributes food to hungl) ' individuals and families, As part of tJ lCir research, they have examined government documents and othe r reference mat e rials in libraries; the), have conducted pho ne illtl.'lyiews with food bank directors in Illinois, Iowa, Oregon, and Califo rnia : and they have observed the distribution of foo d at various churches a nd Salva!jon Alm y facilities. r." liller and Schacfer lea m cd that more than one oul o f four children in the Un iled Sla teS arc hungry. Onc-third of the nation 's ho meless people report eating one meal pcr day or less, With these disturbing realities in mind, charities are rediSllii; tiling food 1.0 panllies and shelters tJlat jusl a decade ago was desti ned for land fill s, In fa ct. the fourth-largest charity in the United States, Second Harvest, is a food distribution orb'<!niza!jon with an a nn ual revenue of more lhan halfa bi llion do llars, ] n 199 I, S(. Cond Harvest disuibuted 500 million " po unds of food from hundreds of individual and corporate donOI'S to more than 43,000 food pamdes, soup k.itche ns, and social service agenck'S. In writing about hungel- in the United Stales, a newspaper reponer might look for exposes or Wlus ual human inte rest stories. However, as sociologists, Mil1er :md Schacfcr ( 1993) focus on broad social mcan ings evident in the naLion 's food disll;' bution system . For exa mp le, they note tJ1C \".1.111(' judgments made in determining which food items arc "proper" 10 dist.ribute to hunb'T}' people, AlCo.

I'MU o ,w: TNt: SOClOLOCfOtI. 1'fo::l(Sl'f:crlVi-.

, ,., U,ul'(/ S/JII,.l IIt1.1 IIn n.1'nJltJt food

6ttM Ift/,,. ",1I"h dUlnbutn ~/ to

Itu"t:? 1w,1 /t',tluliJ., (""I/fII,,,/Ii ..

hol and lob;tcco pH.KIIIC:U , Ir~ 1I.lIIlIcd from 11\1": -food t>ipellll ~. " but il is li ll'I.III), mlllllllcd full of -junk food" ~u(h ~I!o c wd) .lI1d it ~ ((CdlU. M,HI), o l.lSCncl'x \\ould Ulll l lIIl.tll\ .Ippl.lllt! thc dL~tnbull llH of tOllll of lvvd 10 tll .. IIl(.'d ),. Whil~ lilll' poni\'t' o f ;and personall) II l\'ohnl III , u( h cnorts. Miller .md SC'hacftr ne\cru l clc&.~ dl .lw 0 11 Ihe in iighL'I of St)("ioltlg)' to o lfl,: l a IIlUH' plOhlllK ,it'w of thl"Se ;lClh it it,. nil' )' n0 1(' 111.11 l")\\ ~ dul l\,u l C) III our socicl),-"'Iurh ;1\ tilt.' It'ell'l.11 t()\'(, llI m~ltl. ilia jor food I c l.ulc l""', .md u t h e .. l ' lrg~ etJl pUI,lIio ns-t\:l\C juillcd 11\ Lh.lnl .,hlc loud dl\lnhUliOII .1I 1.lngc Illcnts. Pcrh.lpli .l.S .1 rc,ult . Ih~ tueu"" u l /mdt rclief progra m.~ b spc:dfiL .lIId !!lUl led . I h c h u meless arc lO be fcd . not hou~d : Ihl' u lIClIlplu) cd .tlt" to be 1P\'e1l IIleal}.. IIOIJV~ Re hel dtOllll.t.\..'>I:t1 hUIISI) inru\idu;11$ and 1.lIll1hn \\-Uhuu1 th.lllellglllg the t"xlSung social ordcl (for e!l:.ullple. b)' d CIII.tnd illg .a redistnbulIon of weallh) . Mille r .1IIl! Seh.lelcl .ttld that wilho ut these limited 'Ul('~"t" in dhllibuting food , hO:lld$ of sl...,...oill ~ pC\lp1c IIIIKln ,l:>S,1U 1t 1),1trollS o t re ~mu r;Ult.s, 1 001 g l'occ r)' IUUI I". 0 1 litc l ,llIy d i~ Ofllml"\" l ion Oi l llle ~IC pll u t \ it)' h all, lln d ;tcrnss .t from lhe White 1101.1.;. S lIc h n il iGlll h in king i~ 01' ial of tlte Ihcol clk.ll .1IIt! Icscardl dlum of ..oci oIogi.!lu ill Mud)i llg ;t \OCi~11 ill..m c 1I11 h :l'> hunger h al!tO Cohn e t ~I.. I9<J!J) .

1 \\'C h .l\'1: MoTIl. 111(' 'lUCiuluW'" h,,~ .. d i.. IIIICII\'t: wa)' \$

of ex,III1I11I11K hUIII.I.II

IIIlc l ,tCUu n , Sucio/agy IS the ll)'Sll'IIMIJl "ud) ul /IOCi.11 l~ h .l\'lor .llId hUIH:tn grO Upt'" It rOCU"l'S prim:lri l)' o n lhe 1IIf11t(' It(.t of ">0ciill rel,luo ll\IIIP, UIM.)U PC:UI)lc'll .Iujtud(~ :u ul be ha\;or ;and 0 11 h{m' '>OCielic!o .lIt c,I.lbl i.. hctl :md ch.mgc, A... ;l field of study. wciolu[{), h .L~ .111 ex lrc mel), bro.ld """pe. ' I hcn:fOl'l'. Utili tcxtbuok de.ds with l;ul1ilic ... lfomK~ . hll~ill l'\.S fit ms, poIiUllIIMnies, schools, rcligiulI'. :lI1d 1 I)or 1I11iom It is lOlllel'lICd " \"'ith Imc. I)4J\'~n), conform ity. di:KfllIllII.UlUII. IllIt,,-S", ahClldU ulI . O\"c'-I>OI)ul.auoll llId COllll'lllllli t) . In lhc Lnitcd ::tt.lld, nC\\~I};lpCJ'~,lcI ,i~lon lIId radiO .are the lbu.II iOllrcC' u t infonn.llloll ,.bulll ~lI ch group:f .lIId l)I'oblcm,. 1I<,\'oc\l..'r, ,,"'Ill le the basiC funcuvlI 01 jOUlIIOllblS I~ 10 '-CllUl1 th e nCh~. 'iOCiologllll' briug ,I chlTcn:1I1 typc o llllldt""I,m ding IQ 'lIeh I""e'. : 1'hl' ... hion 0 1 l.Kiolu b il\\'o lH.'s ,) .'iCci IIK Ihl oug:11 ti lt: o llt ~idc ;'t>IW:t I' IIIC'C:f 0 1 people's iiCljons ,uld (,rg:tn i/.atiUII\ (Bcrgt'r. IUG3:.3 1-37) . Olll' 1II .~tJI ~u. 1 1 01 ' ociuluh,) i~ 10 Id~lIlify lIlI' d e , l>'ing. rculI rinK Ilattcln.., of .1Ilt! in flu ences on soci:,1 tx.'h .l\'iUl . cx.lmpl('. :tuciologi\'s stud) the p:\SSlonalc (Iellil c vi mO\'ie 01 rod. IIl IL 1::11111 to sec ,ic in perSOll , 10 taiL ..... ith . C\C II 11, gmb Ihe clolhi ng of

" 'm

UI.UU)f I ' 1111 X.UUtt (JI ' !;(}tJfJl.JX,)

a ~Iar. Why do pcuple fcd thi~ need so powc:rflLlI}'? 10 " IIaL txtC III doe~ 1 ticipatiml illl1 e rowd 'lffhn" ),11 al1(ih' individuals to ac t IlIore bold I) U.;U'I thc), I)U ,erwi~l' might ? W il l p,' ople gain g'n .... tc l t'Cspcct from lamih' mc:rnocrs nr fricnds ir the y h:wc ~ h:tkell
halld~ wi th ;\ Iarlonna and cxc1mngcd three sentelltt.:s n l ccHI\'crsatiou? SocinIH&')' gOl'~ hcyond idclHifri llg I><Htcrns of '-0cial bc h;wior: it "hn aue m pts t(~ provide cXI)I ,malioll'! fOl' ~ lI c h p;ttlcrll~. l lcre tilt' impact of hroad ~ocic l a l rorces bccolllclI .1 ccntrotl co n ~idC I'-;t1 ion o f ~oci o lu.!..,,. Sociologi st" art 1111\ CUll\cnt to look at till' illdi~'idu al rail '" pe. r~un alit y 01 M UlliqllC reasom I'lt' w:mling to III1,:el 1'0111 Cr ui'l:, .I lllia Rouel'l.s, \J1' Dc'n7.cI \\,,,,,hingtun . R:Hher. they rc.coglli/c lha t Illitlion~ of people wa nt 10 meel celebrities. and the.'r exami ne tl1l' ~"arNl Icdi n g~ a nd be h a\~or of (;ms within thc larger ~()c ;a l context of th e c.llltur(' of the United St ;a te~.

qllt'sl io n ably :I person:1 harddlip rft r a mall or 1 woman \,'ithollt a job. I-Iow('wr. C. \\'right Mills poi nted 0111 ,ha t whell IIncmployment i.~ :t social proble m sh;rred b~' mifJimls of people. it is appropri.ue lo (lueslio tl lite w~ly th ,u a socie ty is SII'ueItlred. imi la rl)', ~mb <ldvocaled u ~e of the sociological inwgina tion to \ic ..... divorcc not. sitUpl)' .t.S the pcrsonal problem of a particular man :\lId W(lman, bLll rathc r as a ~ \.J lI(utt-:11 p l'o blem , since it wa~ the Ollt (ome of so many rnaniagcs. l\n d he W:15 'nTiling Ihi .. in the 1950s, whe n thc divorce ..He was hilt <I frac tion or what it. i~ 10dOl) ( I. l--Ioro\\'il1, 19H-3:87- IOH) . Sllciological im agina tio n C:1Il bring ncw \1I1d el~

...... M

The Sociolomcal Imamnation h! ..................... 9. .................................................. ..


In attem pting to Iltl(!e rst:Ul(1 ~oda l Ix havior. ~oci olugisb I'd)' 0 11 all untt ~Hal type of crC::ll iv(' rhinl-. ing. C. Wrig ht !\'Iills ( 1959) d escribed ~\l c h rhinkiIll; :L~ lhe $oc;olog;cal i magillu lio1l- an :'lwa rcn('s.~ of Ihe rela tiu nship betwee n an in(\i\jdmtl :Itlrl the wider ~ocicty . Th i~ aw.,rcm: s.~ allows people (n o \ ~;m pl )' ~ocio l ogi st~) tu comprdlcncl Ihe l in k ~ be... t'n'cen lh d ,' imtne d ia lc , pc r~om,l sud;,1 selti ng" ilml the rCtltOle, itl1p<:r~omll ~oci ,,1 world . It:lt ~lltTOllllds the m ,md he lps to sha pe lhem. t\ key ('i<' IU('nt in the .iodological i ll1 a~';lIatioll is tht' ;,hili,y to \; cw O I1 (" ~ 0\"11 ~ociety as.Ht ulIl'>id el' wou ld . t~uh('1' th an fro m th e limited perspective o r 'K'~m1:lllxptTic n ccs and cultlll';l l biases. Thus. in~ t,ea d uf ~ intp l ) "cupling Ihe rac t Ih :1I 1110\i<: Sta fS :md rock sta r~ arc the ~rop1t}'" of 0111' "O('ict)', 'n'C cott ld :L~ k. ill a 1I1ore critical SCIl"C, wll)' Ihis i~ the ca~c , Cotu:eh~ ,bly, :m ollt.~ id er IIn lam iliar \"ilh Ihe C niled St.,tCs IIlig-ht wUllder wh y we arc not ,L~ int ~rCSled in meeti tl):: Olt LS1:ulding scicntists, cleltlCt,1:11)' school lC;lc1I(' IS. or MchitcCl~ . As \\IllS ll'UC of the study o f hut Igel' alld food d isu;lmtion by :\'fill er :wc! Schac::fcI , Ihe sociological imagil1:1tion ;llImvs liS to go 1 )C}ond pel'l:!onal expeI'icnccs :md ob'''cl'\,lI jC)ll~ 10 unclefSl;t1LC1 broadCI' public is.illell. Unc:mployllwtlt. rill' e X<lIll I)1e, is Itn-

sla llding lo daily liff.' arollnd u.... Snciologist. ,,t ul'1':lY Mel bin ( 1978. lfl87) h ~L'i like n cd Ihe social lire in c ir ic~ of lhe United SIa tcs during latc nighuimc hou r" 10 5O(: ial li fe o n frontiers or the old hCSI.. In his view. there arc tll-any simi laritiCl! in the social ami heha\-io ml p;t t l(.' rn~ of people in ci tie8 at nig ht and 0 11 the frontier, atllong th(!tlll hc following: (I) th e populat io n Il'nds to be .. parse -and hOIll()ge t1C(I "~ , (2) thert' ;,,;'t welcome solit ude wi th fewcr ~nc i a l cn n ~mlil1t$. (3) Ihe l't' i ~ m o re I:,wl e"" n c~'! and vio h. lIc('. an d (4) i11le l't'~1 groups em crgc wh ich have eoncern.~ ~ pc ci l ic to tilt' nig ht 01' th e fromicr. OtIC or Mclnin ', mo~1 ' Itrprising :L~se r tion~ is that both in tJ1(.' ci l) at nighl aurl on lhe fro THi e r. there is m(JJ'I' hclpflllnc ~~ a mi friendl;ne.s.~ lhan in nlher t ilJle~ ami place:.. l ie :tttelllpted 10 Sub$l.-ulIi:u e thiot , iel-l' by co n ducti n g foUl' tcSb of Boslon reside nts' h el p ful n ess rmd fricnd lint's,o, at \';.Irioull lime$ duI" in s' lhe:: 2'J..hOllr c)c1c. "-'lel bi ,. round th.1I Ix:twecl1 midn ight a n d 7 A . M .-a~ compared wilh other limC$ dll1i ng the d:t>"-I, cople \,'ere mOl'e likely 10 gh'c di rcction .. , 10 cotlselll to:ln interview. and to Ix: soci ablt' Ni th a stnlnger.l\ pparcllrJy, when ,,"<:\I'C thal Ihe}' a r(' 0111 in a da ngerous Cll\iron mcm (lhe night or the frontier) , people idclllil}' ....~th the vulnera hili t)' of othel':'! and hecome mo rc outgoing. B)' dt'awing Oil lhe sociological irnagimlliol1 , :\'Ic lhin ', inl!ig uing stud), helps 11 ~ to view Ilighuimc ~oda l ill.:ti"il)' ;l.\ diffc l'e nt frortl-',lIld 1101 ncceMari l)' mort w Ihre:tteni ng lhau-;\Clh-ity duri ng "1I0!1l1:11 ho urs. Sociologht:l put their imagi natio n lO work in a variet)' of ltrClL1. Ta blc I- I j>1 nt.s a pMlia l liSl01 esc th ~ spccia li1;ttions with in eontelll l)Or,lry socio logy. TIlmllgh Oll l thi~ tcxtbook. the 5OC.iologic:11 im:lgj..

J'II1I7 O.VI - '1711 ,'V CroJ.OGIC."1. J,,;tt""'."CII\'1;

Italion ....ill be: mt.c1 1 ~xalnil1e the United SI:lleS 0

r\UI t I )

(1lfld other !lodelie:t) from the \ricv.'poim of respt'Ctful but queslioning out.sidcnI.


""w.. ......... c!ookw

In this chaptlr. thc nature of sociology a!J a science and its relaliol1!1hip 10 other "f)Ci,,1 science'! will be rxplon:d. TIle com ribUlions of three pioneering Ihinkers-f:milc Durkheim, ~1:tx Weher, :m rl ~Irl MJrx-tn Ihe d evclllpllll'nt of sociology will be ,="al ualcd . A IIlImbe .. of impOrlllTlt t,hcon= licnl l}e ..... 'lCco li\'tS lI.5Cd by sOciologisL" will be diSCllll~ed . Fi n ally, proKtic:.II :lpplicalio n~ of the dilcipline 0 1 MJCiOlog), rot hunmn t)t.'h.lvior and org<lIIilrllioml ....ill be de......

MMef,oodoIooOol",y ond ,~ch ted-.dogy ...

SoaoIogy' hi"", ond o+-y

$odaj po"hoIog,


I Mon phenomena

and .odal 11IUCNrtI Complell Ofg<Jnlzotion Soclol chonee am:! .conomlc dtMIlopment Political aoclology alKl lnlerocllonl Soclol ..rorlllcotton and mobI~ty Sociology of OCCupotlonl and profeuions RLlto! wcloAagy arod ogriallMe Urban toCkIo;y Sociology oIlong~ and .,. Ofb Sodo'ogy of edLlCOtlon SocIology cl religion


Sociolol!V and th . _._" ___ 'MM'_"_MM' _ _ _ _._._ 5I'. ("_ __ ._ e Social Sciences
In a gene .... ~lIk. wciology can be COlllllde ..t:d ;1 oIl ,0 I('icnce. TIle term sc;ellcf! I'cfel'll 1 llit' body of kno.....ledge Obl;lilled by meth od.. b;l.\Cd lIpOIl 1I}'iItcmatic ol)Sc! .lliOIl . Like othel' lIcil'lIt ific disciI)lines, 5()Ciology cngagc!I in organi/.cd. ~y, c clmu.ic Jludy of phcnomcn:, (in lhis C\~e. human bch:w illr) in ordc r 10 cn lmllce lllldcrSI;}ndillg. All .scienIL ~'helhl'r .md~ing mushroom') 0" Illun:lerel"i. .mcmpt 10 collec t preci~ infonn:uion tlll'OlIgh rm:thcxb of~ tlldy which are a.. ol~eC l i\'~ ~h pOIl.~iblc . They rdy on Glrdul recordi ng of OlbC'f\"IIIOII~ :md

.LCt'\lmul.ltiOTl of d:lt.I..

or course.

theI'C i


b'TCa l dilfcfcnc(' Ilct .....ecn

~olog). ami ,)h}'~ic!l. bet..... cen p~)cl lf) l ogy and ~1!OnOIl I). for lh is reasel!. tJlC scien ces ;!I'C COOl-

ml)n~' divided into natural alld social 'iCicnce'Jo. N,fll,al .rnmlce i, the stud)' ofthc I)h)""kal fc;u\lrcs MILIA: and the "''a)'5 in which they interact and (hange. Mlfonomy, biology. c herni,try. geology. :.tnd ph)'lics arc all natllJ"31 sciencC!l. Socia l scie,.ce Itr Ihe" study o f various MpeCIlI ofhum3n !loriet) . The IOC'WsOcnct'l inc lllde MXiolog)', anlhrol>O\ogy. crOo

SoaoIogy of low Poia. p8ncMogy, and cOl'reclionol problemt Sociology of Klenu o.mogrophy and humon beMm'or The family and IOClolizalion Soodogy of M)tvol benovior SodoIogy of n.o~h and medici~ Sod""", of knowtodge CornlTll.ll'lity and '-Sionol .. <Iow;.!.Iop_,,, ....... PoliCy panning and fotM:alling RocIicol aoclology Sl\ldies In po"""f Studie. In violence Femlnl.. ond gender . ludie. M a,III.1 aocl%gy Sociological pl'octica [clinical and applledl SocIology of !)ijlint>n 0fId enll'eptenaurl.m


Ib rI}Vrud
"" t'Jftllrl'


Om exmpt fro .. IIv ktbV

of rMllmlJ oj'Sociologu:al At" U7acUoarl,rld.

noft1ta, hi'!tOl')'. I),)'chology. and pnliticot' !i('itlIct:. 11u~:!tC academic discipline!! havc a ,'omUIOIl fonlll on the :lod:!l bchavior of peoplc. YCI l'ach l ul.~ ~ p.trcicul:,r Ol'icllImion in slIId)rin tl M I h beh;tvior. ,\J1dIl'OI)()\ogisu w,imlly study C U1tU I'C~ o f the !'.ISt and prdndll~lria l socieuc~ 111al rem:lin ill cxi~lence tuday.:I.' .....ell ;IS the o rigins of men and women ; th is knOlrtit'dg<" h used to examine contempor.11)' sodtIltS, including evcn indu.\lrial &odr'II~ . t:',cQno-

loool"lO-IM di!f'lplll~ of wrioIotJ bf d,vUUJ illla /1 diwu~ I'III'ri)' (If mbfidds.


GM MmatVl'f d61(J~ of IIl1d booIu an topio of


(:1I-tJ' ll:If I ' nlEN,.,ruNF.OI-"SOCKJI.J)C.'

In 1"'/1 ,,XlIIII,,wtU}II

luOollJgub fool.! {Jf/ (h, MKwl nm.wll th/lf III'I"{II/I "~III/1. mm,) flflfliri/Klnls,

of p,OwJHlIl/f,

tIIi~IS ~"pl ll rc Ihe: 'lol}'!! in which Iwopk produce and eKclllITlge Kond~ ,lIld scn ic<-'\, .llong wi lh Illonc}' and OI lwr I't:MlUrC'l.'lI, I lislori.IIlS,u'f' cOII('l'mecl \\'lth Ihe l)t'oplc$ .1IIt1 c\ellt.~ or till' ,,.,,1 ,I lid Ihci l' :.iglIilic,mcc for Ill> toc:l.I)', Political '\('1('lIl i\111 \llId)' m ter!1:llIolI:tl 1'c1.llj(Jlli, lhe \\or)..ill).,'S ul 811\el1 l1 llel1l , and ,ile cXCICi!l('orpO\\el' .U1d .tUlhotil~ , Ps)chulogist.s imcMigalc j>C1'\oII:tli t\ ,lIld Llldi\idll.11 bch'l\~ ior. III Con ll"M1 10 Olh el' \()('1.11 lI(. lellCrot, scxiolUJ.,,)'

d en l Ull ':-,lIIl bl i ilK II,al the .Icti\'il), fill'i .111 IllOlionaJ IICNt. A~ .1 I ~\LLII. Ihe)' ca n llOI give Lip g<lmbling wit h oul Ih'ling I1CI,\'01 ;tnd IIp~1 ny C()T1I1~ L~I. in Ihcir cx:ul1in;uion 01 g;tlublillg. s(Kiologi\llI IOCIIS 011 Ihe MlC ial nelwork., Ihal de-

"cl0I' .1I11ong III.IIIY panicill<lllu. Whcther they be

beUOI.... "II>Ort.>J

Ix-HOrs. or poker plil)'t:n.. uf

cOltvi,~al i l)'

gounhlcOi l.'SI;thli!>h fricnds hip Kruul)S :lIId work

hard to
redi nK~



tltc inllucllc<" Ihal 5OCic l)' has 00 pc~ ple ' ~ atti tudcs ,md heh;tvior ;lI1d thl' W;I>~ in which Pt.OI)\c ~h:tpc \OCit'I)". 11 11111:111<1 life .social ani uMls; ' thererore, \()CiologisL" !tC"icll tifiol ll) l' X,IIIUIIC our fo()o I.litl rdatiomhips with people .

10 better illUlIlr<ilc lh e cli.~li,,< tj\l' pcrspcc li\l... or lhe .social M:icl1ccII. 1t'1 us ex.llllill(' \(KiologiCll I :mcl 1)$)'chologi~1 <l l)pro.lchcs 10 lhe i~ue u t g;unhling. r he glowing Ic~li/a l iun ufg.llubling in Ihe Ulllled Sl.,teS h:L'i, in dfl'U. IlIt.I' tlte 1II111l1 ur pal" )C1 tid ll:U) I ~ .lIld l.oll llibutcd tu a liSt: ill Ihe nlll n bcr 0 1 pruhlc III g:uTlh\t'rs"- t h :1l i... PCI)p\(' \~' h o con ~i~te:1\11)' l o~(' Inu re l!Ionc)' I h~1IL IILl')' L i lt afTt' ld I() lose. Camhlc l"lI' I)ro!"("' goa l i, l'('OIlOtn ic g... in ; ),e t , bec.ILL~ thl.' \.L~IIII.tioril)'t.'ml u p \ ()~iIlK 111Imc)'. lhci l' I)CI~PC t.i\"l i.. t'ollltnoniy :L\ MirraliCln:I\ 01' c..'\"CU "p;lIhologiGll. Vie\H'c1 frum liL(' 1X'I"\Jx"C, lil'C 01 1>:I)'hoIO)..') . 1(.IIIlIJliltg rt.I,rlM'nl'i'1Il eSdIX' ilHo a r.lIlt.I'>} hor\d wILl.'l 'Kl eal rVIUlIlC can be .11 lained ~si l , . f,cnlll;llh. PCOI,II. 1)C( uTI)e '\0 dCJX:II'

c;\:jual ;lcqllaiul,lI lct.'!l "'holll they IIIttl lh rough ){"".lIubling, CUI1!!l.''lut:llll). rorlluch pe:ople.lfolmbling i,:a forll1 of rCCH~'Hion and ilia) (\CII be lheir pri11131'\' social.lclhil). nlis sociological pel'lllleCli\'e on g:tll1bling c::~ts" \hadow on l'cctllTing dfor ..'! lO disCO\lr;lge 1}'lniculM indl\'iduab frolll g;lInbling and 10 di~our;tge the pr.lctice in general, Ch ng up i go'l1lbling Ill:!)'. in f.:le!. meall fo rguing all social in ICntClioll tlla l :a person ha.' previOlll!lly lound la be
ml,mingful. A ltern.llj\,c1). p.ut.lcip;tlio n in C:tm1J1C1"~ AII0 1I),1II0111l-<;1 sdfhdp g ruup fi)1' "problem gamblers 11lodclccl on }\Icohvlics }\n on),1Il0llS-pro\ ides fI IICW fO I'lLtll 10 wh ich exga m blers call llll 11 ror imemCliOIl . tllldcl'St.'Hl<lillg. and encour ag~mcllt , T h e i n di\~dual ClIn find social supporl lO replace Lhc rriendship groups dC\'elol)ed in his or hcr belt ing d:I)1I ( RoSt.'(:rance. 1986. 1987). Sodologisl Ronald 1 ),I\..,lko Im.s inill'lled many ..ludil'S of g'",unbling and I "l.~ roundl.'({ Ih e ..tnter rur ~tlllblillK Sludit."'I;1I the L:nhc~ll)' ufWi!IConsin


Q.'" nit: !ilJCJQI.CKJ(~U f'f::JCiJ'fjf'fl\"f

M'lck' In tC:Khing undcrgrncl\lall'



1hr !\lIoology of Gambling,"

P'I\~l lko approarhcs

pmbhnll' .... ;'t booming indu~lI") (which a(("QIIllIcd for S'l"J hlllion in legal """'gc" in lh e Unilt'd ~""(''ll in tm), ll~ a public poliC} isslIe, :md ."'''' an lamil) problem . Pot..".I!;.. and his col ~r":\ 11.1\'(' cx.:l.mined slIdl is\lLC\ Ihe rok ul pmbling in the ....'orkplacc:. gmnbting ;" :1 Id ~ul c timr oMll\ it) for older people. and (ompulsh (: gam ~ within Nati\'e Amcri(:m lribc!i th~1 1 01>(: 1~lIc "'lMl1Oo(l l mH!ry. I 993).


~Iogy and C~~.:.~?.!'_~~~~ ,,_._,.._._,._.._..


AI"",' -.etn. sociololr' .md lhe olher '-OCi:1.1 M'i locus on the lIU1dy of ccrt:tin :"~pcct\ or 1111~ brll.\\ior. Yet human bch:wjur i.o. lIol1u:thillg IItb "Iuth \0,(,,,11 h:l\'C experience ami abOut which 1ft bm' .1I1e-.In .. bit orl:no..... lcdgc. :\1:111) or U~. (\e ll Wh:JUI ltl,n, dcgrce.\ in the ~iat sell'nec'l, might .... WAAt~lioll\ abouI how socj~l\ co uld C;ISC the "u1II4~ f.'Id b)' dual-carcer rouplc\ \\'ith ~ollng
dldttll. \11 of U~ lIIigll1 well h;w(" Ih('ori('b about

arc more signiliclIIl . ni~"~ l cl"'i do nOl gencrnll ' pro.. duce I};mic, In Ihc ;Iftem\ath of mum,:,1 di"'"~lers. grt.."3lcr ~ial OIlr-UliJ;llion and Mnlcturc cmerge 10 deal \l ith n ('omnlllll it)' 1I p"oblems, Like othcr' "<Killl SCil!ltisls. sociologisu do n OI :IC' (;C!}t ~o l1l cth illg :I~ a ract bec;Ulse "C\'cl,onl' ).;nOh'l! i t. Instead. e<lch piece of information n ltt."1 be l""1lt,,'(I,1IId I'ccordcd, thcn anal)'"/ed in IcI:uiollShip 10 other dal;l, Sociology relics o n $Cicn lilic lIh/die:J in ordcr to d escrilJc ;me! undcr.mmd a social e!lvi rontn(nt. ,\1 lin lcli. Ihe lindings of ~ioloKis t :l may S("t.1lI lik( cOlumOn sense bcc2usc the), de.. 1 \\lith r..cels of C\(:I)'(L'l)' life. Ycl it is impoI"I'lIu to MIC\S that such finding:! h:wc bt.-cll lhJro by research ers. Common sell\(: now Iells us that tJu: canh is round. nUL t.his p;u tieular commonscnsc notion il ba~'d 011 ('Cl1turic,~ of' scientific \I'o l'k upholding the bre"k lhrough made b)' PYlhagor.l.s and Aristotle.

mll\l(; t .. r~ and rod. Ulusi.:- ~1.I1"ol l'Irt th(' sui> jl'tuul ....lll\uch attention and :ulul.niOll . Our Ih(.. \URgC\CioIU cOllie frol11 Ollr t'''l)t'(ienccs

IQ OU I 1I.11Iy liles, ....'c rcl)' 0 11 COII)I1Ion '1cmJC 10 '" u\ through tn:"lny unfamili:u' ,i l lL , lIioll~ . 1101\' ,,".lh,,1 .. no .....ledgc is nOt alwl\):I accur.lIc. ht' C;lIl'''C 11 rnt.. (In commonly held Ix"litr:! l~lthcl Ih.ln .Io>~ _lit .1II.11)"i" of rllCIS. h W;IS' OIlI;C r Oll1it\l'red -maum'll 'C.'''~ .. 10 aepl Ihat rhe cal lh , ,,~ 0:11 ~ IIRIIII) questioned by 1 ')1h:'1(0I':h ;lIId A,;'1' . . . hK1Mlrt' CQllllllonscnsc nf)lions .. re 1101 just Ip't" Ihc' di.s.. "ul\ iXISC; Ihey rcmaill hilll 1, ... IO la thr ll1ll((1 tal(:S. common 5C1l$(' h'lI ... \1:1 111:"11 . n .. 1'.... 1011 minOlil), t:;ruul) 1ll01'C!( into a I)r(vi JU-\\lllll' ncighborhood. j)l'o]Jcny \~ I III CII c1",,cInt Cmtlnt()1I sense le lls IlS that pco,.lc pan ic *n1.1(C'{\ .....hlt nalUmJ dimft: I'lI, $\ Ich a ... tloucL" :l\1d anhqwlh, the I'e8Ull th ,lt aU ...ocilll ~IIK.Ulil..l ... dr'Ullqll'atOl. I.. o .....c\cr. these p;tnkubr com ~nl((" 11Qllon)o-like the notion chat tlte c:ulh is ~ ItttltUr, neither of lhcm j ... ~uflPQnccl bl' 8duIoKK.d l'l~ICh . R..IC(:' ha~ been round 11) h:wc 1IIr R"bllun)h,p 10 propeny \'"hll'S: ","ch r.l.((f)I"$ '" ~ ch.IIIJ;I'\, ()\'trcrO\\din((. am.! age 01 hou.,i ng

... .-,d
IDd fmm


ch('rish,,-d M)urcc of wio,clolll: comTTlon

WIll d o Ik'Oplt' commi t ~uicidc : Om' lI".1diIIUlI.,1 pt'uple mherll Illl d~ "irc to l.,lllhelll't1\ c .... Anol her ne,, 1'1 I ha! $lIIl\I)OLS d l'l\c p(.'o plc to I:Il.:e Iheir own Itn.... 111Cl1C cxplan ;\li o n~ Ill:t) 110t ,",-'Cm c:llx-ciil.llr convincing In conICllllx)!':,,)' rCM!':u'chl' I~ , bUI Ihc), rcpl'CSCl11 I)did.. I"idcly hdcl ,b rClclllly .L WOO \ Sociologi:ll'l :11'e nOl p:ulicul:trl), illtcrClIlCci ill \vh )' :1Tl)' o n c individ ual commit:! s uicide; the)' al'e I1IOI'C cOl1cemed h itlt \I Ill' /II'Q/II, I1I I!!"'I""/Iakl' Ihdr own Ih~. nU!! lead .. !lodologisl!I 10 exam ine thc !lOOal fo rcc ... lit:'t influcnce people in dl"Ciding " 'hclller or 1101 10 ;'Iu'mpl ~uicide. In ordcl' 10 undcn.lkl' slIch rC~'arcl l , liOCio logtsls de\'clop llu.' Orio th:llOr fer a gcncl'al cxplana tion orsome I)'J>C of beh:1\ior. TI\4,.'orics c m be rcg;lrdc.-o a~ :.lIempl.'( 10 explain C\'CIIU, rurcc"', lIIalc lia l.~, idca~. or bch avior in a com p rd l c ll.~ivc tn:UUlCI'. \Vithin sociology, a In tQ')' is ascI Of'iJWII'IIlCllb Ihat .Ioccks 10 explain pl'(lhlclII.~. :t'lion~. or hch:wiol. An cffeclive lhcory nmy 1 1a\'c bolh cxpl;lIl:-l lory :"Ind I" 'cdiclh'c powcr , "I 1t:11 i:l, il C UI hell} I~ 10 dc\clop a broad tmd intcgmlc..-d ,-ic\\' of thc rel:llionship.. amo ng seemingly icolatc..'C.1 .,hl'" nomella :L' \l'dl ;-1\ 1 underSland how Ollc 1)1)4,.' or 0 chan gc in :ut cm'1ronlncnt leads to olhc ..... All c<-scllti:li t;t.~k in bujlding a sociological the(1)' i~ le) exruninc the r~la t iomjh i p be!\\(!t'1I hill or
l O UIIIIO lIll, IN 1II ~\\'('r 1;0; Iha.

t:J/V'IJ;R I m .,\,I/Ufi: (]:t()(:JUl(X01

d:U:I, ~ thcred through resca rc h , IImt nmy foCCIII comple te l), unrchued. For exa lllp le, lIUPP0ll(! that YO" arc g1\'cn data abolll Ihe number of rt'portcd suicidC1ll in \'ltriOH~ Europc:m n;lIiol1ll in 1869. YO II are lold Ihal lhC:Tt' I"crc 5'4" rcported . IlIiddcs in l Fr.mct' in Ih:1l ),e,lI, 1588 in .lIgl'lIId, and onl)' '162 in Denmark. If)'Ou ratl'icU.f1 )'oUl'lfClfIO IhO<1C dOlt.'!, " )'ou l11iglll aHcmpt to dc\'clop a Iheory about why lhere .....ere .so man)' suicides in France and 50 few i.. Denmark. I loweH!1'. in I'cscarchi ng thill \'cry problem , [milc Durkhcim (195 1, original e ditio n 1897) looked into suicide dOl i" in much greatcr deI;:Iil [lnd dC\'elol>cd a highl), original theory abo ul Ihe relationship bel.... ecn suic ide a n d ,\OCiaJ l".u: IOI'$. Durkheim was primaril)' o llccrllcd 1101 with Ihe pel'rona l ili~ of indi\idual suicitlc victim!;, but r.uher ,>rilh suicide ml~ a lld how the)' varied frOIll coumry to COll llt ry, ~ :t resllll. when he looked Oi l the IIIl1ubc!r of reponed suicide!! in F'r:Ul CC En', ~Ia lld , alltl Lle ll lll:II'k in 18ti9, Il l' .11"0 t')(.UlllI1Cd t h(' l)Upul,llioll!l of Ilw ~( ' n:t1it)II" to tI(lcI'IlIim.' th eir r";\lC8 o f sllicld~ , In cioing SII, Iw 1 (lUlld Ih;l\. Whl' l C:LS Eu gland lI:ul onl)' 67 rCfX)rt~d .~lIi dd~, pt'r mill ion inhahit:uus. Fr.UlCl' hOld \~:; )1('r lIlilliulI :lI ld Ut.'IIIlla rk had '1.77 PCI' million . Thll!l . in 1~"1II" u l na lIonal com ();lri'oOII", Ih~ qm.1Iliol1 thclI !xc<llIle: -\'\11) did Ot'nlll.lrk (I~lth r-r Ih:1I1 Jo' I~ulcd h;l\e ;1 cornp.uol1l\c.'I\ high r.lle o f repurtl.'d ~uu: id~ ..?Ourl.hellll went lIIuch d~('pcr 11110 Ill!! m\'eslig.l lion of :uucicle rales. ,lIId Ihe rcsllIr \,"U hi\ 101 0(1 iliaI'''' h a rk ,\IIlnd" publi~hed Ol I ~J7. Durkhdrn rcfll3Cd tu :Iutumali<'ally accepl unprO\clll')( I)I ,lIlalluns r~g;lIding lllUcidc. including I h ~ bchcl~ Ih.11 'lIdl deMit! Wl're c.IU!I<'d I>) cosnuc fcm:~s 1.11' tw inhcriIt~ d Icndcncil"f I n~It' ad, hc 10(11""'(\ 1.111 MICh pro\ lem .. a~ Ihl' coht'~i\,(! l1c\" Ilr 1.lcl. Hf COhCS I \ellC~ of religious :111(1 ~cu l)Ouinllal gruui'lI Durkhc lln.. resc:.u'CIl !illggc~led tlt.ll !lUlI.:ide, . whil ~ :a lIoli l.II')' aCI. i5 rcl:lled to STUUp hfe . I'rotl'''' 1:1Il\.~ l\:Id much h igher ,uicide r;UC<i Ihall (,:~alholics did; the uurnatTied h rld much higher I,IIC\ Ih:m llIanicd peOI)I(' did: ~ol"it:11'I w~rl' more m"'ly 10 Ihell 1i\CS IIulI1 civili:lf1S \\'(re. III :tdflitiu u. it appeared Ilmt there wcr~ h igher I';I\C" 0 1 "1Iic-iflc ill limc.. of p('a('(' t hOln in lim~ or ......Ir lIlId i't'\'o lulion . and in l,ill1l'!! of f'cnnomir inMtabilit)' tllld rt.'c.e.!lSion !':tlher Ilum III lirnl'~ of prosperit),. Llurkheim COilc1uded lh,lI the !l lIidd~ !':tICS or:l !W.K.iety reflcclcd lhe eXIt'n! to which Ix'Opl~ M. I ~ 01 \\'t'f~ 1101 mlegl.ued inlo tht- Kl'OuP li fe uf lIll' :IO('ICI\ ,

Emi le Durkhcilll . like 111.111) o ther sud,11 scicnthts. dc\clop'd .1 Iheury to ('XI)I.lin huw individual bdla\~OI can bf: tl ucll'l'Slo(KI withm :1 MKi.II COlllexl. "Ie poinlt:d OUl Ilw inUllcncC' uf grollps :llId 5Ocicl;11 fo rct'lC o n wh:tl h,ld .lh\,I)'lI l)Cell \il.... ed a., a high I)' j>e.'lKmal ,tet. Cleat I\'. Ourl.hellll offered a more frlnlttjir t'''I>I<IIMI1011 101 Ihe C.UL..eS or lIuicidc Ilmn thoU of :l lUl \I)Ol.~ ur in lwrned tClldenri,'s. I ll, Iheory h a.. 1 )ledi{liw 1)O,,cl . ~IIlC(, 11 "IIS1,'l"~l" that suicid e IOlICiI will risc or r.11I ill t.OIlJUllcuun wilh ccrmill llocial and ccunomic Ch,lIIgl\. h is imporGUlI 10 tl mll'rsr,md 11 ,I Ihl'OI'}'-C\ocn 1.11 lhe lx... t of Iheuties-Is nOI ,I Hnal ~t,IIC lll c nl ,IboUl human belllwiol I)UIl.hel1l1 ~ Ihl'OI)' of suic.ide IS no exc<'plion ; socllllogiSl1 co nljnu~ lu l'",am m t' facfOrs ,.,.hich conuibulc 10 a M.K.icI)," '- of lluicide. .HC!' For exam ple, pc.'Uplc "cros~ the: Unill'd St.llt'S \~'e re s hockt"d b) th e lI.\1ioll,ll n(.''''' rel)()n~ 111 19t:\7 COliccming fOU l' Nl'W Jero.c) lecn;lgcnl ""hu IlIgl:thcr drovc im o.i I-;.II,II-;C . cl o~d lh e dUQI llIcI Ic t carboil 111(1111 1)\lllt' I tl111 C '~ I:Ikt Ih c'it Iht"~. IheICh)' eng"gi llJ.t ill a ( o lllccivt. lICI 1.11' ..... i( ide. \'Vil hi" little morc 111.111 11 heck, 10 11101t" tt'c lloIKcl'S ill four d ifler~1II ~ ' ,lIt'S killt'd thl'lmch'C,'" III ~.u~IR~~ u!ling car bon m o n mdd t'. I hc.q : ,uil.ltlcs !,\en' "h.lle IIMU .. foincidence; "IX"inl ~ cal rcsc;lr(h frorn 1 97~ ... Ihrough the prcsclII dOClltnclIl.. tluH the incidence 01 \uicicll' incrc.:lst" rollowin)it nationally te!t.,,;\Cd ~Im'ic:\ aWllt s lIlddc ,lIld Ihat leenaKers are C5peciall) \'lIln e l~lble tu ')ilch ~coJ>yc,lI - beh:wiol. Stud ie! show th.1I lhe unp,u,;1 b gre.lIe ..t "flt'l Ihe pllblid/cd sui( Ide 0 1 ,HI CIII(,I\:iliner or l>olilician :lI1d is /K) I ~!t~ 't('r IIU' suicide ul .111 .mist. crilllimd , ur mClUbc~ I' 1)1 the economic dlle (l.sI~lcI an d SI.lck. 19K7; 1)lulli,)\ .md l...1f\t~II'W.'n . 1986; Slacl.. 1m:s7; W:a ....~nu:II1 , 1984).

Peopll' h:l\'e :ll w.I)'~ becn cunous ;IOOllt how we get Iyh al Wl: do, and h 'h o m \\c ..elect a!> our Icad (: I'S. I'hilm o p h c llI and religious rlu thoritic8 of ancicnt amI lIIediev,,1 '-OCielies made coul111c.;.s obserYlHiun:t about hUllmn beh,l\;or '11Ic&C OllllC:!l"'.... tiom \\t'rl' lIot Il~I t'(1 01' \'clilicd !lCiellliliC",dly; ne\'Cnh~ they olteu bcc'oUnC' tilt" foundation ror moral code ... & ...cl1ll or the carl)' suel,,1 !)hilO\Ophen predicteci Ihll l ;1 .!i)'lur- m:ttic Mud)' of hum;m beh.n ior \"o uld Dill' d:ly elll~rgC' , Beginning in the ninclt.'c=mh
:(11) 11 )1: .

I'Vfl O\l- Tllt: J/OCJOI.O(iJl:.Af IUWt"lI1i

n'lIcul)'. fo' umpean lhcori~lS m:,dc piullcl'ling nlll'

uibuuolls 10 !he: dc\elopmcll1 01 :, ,dcnrc o f human bd!3\ior,

Early Thinkers: Comte, M~~~~~!..~~,~~~~~r

III hiulce. che ninctccnlh cent Ill)' W:L~:1I1 IIllsclCling lUll(: for thal rmlion'~ imellccllmh . nll' hcnc h lllOOMdt)' h.'ld bcen dcpoSt.'d c;lrlicr in !he rc\'olu UUf\ 011789, and ~:iI)()lco" had IHlbsc..qUCI III), been tidt..ucd in his efTon 10 con(luer europe. Amirut Ih.., chaos. phi1~phcu considered how socicty "ught be illlplo\ed. Augw,tc COIllIC ( li98- 1857). u\"(htl'd ",leh being che Inos l Innucntial of these JNIII(),ol)hen~ 01 tin- c;lrl) 1800s, bdk\c..'(\ Ihac a I he... .. Clrrli~,tI ~icnu: uf -..xiel)' .Ine! Iit~telll;lIic ill\;g;l tiulI ufbeha\'iol' "ei"e nccded tu 1t111.I'OH' 'Iodel)'. ComiC C(lin(.'(\ the tenu )QI'I'oI'1{'I ' U "ppl)' to .hf' M 1l'11Ct' uf human bchadol' ,lilt! in,isted t h", sodo] ~'(ould m;:lke a critical con I.! lbulion 10.1 IICW lUld unlMU'o'etl hum:m comlllu l lit )', \-Voting ill thl' IK()()ll, (:nfOlt' fC;U'l-o Ilml Fram.cs llt:.bilil ) h.ul lleell PCI" UUllt'nti) imp;Ihed h ) thc ClI.(ClI'>(.~ ul thl' Flcm:h ttt'\llImion. Vel Ill' hoped th.1l thc 111uth' uf Wt.lallx.... hmur in a \)"Icmalir W:l)' \\ould c\cllIualh !t.;ld 10 m"'t rationOlI hmll.1Il in I C I.l lllon~ In CullltC\ Iti rr,,"I1) of K'it'IICC'. 'iOCiolOK} W:I.'I .11 lite lOI) ' I ll.' c-.tIII:d 11 the "tjlll"en~ :me! il~ prat'IIII(,m'r\ M'oC'iemisl' pnN.,.M'l,ij hcndl thl!od,' did lUll :limpl,. Io:'I\'C Ill>k~!ls 11.11111.'; Iit.' .the) presclltc..'C1 :. r.UIIl.~ 1 .tllI ... tM1t"U~ thOlllcllgc Iu Ihe 1Ic..' tlglinK dt ... d lllinc , \tholun \\crc: .Ible to le:'1'1I u t (:urlllc'" wor"-" Lul(t.'h through tl';UlSl.lliolh b~ the ellghsh MJCIUlo<I\C It,lflicl ~I.u IIneau ( 1802- 1876), nUl ~ 1 .1I1111C::1U "" .. , ~ palh br .11..(". ill her (I\o',on I igh! .1' .1 wdoloIlhl: 1h( onercd lIl~igh'ful (It~I",ltioll" 0 1 tht: tU'" MU' KOclOlI prolCI i('c,~ or both tlCr n,1I i\'t' Urllalll .uMI thl' UllilCd State:;!, M.Lrcinc.Lu', book ,XKul, /11 I~ri(l'l (1962, origina l edition I fI~7) l'x: u nine~ re hJ!:l,m. I)QJltic~. child n :al'illg, :met inunigrilt10n ill the \flung n:L lion, ~ I :trt itlcau Ki\'C~ ~1)cci.L] attclLtiOl I III ~1J.tUJ diSlinClions :lIld 10 llILt'h filclOl'~ ,L" Kcndcl' .rid raft. \1 ;,rUneau's wrilillK~ eml>h'L,iLl-d Ihc IlIlpact ch.11 lhl'cconomy. l;n\ . II';lcie. and 1)OI)LlI:llion could h:1\ C 011 !hC' ~al problellls of !';olllclI1l)()rarv ")Ol..'h . 'ht" ~p()kc out in I:.\or of the riglll~ or hOlocn , Ihe MILIllLipiUiOIl I'll ~l.l\l" . and rcligio u, coll'l.tIlce , In


M I.rlr,u'tlU ( 1N/)2-IH76/,
UM'I\' 1111


J IIg/u" Jllwlm,


III f/lf


,,-'nu VI/dlllt


INIIt III Itn n"/II" (mini" mu! I "'"Itd ')lain ,

~1 'LI'lincall t. ( I Htl6) \ ilw. illlcl l cclll.ll~ ;Hld hui:ar' should nul 'illlpl> IIftel othC ...... tlion~ of \OCiill con d"ion~ ; Ih!';')' should aCl upon ,hlil c..ollyictioll" in .1 m:!nller Ih.11 will h""Ctil society, In lill(, with thi~ \iCh, \I ,Ll1inl';1I1 cnnfiucl('d rC'iCafch 0 11 the n:lll1re of fCIn.lle f"lIIpld) mell' ,llld P"llllt'(l tn tht need for Ulu<:h mOH' rl~c.lrch UIl 1i1L ~ import .1Il1 is~uc (lIOCl I..C,'" Ul'pd.l lc. 1!}9',l ), 1\lIotllCI illlpml.11l1 conlnbll lrJI' to Ihe])lilll..' 01 ,utir,I{)K" \~,I' I lel ben SI)l' II(CI' ( 1820- I90g), Wllt;ll); rlOllllilc \,k\\'I.Mlint 01 rcl.tlilciy IJ ru~pcrolls Victo ri.11l "_Itj.ll:lnd. SllenccI (ur llikc f\'11II1 illcau) did nllt led cOIll I)('l ll'd 10 ("on'cc! or inL I'ro\C sociel),; instead . he lllt.'l'd ) hoped h> L llldcl's l.LIle! it be tter. n ntwin~ un Charlc~ n;1n\'in'~ ~lIIdy Oil 'hI' 0,,$,"'" of \)/J'(lI'S, Slll'IIt'CI' Ilsed Ihe (,I)!leer' 01 l"\'ollllion of :Ulilll.rJ~ to expl.lin how ".lCicl.i~ eh.mKc o\'er limc. 1II\1larl~'. hc ' ~Il>.II'\Oo' ill S c.."\'ululion:u,) vic.."Wof thl;! -,ul'vi\.11 01 du,: tilll.:st" b) lIrguillg It L~ "mu ur.t.l " tJloit o"omc 1K.' Oplc .U'C lieh wlult" tld tcr....Ire


UIII'I,.Jf I 1111 ,d l( HI- (JI' '>I.IlJ(HIII,1

Spe ncer', ~Ippl'oal h 10 rucicla l c h:Ul gl' \\'a~ l'x tre mely popIII:II'11I hIs 0\\'11 lifclillll', Unlike COIIHc, pencer \uKgClIl'd th:1I soci<:lil'~ ,Ir(' bound 10 change : therefore. onc need nOI hl' highly critical of Ilrcscnl ~Kial arr.mgemcnL' 01 wl)rk :!C'lhely fO l M>Ci;,1 thangc-, This position appealed 10 lIlall), in nul'mi"II:K:OP\(o in Engl:lIld and Ihe Cniled Sl:"l~ who had :1 ",-",led illlercsl illlhe 'i'UlIII\ quo :lIId \",' re su~pi iou.'! (II' SOCillllhillkcnI who elHlo~d change. \Ve will cOII~idcr Spcntl'r', \;('\\'111111 ~u(il'IY and '0cilll change in mor(' tll'lail in Chaptcr ~O ,

E.mile I)urkhci lll '\ impon:lnt du:oreuc.11 "(Ifl.. o n suicide "":I~ bUI o nc of his 111:111\1 I>io llcl'ring (01111;, bUlioll!S to sociolog). The son 01 a ... bbi, Durkhcim (1858- 1917) W;h educ;llcd in ootll F'mnl!:: and Ccr many. He eSlablhhed an ilT1plt'~'hc a~ldenllc rep' umuon and "":1" a ppo inled :1 Olll' 01 Ih e linl profe~sOl'S of sociology in France , Al>o,'e :111 , Durkhcim will hl' r('lHe mhelcd for insi~lcnc(! that beh:niOl' COI l1not bc.' full) \Ind('r~IO()(I in inrli,icluali"I.ic tcnn\, IIml il "U~t be Ulldcr~IOQd ',ilhin .. I,II)!:(~ I -.orial ("nlll(",,1 ,,-, OIlC {'x.unplt, ot Ull~ cmph"'-''', I)lIrkhellll {I~J.l7, ungilloll ('dillon 1912) d c,clblx:d :1 tunil;:,mcm;.1 Ihcl>! IU hell) 1111 ' deN~tl1d :,,' f()nml 01 sod.:;t, Ihrough IIIlen,i".. stud" of the Arullt.l, ,Ill,li;m tribe . I lc lucu'\Cd 011 lhe functlOlllo 111.11 religloll IX:' fonned Im' the ,\ rol,ta ,mcl ul1dencorcd the role thill gruup life pla\"!> in defining Ihat which \\C c:olI~idcl' rcligluulo. Durkh cim COIIChldcd th'II.1il..c othcl forms ufgroup be ha\;or. religion rl'il1forC(.~ a gH)UI'S ..olidaril) , Anothe r of DUfl.hcim\ main mtl' rt"\.j W;l!I 111l'

the ('1;1)110111) ill Chaplcr I:;, DlII'klll'i lll \\~I.S (011cel1lcd "hOIlI Ihe clanger' Ih,lI ,uch aliclIalion. lunclirll'"!l", ;!IId i\oC)l;ttiml might I)().q' 101' mnc.lcnI in.. dlt.~II1,11 ;;ocictil'!', l ie slmred CunIlC' , l>clief Ihat $O(ioh,~ ~hullld prt'\1de dill'ClIOI, forf,od,11 c ha"ge. As.1 n ..'liull, Ilc "dml.II("(lthc creatlun of new sodal glolll)\--bt'thl'c.'n lhe IIldh l(h",l'. f.1milt .lIld un' Slatl-\~ h ic h would idl'"lh' pru,;dl' :t <;t'I1!IC o f belong-mg fOI mcmlX'I"I'I of h\lgc. ilUl)('l....oll:Il "O(iclies. Like many Ollll'r sociologists, 1)1Ifkhcim ' ~ inter esl~ "ere rH) 1 Iimi led to Ol1l' ;l\pt'ct of t(Uci;l1 bc h a~ ior. 1.;'ll' r III thi, h()()k. wc will gi\c I"reher :lIIl'nliun to hi, Ihillkillg 0 11 uilT1e and 1)lIni'(h lllcnl. religion. ;Hld Ill(' workl)I,I(,(, ... c\\ "ocil)lugisLS ha,'e h,ld such ;1 (II.III'.IIIC 1I11P.1 , 0 11 \0 !luny dine rent ;ucas "Idun I,ht.' di'Klphlle.


COII"l'fIUt' nC(!1I ul w()rl. ill 1lI001l' m ,oelctil'S In IllS ,ic"'. UII' gro"lIIg di,i\jon 01 1.lbOI' found in indu,,", lrial societies ,Il> workef"5 beelullc much mort' '1)('ciali7erl in their l.tSl..l> led In whal lit' ('"lied (111(11111'. A.,.om;fl rel'ef~ to :. fO!C~ of direcuon that i~ leh in a society when ,oda l COlltrol of ind i\'i4Iu.d bcha\'iOl h ;L~ hecome iIlCnC(I.i\'e. T h l' state 01 flllo!llie occurs ",hl'lI people IUI\'C' I,)sl I hei,' sell \(.' of pili pu~e or dirC(licJII. orlell during ;:1 time of 1)l"o (olll1d .social ch;ange, In ,I I)l'riod ofallonlil' , l>CoPIl' .'f(,~) (onfn~d .Hld llllable 10 COpt: w,lh rhe; 11t'\\ \OCial c mil'Ufll1ICIll Ihal Ihe\' " "'" rC\oC}!1 In laking their 0\\'11 livc!>. .NI "ill Ix: IICcn in Ihe ('xanrin ,lI ion 01 worl.. :mct

Another 11l11>OI mil l tll("Ori~1 who cOllt libuled 10 the scienlilic i'l11d y or llocielY was ~bx Vlcbtr ( pr~ nounced "V,Wbe,") , Sorn in Ccnmll1Y ill 18&1. Weber look h i\ carly aCOldcmic Iraining in I c~al :md ('conomic hi slory. but he Kr.tduall)' dt:....cl0l)Cd an im<'rl'st III 'iOClolo!<;) bentua ll) , he became a pr()1Cs.'If:)r :n ,... 1;01111 (;.cnn;1II IInh('l"lIitje~. Weber told h,,,, !iludtnu Ihat th!'y ,hollld employ Vt'Nlt!hfttl, tlu: (.cnl1,1II \\ord 101' MIIII{ICI'~l .. ndlllgM or "insight," in thd, i'lIelletUl,.1 "ork. lie' pointl'cI Ollt Ilmt much 01 ollr social belt:.'I"r (";UIlIOt be an:tlw:c:d !l>' Ihe kjn(L~ o f ol~cctl\'c Clilel;a ,\e II!>C to I1lC:I\lIre "'eighl or lClIlpel'aturc. 10 lull" comprl'hend bcha\ior. we II1U~1 IC;II'I\ lhe llllbjl'(:Li\e lIle:minglJ people to lhdl :tClioll...-hoh' lhc) t.heUl:tCI,,~ \iew and ex pl.un their bcha\lor. For ex.llnple, suppose th<jl M>Ciologists we~ "llId)'in~ the \OCi,.1 r; or il ldi\idu.,!s hithin all CIC(lrici<l111 ' union . We bcr..,ould expect researcJlen 10 CI1II)loy I'"",.h", in order 1 dl'lCflni ne ule .sig0 nilic:lllce 01111(' 1,llion's uc:i:ll hit'l'arch), for illl m(,l1I1 .... ~.lCi()IH... 11I would llt:ck 10 IC;11l 1 h o'" ' ''c:re dec )C1 ri~ Idc::ianH rela lt' In uniol1 I\1CIII\.)<:I'.\ III high er ur 100I'cr StaIllS; Ihe), lIIi~' hl cxamine the e lleclS of M:lliorit}' on lIt:tIIdiug within lhe unio u, \Vhilc ilwcsLig:uing lirC!)C C llIestioll!l, le)Carchef!, \~ould t.lkc into acCOllnt peoplc's t.'moUons, thoughl'l, bclicu. and atdlutie, (L Ctbcr, 1977:1:W). We "00 Oh e Cfcdil 10 \\ 'ebcr fOt a key conc('ptu:alloo\: Ihe Idcal l),pc. An ,' df!al rypeill a consuuct

(J~ '

TI",:wcJOIo(;JCAJ 1't..HSIUI11J;



Kefl Mlr" 1818 1883


'881 -

'88l - rlw O/,;Won ()I



Su~: A Sn-dt' In

ItiOI19O!i Sill'" 01

SlOIoW 01 Rfl1ftOOf W.


Wirtsll'" und


T"'PrOfHf~IIfEI" o(>.lIdl'"

Itl' - EfHnW!I"1f F"",,,

M nll

qf 'fI'lflil

$on~'mfl ~"lI/fn'

f/'(lfn Oil Iht fl(lfi

/ltlltl11I/h fmlury

of fhty Ihm'hmlvTI.

a mudd ilial \CI'CS

:t~ :1 IIIc:ulIIillK rod againsl \\'hKh actual c:m.ol (:an be (.'\o;i..Iu::lh.'t1. III hi~ I tWII wurk.... Wdx=r idcntilk'd ''ariou~ Ch"r.U.:ICli,:uIC or t.) llrCml-

[racy as ;111 ide:tl !)pc.' (LheSt: \'1'111 Iw di~u~cd ill! III Clmptcl 6), In plc~cl1li llg IIII~ mudd of bureaucracy, WcI>CI' W.L\ nOl desc. ribillK any IMl1icuw bwi nL~s, nor was he (' sing Ihe term Iflflll in a '11,1.\ that stlgge<i.Iet'1 a po~ith c e,,;,iu:ui n. lmu:ad. hi .. purpo5C WolS 10 provide ~ usefu l smnd<ll(l for rnC<I~ring how bUH!'allcr.uic an tlCHlOI1 ol):,lIIiloll ioll i.. ~nh and Mill ... 1958:2 19), 1 _'llcl' ill Ihi"lexlbonk, till: (oncept or idC:IIIYIX" will be lI'\t!d tu ,,'lid), Iht. lanlily, religion , aUlhol1lY. al1Cl ecunUlllic '')'''IC.'I11'' iHld L IIl1alyl.c bureotucr..lC)'. O Although I hci l' l)rofcss i o l ,"I('~lrcer!l c:ulle at the ~J.tIIC lime. t..n ilc Ourkh c im an d ~ I ax Webel l.ev('1' llJet :md pl'ob;lb l)' we l e lln;. \\ ....e u l each ulhel '"l'xi1W!lCe, let alone idca..... Thi., \'~I" eel l~ il1l ) not true of the work or K:lrI Marx. I)urkht.'ims th inking .wout anomie h'a\ related 10 'hint'" writinglJ. while Wd)Cr's COlleen! fOI":1 \'alu(.... free. oh.J(''C l h~ sociolOK) (whtch will be cxplor("d in ( Impll'l ~) b"'(IS;1 dirttt ~spon\C to ' ''uox''i decpl) held ("ml\'inion .. ,

il 1.\ nu .surpl i'oC Ih.\I K...t.ri M.&fX is \ iC\\t.'d as;1 majol' 1I({\II'c ill the de\clopmclU of ~c."'\'el"'(11 social science....lInong them ~(H.ioIO){). (Scc F'j{lll c I-I.)

Karl Marx
K;u'l ~ I.u".)( (1818- 1883) .;;h with Durkhcim ;lIld Weber du....1 mlel c"l in ab~lrnct I)hilosophical isSU('" .met ill tht" concrete rcalilY of e\('I)'day lite. UnIlle Ihe otht"f'i, M:II"X W~'i so ("riliea] of ('xi.~lIing in s tltutio ns Ih.1I .1 fomemion,11 aCldemk l'arcer ,,":\~,~ ihlc .lt1d .t l1 hough he w,,~ born :lIId l'dllClll cd in Germany. r " "~1 uf hi~ 1ill.- \'I:t.~ sl.tCll t in exile. "" l an.:'~ Jler~U1 1 al l ilt' W:LS a cl ifficu h ~In lgg l e , When .. paper' Ih:1t he had ..nitlcn W:I~ 'i ll ppre'i~ed , he fled hi... mui\(* bud and \Vellt 10 1~1'rIllce . I11 Pari!!. he tHel Flk.drich Engds (IR20-IH95). with \\'holll he fonn(.'(1 a lifelo ng fticnd~hil)' n le) Ih(.'(1 during a time in ",hic:h bn l>ca n .1Ild ::"\' olth Amcnoll economic life w.... in('f("'\'~III~ I ) being d Olllinat(od bY Ihe faCIO .... rather than the farm ,

tJ/ 'P'''N I 1/11" .\'nntl 0/' 5f)(:J(HOt.)

In 1847, M:u'X and Engels Olllended secret meetings in London of an illegal coaliliCln o f Iolbo r unio ns, lhe Communise I..c.tguc. 11u: following year, ehey finished preparing:1 phllfo nll c lllt."tI 'l7rt ComlNlUlul M fUliJ l o. in which Lhey arguctleha l the n ma.uc... ofl)Coplc who h.wc no rt.'1OlIf('t.S Olher Ihan ' thcirla bo r (who ll1 lhc)' rcfcl red 10 as the ImJil'fOna/) should unite 10 fighl for tJle o\'cnllrow o f Ctl)il:llise S(x:iel,ic!!, III the word" of ""1111")( and Engcls:

111c hinoryof 11 h i,hcno Cxl)lillg !tOdl'l), is dH! hL~IOT)' of db! l!.nlggle). .. TIle I'rok:lari.lll~ h.l\'t' !lolhing 10 I~ but their dl:.ainJ. The), ha\'c a ~(t(ld 10 ~'m , "',..... il'G .U"I' Of' AU (XIlNIltU'!i u'.'Inl (Fellcr. 19!:l9:7. 41 ).
MU: I cOlUp l c tin ~ 'flu- u)H// Mom!nlo, \I;u"S r('luflled 10 Gentlall),. On l)' to be ('xpellt:d. 11(' Ihen mo...ed 10 f:n~ h\ll d , where ht (OIl IItIUcd lO wri lt books :lntl ('"a)',. V I:I1"S'!I life there \\~!' line of exIt'c lUe I)()\'efly. Il c p:twned mORI 0 1 h j~ pn,~eS!> i () m. ,lIld se\ e ral o f his child r(>1 1 died of ma ll l!ltl'itiun and , :\'h! ,'X dearly h'; L~ :Ill O Il L~icl(' r ill nritj~h soci'I),. tI laC! \~ h ic h lIIay well ha\'(' aOcCtcd h b dew o f \\e5le rn cult urc!! ( N.. Collill~ ,lIul M:lkO\Io'!>ky. 1978:40). :\ I :trx'~ lhillkiu(( h.1.!I Slroll;.;ly il\flu enced by the ""o rkof:l Cc. m.1Il phllosophcr, C<orK Il cJ{t"i. 11l'1I:e1 MW hi<;IOI) .l!> 3 dialecfical pYfl("l!I~" M: I it, of dasht."I tX',,~ ee n conflicting idea.' :tlld fo ..cc5.. AI Ihe cnd of each cI:..~ h , a nl'w a nd impro\cd M!I o f i dea.~ ....~..., expecl('d 10 emerge. In I leKe !', "i('w, conflicl ....-;u :111 c'iSClllial t"iclllCllt in progrc!I.~ . ( Am llicl led 10 progr('~: progn...." canlt" un I)' through C Hllflic l. In appl)'ing I lcgc!" IheOl;e" ~1 .lrx ICl(.lL'lCd 0 11 conflict ix:lhcen lIlKial d;L"SC~ , a.\ rt' prl~'lIted hv illdU"lri;11 '\'orke .... and the own cl'l' of '.I(.Ione"l ;lIId bu...ines.'lCJo. Undel ~1 .1I"S.s :UI;II),,,h. M)("1t.'t) was fllllditllle nlally dhided between cI~"M" \~ho dash ill pursuit o f thei r own cia's iTUel"l_ 'lII" l ie nt'J.:lIed Ihat hilltOI,), could be IIlld er~100d in diall.'clic;ll tc .-m, a$ a I'eco ..d of Ihe incvil:lblc CO Il I1iCI ~ bN\~e(! 1I eco110Illic grolt'.... T h b view forms Ihe b; L~i.", IOI' l h e CUIltcmpor.u')' ~C)dC) l og i C'.l 1 I)c rspec ch'c ul CUllll ict Iheory. whic h will be examined I:lter in till' d laptel . \\o'h l:: l1 Mal")( cxamin ed lhe indtl.'ll.l i:.1 MKielicS: of hill time, such as G<:rlll:my, I::n81 :lIId. :lIId lite United St:uc.s. h e ~w the f;II..IOI) :t.!I the CCllh.:r o f conflict between lhe exploiters (the Owl1e .... of the means of

pmducc,ioll) and the exploited (lhe workl'r'l). ~bl'X "i(:\H. d thc~ rdauonshipiI ills),"lematic lerms; lhat is, he I)CBc\'(x l thal .. n enlire S),5:ICII1 o f t.'Conomic. .social, and IJOli lical re la' ionshi p~ Il:Id bc..-cll ClItaI> lished to m;'linl:utllhc power and d o minance o flhe o\\-'ncn U\'er lhe \\oork(:n. Con!k.'fIUenlly, t.'larx and Engcls :lrgucd 1 11:11 the working elMS n(."('(led 10 o loen.hrow Ihe cxi.'lting CI:M :lySlem . M:U'X's writin~ inspired those \tho were .sub~llICntly 10 lead communist rt."\'o lutio ns: in Rus5ia, China, C uba. Viet nam. ;Uld d~whele. l::\ell :11)an lro m the political rc\'olutio n'ilhac his wo rl helped to fosler, Mal")('" inOucHcc on COillempor-\! chinklllg has been dr:un:uic. Although he ccrtaml)' did 1101 \r1e'\' himself as ';1 sociologin. M:trx lIe\'crlh clt'!l~ made :t critical contributio n to lhe de\'elo p ment of 5OCio10f.,'Y :lIld o llter .saci,,1 sciences. I'.u ll), this reflected M:u'X's cmpha~i'i on carcfuJly I'e~e;lfc h ill g the :\cllml. Ulca$ lIl~h l c condi, tioll' of people", Ih'es, a Imlclice which fOl'cs hadowc'tlt l!c llcienl ific nature of cod,,),', 5QCi ;&1 llcicIICC5. III ;-IClelition . Mar,. p laced ",'Tea l \,,,Iue OIlthl' group idcnlifkalion~ and a.~SOC'iation~ Ihat inf\uCllC4..'ti an i"di ddual'~ r,lace in socielY. A~ we h:wc \Cen. thi$ lU'e:t s ludy ill Ihe majo r locu\ of conlcmpor..U)' sociolog) . "11lrougho Ul Ihh Icxtbook, \\oC will roe .. "icl(.'l ho..,' mc m hcr~hip in ;a part gender classification. OlgC gmul), rotei .. 1 group. o r l"Cono mic daM OlfTc"Cl~ Ol I)cI'!Ion's :tuitudt.'!l.U1d hchavior, In an impol'I;lIlt 'Clue, llth w;.y o f 1Il1de l-,taJlding society ca n be t,raccd hack 10 tile pioneering h'ork of Karl \-I01 n( , (!)cc f'i~UI'e 1-2.)


TwenLicl.h-Ccnlurv Sociolopv ....... _ .. _,_._ . _._ .._ .._...1.._._ . __ ..fl1'_ . _ ... __._._. __
Sociolog). ,l~ ..... t kn o ..... it in the 1990s. draws upon the lirm fo unciOll ion dc...dolk.'C! by t mile DUl'khcim, Max Webe r, ;utd I\;lrl ~ I arx , I lowl'\'Cf , the dl.scipline h:" cCl1ainl)' !lOt rClllai n(."tI s .... gnant over Ihe lasl ceIlLlII). Sociologi~LS h ave g;tincd ne..... insights whid! h:w(! llcl l)cd IJu;:m to bcllel' undc l'stand Ihe working!> of ,ociel),. Chal'l~ I lorlon ('.ouley (18&1- 1929) ....'as lypk.ll of th e sociologiSl:l \\'ho became p ro minent in the C'Mly 1900~. 1\0111 ill Ann Arbor, Miclliga.l1, Coolcy rccci,,'cd hi grdduate lmining in econ o mics but laterbeC'.lntc a llOciolog)' profosor III the Univenit},

HCURE 1-2 Prominellt Contributors /(} Sociological Thought

.... ComJ.l l798


~~ ~~~______~ n I' ~ 2 18~~1

........ s,-.. ~:::::,,_ _ _....':::~1 1' 820 90 '

Kol'l Monil 1818

1', ~=-__~~~1 8~ 19 17

Emilt Durkheim f

~~1~~______~~~ 1 '~ 1 9~

- . . Ho.bort Mood ~ 863 _ _.:;9 '~ 1'::::;:... 1 :;: '1

Mox wobo<

1'86 ' ~::::._...:.920 '~1

Cho<I.. Honoo CooIoy I"

I.:::: 929 F86';___':.;~1.

,I902 ______.:.::.;9 ,.::~ '97 ~1
1916 1962

,1':: % '1 w. E "" ;, 1' 86 8~_ _ _ _""':::~

TolorJlt PCQOn, [-

Roborl_ ~ 91:::_ _ _ _-l~~ 1 '.;. 0

C. Wright Mib, [

. 1
11 1It,.IJllrt~ ~/wul/I

EfVing GoIrmon

, 922 98 21 II'.::.::;:..._..;1:::~.

hnr lJI'l't


IIlm '1 11'rflil1lf! rlmmrlk>Jc,

uf \ikhigan . Uke other t.:ul)' suciologi,tl'l . he Ix"'" umt' inlcrc~ l cd ill this "ne\~ di'ICiplillc while pur"ling a related area of Mudy. Cooley slmfcd the desirc of Durkhcim. Weber. and Mllrx to 1C"fll more about society. n llltO clo so rffrcu\'c!)'. Cook')' pl'CfcITed to use the sociologic,,1 pt~I~Cl i\'C: to look first :.llsllIallcr unil$- in linmle, iaec-Io-r-ace groupil !Ill h .... f:llnilic5. Ifou ' g~. a nd tm-rnlship networks_ li e sa ..... these KrouP'~ tL~ the \('I'(lbcds or !locielY in the sense lh:1I thc)' Ioh"pc pec!plc'.s ide"ls. beliefs , \~llues , and sud,,1 n:l1 urc _ r.(~olryJ ,,"'Ork hrought new under~t:lIlc.lillg CO emUI_ of rcl:llhcly llm;,1l size. In the colrl)' 1900s, m'UI)' of lhe leading sociolo~IJ of tllC I;nilOO St."llCll ~w ,hcmschc\ 1I~ Stl('i:11

rcrormcf'll: dediCOlt('ri toO s~ ,c m :Hic;llIy Mud)'ing a nd the n impnwi ng a corntpt sodel),. The) were genuinely cOIU"cntcd about lhe li . . e!io or immigrants in the n:lli on'~ gruwing citit.:s, whe t,her these immigr:IIIL~ came frOIll Euror>c 01' from the American routh_ I::arly fCIII:I!c sociologislS, in particular. '~'cre uftcll aClhc in 1 >001' UI'I>.'\I) are~L't as lemh.'fI' of communi!)' ('cnters kllOWTl ,IS 5(1I1(!lIItI" IUlf'kJ. For example .lane Add 1 ullS (1860-1935), a mcmhcr of and ~I)ca kcl' hefore thc Americul Sociological Se.. cie ty. ('orounded the r: ...n ou,~ Chicago M!tUel1lelll . Hull HOllse. Addotm, :uld other piollccri llg fe male .sociologisll! cOlUmon l), combim.:t1 intellectual inqu iry .social scr\-icc work . and po litiC- il aC livism~1I with Ihe gO<l1 o


S<X'iOI ~i~t Ro be rt Mcn011 ( 1 968;3~72) tn:ldc

f i .

an imJ)Qrt.lllt contribution 10 the discipline by sue(t'O,fllll), cnmbining tileo!"} and research. U rn in o 1910 of "Ionic inlluigrnm l)arC nl~ in l'hil:ldc1 1 ia. >h
Merloct ilulm:quc ml)' hon .1 <;(h o l;lI... hip t l) Temple Univc:l'l'it}. J le COluinued hiil )lUldics ,11 11:In'ard. when' he :tc<llIin: cI his lifelo n g interest in .sociology. M CltHU " tC<lchi ng ('anc r h :L bct'l1 ba.o(('d at ' lumhia Univcl~it) , ~1 t' II O Il ha\ produccd a them y that j, o n c o f Ihe m ost fr('(IUCnll) ci tl"d ex "l ,UI :Hi o n~ o f <k" beha\> iOI". lie u(ltcd differc nt \~";\}~ in ,,,hic h people al tt'm p t In ac hicve 5l1CCt: ~~ in li rc:. In h is \'il'\'" $Onte Illay nvt .. harc.: lhc soc.iall> "grct'd-upo n gtl;ll ur OlC Cllrnul."i ng matcd:11 good~ or Ihe acce pted nle:l1IJ hf achie\;ng lhis goal. For CX;lIllplt:. in Pokrton'f da~l'ifi c;ui o n scheme, ~ iIll1()\'alol1!l~ Me Ik'O plc \\'ho .Iceep' the goal or pUr)lIing maleri,ll w~ahh bllll~ i!lt'fr-\IIIlC:uu 10 tlo so, including robber),. burglary. a mi t'xlonion, ~1t rt" II '1I explanOltio n of ( l'ill1( i.~ b,*,cd 011 i lldi\~ dl",l he haviot'-influc llcl.'cI lIy .soet, l"Y:' apprnv<'c! goals ami IlIcans-)"t" il h :L~ wider npplir,lIio m . I! helps 10 .ct((}lInt for Ihe high clime r:1I~ .lIlIOIIS lhe 1l.1liun,'! phor. \\ho lIla) .... -c no hop(' or .I(h';mci ng IhC III~ h ..~ th rough I I~d itionaJ mOtel" cu ~uccess . Me n o " '" t1wol) ,,iII be dl.scusscd in gre.llcr detail ill C h :lpl'.'r 7 . Mertoll .100 c lIlphasi/.cd lh :u 'KlCiol(tgY t h ould slri ve: tn bring togct h c r the " 1II.lcTQ-lc::\cI~ ,tile! MTllic~ kwl- ;Ippr o(lch(, to the ~lUdy of SOC'kl)'. Macrosociotof:.)'conCCI1Ir.UL'lI (Ill klrNe::tle pitCl1nllWml or clltin' chilj1.alj(}Ils.. TIH~. Emile I)urkhcim :. nOSSo ('1 111.11 ,1 Study orsu icicil- h tIn ex.unplc of 11\,1 ro-lt.'\'CI 1 1"\:\I;'.II'.. h. Mort' I"ceclIIl)" cnacrosocio loghl" h:l\c ex;un ;lIc<l intent.lliUII:!] crime r..1I~ (~C h , lpu: r i). tht \ Itr('OI}1X: o f ruian Atneric;lII ~ llll " H mof1c1 millority"


":/IIIJJn.wlf wn~tJ "VU t/Jm

IIftll ... ' "

potw u,bott


lrmf," of

(01'''''''1111') frflt,.,.. 'twllI'lJ


hou.",..., f." (''MM/ill'. Jail' A,M(I'"1 (l86(}-19n) flnT (I ((ljim/ltlrt O/f/ll'

!1U11U11l (,JlIlttXII 'l(1//t'WI'III, 11 1111 Ill'm. '''.

o f ....,,\1111& lhe ull<lcrprh ilcp:cd .nul ("fe.HiIlS " m o rc eg,lht,1! ia ll society. f..,r cx:unplc. \"u rkin~ \\1111

the Ul:lck journ,lli, ' :U1d cduC;lIor Id . of :1 r.lcial :regll:g:llioll poli("), ill the


Well" public

Add:u I\S slIcces:.rull), Wc\ ('lIll'cl lhl' i l nplcllu: nl~lt io ,.

( h ira~o
h OI

M:hOOI'i. The praclir.11 focus 01 he!'

k wm al'iO

",,,idem in t\ddams' effort'! la

e~ l:. blis h


COlll'1 S)'SICIIl .. n d .. \\,UIIU: II 'S tl"itdl' 11111011 (;\ dd:un:ri, cr 10). 'tlld the p0j>uL ,tioll 1 );llIems 01. eQlllluics (sec Ch;cpwr 19). I\y contrast. mit:rosot:;ofogy5lU....-.cs stud), of lunall ~'1'OUp6 and of lell IISC\ cxpclimel1l:ll litudy ill l<lboT';ltOties. $ocio.
(,,~ 1 ~1.lTni ..

IfIlQ, 19:-\(); Occg:lIl. 199 1: Wcll"", 1!}70}. Uy I ht' middle (lr the tWC!lt leth (CIII III)'. 11(1.....C\1.',.. Ihe Ih<:u\ ul the di,ciplin c had .. hiftc d . l)ud ut oK i~tll
f( '\lric'lcd thctltsch.... ,

IItl'clri/.ing :u\cI g,lI l1cring

iufunll:nion , while: thl" :li m o f 1I';III:.forming ~iCl~ \\.t.!I IcO 1 "OCial wlwkcrs :111<1 C)lhl"rs, I his ~hire aw"'~ 0 frolll o;ocial rt'fQrm " ;L\ accomp,ullcd I a gn..l"ing ( Ollllnitlllent 10 icmifk lIIelhocb of rc:\C;uch ;lIld 1 ,,,Iu(..frcc inlC'rpr(' ioll uf d,Il," 0

logk.c1 rl"'C:1I h o n lite micro IC\-d h.L' illchldl.-d \ uldic, ofho\.... divo rrcc\ lIte tl :"lIId " Olllcn, ex-convict.", "lid m lit'r'S di.~t'llg.1gC ]i"ulIl K;g n ific:mt webl ro1t'l'l (8CC C hapt er 5): o f h ow cunfh n n it), cnn inf1u nce lhe ex pn...~io n o f j.r('judiccd attitudes (l'{.'C Chaptcr 7): :md

of 1 1O\~ <1 I(',,('it('r'$ CXIX'cl;clions can affect :l studcnt"1 ,I .Idemit" pcnollllance (s Chapler 16).
~1oCjologi~cs find it u~ ful to cmplO) hOlh thest

:IPlu(MChell:. In fact. Wt C"IIlIc,lrn a great dcal b) us.-

-- '.



nit Sflf'.KH.(Jl.KAI nJNH.-UW

1 NIII('f'(Jl(J4l(Jlogutll 1'J\'II"""'td'lffl of

II'Owlll utIr ,,,

/I/.tll'ifj fflIlH,dtu1fI1 diffr""ILI '" ,rllK'(lf1J MIJ/OfIIS "lid trod",OfU.

of d/f.\! (,,'" 1tl1iJJ1', tml""'K of utddm, 100.."', ."" 00 /Ott"; (flld I1 aoold tu)t'U flrl' lon~(nl uK'"jirmlu of ,Ant'


d'II"""'(I" , l"utIlT"{ "'... abY(1/(/fI' J i'lI"f

(11" 1I~ldl "g "'JrntSnl,.m. tI bndl' fltld gtOOIlf IAIflfl-'"1: ni' MI n "VIr"" Ju,," "I " U'IfIIH .. W'IIdItlK /11 N,...INlA/. Irttl.n. fllIll n \lr1"(O .. 'i'd/lmt If

~ntll' ,"



If1 .met


micro~)("if.)logka l


1 Slud) Ihc );II1IC IIl oblcm, f or sam ple. we 0

II II~hl 11')' 10 undcl'sl.lIId climin;11 heh,tYiOI :1 1 th e ;um l )/; n~ ('rillll' 1 ,lIe'" ill \'ariQIL" and a l the mil 1'(1 k",'d b) e).;uninmg Ihl.' 'Q'w inter:a tio n ~ Ih.1t inlluc.'ncc imli\ldlla l... 10 IN."(Unit" enminal, 0 1' dchllllllClIllI, IA)!lIClIlporary sociulolQ' Ic OcCI:; Ihl' <In'cr\(' (un.. umlions of carlit'1 Iht.."(l fi~b A . . 'VciQlog'l:its .11)tI~no'h ~ u ch I O pl ('~ :ts dimH~c.., dnII'Plddic.:tion. and I'<:ligious cu ll ... , Ih(') (';111 c.llOlw 111>011 Ill(' thl.'Ofctical ; 1l ~i~ IIl" of thc di,dptill-.... pinnce l~, A Co.ll crul
reader can hear ('''lImc. nurkhci lll , Wcbe, , M.Il's . ('.001-, )'. A(ld.tlns . m(l m.UI\ ulhe r... SI)c;lkillg through Ihe p:lg<''l!i .. r U lfn'lH 1~';II(h , In dc",ril)IIIg th' \.url. fir md,1\ '" :'I()ctOlng-i ... t .... I1 j, hell)l ul 10 tx:ullillt' .1 IHlIlllx'l 01 inlluclH il,1 cht.'tlrcckal :1 1 >1 )IO;l(ht,. (;11". known ,1\ 'H"/~/NY'''''''') ,

k'vcl by


, "

('J(M"r:lr I 1111,


'J l t'"

,"" '''-'1/}

(#0 \(/1(10/0(.1


Sociologi$IS view "GCic l), in d ii'l'c.:rclI I \,".I)'S. Somc scc the world basica lly a\ a M;lbl{' :md ongu ing' (' nli tl .
111cyarc imprclI.'iCd with th e c n d ll lOl u(:c of lh e rantil),. org.lIl izcd religion. and miter ~oci;d ill ~ litut.i o n s . Soll\e 5OC i ol ~h t.i scc socie ty ,LS cOI1lI)().'ied o f many groUI)S in conflict. co mlx:ti ll ~ for scOlrce ft'SO Urces.

To o lher

M)( i o l ogist.~.


m~1 r;lSC in ~ t il\g :llIpcc t.~

of the M)(ial wOl'ld a f C the (" 'c1)'tIay, ro u tin e inte raClion" ;uno llg ind i"ichmb th:u we 'IOnlc timt:s t.:lkc

for gra nted. T heS(' diffe ring pt' l"lipcc th'C5 " [lIo del), arc: all waYlI o f exam ining the' !>.'1 I1l C phen omena. Soc i olo~. ic;11 imagin;uio n mal' employ allYclf a Il um lx:r of Ihc~ relical approac hes ill (mic " 1 study hUllla!! beh:,,'.0 ior. " m rn these ;'ppro,l(:hc!I, soc i ol (lgj s t~ dc\'clop
theories to explai n specific ' Y I>f.:S of bc h:t\'io r. The th l ct PCr,,!)t"ct hes th a t .1 1"e rnn~ 1 wi<kl)' Il ~cd by ~o cio l ogis l~ will prO\'id e ,Ill iUI1"orluctn ry ion k OIl Ih (' discipline , These OIrl' 11 flln (' liOlmlisl. co n niC't, ;HlrI ll' int c mc ti(.ni~ t IlCl" I"H'Cth cs.

bcl'S o f a ro{iC(y-il \~'i ll not be pas.~ d on from onc gCllc l'<ltion to ' he next. As:m example Ofl l\(' fun (,lio nali ~ 1 pc l...,)Ccli\'c, lel liS examin e I>I'O" i'" [io n . Wh) ill it lha t tl pr.lcticc SlI widely condem n ed conlmut'S to di:ipla) suc h per siste n ce ;In<l vit.llit),? I:unc li tl ll al i,t~ ",uAAe"t lhatl>rMtil utio u s;llisfi cs nce d ... of palmus Iha l may n o t be readil), met Ih ro ug h !Il(It',' 50<:1 ,,11)' "c('cptablc rnmu :'I uch as cou nsh ip 01' marriage, T h e "hll\'c r" recci,'(!\ :.ex .....itho ut n n)' r(."( po nsi bilil), ror procrealio n nr !l<:ntime nla l ;\u"dllHt:nt : at Iht, Mml' t i ll1 ~. 1111' "~ Ihr ga ins;t lilclihood tlu!'Iugh Ihi .. l'xC'h ,mgt Th ro ug h slIch ,Ill I,'X,lIn1l1al;UII , wc <'3 11 con clude ,11;11 p ro~lill1 l i oll <lOCI! pe rfo rm cc!'!;'tiu fUll ct;ons Ihal :socict), SCCI", III n ced . I lowc\'cr, this is not 1 0 su ggc."(t l.ha' pru~ lHlll io ll h.1 d c~ir.:t l)l c 0 1 legitimale form o r soci.d Ix-h ,l\'ior. F'Ul I(. II Q lmlis l ~ d o Ilo t ma ke such j udgm cnt ... ;U1d d o nol .....ish to con d o n e lht' abust:! 0 1 C l'i I1lC~ tha l p l'o"'li tll t e~ :trld the ir c lit' l1 u. ' 111 ,1 C(llllln ;! , R.llht' r, a d voc:u l'~ 0 1'111" I'tIIH;:t im m l in )' l><:rsPCCIJvl' hope 1 e-x plain h ow fill .I~ per.l o f 'iOCt0 (' 1\' tha l is so r."' qllc ntly a tlack('d ('an nCI'CI'thelCM
m ;'H I:'IAC 1 1 ')tll' l\'(' (

( K, Davh , 1937) ,

~~~~.~ ~.~~~.I~~... ~.~~.~~~.~ ~~, .......... "............... _,_., .... ..

In t.he ,i l"" o f fUl1l'lio n:tlhm., c ilth I)a l l uf a SOCif'l), contributes to It' \ uf\'h~\ I , T he /'Ul cliOl,a l i. t p,.,.. f sputiv ' ('lll p h asi'lc\ the h';,y Ih;lI part.... ofa sO(ietv are SIl'\I UII L'd 10 ,",Hn min 11\ :-,t<lh ilil)', I~ml k D urk hcim 's annlrsis fit rdlgiclIl rt' pft'-.cntN t .. c ril' ical C01l1ri 1 11 ion to Ill(' clcn- In pmcn l o f functinnal )l i'm. A'Inulcd c;trlicr. Ollrkh ci ll1 rClClIscd on tilt' ro le o f rl'iig-io n in rcinlul'I:'in,.; fecli tl";" I lr ..olidari l)' "l Id lInit), ",illllll g rOllp Ilrc . Talcoll ParsOIl" ( 1 90~- 1U79 ), ,I lI :U'\~ Ird l ' n i\'c r' ... il)' sociolug isl, \\-.L'! a kc~' figm c in the (\ C\eiul)Jlle m o f fll ncliu nillist thc nl) , 1':11....0" ... h ad 1 11 gt'c <ll ly )('(' in lluc nccd I", Iht, wOl'k of Emi l(' Dl1 rklwim , \'lax \VCbc l', ;1 nd ot h e r 1',III'n lle-an ~()('iol ()gi ~ "', F(I1" IIln r(' Ih;m rOl ,r d (,r';lflt's, Pa .. st) lI ~ dnmin nl('d M'rilllnR" il' th t' United S t'S " 'i tlt h i~ :H I\'I " -; II'\' or ILII\C'tin n a l i~m, I-lc ~aw a n)' ",ocic '" ;l~ a \ 0; .... ' rit'lwOI'k of cnn IIC('II' " r'1I1.~ , each ofwhid t ("IlIItrihuu'", t((lhe m ain t.c nancr 1)1 111'-' ...) .... tl1I\ ;" :1 \~ h u lf . Untll'l Ihe "1 fllnclio n ati'il a pproac h , ir :111 :1 )('':1 of .~(,ci:11 lift' does nOI .:nnlli b u le- 10 a so{ i(,tl ' ... ~ ili ly 01 ' UT' Ijml-ir 1 rim''! n Ot 1I('l'\e ';folllt' iclc-nt ifi,lb ly lISf'flll 1 fllllrt io n fir p romote I';IIIIC' ('() n ~cn'II'! am.m g nw m-

Man irest and FUll ctio l\.~ A unil'cl'5ity talalog 1)1)ic;ll l), p rC'IC 1115 ""!'ioll' stated fllllc tio n s of the instit u tio n. I1 111")' illro nn ll.', for cx;unplc . that the u ni\'cr:o;il), inte n ds to "n(fc r t':,ch !lludl'lll a broad cd UC;tIJUIl ill d~ica l ;Uld cvlltCIl1I>orar), Iho llJthl. in Ih e hmnallitic .... in th e s('"i('nces. a m i in thc ans," I lnwl'\'t:r, it would be (111;1(' .. ~urp ri~' If we canlC acros~:l c llalog \~ h ieh d eclared : ~1 h is u n i\'c rs;I)' W S 'A rou nded m 189:, 10 keep people be tween I he "get of IR a nd 22 0 111 o f Ihe jo b markct, thus red ucing IIn e m pr ,)}'mc llt ,~ No collegc c;II.llog will d l'Cla rt Iha l l h i~ is the p U'llOSC o f Ih c IIn h'cr~ il)', Yc l soc.i cm l in'ltilUUo nllscrvc m;llIy rlln C li o n~ , ~ m c o flh e m quite" sub, le , l1ll' u n ivc rsil)" in f.lcl. riOl'$ del,,)' 1'("0. p lc's e n lrv in eo Ih t, j ob nm rkl'e, ll T o hcelcr l'X r1l illt' th c III11<:tIOI1$ o f in stit u ti o ns, RolX'rt Mc n Ort ( I ~ )6tj: 11:,- 120) m:ldc :111 illl pol'e:Illl d istillClio ll l)C tIVCCII m;tn ifesl ;\llCI la tenl fun c l;o m . Malli/es t / IIfIct i 0111 ofin!llillllions n l'c open , Slated, cOIl!'Cioll" fllll c l io n ~ , T h L')' il\\ o l\'c Ih e intended, reco gn izcd co n ~c qll c n c(' ~ o r an ;l~peCI o f .society. suc h :IS ' h e u n h'er'ity's mic in certifyi ng aCld emk COIllI)('tellce rmcl excellence, 8)' co nt ri\.~ t , lalu t /IIIIC ' ;OIlS a rt' IUI('o llllcintls 0 1 111l ;nte ndcd functions ' ,lI1d ilia)' 1'('11('('1 h idde n pll rposc.'! of an insutution.

" INr 0\,. 'rill- '\OCJfH ()(".J{j( f If'.JlSJIf C17l1;

On(" I.\tenl fUl1cliol1 of un iversitics i.i to scrve .. s a mt'cung ground for l)Cople seeking mari tal part


FlIn ction;tli~l.~

acknowled ge lhalllol

.dl part.\ ofa society conlr ibute IQ i l5 sl" bilit) all th e lime. A dYS/'HlClio1l refers 10 :m clement o r a
procC11 ofsocicty Iha t lmlY (lc lually disrupt" sodal ~~tcm or lead 1 a decrease in swbi li ty. 0 ' tan)' dysrunctional bc h fn~or patterns . .. ueh a.~ homicidc, arc ,,,idcly rCb"ilrdcd as undcsinlble. YCI d\l{unctiolls sho uld not au to maucally be inler prt'll'tl as I1cg'llhc. The evalll;lI io n of a n>-srllnc tiOIl depends o n onc 's own ,~ lu e5. as the saying goes, on ,,here you Silo- For cx,lInplc, the o llicial vie ..... 111 pri~ ns in the t.: nil,ec! S late.~ is that in l11a l c~' g'l11gs 1hould be eradic;Iwd beca use Ihey :-Ire drsfu nclion:ll lo smooth 0pl:r.llions. YC t somc b'l.1 ards have .Jwmll)' cOllie to \~ew the prese nce of prison gangs J, fUIIClioml1 for lIwit i oh~ . The d,m ger pn~ed by K.JIIg'> rre,lIell <1 ~,hrcm \0 ~e('m;l( a rid thereby f l..... quirN inc.reast:c! slU"eillullcc mul 1II0rc overtime "'ork for guard!<o (1IIInlC\ <41. , 1993:400) .


In cunll';Ut to rUl1ctjon:ll i.sls ' Clllph:lSis 0 11 swbilit), .md COnSCIUtlS, con nict sociologi ..ts sec thc socia l !>orld ill contimml lltnlggle, 111C cmiflid per$p ~('; 'illn'~umcs that Sf)cia l bt- h il\~or i.. he ... 1 undc' l'slo()d lll l crm~ of con nict o r l(: nsio ll b(, twccll cc)1npc l,i n g Such con n icl need nm be \~ o lcnt: it c<tO t>lkt the form of lahor ncgmiauons, pa l'l)' pnlil ics, {f)tI1llC[i lion a mong religiolls J.,1'OUpS ror mc m bers. " tor dispute! over em s in the federal bmlgcl . '\' wc $'.1' " ea d icr. Karl .' brx V il'h'cd stmggle be ftI't't'lI social clas.~es 'L'C i n e'~tabl c . given the:: exploitation of worke rs under capitalism . Expan d i n ~ O Marx's work. sociologi<;l.~ a nd other socia l sc.iil (,Illbb have come to sec ( o n nict n ot Illcrely iloS a rL'tss I)hcnome no n but as a pan of e\'cl')'da)' li fe in .J1I 5Ot'ieties, T h us. in S llld}~ lI g ;In}' culture. m'bran ifalion, or social group, .'IociologisLS \\.~n l IQ knQ'\-' " ho benefits. ,.,.h o s tl frc r~, :md who d omi nates at IhfC'xpcnse ofothers. They are concerned with the HlnflicllI bel",'ccn "'omen ;'lIld l11(>n . ,."l'en lS a nd rhildren . d ues and su bu rbs, and \":hiICs :md Blacks. to lI:lme o nlya lew. In sl,udying .." ch questio ns. con!lit! IheorislS arc illlc rested in hem' $Ocic ty's in<;ti

tu lions-including the fllllli l)'. go\'c rnrncnt. rcliM g io n . eductlion. a nd the media-lIl :lYhelp to m ain ta in th e privil egc~ of romc gro llp ~ a nd kee p o thers in :1 su bservie n t posil ion . Ahhough cnntcm pol':lI)' confliel lh eOl), wa... dea!'!)' inSI)ired I>y Kad 1\.I:u')( 1'I .walysis. 1111'1'(' art' imponanl diffe rences hrtwee ll Marxist theories and the confl ict pCI'~ I,)(,c li 'c . \\'h c: T'('a~ MiUX fore told a n c nd to l.onfli el throut-:h till' ('mrrgelu'c' c)f a classless cOlllmu nist societ)'. eurrt:1'lI coumCl ,Il('orisl.<; view conll i<'1 as una\'oiclahk . T hl'), ,li e less likely 10 :lIIl icipa tc. much leM preclin. th .. ! the sodal te nsions arising from incqualit}' will be ('THirC'l)' resoh'e d . ~4 0 re()wr , while Marx \'ie,,,e<l a toW I re structuring ofsocie t)':lS fund;unc' nlall)' neccs.'mr)' In resolve social problelU" COTT T mpc"''''')' ('(ln fli cl til l'" e o rh;t.~ belicvc that pO\'en)', 1.. lfisl"' . sexi~ m . i .. adc.... qU;He ho using, a nd othc t' pro blems can he u nderstood a nd a ttacked .\lol11e,\'hat imicpendelllly (Agger. 1989). Uke fUT1c t io n ali~I.s. COlln ict sociol(lbrisl:I tend tu uS(' fhe nmc ro-Ic \'c! (l ppl'Oach , Ob,~ou~l)'. though . the re is a ~ I rik i llg dinerc ncc 1>eIWCCII thcse IWO sod(l l n~kal P(:I~I)('Cl ivcs (84.:C Box I- I on p:lge 20 on the IUTI( lion:.ll ist. cOldlicl. ;tTld iCll.cractionist view'"' of )) I)Ol'b) , Cunnicl , heori ... ts :Ire primarily concerned \\'ilh the kind .. o r ( hangel! IImt conllict ca n bring "bOUI , '''h rreas fUllctionalists look fo .' slllbilil.)' and consensus, T he COn n iCI mO(\I' 1 is viewed :L~ more ~ .. cdical~ ~\I1c1 ~;lclh<jS I " because of it.'! c m p h :l~is 0 " sucial cha llgc and rcd isll'ihUTjoll of rcsotl rcc~, On the othe r ha nd. thc rU llction a list perspectivc, becawlc 01 it.~ focus (tn slabi lil)', is gc nemlly secn as mOl'c -col1se rv,u ive" (Daln'cndon, 19.:'18) . Throug hout mOst of the 19005. s(lciology in the United St.:l ICS was mMe infl uenced b)' the fUllc,io mlliSI pcrsl>cct h'e , Ilowc,'<: ." the con ni" al>proach h as l)CcolI\c increasingly 1X: I'!Ina~jve since thc I'Hc I960s. The widcspl'c:ul soc.i:1 1 U1ll'e~ 1 rtsllh ing from bailie... over civil rights, bi ue!' di\<jsio ll ~ over tht' ....~r in Vietna m , the rise of the fcminis t a nd ga}' lihel.ltio n movemcn ts. the ,,,1;\\cl'g;\le K<lII cla l. urban riOts. ;t nd confn>nl;uion" a l aooltion cli nics ollcred .sup port for the eon mct...approachthe \;ew tlml o llr ~oci:-l l ""orlel is cha l'aclCl'itcd hv comin ual st ruggle bc~ l wl'e n com pclinggro up .... Curren tly. conflict lheol'y is acce pted .....ithin lhe d isci pline of sociology :lS onc V;IHd "'~y to ~in insight imo ,I society,



w~ jtt'nC'l"'dUy Ilunkorlh~ fUllctionall!>4. (tmlllet . .. nd illC t'l"'olCltOlI'

m;Ul~ o f che

dl\1$lolI) or -.ocit'C) , Ill-

in pt'npcclhct 01 lIOCiolugy :n ~ ing ;to1'V1icd IQ -.c.' IIOU'" ~t.l bjcc~ such aoJ the filllli l). health cart', :md crimmal bt:h.wM)r. Yel t'\c n ~ports ca n he an; IL., IIJ( IhC'\e Ihc(IR!tiC;11 llC:npt'C1"M.

c1l1dmg thosc: bobed on Jt("nflt'r, r;!Ct'. c lhlllCiw, ...l d Ml('i:al da~:

Sporl) are a ronn or bl\("", in ""hi(:h proliu: arc mort' lIu porlam 111:1 n Iht' health and ~I fet\ of Ihe \\'orLcu (:r chlt'Cl"lIi). &,)ort.\ l:lCrpt'Ut;uc' IIIC r.11'I4.' id ...1 tlloll ,'UCCC:M Clll h t' ac h i('\c:d 8 1111 ' p i) lhroug h hard \\'ork, whi le 1:111 li re \ ho uld be bl.Ullc-d on 11ll' i n'

I(to(l:t, 'IOCial be h,lIior I" .. haped I:w IlIc lIL' lIncU\(' t11l1'n ~. ' "altle", .nd dcnl:uul, 01 the' "orld of !op01 u : ",)nn.lo uflcn hClgIIICII



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1 0

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dlli< l\ml alone (r.rlhf'r lIull OIL

i nj lL~Iicr:$ III L ilt: 1,II"/oo\CI ~'M'r;r l ~}"I' !(' III ) , SI)()r!.t' ~" . :,,' an -npl,itl'"

rl1cmhhip li r lwork.. th ,lt c:m per 111O'alC CI't'I)d:l ) life , UI'~ Pltc i I ' I'~, md.t!, .lIlcl rdi~'iou...
fHllc' n 'll t t'\, 1t':IIIIII1.II('. lim y work

iS ""Ifowd ~ I)(III ~ ,'" I,

giOIlS i ll bliUlLio tl


alm"st rd i

whirh lI.'lC'b ri lUa] :u1(1 c(,remony to rl'i nfOff'C the

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which e l1('ou,.'lgI'5 C(lplt, 11. ~cc'k

a -fix" or ICenpoml) ~ h igh - r,u hef Ihan focll ~ on Iw ~mal prohlt'lIlc

ant! 'IOwi;11

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11110 !lu('h




.m d 1), lI riod~ tII . ",hlr l", l)('r.lIIl(' rolC' m()(ld, :111<1 .lrt' Irc.utd ""Ih

and rnpl,
ph)~c 1 ..

111;'II1 (3in Ihe su borrlirmurole of Rlack511lld I-lispamcs. " irQ lo il as :uhl(,lo. hUI art' Ia I'Rdt 1 );lrrcd ffl lfll lilllk'I\i4Qry 1)O~iliol1ll as cvadlO, m.r.nagcn., and Ke n er.1 mallagcn.. In 1993. (or u -

tll!(ethl't It.ll"n Ulnlll ttsll' :lIId nm)' c"ell .lb;l1'Idon " rt'\iou~ !lleft(> t ~rK" .l nd I'H llIlli n'\. RI'I,tL lult,hil" III Iht' ~pUrl~ wmld .Ill' defincrl b )' peup ] c'~ poMUOU\ ;1\ plart'!)" coachcj, and n: rcr~~u. \'0 ("11 a..~ I 11It' high or I"" ""1111' Ih;1I nrd ilid u :rh hold :u. .I I"('HII! u( Ihr-ir ])I'mlmt.lnct'1 and r("plwulOn\
C:1t';111}-. Iht're l\ 11101(' CHsporl.\ 111al1 t'Xt'r'CIq: or r~rt'".lIjort, From a (unclIon"]"1 JlC~lCCljn~. \j)()ru reinfUffc 'IOCiccalu .ld lllolll, COlHeU!!U5 on \.Iluo. ;101111 'l.lhilm, lI)'collln<o.t, conUlre Iheo rtstJ l'icw ' Ik)f\l! as mCI"t'I) :ltlUllrcr rel1t'cuon o r the poh llc.ll :lIId )U(:i.r l 'lnl K&tcI " l lhlll a '>I:"-ieU'. Icll(" ~tt 1l01ll~b focu~ un M)c i.11 rd,lI i(III ~ lr i lh [11 $1H)rt..... .\$ 1 .k'Oplc' I<.olrk IOK,' ch,' " :1 tt',nllm:t'c~ o r ' lumpt'!" In ,Ull lc tic (unlt'US.

Sport) COlllnbulc I() thl' ;1d..&pU\C nels oflhe KKial ~\ 1('111 1 ) hd ,,. 1'

illg co 111.11111,.1111 IKOph:",


Sport!! ~I'\(, ~ a IOalcl) \';1 h'(' 101' bolh P;lrtlcil),"U lh .md \1M"Cc.uur'<l. "

allll,k. AfriGlIl Am C'ncaIU ~ COLHHc~d for onh 7 Ilertt l1l of a ll C' !( c(u li\C'~ .md dCP"lrtl1M:11I hr-;t(lc III professional bmkclb:l.1I .I/1d fOOlooll ;&lId la, Ihan .. l>ercent
III 1J<I..clxtll. ')I>orlJi fc lcg:l!e wOlllc: n 1 :1 ~ 0 oml-lry ro le.~ "pcclatoN ;nul M:)(' ual " pri7.c~- and Ic n d 10 l'qU.1 tl nr.l'ioC'u lin il) wit h hnuc 'tiCIl,qt h , i I1M' II,ilhil~ , :lIId ,iOlllil1.lriUIl,
I I\TF.RAr.TlONI$T "ItW I" .l lIdrin~ the ~OC'ml of(k .., ll11c'r' :lnio ni ~l'l a l'e c~ II('r i a ll y hHClt'CICfl ill , h"rNI IIndCI':'I I,U1fli u R" 1'1 , '\(' 1"\"
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One iml>on am cOlllribution of conflict theory is th.1I it has e ncollraged sociolobrlSlS to view society rhnlugh the eyes of those segme nLs of the population that rJ.rei), in.l1uc nce decision maki ng_ Earl)' Blar.k sociologists such as W. E. B. Du Bois ( 1868Wti3) provided research that they hoped would as~I\t Ihe struggle fo r a racial ly egalitarian societ)'. Du B()is believed Ihal kno wl edge was essential in CUIllI",[iug prejudice and ach ieving toler.m ce and juslire. Sociology. Du Bois conte nded, had to dnlw on \(It:ntilic principles to study social proble ms such '\'\th05e expe rie nced by Blacks in the Unite d Slales . Du Sois had little patie nce fo r lheorists such as Ilerbcn Spencer who seemed con te nt \\'ith the SlaIU~ 1')110. He advocated basic research o n th e lives nf Blacks that would separate opinion from fa ct, and he docul1lem ed their rela tively low slatus in ~hilade lphia and AtlalHiI. Du 8 0is believed tha tlhe Rr.mLing of full politicll rights to Blacks was essell,b.l to their social a nd econo mic P..ob css in tile ... l'nitedStales. Many ofllis idca~ challc nbring th e Sla!U~ quo did nOl rind a receptivc audie nce wit h in eilher lhe government or the academic world . As a rcsult, Du Bois hecame incrcasingly involved with (11'g3nizaliol1s questioning lhc estahlished social or(h .'rand helped to found th e Natio nal Association lin the Advancement of Colored Peopl e.:, belle .. known as Ihe NAACP (C reen ,md Driver. 1978). A.5 is true of the work of African American sodnlogisL'l, feminist scholarship in sociolob,), has helped 1 enhance oLlr tlnderstanding of social he0 h;tl;or. Fo r examp le, a nllllily's social standing is no longer viewt..'d as d efin ed solcl}' by the h\l!\band 's position and income. Fe minist sch o l a r~ h:l\'e not only challenged stereotyping of wome n; tht:y have argul'd for a gende l'-ba l,Ulced study o f sociefY in which women's cxpel"ie nces and cont.ributi ons art' ;~\isibl eas those of men (Brewt:r, 1989; Koman)Vsky. l!!lI). Feminist theory builds in important ways on the r(mniC perspective. Like othe r conllict lheori.~ts. l rfminist scholars sce gender differences as a r(" nCClion of th e ~ lIbju gation of o nc grou p (women) bv another gro up (men). On'wing o n the wo rk of M and Engels, contemporary fem inist theod sts ar.< often view women's subordination as inherent in capitalist societies. Some radical feminist th eorists. however, vit!w the oppress ion of women as inCI'it.lbJe in alllllalt..d o minal<:d societies, including

SOOologi.11 W f~. 11. DII IkJiJ (1868- 1963), {he fi~1 Wark IJenoll



dQCiamle from J-IarTllml

l)l1illn'<ity, Ifller 11I41H'f1 orgfl niu 11,, N{ltimul/lIs~(Jci(lIiOIl ja,. I/~

Ad"alW'1II1'11 1 of (AlOrM Plopl, (N,\ ACJ').

those lahelcd ;-IS rotJi(aii.{/, .l.wialisl, and commUllist (Tuchma n, 1992).

.~.~~.~~~~.? ~~~.~.~.. ~~.~.p.~~.~.~~ ................................

The fUll ctionalist and connict pen;pCCtivCli bot h an al)'i'c hc havior illtcnns o f sod ctywidc p:l rt er n ~. How ever, many cO!lle mpOi....y sociologis ts arc more inte rested in unclt:rstanding ..acid), as a whole through <In ex,lIIlinati on of social inte ractions sllch as slllall groups conducting mectings, two friends ta lki ng casually with each o tlter, a fa mily cclebmt .. ing a birthday, a nd so forth. The inferacfiQ ,. ;!JI perspective gene raiiles " bOUl fUlldanll'lltal or everyday fo rms o f" social interactio n. Inl c raCliunism is Cl sociological fmmewnrk fo r viewi ng hUlllan beings as livingin a world ofmcaningfu l ol~ccts . ' nl CSC ~Objccls" may ind ude material things, aclions, OI her peopl e. reia! ionshi ps. and evcn symbo ls ( l-icllsJin , 1972:95).

e IM/'17:11 I '1I11!' NA'Il'llf_IN-' SOCIOl.(}(;)


Focusing on e\'er)'day be havio r permit'! illlcr.lctioniSI5 to bcller IJl1dersmnd the large r socie ty. In a c1a...sic example of illleractionist n.'search . sociologist Howard S. Bcckcr ( 1963) studied the process through which people become successful marij uana users. Seeker fOllnd that novice a rc typically introduced to ma rijuana by their friends, but rarely "get high ~ the finll lime the) expe riment with this dntg. InSlcad, people must 11'fH?1 (t hro ugh the assistance of more experienced usen) how to detect and e njoy the effects of marijuana. ('.onsequemly, Seeker viev.'S marijuana smoking as a wcial act and leaming to e l"ti0Y mariju;Ula as a suei,,1 process, Mo re gener.llly. inte l, tctio ni515 c mphasize that most forms of c rimin.11 o r no "m-d clying behavior arc learn ed . onen from close acquaintances ( 1992:1). GeOl'gc He rbe n Me'ld ( 1863- 1931 ) is widely regarded as the founder of the inleraclionist perspective. Mead taug:ht at tJle University of Chicago fro m 1893 until his death in 193 1. Mead's sociI>logical a nalysis. like that ofCharlcs HOflon Cooley, often focused on human inter.tctions within onct(K)ne situations and small groups, Mead was interested in observing the mon minute forms of conullun ic;uioll-smiles, frowns, nods of the

III lM.y

'roJfPIiu Inn/ .symbols, pholograplu. mn (a", wry



dllfert'lll "Iro"i"8l

diffl'H1l1 snaal

head-and in undcrstanding how suc h ind ividual be h :t\~or wa.~ influe nced by the larger contcxt of a group o r '!Ocicty. I-I o\\'cver. despitc his inno .....dtin~ "iews, Mead o nly occasiona lly wrote articles. a nd nC\'cr a book. Most of his insighl5 have been passed along to liS through edited volullles of his lectures wh ich his studems published arter his deaLh , IllIcractionisLS sec symbols as an especially import..ulL pan o f human communic ltio n. In fuCl, lh~ ' imerdctionist perspectivc is SOme times referred to as the symbolir. illlem(tiollist /w:rs/JuliTJt. Such researchers not e Ihat both :t cle nched fi st a nd a5a.lute have social 1ll('anin~>'S which a rc shared and understood by members o fa society. In the Un ited States, a salute symholiws respect.. while a clenched list sig nilies defi:mcc. However, in anolher c ulture diffen:nt gestures might be IIscd to convey a feeling of respect or defia nce. Let us examine how variOlls societies portray suicide wi thout the usc of words. People in the United Stales point a finger at the head (shooting): urban





Choroclel'ized by tension and struggle between group,

People ofe $OCiol1zed 10 perform lOCietol function, Moinloined through cooperation and

People ore shaped by power, coercion, and authority N.oinloined through force and coercion
Change tok" pIoai 011 the lime and may hove po,llive

Predidoble, reinlotcing

-Jdp<U\C5e bring a

Active in inRueoclng ond affecting everyday $OCial interaction Micro aoolysis 01 a war 01 underwnding the Iorger ~o phen(Kneno People monlpulate symbols and creote their lOClol worlds through Inhlraction Moinloined by shored undeutonding of everydcry behDYior Reflected In people's social positions and their communications wilh others
George Herbert Mead Charles Horton Cooley frving GoHmon

~mile Durkhelm

Tokon Parsons Robert Merlon

Karl Mo ... W . f . B. Du BoI$ C. Wrlghl MUI,

Tllis tabk shows hO Ihi!!' Ihm W IhtO(ttiClZl pmptctives (tI1I bt torrrpllJM

fist against the stomach (stabbing); and the South Fore of Papua, Ncw Guinea, clench iI h<ind at the throat (hanging), Thcse t)'pes of sym . . bobc interacLion are dassifu."<I as forms o f nonvll!',.. .al commutlicatio", which call include many other Kt"turcs, facial expressions, and poSlLlres, InleracLi oni~ls realize the impormncc of nonver. . b:tI communicatio n as a form of human bchavior. Gcorge Mucdeking ( 1992:232-233) observed inter. . actions in visiting rooms at thl'ec stale prisons for n~n ill California. He found that guards typiC'.tUy use a fonn of nonverbal cOllulluniC:llion which he c.alk-d -gazing" to control the bchavior of inmates and their wivC$ or girlfri ends. A gua.rd will slowl)' shift his gaze back and fonh across the visiting room. If3 couple's inleractions are becoming ovcrly inti . . m:ue.lhe guard will stare din.!cdy into the inmat.e's c)'t:s. TIlis is :I warning that a more direct confmntarion will follow if the intimate bchavior contimlCS.lntcrt..'Stingly, me inmate will allempt to avoid eye contact with the guard, rather than acknowledge that he has received the guard's \\-aming. Since Mead's teachings have become well k.nown, \Ociologisls have expressed grcaLCr imel'csl in the inu:r.actionist perspective. Many have mo\'ed away from ""hat may ha\'c been an excessh'e preoccupa-

albng Sl!lJrfDI irrrpmtard


Lion with the macro level of social behavior and have rcdirectt."<I lIleir allemion toward behaviol' which occurs in small groups. Erving Goffman ( 1922- 1982) made a distinctive contributio n by popularizing a particular type of interactio nisl method known as the dramaturgical approach . The dramaturgist compares everyday life to the selLing of lhe thealer and stage. Just as actors present certain images. all of us seck. la present panicular features of our personalities wh ile we hide o thcr qualiLics. Thus, in a class. wc may feel the need to proj ect a serious image; at a party. it may seem im . . portanlto look like a relaxed and cntertaining per. . son. In Box 1-2 o n page 24, GofTman's work on public place~ is reviewed to sce how accurately it speaks to the experi ences of women.

~~...~.?~~?I.?gi.'?'!..~pp'.~?,~?,>....................................... .
Which perspecLive sho uld a sociologist use in studying human bchavior? The functionalist? The con. . fliCl? The imeractioniSl? Sociology makes use of all three perspectives (see Table 1..2), since each offel'S


em inin sociolog) is oflC:.. associ:tli'd wilh lhe confli ct 1>C I~pective !.Itcause that perspective emphasize>; the struggle among competIng grotllH ill a liOCiety, 'Iowever. ~ciul obrjst Carol Brooh Canlner ( 19B!)), a symbolic in ter.lctlollisl interCSlcrl in gender issllcs. has ofI't'I'ccl a le minist criuquc of Ihe intlue lllial work o n the ~f)ciology of puhlic place5 developed by h(' r dis'iCrtauo n advisCl', Erving Cofflllan
{1963b. 197 1} ,

1llL'I1 , lIIuch less lhe rt/minc u'epid ;u.i o ll that ethnic and rOldaJ mi-

In G;.trdue r's view. the

M)CiOIf>gicall'xam illa[ioll ~

dlL>;~ic !I .

of public pl :' cc.~ prese nt public sU '('ets. parks. an(\ ro.ldw:l)1I il.'l ill nOt'IIOI15 !lCtli ngs ill whic h str.m gt'r!; eithcr leave each other alone o r intc ...... n po litely. C()n~qtle r lll)', GorFlJlall '~ sllldies of rHlltille illleractions in public


;L~ W hclrill g~

e IlC OIIIl-

ICI1I wllt'Tl a person is lost :.uHI asks ror dircctions) uncie f(' st;lIlate Ule diOirulties commonly experienced by subordin<t{e groups, III Cardncr's view ( 1989:45): ~ R..IIcl y does " CofTru:m cm phasil.c Ihe habilU;11 d isproportionate fear tha l. \'/Omen call cOllie to feci in public to\\~lrd

norities and the di~1. hlecl can eXI>Clie ll ct',~ For example, women are wd laW'dre that the oslelUllbly innocuous helpillg enconnter ,,;Ih a 111:111 ;11 a public placc call 100 e.lSHy lead 1 undesired sexual querid 0 1)1' adlf.ltlct.'s , If a man asks for direc ti o ns or for a match, a \~()l1lal1 may ha\c reason to fear Ihat he has a hidden agenda that h ;\.'I ~p<lrkl.-d lIle conversation. A\ p:lrl of her disscn;ltion re" SC<lrc h . Ca.r dner obscn'cd gCllder beha\;or in public places in Sama Fe, New Mex ico, ovel' ;\II lS-nlonlh period: she also conrlucted 35 indepth interviews wi lh WOlllell and meTl from S:Ulta Fe ilbo UI their ex pc ri c n rc.~ in public pl:lces. In comparing her findin gs \";th Ihose of Goffm:lIl , she places panicular elllphasis 0 11 the impact of street rl'rmu'kl on women, Whereas Goffinan 'Uggesb that Slrl.Ct remarks occur rnrd)'-"'ilnd ' thallhcy genemlly hold no unpleasallt or threatening implicmion.'l-G:lI'dner COlllllel'1l (1989;4!.1) 1.hOll

wfol' )'lJUHK women c~pedall)'... 'Ippeal'illg ill public places carrie!l wil h ilthe const,,1nt poSSibilil),uf {",,u. u.1.uou. CQl1lplinlC'lIl5 that art: not n:ally so COlllplinJe llmry after all. and hafllh or \'1111,,"'1' irn;ull5 if the woman is found w~lJIung.~ Sht; ..dlts thal Streel remarks are OC(a.~i() nally fnl lowed by Iweaks. pinctll's. nr ('\-'cn bloll'>;. which unmask the latent horr titity of m an)' male"tofC'lIlal~ SU"Ce1 rellla.I'i:s. Cardne r acknowledgC!; the pi~ neering cont nbutioll of En; n!': Gonma n 10 Ihe Study of public p1;I CC8. calli ng h is work ~(l riginaJ"

and wcollct'plually rich,w 13tll she suggests that CofTlIlan 's view of in te ractions in public place~ givcs in ~ um ci" nl ,mention to tht' impacl of gender. For Cardner, man y women hll\'c a \~C'l1 -fo\lllded f('al' of tht' 5('):1131 h3 rass menl.



Ihat C orcur in public places. She Hn therefore cOllciudes that ' pllblic pl ace~ art arenas for the enactlIIell t 01 inequalit) in evel)day life for women and 101' man)' others(Cardne r, 1989:56: M:e ;1!s0 Cardner, 1990),

lIniqlLc insights imo th e sa me pro ble m , Thus. in stmlying the continLled high levels of ullcml>loymc nt in the United SlateS, the runc tionalist might wish to study how unc mployme nt reduces lh c d emand ror goods but simultan eoLlsly inc reases th e need for public sc lvices, therc by leading lO n e\vjobs in llu: govc rnme lli secto r, Th e interaClio nist mig ht e n courage us to focus o n the ovemll impacl o f L111cmploylllclll on fumi ly life. as manifested in divorce, domenic vio lence, and dependencc 011 drllW' and alcohol. Rescarcher.i with a conflic t pc/'SPCCU\'C might drdW our allention to th e un even clistribuuol1 of unemployment within Ih e labor

rorce ;lIld huw it is panicularly likc l)' to alTect women and racial and eth n ic minoritics-thost gl'OlIpS leml! like ly to illnue nce dccisio n making about cconomic and social policy. No one of these appl'oaches to the issues rc lated lO Lln e mploymclll ;s "co ITe c l ,~ Withill this Lext boo k, it is assumed that wc ca n gain the broadest tll1derst:uuling or our society hy drawing upon all three pcrs pectivcs in the s tudy or human bchltvior and insututions. These perspecli\'es o\'erlap as their interests coincide but can diverge according to tbe dictates of each appt'oach and of the issue being studied.


Ai nnled before ill thi .. chapter', many early sodol"".,IJ.-notabl)' J ~ll1 e AddamlY-\.\'crc CJuite ca lletnil't! whit social reJOllll. They wtlnl('d lheir tilt,. ... Q(JC'lI findings to be relc\~.lnt tQ po lir.:ymakers 1Jld hJ people's lives in general. Toda)" applied .etioloO is the use or the discipline of sociolot.'Y WIth lite sl>ecific intent o f yielding P'-dCtiClll 'IppliCll!OI1~ for hllm<ll1 bchavior and organiltlliol1~. Oflcn. the goal of sllc h work is to assist in reriving a social problem . For example. in the lasl l.i ",;11'5. ~ix president~ of lhe Uniled Slales have t"StJuhoJled commissions to delvc into major' sodrulll)lltcmS facing Ollr natiun . Sociologists have brt-II called UpOIl la appl)' their ex pertise to studym~ '\Jch issues as violence. pornography, crime, illl~"u(ln. and populadoll. In Europe, both aeadrOll( and gO"ernmental research d eparUllcnt!l arc offenng increasing fimulcial SlIPPOI'I for applied



,\nnthcr example of applied sociology is lhe ~lng 10C011 community rescarch IIlO\'CmenL One IMtlRlIJon which has pioneered in this effurt is lhe (.enter for the Study of Local l.ssucs, a "ese:lrcit unit ul\nut' Anllldel CO lTllllunilY COllege, located in "mold. Malyland . The center encourages sU ldent~ ;aM r.l{'ulty to apply wc ial scientilic research meth om In ~tud} cOllununity issues suc h as e mployII\t'nr opportunities for people with disabilities IInd p,1IIt'nl ~ of armed robberies. Silllihll'ly. in :Ill cn'on to Llnpro\'c selvices. the Sodal Sciencc Centcl' fol' (mnrnuniLY Education. Research, :tnd Sen~cc or tbr l'ni\"crsity or Wisconsin-StulIl has studied the r8tcr;l'('nns of Ill.ut:funde d p rograms designed 10 pmcnl child abuse <tnd lhe auitudes of college .~1\I denli wv."aJ'd local retail slOres :lI1d olher commumn rt.'SOlIrCCS (Pampcri.n Cl ;11., 1985; sec also p, Ro~r.I. 1987). TILt' growing popularity of applied ..ociolugy has Itd r\1 the rise of lhe spec blty of clinic.'lJ sociulugy. 111111' V/irth ( 193 1) ,'/I'Ole about clinical socioloJ:.,'Y mort than 60 years ago, but lhe lerm iL~clr has hl'(rnnc popular only in recenl ycal'~. Cli,.ical 1I,;ology employs a ,,:,riel}, of lechniques 10 faciliblr change and is similar in cenain respects to "1>phr!! lIOCiolob Huwever, while applied sociology 'Y. nl.I\ ht c'~lluative, clinical sociology is dcdic.llCd to .:all~rtng wcial relationships (as in family Iher:lpy)

or 10 restl1JCluring sudal in"lilllliolls (as in the n_ '" Ofll medical cenler). The Sociological Pr-deuce As~oc iali on \. . a:. founded in 1978 10 promote the applic:.llioll of ,0dolog-kal knowledge lO illlelvcmion for individual and social change. This professional group has dt:veiol)cd a procedlu'c I()I' ccniryinl{ clinical sociologists-much as physical thelOlpisl,s 01' ps},cho lof.\'isls are certified . As an other indicaLion of the rise of clinic,1 suciology, as of 1989 the American Soda10b",c;l1 A~sodalion bCJrdn publishing a nel\' jollrnal of clinical sodology, Soriowgiml Prfl(.hu Rn'il'W. Applied sociologi..LS general!) !ea\'(' it to o lhe l'S to act. on their (,. ~,Iluatiolls. By COlltrnsl. dinicallln... ciologisu bear direcl responsibility for irnplenu:l1tadon and view Iho~e with whom they work as their c1icnts, TIlis s pec i:tll ~ has bt.-come increa~ingl y :Itu--.tclivc 10 socio logy gr.lduate slude n LS bet:aut~ i, (,ffen; an upportunity to ilpply inlcllecLUallcal11ing in a pmclical W ),. Moreovcr. sh rinking prospects fUl d academic; emplo),11Icnt have madc sll ch allc:rtlOHiv(' career roules appealing (H . Freeman ct al., J 9!:i!\: H . Freeman and Rossi. 1984: R. SU':.lUS, 1985: 18). AI)plieri and clinical sociology c:m be cOlllmsted with basic (or /mu,) sociology, which ha.~ the 01>jcclivc of gaining a 11101'(' profound knowledge uf the furlcia111enlal aspects ofsocinl plrenomena, Thi .. Iype of re'>Careh does 110\ ncct!wll'il)' hope to gene ra te specific applic;rLiolls. althottgh such idea,'j ma)' result onee findings arc analp.ed. \Vhen Durkhcim studied suicide rates, he was not primarily interested in disco\'ering a \\'01)' LO eliminate suicide. III Lhis sense, his research \\'as an example of basic r.JlJIC~r than applied sociolog}'.


Onc important way in which the socio l o~..ical im;tgilml.ion ca n be usefully applied is 10 cnhance our L1ndc l'Sl;:mciing of CtllTCIlI social is.~lIes. Beginning wit.h C hapter 3 of' this textbook. which rOClr.~e~ nu culture, each chaple r wi ll conclude with a di~ell~ sion of' social policy issuc. In sornt' " cases, a specific issue facing Col1gre,~ l.nll Ix- examined ; in others, there will be ;J more d {,cl'nu~ ll ized issue facing cily co uncils or school boards. FOI example. governmerll fllndingofLhild care (enters will be discussed in Chapter 'I, Soda lizm,ion : Ihe:

r-;JIANI'..R I /1/1; NATVNt: ()f SfK'JQf ocr

AIDS crisis in Chapte r 5. Social Inte raction and Sodal StnlcLUre; domestic viole nce in Chapter 13, The Family: and natio nal heaJth insurance ill Chair ter 17. Health and Medicine. T hese social policy sceLiOIll; will demonstrate how fundamcnml sociologic:! l concepts can cn hance ollr critical thinking skills and help liS to bc uer undc rsta nd Cll n '(' nt pulr lie policy debates. In ;ulditjon, sociology ha.~ been userlto cV'dlUatc the success of programs or th e impact of c hanges brougl1l about by policyma kcl's and po lilical aclivisl$. Cha pter 2. M C l.h od.~ of Sociological Research , will focus on a study o f how thc corporate rc~po"se to Blacks ' dema nds fo r civil rights afTccted tOlrrnnking African American e)(eCulj"es, Chapter R. Stratilicalion and SaciaJ Mobili ty. inc!ud(.'S discussion of researc h on tJ, e effectiveness of ,..:elfarc programs. Cha pter 18. Com munilies, e,,;lmines a st udy of how:tctivism by homeless people im proved the ir individual situations llnd led to bro."Ic1cr

cha nges in public policy, These discussions, along with t,hc social policy sections of the leXt, will UI1derscore the many practical applications of sociological theory and research . SociologislS expeclthe next qua rter ofa CCn!ury la be perhaps the most exciting and critical period in tJ1e history of Ihe discipline. This is because oh growing rec:.ognition-both in the Unit ed St,lIes and arou nd tll C world-Lh :u current social proble ms must be addressed before their magnilu<k overwh elms human societies. If such predictioN p rove to be accurate, we can expect SOCiologists 10 play an in creasing ro le in the govern ment seClOr b) researching and dcve lopi ng public policy alternatives. Therefore , it seems appropria te fo r' I.his textbook to include a uni(lue focus o n the connection between the work of sociologists and t.he difficult queslions confronting thc policymakers a nd people' of tJ, C United States.



L 1e pl'i m:u)' soun:c o f e mploymen t for sociologists is higher education, About 75 percel\t of recent Ph.D. recipien ts in socio logy sought e mployment in two-year community colleges. liberal arts colleges, and universities. 1l1esc sociologists will teach not o nly m;yors com mitted lO the disciplint.' but also st tld c nL~ hoping lO become doctors. IHIr.:;CS , lawyers, police of1icers. and so forth (B. Hube r. 1985). For sociolob"Y stude nts interested in academic ca~ rcers, Ihe road to a Ph.D. degl'ee (or dOCLOJ':UC) can be long and difficult . This degree symbolizes competence in original research; each cand id:u c must prepare a book-lengt h study known ;L~ a di.fMrlaJion. T ypically, a grad uat!! slIIclent in sociology wiU e ng<lge i'I fo ur to six years of intensivc work . incl uding the time required to comple te the d issertation . YCI this effort is no guamntec of a job as a sociology professor. Over the next decade, tJu;: demand for ;nstruClon;; is expected to decline, si nce there will be fewe r students of college age. Conscquentl)', a nyone who launches a n acadcmic carcer must be prcl)ared fo r comide rnl>le uncertainty and r:ompc-

ulIon ;11 thc coll ege job marke t (America n Soci~ logical Association, 1977: 10-- 1 I ; B. I-Iubcr, 198.'), Of course, not all people working as sociologislI teach o r hold doctoral degrees. Governmc nt is the second-largest source of e mploym ent. for people in u1is disc.ipline. The Census I~ureall relies o n peoplc with sociological lrdin ing to illlcrpre l data in:t way that is usefu l for othe r go\'emmelll agencies and tJ1 C ge ne ral publi c. Virtually eve ,)' age ncy depe nds o n survey researc h-a fi eld in whic h soclo~ ogy students can specializ.e-in order to assess e vcrything from community needs to the morale of the agency's own workers. In addition, people with sociological training ca n plllthe ir academic kno",~ edge to effectivc use in probaljon and pa role, health sciences, communi ty developlllellt. and recrelllio nal services. Some people working in government or pri\~dtc industry have a master's degret (an MA o r M.S.) in .sociology; othe rs have a bad.. elor's dcgree (a BA or n.s.). The accompanying figure sum mar sources of c mplo)'tI1c nl fo r those with B.A, or 8 ,S, degree., in

/'AH'r OSI'. I'm. SOClOI.O(UCAI. fflH.!iI'f;Cf'I1'E

rntd E.ploymflnt

.... Sodology Graduates

.,r-- R.~,,h.%

, ~- Oth"' '''

Graduates ",ill! OOCC{II(1!trf'(llf degroc\" ill SQrioloff1fillll rm/Ilr,)'mf'rlt in fl lIum/lrr

of mlaJ, UIII/WrliC'lI/f1 r,,' i'l l)!jsinf'-s~ flnd (ommN"rf', SMilll .vflIiu3. mul


IKlOOlogy. Like o ther libera l ans gr dduates, sociol01\. majors eau generally offer t.heil' e mployers esIl'tlwfjoh-rdated ski lls. J ob app licants with sociol010 dtgrees find that lhcir rciinement in sllch areas .IS UTal and wriue n commu nication , intclversonal WU~. problem solV"ing, and critical thinking gives thrlYl all advantage ove r' gradwl1cs who have purIdl'd more technical degrees (Be nner a nd Hitchill(k. 1986; Billson and Hubcr. 1993). R('necting the utili ty or applied a nd clin ical wx.iology, the fi gure shows that the a reas o f huma n \tMr~. business. and governme nt olfer important carter opportun ities fo r sociology graduates. Un-

de rgradu:uc." arc commonly advised to en ro l! in sociolob'Y courses and speciallies (rerer back to Table 1-1) bcst-suited for their career interests. Fo r e xample, SllIdents hoping to become health planne rs would take a class in medical sociology; students see kin g e mployme nt as social science research assist.1nts would refine their skills in statistics a nd methods, Inlernshi ps, suc h as placeme nts at city plannin g agencies and survey research o rgani1.ations. orrer sodolof,,), undergraduates an imponan1 opportunity 1.0 pre pare for careers. Studies show that students who c hoose an illlernship placement have less trouble findin g jobs, o btain better j obs. and e njoy greate r job satisfactio n than sUlden ts wi thout inte rnship placements (Sa lc m a nd Cra~ barek, 1986) . Many college student.'; view social work as the field mOS1 closely associated with sociolo!:,'Y. Trad itionally. social workers received their undergraduate tmining in sociology and all ied field s such as psycho logy and counscli ng. After some practical experience , social workers would genernlly seek a ma<r te r's dcgr(.'e in social work (M.S.W.) to be considered fo r supervisory o r adminiSlJ"a tj"e posi tions. Today. however. som e stude nlS choose (,,,he re it is aV'dilable) 10 pursue an unde rgrdduate d e~ee in social work (B.S.W.). This degree pre pares grad uates for d irect se lvice positions such as caseworker or g roup \\'orkcl'. rather than 1 1' tht: broader occupa0 tional areas served by the sociolob'Y baccalaureate . Finally, unde rscoring the renewed imerest in ap~ pli ed sociolob'Y. it is cl ear that an ineleasing numbel" of sociologists with grndtt:ltc dC~>,"l'ecs afC being hired by business fi,ms. industry. hospitals. and llonproli t o rgani1.<ltions. Indeed . studies show tha t fIlany sociolob'Y gmdu<lles arc making career c hanges rrom social services areas la business and comme rce. As an 111lde rgradu<tle major, sociology is excellen t pre pamt io n for employment in many parts or the busin ess world (B. Huber, 1985, 1987: W. Watts and Ellis. 1989; Wilkillson, 1980).

f ;IIArnR I TII/::NA'I"UHf. (11." 'lfI('JQf.f1(";I

Socio lolCl i! the systema tic 6lmty of social I.x! ha\;o r and human groups. In this chapter. "'c exami ne the nature or sociological theory. the found ers of the discipline. theoretical pcnptives of contemporary SOCiology. and the application of sociology to current issues of public policy.
An i01porlanl c le me n t in !.he sociological imagina.

be perhaps the most exciting alld critkal period in tl.r hiSlory of The discipline because o f a b.'TOwing rccogn~ tio n tha t socia l problems must be addrcsSt.'t1 in Ihe rW':U fUlUre.

tio" is the ability to view o ur own socie ty as a n outsider

might. r.uher than from the perspective of Ollr limited cxperiences and cultural biases. 2 In contrast to other rocial ,d,me", sodolo~:y emphasizes the innuence that groups can have on people's behavior and attitudes and lhe W"d)'S in which people shape ~C ty. 3 Sociologisu e mploy theories to examine the relationships bet""ecn obsen. .atiolU or berween d;lIa tha t may Re m comple tel y unrelated. 4 In hi5 pioneering work S,ticicv., published in 1897. Emi]e Durkhe im focused on social r.,Cton: that con tributcd 10 the ratc.~ of suicide fo und amo ng various groups and natio ns. 5 Max Weber to ld his stude nlS tha l they sho uld cmploy V".f lt ll p,II, the GemllUl word for~ulld erstandin g R or -insight: in their intellectual ,",,'ork. In c mplO}illg Vm~ hen, sociologists coflSidcr the thoughu and feelings of those people under study. 6 Kari M:ux argued tha l history could be understood in dialectkaltenns as a record of tht' inevilitble conflict beLWeen the owners of the means o f production and the maJ\SC5 of l)Coplc who have no resources other than their labor (the prole taria t). 7 Macrosociology concentrates 011 l:ugc....I\c;lle phenome na or e ntire civi1i7.atio ns, whereas m icro.fociology St1"C5SC5 Sludy o f sma ll groups. 8 In contrast 10 the emphasis 011 stabili ty l'o'hich characterizes the functitmalist perspective of sociology. the conflict plI,..fpective assumes thal socia l bchavior is besl understood in IConS of conflict or tension between competi ng groups. 9 Within the d iscipline of socio logy, t he i rlf fl raction il t perspective is primarily concerne d with fUlld:l1llc nlal o r t'\'e'1'da~ fo n us of in teraction , including symbols :U1d o the r types or 1/onve,.btJi communication, 10 Applied sociology- the LISt" o r th ... discipline with the specific intent of yielding p racTicll applicatiol1s fOl human beh"vior and organization.s-c-.U1 be COllll' l!lIOO with basil! lociology. th~ o bjective of which is 10 gain a more pro fo und kn owledge o f the runcla nllm1411aspects of socia l pheno me n'l. 11 Socio logisl.'i upcC t the next quartcrofa century 10

If a socioloRist \\'as present in II collc..-ge cafet e l;a, what aspecu of T e social and work e nvironme nt wo uld be of h panicular interest bcrau5c of his o r he l ~.rociologica1

2 Some sodologisl.'i sc..'C lhe mseivc..'S M social rdomlef) dedicated to systematically smdying aud the ll impro\ing societ)', while others COWlIcr tltal M>Ciologisl! sho uld res trict themselves to theorizing and g:lth eting infonnation. In yo ur view, which of these position! represents a more approp!"ia l ~ goal for the discipline of sociology? 3 H ow mighr functionalist, conl1iCI , alld illlel1lclioniJt theorists view popular music?

Anomill Durkheim 's tcnn for the loss of direction rtlt in a society whcn .social control of indi\ idual beh.nior has become ineffective . (pagt 12) Appli ed sociology TIle use o f the d iscipline of soci~ wilh the ~pecifk illlent ofyiclding practical llpplications fo r huouUI be.h:wior a nd ol"g-.mi"l3lions. (25) Basic lociology Sociological inqui ry conducted wilh I.he o bjective uf gaining a more profound kn o wlcdgt of r.he fundall1clllal aspects of gociaJ phenomena. AIM! kn own as IIIIIY! rorilllogy. (25) Clinical sociology ' 11e use of the discipline uf 5Ociology wiT Ih e SI)(.'Cifk illl e lll o f altering 'IOcial re lation-h ships and facilitating change. (25) Confl ict pe,.sptdive A sociologicd approach which a. . SUlli es that socjal bchavior i.5 hest undentood in terms ofconflkt or Tension betwt.-cn competing groups. (19) Dialectica l p,.OCtSS A .series of dashes betwee n confl icting ideas a nd fo rces. ( 14) D,.amaturgical approach A view of social intc mcT ion, popui:lri ~(.d by ~rvi ng GOfflll:lO, umler whic h pcopl~ are cx."1lllincd :L~ if they we re thcmrir.ll pc rlflrmers. (23) Dysfunc tion An clement o r :I process of society t.lw lIIay disrupt a social s~le m or lead 10 a dccre""ASe ill stability. ( I !I) FUllctionalid pe,.spectivlI A M>Ciological approodl which c lIlplmsi1.c..'lI Ihe way that par"L1 or .. soOC!y anstructured to maimain iL~ stability. ( 18)

I~RT 0...., ;


IMo/lypt A COIISLnlct 01' model th,lI sernos I\S a mca ~UIIII)!; rud Jg-.till~t which actual COI.'>CS call be c\~ luaH:d .

bulf'G(fIollist perrpetlivt A sodological :lppro.'tch .hl(h gCllcnlliu'S ahoul fundamClual or everyday rNn., III 'IOCi;u interac tio n. (2 1) ".,,.,., /lulctifHlJ Unco nscious or unimellded fune-

\111/1\; IlidrlclI purpo!kos. (18) At.(TOlotifJ/ogy Sociological jnvc~lig;lIjon wllidl conCCIIU,I!I'5 (m Iargr. lI(,llc phenomena o r cnt ire civili/.;I...


fiul/} ( 16)

/ Ull cII/.mr Open. SL Cd. rmd c(m~dous ru nc-.I IlIlIt,. (18) lIitroutiology Sociologic-dl i1wcstig:UjOII whidl wl't"l.,. '!Isnuly of Mn:11I groups and oFten U~ l:d>OI'IIoI) exptrimcllIaJ studics. ( 16) ...."lfolrciellce Ine ~tudy of Ihe phy..ical Ic;lIlIrr.'1 of naum: and the \\';1)-5 in which the), inlcm(:1 :lIId changc. Ii) N..",rbll/ co"""uII;colioll 1111.' sc ndiug of mC:5.,>ages tlu"tlgh the use 0 1 pos wre. r.-.cial exprcssions, allcl g:e~

IUII"_ (2S) Sc-itlllCt !lIe !>od)' of knowledge oblaincd b)' ml'lhod~ IlIbCtI upon S),Slemalic observation. (7) s.n.I,wtnce 111e MlId), of \':.\liou~ :upcclS or human \ll(ICI\ (7) Sttiol'rtlll i magi"Cllioll An awarcnc.,>s ClI Iht: rdaI.",-hip helw1l ,111 illdividu;!1 and Ihe wider ~oc:iCL ).

Sori"'Q The syslematic .m ldy (If social hch,l\'i(lr ,111(\ h.,m~n groups. (5) 11",,, 1 suc::iology, a Scl of stalel1le nLS Lhat sceks 10 11 1'\1'1~in problems. :lction5, o r bch,wiur. (9) "mIMt" Tlu.: Genu,lll wurd for ~l1nde"M,alldillg- ()f '""ll(hl-: u!lCf.l by M:LX Weber 10 strcss Ihe IICL'<l for "" 1oI,.wSIS 10 mkc inLO acoount people", emotions, Ihrlllllhll, beliefs, ;!fld :lll il udes. (12)

ADD[fI()N.~.~.;N.G.~_ ...... _ _ ........ ............... .

(I) SooolOKJ: A IIJ/II/(/II;J/I( """ New York: Ancho r. 1963. Ikrg('1 lakc~ a Ihoughtflll ,111(1 wh imsica l look :\1 Ihe disc ipli ne ,"nll'n' :lI"e vcry Ii:w jokt'S abo1l1 s()('i()logiSt.~fl). 1 h' :If.~ Lt! sociology has a spcrial rl>spol1sihility bcCHI'C " tllt-U)t'~ so o r/clI 0 11 hU llKUl idc:,1s :lIld passions. I'tOOPI'i1, Edgar !-'., a nd ~bric L I\orgall<l (lOfls.). buyr/upIt//o ofSonolOKJ. Ncw York: Maclnill:m . 1992. A fOllfInll/m" work Ih;IL includes more Ih:ln 350 j igncd t.'"!i' "'1' 011 !ubjt.-cts ranging from -adtlhhood~ 11) ~\\'ork "f1I,nlat.ioll.- This cl1c,-clol>rtiia is a gOI'Xi pl.lI:e 10 I>r. ... ~m lunher reading o r rcscarch.

Chafetz, J :mcl S:llllInan . I-'r"'i~1St Sonology: A" O!lotT1t,,'wof CtJlllr"'ptlfllry I'hrorir.t. l1.lsca, Ill.: Pcanx;k, IUBI:!. An O\'l'I1:;C\\, of the m,~r femini~1 thcorit'$ in sociolog)' or Ilic-oriCli lI)cfullU '>OCiologists LlI:u h:wc clllcrgt.'tI in Ihl' la.~L IWO dt'cade including ~-farxi~ I -lc l1lin isl Iht.'O';C"O, feminist nco-Freudian t.heorics. a nd t'\cl)'da)' lile tipprlmehes. Colli"s. R.'lud.dl. .Sonu/o/Jfm/ /Juiglrf: A tI h'ffodllftion 1/1 ;\'011nimimH S",.,nifl/!J. New York; Oxford Uni"cl'5il), I'rc)s. 1982. J concise book th at olTen strikiuij" ami ~ I\OI\ \ obvious- i nsi ~ hL s It'bra rd ing l'elig ion, powel", crimc. 10\'('. and l"e:ISfln. HullCL" lkltin;l J. Ernpiqymrlll Pat/mu HI &dO/Cif)': fVanl '("tIIO ami Flltl/fr '~ff1t!d.{. Washington. D.e.: Amcrican Sociologic-M Assooalion. 1985. A facllt;11 ;lI1d apprals:-,I of cmployme nt oppormuilie:s; :1V:ailable fl'Om Ihe ASA aI 1 7~1 N SI., :"IW. Washington, O.e. 20036 Kohn, Melvin L (cd.). Crrm-Natiotlal Rl'wmh HI SonobJgy. Newbmy I'alk. Calif.: S;tge. 1989. 111is anthology int111(1L-s 17 e~says which pre~cnt com pal,:ui vc ;1I1d hi~ l.o ric ll sociological n:~eafch . Lee, ,\ [fred Mc:Clung. SocUJfogy for 1\7111111' N~w "(Irk: Oxro rd University Press. 1978. Lee. a romlc rpn:,,;delll of the AmcriC\I1 Sc..lciologtcal Associaliol1. argues Lh.1L so-ciologisL~ al'e rC5]>on.siblc a nd llceoumabl~ 10 the hig h. CSI SciClllilic ami e lhic-..II idea1.~. In hi~ view. sociologisll> musl not compromise lhese id cal~ in an e ffort to 1tCn"C lhe inLcrl'Sl.\ o f admini5triIIOrs. businCS5 leaders, pub Iishers, 0/' Ihe polilir.-:II establishmcnt. Sills. D;l\'id L., and Robe" K. ;\'1.'1'1011 (I.'(is.). Sarinl Srit!lIU Q!W/Utlllll_ New York: Macmillan, 1991. 111c r.odil. Lors lisLand CI'O.!i!l-indcx (llIol:-tlio ns fro m all L .roei;,1 he .sciellcc dbciplillC's. Smdser. I'\eil J. (cd.). f !t/III/book ofSnooiqo', Newb1ll")' Park. C.-.lif.: Sagl. 1988. 1l1l5 collection l'Xlllllin('~ the St,:ltt' of the clisciplint and \~dl;OU,~ sociologkal areas. Straus. Rogcl (cd .). U~i"g.'iMoI.oJ!J. lb)1Iid(', N.V.: Gencral liall. I ~)85. SIi'J.lIS o n'en> an iIlulllill;u in~ "iew or clillic d and applk-d .sociology.

1n",'1 l'I'ler L. fllw/tj(ul/I


J.?~.~~~....................................... . . ........... ...................................

Journals :mcl periodicals ;Ire an illlpon :1II1 reSll urcc for fr.vlewing: the t lLeSI sociological research. The rn;!jor ' sociological j{llll'na ls lhal cover all area... of the disci plinc arc th e tI mrrira" jOllntllf of S()(;iQwgy (found ed in 1895). Ammrtlll SoriolQguo1 fW ljl'lu ( 1936), C .mtadimt fu,Ij('IlJ IIf SMnitlgy mid A!llhro/Hllogy (198<1 ). CnUm1 Sonlliogy (lormerl) rh/' }1IJUfW'lf Socwlogist, 1V6!1). F/W'
fmI'm, In CrmtllH' Soriology ( 1972). 0l11fifllfl1H' &aology (1978), &Ymf hwrl$ ( 1922) . .~al P,ulkmJ ( 1951), Sllflrty (19(i!\). SoclIJlcgrrnf QuWUf/y (1960). and Sonf)iog;wf Hruil''''( I ~08).



METHODS OF SOCIOLOGICAL .................RESEARCH ... .. .......... ................ ... .. .......... ...............

WHAT lS 11-[E SCIENTlnC METHOD? lklining the Problem ~iewi ng lhe Litcr.nure Fomllila ting lhe I l ypoth C5i~ CoIlecling and AnalYling Dat:1 St:k'c ting Ihe Sample Creating Sc-.Ile5 and Indices ~:!U u ri ng Validity and Reliability Ik...eloping the Co n cl ll~ion SUPI)(Jrling IlypOlh c5CS Coll lIolling for Olher Factors III SUllIlIIlI ry: The Scie ntific Melhod RESEARCH DESIGNS FOR COu.CfING DATA

ETIlIes OF RESEARCH Case Stud ies of Ethical Co nlrO\~rsics

T C'droorn T rad e

Accidelll o r Suicid e? Ne UlralilY a nd I'olitia in Research

BOXES 2 1 Curre nl Rc!W:arch: Racial o n the Street

~ Eye WOl'k~

22 Speaking O Ul: Prcscrvi ng

Confide ntiality- One Socio logi5t'l V;'"

Observation Experi me nts Use of Existing SoUIUS


Wlwt'Vt'T wishes to serve sciena: has


Every scientific fuljilbnenl raises new quts/ions. 10 resign himself to this facl.



\'ora/Jon,' IYI9

How do l>odolob rislS use the sciell1i1ic rnelhod? How can researchers study the impact of Black d e mand.~ 1'0 1' equa l righlS 0 11 corporalc hiring and promotion po lici es? Why does the concl usio n of a sodo lub ricai sllldy in val'iably po im the way 10 new research? Wha t arc the pn lctical alld ethical challe nges lac,"-d by sociolobrisLS who wish to w nduct o bl>cn 'a tioll research? How can :.ociologists use St.'Cond:ul' me<L'iUI'es lo st ud), social phe no mc na indiR'CtJy? Why is il valuable for soc:io l ogi ~ l s 10 have a code of c thics?

H ow do socio logb.LS stud) huma n be h;wio r a nd instillltions? Is il accu rntc to conside r sociology a scie nce? Wha t ethical Sla nda rds b "-lide sociologists in conducting research? As a wolYof beginning o llr eX;:llllin:.nio ll of the prind ples a nd me thods o f s0ciological research . let liS look bdeny at al1 inle resting study of magazine atlveni '!lll cllI s. In reccllI decades, wo me n ill the United States have in aca ~ ingl y c nte red occupatio ns and careers lhal trad itionall y were resctv cd for me n. As this change in the wOl'kpl:u;c evolvcd , the media per5is\(:d ill typic.:llIy portr.lying WOl1le l1 in such traditional ro les as mothe r a nd home make r, Sociologists Pe nny Belknap a nd Wilbc rt LL"Onanl, I1 ( 199 1), d evised a study to examine whe ther tj,C mt,:dia continue to show \\'Ol11e n p ril11arily in these con\'cn-

lional role ... 'n Ick foclls was scxual " ,m,olypin!: print advertiseme nts appeari ng in 7 ncs. j l11c rc.'IlCarcll cls s l1spected that " traditional 1I1ab ral-ines (GOlxl l-l murlw/'fJ;I'g. !:J'IHJ11S n lUJl mlrd, and Till/f) would be 111 0 1e likely to poe",.1 \\'0111 (:11 in subo rdina te pO ,i l i o ll ~ ( 10 1' example, ing childlike and defe rential) than would ads mod e rn magaL.ines (&rllk'~1I S Quartnly, 1 \115., 1 1oIl;IIg SIOII,.). They exa mined approximately print advertiseme nts thal llppearc::d in 1985 of the ~ Ll'ad itio n ar and ~ modcrn " I Uelkn ap and Leona rd found tha t in a ll six mag;t7ines te ndl..'d lO show wome n in I o rdin.He positions. (11 sho uld be noted tha t SGUd , WOtS condllctl..<i ix/OIl Ms. nmg'.lLine '~::t ' lIcccpling adve rtising in 1990. in pOlrl t wom en COlllinllcd la be trc:tted as MlbOldimue ma n)' ad vertisers.) There was no substan tial c nce bet .....een the l)Ortl"a),<11 o r wome n in ",.dilio"'l :,"d modern maganne advertiscmc nts; both o f Illaga;dnes perpetuated the sexual ',~~:~~~ that has long char:lclcl; 7I..'d the Illc.'d ia's wome n. Many <]lIcHions may come to mind ,\5 sideI' this example ofsociologicoll rescarch.\Vhy,didI Bclkn ap :Hld Lco rlard use advenisemellls in ,


d,e",i",m "'1 e,,"

ing lllag:.17.ine_ ' portrayal 01oWO',~,~,~f:n;, :~;:"'~h~C:~';~~~::~ cusing o n thc ~pholOb '1l1phs n c " those thal acCOmp;U1)' articles? \\o'h~i:i researche rs choose lO study mag:.lJj nes, as lo newspa pers. tclc\isio ll. movies, o r music C iven thei r selectio n of subject mall eI', would na p a nd Leona rd have fo und mo rc

I ,


PiR, (J-"1~ Tilt; SOCJOl.(j(:;t(. u. N:N.v"..rrl\ ~

lhanges in media images ofwomcn iflh~ had comcurrel1l ad\"ertiscmcnls in ulese six maga-IUlM ",;tll prim ad\'CrUselllents from the 19709 o r t'\l'n the 19509? FITt(l.i\1! sociological researc h ("'.,I n be quite IhnughI1>r<Jvoldng. h ma), intcrcst us in many n(..'W qu, ... tions about social intcractions that require fUI' (hrl 5t ud~ , On the otJlcr hand, effective research is nnl alwa~'! dm.matic. In some cases. rather than rdislIIK .addilional questions. a study wi ll confirm pr~ IIl1ll5 bt-liclS and findings, 11t1~ chapter, building o n what was considered in I1lilpter I, will cxamine sociology as a social sei""rr. The basic principles and stages or the scic nllfir method will be described . A number of tL'C h Il1~U~ commonly used in sociological research, \lIlh a~ experimenl'!, ohscrv:uions, and surveys, will br prcclHed. Particular .m e ntion will be given to !ht' prnrtical and e thical challcnges that sociologists faH in studying human bc havior and to the dehate r.IiStd by Mmc Weber's call for ~valu c nc utrality" ill VlClai5Cience rC:\Carch . TIlc.'St themes ronn tht: core of ChapLe r 2, and thqwilt also be reflected throughout this textbook.'ver the area of sociologica l imllli l1 "hl'lhrr culture o r org-<lJ1 ila lio nal behavior, the n<lnomy or educalion - and whalc\'e r the perffJIi\-e of the socio logist-whethcr fun clionaJist, \'I'lInin, interactionist, 01' allY outer-therc is onc nudal requirement. Within the discipline of socitololn'. :tll brancJlcs of spt.:cialilatioll and all theofctkal approac hes depend on imagimu.h'C, respon~Ible Icscarch which meetS the highest scientific ,Uld tlhical standards.

Sociologist.) I)l"'l, J i/!fhap find l\'ifMt 1 .tO,mrd, 11, O,mJr..tfJ UKUtJl UD'rot)'/JHlK in print tJI/vmismJerlU a~nng in majar mtlpU"t:J ~ that Ihq rDJ/1d ht://u ulld",,'la nd t"'- IIIIOgrs
I lIal lil t mmin art lOIiW)'Wg to

ami mm


IM UlIItaJ Stoln.

likt the lypical woman or llI:tn o n lhe s treet, the "lI"lologisl is imercstcd in th e cenl.r.ll questions of tlur time. Are we lagging behind in our abili!)' tQ ked the world po pulation? Is the fa mily falling ,lllJrI? Why is thcre so much c rimc in the United \lJlcV Such issues conccrn most pcople, whelhe r u, IKlt they 11;[\,(' aOldc mic training. Howe\'cr, unhkt' the typical ci tizen , the sociologist has a lOlllruitmcnl to the use of the scic mific me thod In I/Udying society, TI1 C scielltific method is a \IMtlllatic, or8" ni7.ed K'ries of stcps that e nsures

maximum objectivity and co ns is tency in research ing a problem. Many of liS wi ll never actuall)' conduc t scicntific research. Nonethelcss, it is important that we understand thc scientific me thod , for it plays a major role in the workings or our ~iety, People in the United States are constantly being bombarded with "facts" or ~ dala." Almost dai l)', advertisers cile sUI>posedl)' scientific studies to p rove that their productS are superior, Such claims ma), be accllrate o r exaggerated. Wc can make bener evaluations or such inrormation-and will not be rooled so e;uily - if we are rami liar with the s!':lI1dards of scientific researc h. As this chaptcr will indicate, the scie ntific me thod is sU'ingem and demands that researchers adhere as stric tly as possible to its basic principles, Th e scientific me thod requires precise prepar dlion in developing useful rescarch. If investigaLOrs are not carcful . researc h data that the), collect may prove to be unacceptable for purposes or sociolog-


leal slUd)'. T he re a re five basic ste ps in lhc scic nLific me thod tha t soc i ologis t~ a nd othe r researchers rollow. T hesc lire ( I ) d efinin g til e pro ble m. (2) re-viewing lhe lile .- ure. (3) ronnu laling lhe h),pothdL esis. (4) selecting th e researc h design a nd tJlcn collect ing a nd a naly,t ing da m. a nd (5) dco.'elop ing the conclusion. An actua l exam ple will iIIustr:.lle thc .....o rk.ings o r the scie ntific method, At le:ls1 25 percent or African Ame rica ns arc now me mbe rs o r the middle class (Schae rer. 1993:233), Ye t h~ls the rclauve success o r ce rtain Blac ks inchided c nLJ), into a nd acce pta nce a mo ng the nation 's corpomte elite? How miglll socio logists 1lS(' the scientific method to sUlciy Blacks' status as corpOrdte exccuti\'es? li ow might tJle), m ove rro rn a broad question (Have Blad. executivcs been acce pted wltJlin c0'1>or:.uc ci rcles in the United States?) 10 a researchable pro blem? A sociologist's a pproac h to:'1 rt.'Seal'ch proble m is influe nced in impo rta nt ways by his or he r theore lical o rientatio n. T hus, func tionalists .....oH1d \-iew the prese nce of Blacks in lIlanageme nt positio ns as a I'e ncclion of business finns' need to atlfllct Blac k. CUStomers or clie n ts 10 ma inta in stability a nd prosperity. Conflict tJlcOriSLS would raise the issuc or toke nism, tlllesuo ni ng whe l,her a 511 1;111 number o r Afrlea ll Alnclicans wc n: being placed ill highl} visible posiuons to prO\-id (' the 1I/Jjlfl rtl ll Ct' o f change-wh ile the rest o r co.,xmltc III:tJlagell1c lll re mained Wh ite. In tcractio l1 i~ I'" wo uld fucu~ on tJ1C na tll l'C: or'iOc:i<l\ rcJalio lls bclwecn ll ll.: fe w llIack excc ulives ;\IId the ir ma ny Wh ite ("Ollll tc q.J<ln s,

Dm'toi"lf Im IIIl all/JUlI pt'fJ~illt, wrio/'Jf(UI S/I/mm Coli;'" wotulnf:d ,/

Bill(. ",",IIil~ Illm' M"K pfartd pnmnnl) 11/ hlRIII)' I'uibk jJt'r:JOnrld IlIId /wlJlu 'IIIII"ms /KJ.fh Ih(llluuj I",. IlkehbWtI of ImtilJlI( Ut Itry pvlirylllQItI"t

llli' rm1Jf1fr1l~ worM.

.... ,........... ,...l? ...... ,.....,',... ,... ,",.. " .. ,"" .. " .... ,.. "' ............................... _.~

De rmin" th e Problem
(i 1 t 'S

StCp in a ny sociological rcowarc h projecl !ltme :L~ clearly as possible wha t you hope to investigate. Dra\\~ lI g o n the C'onOic t pel'spcClivc. sociologist Sharon Collins ( 1983) had initially relied 0 11 census data to study the c mpiO)'m e nl patle rns o r more affl ue nt Blacks. Collins the n wonde red : "Did lhe progress or these individuals re presc llI a g('n uin c reslruc turingof societ), Ihat allowed fo r the clllry or Blacks into top executivc po!'ii lio ns in Wh ite-owned c0'1)Ordti ons?~ O r. instead , ML it a I " S ke n responS(: to civi l ri g ht~ prc~s llrt.'$? We re African Ame rica n cxecuth'es being placc..-d primarily ill highly \-i~ih l c per.>onnel a nd public relations posts

T he

that had liule likelihood of' leading to kt.)' poliC\" ' ilia king P OSitillllS in the cOI110 l"a tc wo l'ld ? Earlv in thei r research , ~ocio l ogisL~ faet. tht' uN01 rle\'c1oping an uper.ttio na l d d initio n of ~cb concept bt:ing studied. An uperatio'lO l defi"iti" is :UI ("x phlnalio n or an absll'Olct concep t that il; sJX" cifie e no ugh 10 allow" "escarchcr to measure thf concepl. FOI example, a socio logist intcl'cSled in stalllS migh t IIse mc m bership in excl usive social cl ubs or p rofessio na l organi1Jllio ns as <Ill opel1' liona l d clillitio n 01 high st;t IUS. A sociologist \\'00 inte nded IU e xam ine prejudice might rely on Itspo n ~c.o; 10 a series of q uestions concerning ....illillgncss 10 hire or work alo ngside me mbers orracQ] and Cthnic minOri ty groul>S, Whe never researc hers wish to .study a n amltaU


roncfpt-such as in telligence. ~ u ality, prejudice, or liberalism - they must develo p wo rkable oUItI \'alid opennional definilions, Eve n wh e n ~tudy IlIg a particular g roup of people, it is ncces.'mr), to lilo df bow the group will be d isting uished , lllUS, III hl"f5wdyofBlacks in corpor;tte manage me nt poQUtIl1~. 5ha1'o n Collins ( 1989:3 18; 1993) neede d to Ik\l"lop an operatio na l de linilion o f MlO P e xcel!' uln" She d a~ifi cd pri\'3te-st:clo r posilio ns as beI71If"high,lcvel if a person 's mltio r j o b ,'esponsibil~ im'Oh'ed pla nning Of imple me ntatio n of (ufflp;1ny poli")' decisions, Collins Opcr.lliull alilcd Ibj, ronception by examining job litles: s ubj ect~ flt'J't' considered "tOp execm ivcs if th e)' held titles \lIth as presidcnl , chief cxeculi\lc offi cer, dircctor. 1 1ft' pmidelll , a nd de pa rtme nt manager,

Rf\;ewmv the Literature


_M'M"~""""""""""""""''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' '

Ih collduui llg a review o f the l i lCI~ lIul'('- lh c

\l.ho la rly studies a nd infol'l na lion Icfi ne the pro blem undcr stlldy, cladl) f"Miblc techniques to Ut: lIsed in coll ccl.i ng data, Jud diminate o r reduce 1111: nurnbc r or <il'oida bl c ml~cs 1I1C) make, TIlLl.s. in ad d ition to dl"IWi llS nn her Oldier I'cse;lrch , which rel ied 0 11 ccn:->us d.l1i1 ,Sharon Collins l'cviewe,"i plivc studict> ut lullt'ge-WlIcated Afl'ic:m Americans a nd gave spc".&I.illentioo to studics or African Am e rica n busifM'YI t'xecuUVe8 and pro f~ i onal s, Ullti l rathc l' rc\fll tl~, most Blacks who havc :tc hicved grcat Slll'Less b.t.t done so ill prol'cssions slILh :.t.s IdW and Illcd i\1IIl: m in the govcrnment sector, llle corporatc 1I11J1d h a.~ not bee n so open to Rlac k CXCl: llIj\'CS, ~I that underscores the importance uf studies ....cb <b Coll ins's,


fo~~~s..!:h..~. .~Y.!'.O.~~~.;';.....


Ahtr rc\icwing earlier research concem ing Black r.:lnU CS and dr.lwing upo n the contributio ns of !I\' 1OOological th(."Qrists. the n:se:trche r lIlay develop All InlUiti..-e guess about the !'(:htl.iollsh ip between O dema nds fo r equal rig hts a nd corpor:u c hirI.Kk tnlJ and promo tio n policies, Such a spec ulat.iw WletDt'nt about the rela uonsh ip betwccn two 0 1 ' ru~1ft factors is called a

A hypothesis esscn ually tells us \\'hat wc arc look ing fo r in o u r ,'csearch , In order 10 be mean in gfll l, a hYPOlhcsis m ust be testabl e; tha t is, il must be capahle uf being evalua tcd, The llt:.-tIement "God cxiSl:" may 01' may nOI be t.rue; it dearly cannol be SciClllific;'ll1y confinncd, A resea l'ch hypo thesis must a lso be reasonably specific . "Young people haw more fun" a nd M rida is oicer tha n CalifOl'llia M rt' Flo a .s ... ,teme llls tha t hick the ki nd of precisio n that socio logists n eed in orde r 10 col1ccl suita ble da t<l, As pa rt of a stud)' 01' Afrit:a n Americans in exec, mh'c positions, onc hypollu!sis m iglH 1Jc: " In I'l'~pol1 ~e lU 1.\1 <lC'k demands for equal rights, curporate hiri ng a nd prumotio n politics pl.lced 1\1.II.. k executh'cs I>rimaril)' in highly \-lsiblc pel'Wllltd .lI ul pu blic "da tio ns poSts, M In rUl lllulaling a h ypothc."sis, we do 11 0 1 imply th.1t it is curn :.c t, Wc mere ly suggest tha t iI is ",'orth)' o f stud)'. U'lat Ult' hypothesis should Ix: scie mifica ll)' tesu,d a nd ('onfirmL><I, rt.... fitt ed , o r n:vlscd , d epending o n tht:' o utcom e of thl! stud)" A hypothesis usua lly states how o nc aspect ofhu, ma n beha"ior inn lle nces o r alJ'cClS anolher, T hese aspects or fa ctors arc call ed V(H1 f1 b{.e,\', A v ariable i~ a measur. .tblt. trai t or cha racte ristic Ihat is ... ubjecl tu challgt. undc r different cond itio ns, Income , I't."ligio n , occu pa tio n, and gendc,' ca n a ll be vari.tblcs in a Sllld)" In til t: hypo tllt.'sis l>I'esclltc d abovc. there ar(: rwo \I'..ll'ia blcs: M Black dem'lllds 101' t.q ual right.-." a nd Mcorporillc hiri ng and prolllntion policies, In dc\'cloping hypotheses, socio logists a ttc mpt 10 CXI)l:li n or acco unt fo r t.he rdalionship betwecn \WI) 01' lIIore variables, If one \" ;ari:lhle is h),pOthcsi7cd 10 cau ...e or intluc nce a no ther o m" social scientist!. ca ll the lirst v,uiablc the indept',.dent v ariable, T he second is terllled the depe1ldent v ariable because it is be lie\'ed to be influe nced by the indepe ndcllt v;.tria ble , In her study o r Black executi\les, Collins was intc rested in the clTec t that a pa l1.icula l' vdri a ble ( BI;:lck de ma nds ro r cqual ,i gllls) might have o n corpom te hiring a nd promotio n po lic ies, As thl' ca usal o r influe ncing chamctcrislic. M Black dt.... Olllnds ro r equa l righ ts~ is the in de pe nde llt \~driabl c, The \oariablc lhat Collins was trying to expla in. "cor pOl,He hi ri ng a nd prom o tion po1i cies, ~ is the d(', pende nt variable , According 10 the hY POlhcsi... Black de ma nds 1'01 ' e q ual right!! ha\'e a direct inOuc nce o n cOI'J>Or.tlt'

(JI!tYrEH 1 MFI'I{()IJS OF 'iCCl0/ ()(,oILAI HL'ilARf'JI

nGURE 2 1


8Iod< domand. ""

Oopo <lo, """""'"


"",,"of_ into societ)'

, ---t

LloIhoodof .......

for quiz

TIIM spent prepc;wlng _ _"',~ Performance Ofl qui%. _ _""'~ likelihood of children'~ enrolling in college
1111 11II1I1Jr1JlIrlll, illriabl, h 1t)'1llilhfSiurf
( (Ill"

cXl mplc, data indica te that wo rking m Ol he rs ar~ .' ma rc likely 10 have ddinquc nt children than at! mOlhers who do no t work o utside the ho me. llUl correl"liOIl is aCluall y a ltTsed by a third V''driable family income, Lowcr<lass ho useho lds arc nlOft likely 10 h;n c a full 'lime ...:od u ng mo the r; al tht same lime. rcpo rt(.'(1 t'flle of d l.:linq uc ncy :lit highc r in this class ,hiUl in o the r t.'Cono mic ICl' Conseque ntly. \\'hile h:wing a mo ther who ",o rb o u tside the ho me is correlated with delinquency does no t cti tist d elinq ue ncy. Socio logists seel r, ide nt iry the c.lusOII link Oct\\'ccn variables: dl.i!o causal link is gene rally adv' lI1ct.'CI by ,csc:.trchen ill their hypo lhcsc!S.

Porentl' income

~.~.~~~~~,g.,~~~..~.~~r.~.~~~. .~.~.~.~., ................", _

In o rd er LO test a hypo thesis and determine ir it ~ su pport ed 0 " rertTI cd . resc:lI'chc rs nced to colle(! info r ma ljo n . To do so, thcy m ust e m ploy onc oftht researc h d esigns descl'ibed I;uer in the chapl.el'. TIll' r esearch design guides tJlelll in collecti ng and;m. alYljng data. Selecting the Sample In most studics, social $Co emis ts IIl USI Qlrcfully ~e k'Ct \\ hat is known as a so. piI'. A repruentative sa mple is a seleclion from. larger popUlatio n that is st:llislicall), fou nd to bel\'P' icaJ o r that populatio n. The t'e a rc ma n)' kinds sampl(.'s. of .... hich the r,wriom Mlmph is frequent!t lISed by social 'iciCllt ists. Fo r it random santpk, C\rery member o r an e nt ir(, populatio n being studk d has tlle smne c halice o f being selected, By using ~ JX'Ci'lli led ampling 1t.'Chniques, SI o log-ists do no t need to quc'itioll e\'eryone in a pop uI;.uio n in Older to gcne mlil.c, Thus, ir researchm wantt."(lto e 'lO a lninc the opinions o r pe ople lisled 11 ;1 city directo r}' (a hoo k thai , unlike lhe lelcphont director)', list'i a ll ho use holds), lhey mig ht contae! evc ry tc llIh or fifti eth o r hund l'(.-dth name listed 111is wou ld co nstitut e a mndom ~ a m pl e , Jf Sharon Co ll ins had decided to condlh:t a ~ur vcy o r !\lacks .,clvi ng as to p c'IOcc ulivcs in co rpora. lio ns across lhe nill'd Slates. she would have faced th e proble m o r ho w to develop a ll llpproprialC: plc or Black cxecUl h'e'i, Such a S<illlplc would ha\'!' been esscTllial. since the rlilTIcully or qUeslioRiRl. ,,/I Black c x(.'Cuti\'t."S wo uld have bee n lo nnidablt Ilowt."\cr. Collin5 chosc ins tead to focus o n a sl113!ld

or ;1I./11If'lIr, (lIIot"" ,"mub//'

/I" rf/I'tl 01 (I ll i ,uJqxtuJ nll

(11 dt1Jr,u/n'IIII./l'w b/loJ. Cnu.t(ll llJglf


'I(mflb/, (oj/", 1iJ.."K'IfIIItI I" IM symbol

'IO} on (I r/rpf'IIdlll l Vllnnb/r tgt1Im111J

y) UY/I'Tl x IlUlb to)'. For nwllllll,. JlnfmO who al/,IId lhurch "/:,,11111\ ('I.) art morr bled)' tu nm.'r (hildfM whu a" 'Tlkrr (h llrchflNfl

()). Notlif' Ihlll Ihi' fin' /wo /NIin

1/(UUlu,.. a" tolv" froM



of nlmuiy

Of" Intlboolr.

hiring a nd p romotion polici('"5. A<; sho wl1 in Figu re 2 1. crI/ISo /logic il1\ o !\'C'i lhc I'c l a tio n ~ hip oclween a condit ion o r variable aucl a panicular conse(llIc nce, ,"ith OTl(' e\'('I1\ leading to the Qlhel". Under ca usa l logic. the dcgr(.(' of ilH(. gr.llion into so' ' ciety may ht>dirC<'tly re!:l led 10 01 prod uce a g,'eate r ' likelihood or sllidde (re rer back to Our khcim's study of suicide in Chapler I). Si milal'l)'. the lime stude nLS spe nd r~vi ewing mate ria l fo r a q uiz ilia), he d irectly rdat ed tu 0 1 pi od llce a greate r Iikeli hood 0 1 gClling a high SCOIc on Ihe quiz, A correlatiOll ('x is," whc lI a change in o ne variable coincid cs with .. change in 11\(.' o lhcl'. Correlalio ns .u c an indica lion that Qlu...:Ui l y IIlfl:W be present; thc) d o nnt ne("c<;\ilril) indiQlte CAuS<lIio n , Fo r

" IHTO.'''' rllJ: SOCiOI.OCJ(;Af ,,,,:R.V'f:'r.'1II1


W1;tll)(ll'ul:ilion: African Ameri{.'anS serving as top en Wl1ite-0\~nt:d corporations in tht'! UUC".4W' .Ifea. Slill, sht: had to lind a \\~dy of idcl1l-i"1nK ht'1 \ll l~(.'ClS, 101 there W nu readily ava ilable ',iS btlllll\LIl It c;xccmh'cs in Ih e region. (ullill~ (1989:!H8-319) !ilUdied cOlporate listm~ oUld identified 52 of the largesl fil'n15 in C.hll.i~O. She lhe n asked people familiar with the lil\\ torporale community lO name African Amer...... u I'x('(ut,iveii in Ihese firms. Col1ins spoke 10 illinllllolllb ill these compan-ies to sce which BlaC'k

under study. A \-,did ILl casure of .....ork.el's' producti\'ity ""ould accu l":ltcly indicate how much lht,), had

qon'Cd as lOp cxccutivC!I, lmd also ;L~kcd in her study to refe r her la other inlpurL,", 1\!,II: k manage rs. She fOllnd that almost uQl.t!Jlnl or the 52 linlls lacked even 011e Black CIIlpin.,o:c' \\110 mct her operational ddinitjon of Mtop nn:IUI\t', Nevertheless, Collins idelllified ~7 I\l.&. k, I\'ho qualified as lOp executives. Between M~, \H86 and January 1987 she w..ts able to interlMI 7ti of these men and women . Gene rally, re-tc'itr(hel'S are u nable to inlet'vicw as high a pt'oI"lflttltl ura mrgel population as Collins did.


produced over a specified period of lime. Si milarly, in the stud y of' Rlac k excclltives, Collins used genera lly accepted bll.~in c~~ standards to identify tn:UIII' corpomtions. Ilad she included interviews \\'il.h Blac k executivcs in charitable orgalli7.atiollS and govt'l'luncm agencies-or with African American!> .....110 0\\,11 small busineSSt. S- her research ",'ould lad., ' vlIlidityas an examination of corponHc bchavior. Reliability rerers to the eXU.'nl la which a measllre provides consistent l't:5uits. A reliable measu re of wo rkers' productivity would lead 10 thc s;un c resulL~ cven when used by different researc/wrs. The Chicago study provides c1et:tiled inlilnn:lliull wnccming tbe rc:st:at'ch met.hods that Collins used . Ihe rd))' allowing other social sdelllislS 10 test the conclusions in o ther locale~ (or to repeat the ~ l\Id ~ in C hicago at a later date).

. _." ........ 11:...... 1:': .......... _.................. _ ............................... __ .. _ ,._.... .

Develooinp' th c Conclusion

Ctndng Scales and Indices It is relati\'ely simple lull\l'J:mrt certain c haracterislics slatistically, slIch ,l\ lel\'1 of education, income, and size of:l communit~_ IlowC\er. it is far morc difficu lt to measure .lllltudn arId belieJ:'i such as 1>''1triotisn1, respect. and !tMt-r.uU'('. Sociologists create S(.-:.lIc!> in o rder to :u\C1II Il'ptrts or social behavior that I'ecluirc jtldgrtItU~ "1 subject ive cV"<ilumions. The sca le a nd ilUlfX ,li e indicators of attitudes, behavior, ami
ch..lDClCristics of people or o'1.",ni7.alions. " '!faIe or index typically uses a .se ries 01" (luesUIII\\

ScielJliJic sllldie. including those conchibed by SOCiologists, do not :urn lO answer all the questions that C<lll be raised abollt a particu l:.r ~lIbjt:cl. The refore , the conclllsiun of a rese;u'c h study r'c presctl\s buth :m end and a beginning. " tcrrninlllcs a 51'('" cific phase of' the invcstigation , bllt il shou ld also generate ideas for rutllre study (sce Figure 2-2 on page 38). 111is is lrue of the research on Black executives cond uCled by $hal'On Collins. \\'h ich t~ ,i "ecl imlx)I'lnnl <llIcstioll'i both about job ~egreg: iti o n in corpor.uiolls and the \\'<1)' in which certain e mployment gains by Blac ks might Icsscn the pn'ssu re for
rurther initiauws 10 assist minorities. Sociolog ic"l studics do not "lwa)'5 genera le data that support the original hypothesis. In m:rny instances, :t hypothesis is 1'(.... fUled . a nd resc:trchcrs lUus t refonllulate their ('011c1usions. Unexpccted resullS may also lead sociologists to reexamine their methodology ;:mrl make c hanges in th e research design. In the surely disc ussed aoo\'e, ho",'e\'er, the data supponed Ihe hypothesis: in I'esponsc to Black. demands for' eq ual riglus, corpo rate hiring ,lI1d promOlion policies in Lhe Chicago area had indeed p"lced Black execlItive~ primarily in highly visible personnel and public relatio ns pos ts. Supporting Hypotheses

to measure attitudes, Iulowlcdge of facts.

Objects. or bchavior. For exam ple, socio loKU,l, might M ull to learn nOt o nly whether responritnt} f:wor a constitutional amendment allowiug ,'r in public schools but abo how knowledge"hie' Iht'Y are about dilTerelll al!enmti\'es suc h a_ a 'i \t!cnt time" for prayer or Cl daily ecumenical slnu:.. ... mrm read by a teacher. In this type of situatio n , soClOII'I)..'lllll can develop a scale to measure citi zens' J ... .I!'\'ness of the debate over K hool pt7l)'c r.


r.a.ring VaJidity and Reliability The scientific

1l1l'lh~xI requires that research rcstJlt~ be hoth \"dlid J.lul r~li"ble. Validity refers 10 the degree to which j IIItJSure or scale Inll)' reflects the phenomenon


(;1I11J" "",.H 2 MIiI'llO().' Of SUCJOI.(JC/CJ1 1.

F1G URE 2-2

Th e Scie1ltific Method

~ ~

OoIiM Iho probl.m

Review !he literolure

Formulate the hypothesis

Select meorch desisn Collod ,,.j ~ dolo




The scientific meth(J(/ allollls sociologiJ/s
to ol1itaiwly and logimlly (VaIU(lle the faclS coUtctd.. This U11I lead UJ jurthn ithas for socifJiogical research.

Controlling for Other Factors The characteristiC'! of Black executives are considered additional \'aria bies used in lhe study, and they are known as am trol variables, A control variable is a factor held conSlant \.0 test the relative impact of the inde pendent variable, If researchers wanted to know how adulu in the United States fee l about. restrictions o n smok ing in public places. they would probably altemp! [Q use a respondent's smoking behavior as a con1J'0 1 variable. Consequently, the researchers would compile separate sr.atistics o n haw smakers and nonsmokers feel abaul. antismaking reb>"lliations, By use of a control vaJiable, the ~ time at which Black execu tives entered the labor force," CoUiru found support far U1C view that corporate hiringand pl"Omotion policies were signifi canuy influenced by Blacks' demands for eq ual lights. As Figure 2-~ i~ luslr.ltcs, respondents who e ntered the labor fom before 1965 (tile high point of the Black civil righu movement) were about equally likely to have found their fi rst jobs in government or in lhe private sect.or, By contrast, tllC vast majoriry (70 percent) ti African American executives who entered the labor fo rce after 1965 10und in itial employment in the private secto r. These data suggest that traditional COf' porate resistance to t.he hiring of Black managen began 10 decline in response to the civil rights mO\tmeOl of the 19605 (Collins, 1989:3 19-324). Coilins ( 1989:3 17) concludes U13t Blacks' demand! for civil rights created a Black managerial elitc {}u( was highly visible, yet was "administratively mar ginal " and ~eco nami cally vulnerable," In her view, the tracking of Black execut.ives into mcially linktd jobs in such areas as affinnativc actjon and urbaa affairs may reduce the likelihood of their advanc, ing into mainstream lOp management posts, Moll' over, in an era of growing economic lIn certain~ and widespread corporate mergers and takCQ\<m African American 1~13nage rs in personnel and public relations areas may find themselves the victim! of staff r<. "<illctio ns<

Coilins found that 66 pe rcent of lhe African American executives she interviewed had been u-acked imo corporate j obs focusing on the hand ling of ~ Bl ack problems" or on dealings with a specifically Black consumer markct. The vaSt ma jorily of these execulives held jobs involved with al' finnalivc action and urban affairs. In discussing the limilatio ns o n Black managers, one executive. who had a mastcr's degree and fo ur years o f experience in engineedng when he was shifted to an affirmative action POSt, observcd:
When they would send me 1 some of those confer0 ences about affirmati ve action . . . you'd walk in and Lhere would be a roo m full of blacks . . .. It was a Icrrible misuse al that time of some black ta.lem . . .

~._~~.~ r.: ~,~.,~~~.!:.~.~.~..~.!:.~.~~......._

Let us b riefly su mmarize the process of t.he scientific method through a review of the examplr. Shamn Collins difilled a problem (ule relatiomhJp between Black civil rights protests and corporal(

(Colli ns, 1989:329),

PART ON1-; 'filE SOC/OI.OCICIII. PI-:/lSn;crfYF.

"If.d ueta,ivef

ncUIE 2J /"j,jol E",ploy",e",




ible personnel and publ ic relatio ns posu"). Collins identified a largel pop.ulatio n or Black executives in Chicago firms and then roil1td and (ltUlly-..ed lhe data. Finally, she tll'1N.l~ tJ amdusion: Black ac" tivis m did inOue nce corporale decision nmkingand lead to the creation or:1 highly visible (and yt!l t.'Cono mically vulnerable) Black managerial elilc. Th us, thro ugh the systematic. 0l'gani7.ed applic-nion of < the scientifi c method. Ihis researchcr sllldied a contemporary sociaJ issue and ge.ner.n ed meaningful findin gs of interest to sociologists, civil righ l'i leaders, busint.'SS ext.Cutives, and govcrnmclU policy' makcl'!l.


....._ ...

After 1965
Black bu.iMli8S .4%


,.. -. . . . 'L

An imporlant aspect of !lod olo~..i ClII research is deciding how data sho uld be collected . A "esearch " des;gr. is a d et.. liled plan o r method ror ob taining data scientifically. Sek'Clio n o f a research d esign is a critic,,1 sl,e p ro r sociologist.'! and requires cre-Ali\' ity and ingenuity. This cho ice will directly inOuence both the cost o r Ihe p roj ect and the amo unt o f time need ed to collcct the resul ts of the research. Socio l ~ l.'i rt.'gularly usc sUlv eys, obscr'V"dtio n, exrjs perimenl.:!. and existing sources to generatc d ata fo r their research. In her sludy o f Black executives, Shal'o n Coll ins relied o n in lclvie~'s, which are a co mmo n rOiTn o r s ur;cy research.

a-<I on So CulUm., I98'J SJO.

S,fort 196.5. i1M(Jr auuhllJ

IQ Imw jfllmd



C/tirogrJ arM a/JotJ' tquaUJ lilrHy 'IIiir firs' jobs i'l
1111' JlrilHlI'- SWr.

gvtJt711",nll fir IN

1/01lJellI'r. I'Xf'(!l/iva II.I}W nlln'ttII Ju

Inbor /(Jm: ajlt/' 196.5 Ql!mlllielm i ngty bI'grl n l li rir (tlrtt:rS in tile CIJY'fXJr'fI~
world .

mplo)'mcnt po licies). She mnt:wi'd the litl'ralun (other studies or Black executives) and fo rmulalM. .ltTf1ot1Iesis (M response 1 Black demands ror In ,0 ttjtW rights, corpoml,e hiring and pro mo tio n policies placed Black ex(:c utives primarily in highly vis-

Almost alJ o r us hll\'e rc~pond l.'rl to sunleys o f one kind o r anothe r. We ma)' have been asked what kind of detergent we lIse, which presidentiaJ candidate we intend to V Ole fo r, or what o ur favorile television program is. A surv ey is a study. generally in the fo rm of an iruelv iew o r questionnaire, which provides sociologists wilh info rmation concerning how peo ple think and acl. Amo ng o ur natio n's bcstkno wn surveys of opinion are the Gallup poll and lhe HalTis poll. As anyone who W'd l Cht.'s lhe news during presidential cmnpaigns knows, these polls have become an impon aru pari o r political life. When you think of survcys. you may remember many "person o n the street" imer;ic"'5 on locallelevision news shows. While such imcrviews can be



al a certain location . "nUls. such samples call he biased in fa\'ol" of commuters, middk 'dass sho ppers. or fa ctory worke rs, depending o n which st.reet or area the newspeoplc select. Second, television illte rviews lC lld la a u raet o lltgoing people who art
willing to appear on the air, while they fright.en al'o'a) others who may feel intimidated by a camcrd. A sur vey must be b ased 0 11 precise. rcPI"CScllIa ti\'c 5a1llpHng if it is to ge nuinely n:nect a broad range of the populalion . In prepruing to conduct a SlIlVCy. sociologisu muSI exercise b'Tt.."31 care in the wording of qu~ lio ns (see Table 2-1). A .11 effective survey question musl be simple a nd clear enough for people to un d ersumd iI. 11 musl also be specific enough '>0 Ihal there a re no problems in inu~'1) re Lin g the resul(!. Even qucHions IJmt arc less structured (What do you think of programming on cducatiorml Icle\'~ sio n?) must be c<ln'full y phrased in o rde r 10 solicit the ITpe of informatio n d esire d . Surveys can be indispensable sources of infonn a tion, but o nl y if the sampling is done properly and the questions art worded accu rately. 1111!rC are two main fo rms 01 surveys: the inttr vitw and the questiomwire. Each of these fornu of survey research has its own advantages. An in. lClVicwcr can obtain a high response I'~H C because people find it more difficult to lurn down a per sonal n.qucst for an imclvicw than La Ih row a\\<l1 a wriuen questio nnaire. In additio n, a skillrul if}tcrviewer ca n go beyo nd WTinen questions and


hr/V/! !JilQum Ihat I/M gelldf'f (or rau) ()f tIlL tn/(lrrhn- cml haw fHl
011 5U~



hig hl y clllcnaining. they a re not necessarily an aC'cur.u,e indication of public opi nion. First, they refl ect lhe opinions of only those people who a ppear




1 1

1'''' liT ON} Till:. .'>t1CI()I.JX;ICAL '''';JI.'iJ'ITII "'.

Peopl, may 1'101 question.




Do you Fovor SaYernment program which er.cauras,s families la Improve inner.clty housing' Did your Il'IOIher ever work for pay outside the home'

S/Qdd ~ be possible for woman 10 obtoin a legal

Too general


Should it be poulble for woman 10 abtoin legal abortion If there is a strong chonce of $8riovs defect in her baby' If Jhe become p'I!gnont

Do ~ favor making it legal for
Double-borreled [two que$lionl in

rewh 01 rope'

orJ Ynak, marijual1Cl?

le.,..or-olds to drink liquor


Do you Iovor making it legol for 1s.yeor.old~ 10 drink liquor? Do you fovor making I. legal for 1 Q.yeoroOlds 10 smoke morl[uono'l

Don't you rhrnk rhot the p"n b sIonled ond thot we should ""nnt whatever it soys'l

6io ~

question; leads people toward a particular respan$8

Would you ICy thot you hove great deal of wn~dence, 50tne confidence, or very littl, wnlklence In !he preu'l
Sotiologul.J I,), 10 phmv q"tsIW",


for a subj(.'Ci's unde rlying feelings and rea

(fUrfi'({1 ~fI 11101 ,lld' U~1f




\Om. On the olher' hand . qucsuonnaircs have Lhe J,kolnragc of being ciIClIPCr. esp ecially whe n large 'lJmpl~'S used. The gender (or race) of tJle researcher can have m impacl on SUI'VC)' d:ua. In 1990. lhe E. gleton 111.... Wlote of Po liLics a l RUlgcrs U niversilY con firmed that \\omen were mo rt' likely 10 take Slrong ~ pro
choitc- posiLions when questio n ed by a woman the issu e of abo rtio n . For exampl e, 84 percnll of women interviewed hy anolhe l' woman agrrtd that the d ecisio n 10 have a n abortion is a pm"Jlc matter that should be le n to lhe .....o num to deride without government intervention . Uy con .. Ir.J.M, only 64 percent of women inlc l'Vlc.....(.-d by a man look lhe same positio n. Men's responses ~llIcd unaITected by the gender o f the resca rch e l'. \lmilady. people's res po nses 10 questions abou l IMllHing discri m inalion may be influenced by the r.ltul and e thnic background of the il1lc l'\~ewer. The findings of lhe E:lgletoll Instilute sllldy unmore the careful all e ntioll tha t sociologists Il l1lSt Kilt' IQ all cJe m ents o f the research d esib'll (Morill,

""~I."d"l/(mdmg 11/1 111t~ ptJl1 1 Ill/ 1)

I} a ql,ulioll


w()rdtli (m' maY/I). IlIe rl!.l "/I.I fire IIMkJS fill' tll/' r/!Sfflrchn),

Wht.!11 an investigator collects info rmalio n lhro ugh direcl pal'rjc ipation in ;llld obscn 'alion of a g roup. tribe, or community under study, he o r she is CIlg;lgcd in observatiml . This me thod allows ..ociologisl.'i to examine cert... in behaviors and conlllllmi . lies lhal could n ot be investigaled lhrollgh o lher research lechniques. In some cases, the sociologist aeLUally Mjoins~ :21 groul> ror a period of time 10 gCI an accul1It e sense o f ho\\' it o pe ra tes. 111is is calk.>(1
/mrliri/)(mf ohSf:nl(lliOIl.

1 'l9O).

Dllrin g the late I 930s. in :l d :assic example of parlicip'U11 o bservatio n , WilIiam F. Whyte movt.>(1 ilUo a 10l'o'-income Italian Ilcighborhood in Bosl.on. For nearly fo ur years, he was a me mber of the social cir cle of Mcom er boys" ,h .. , h e d escribes in Slrttt OJrner Society, WhYle revca lc..>d h is ide ntity to lhese men

OIAn"'..J1 2 MJo~rIlO/)S (Jp SOCIOl.(){UCAI ftESI::.-\HClI

1\11n1 (11/ 11lvtSilgfl/OI wlkds /II/~ through dttr'Cf p(lItlnpaflOIl ill a"d

.:if n group.
Vll' 1$



wmmlllllf). hl' or

"'1."'I,'f'fi m

obselv.ation .

S/WIIIII m'l' fI

1\6fl'l7t SlItlWfl.

flI/1II,1J1Qfi'b't' lnllngm


and joined ill their conversations, buwling, and olher leiSlIre-ti me activil.ics, His goal ' .... to gain dS gre:ller insight into U1C communit), that ulesc men had established, A.~ Wh)'tt: ( 1981 :303) listcncd to Doe, the leader of the groul}, he ~ l eal1led the an~WCr.I to questions I would Iltll cven have had the se nse to ask if I had been get ling my iJllonnauon solcly till an intclvicwing basis, ~ WhylC's "'o rk was especially \'al uable, since, at Ihe time, LII(: academic world had linle dircct kno",rlcclge of Ill(' pOOl' and tended 1.0 I'd)' for information on the records of social service agencies, hospitals, and courts (Adler elal..I992). The initial challenge that WhylC faced-and that each obscl""cr must encounter if he or she acwall) panicip"lcS in the group under st udy-W"dS 10 gain acceptance imo an unfami li:u' ~r...uup. It is no si mplc malleI' for a collegc. trained sociologisl lO win ... the trust of a religious cult, a rOll th w<mg. it poor Appalachian curnmunity, 01' skid row residents. It requires iI great deal of patie nce ami a ll acccpting, nOlllhreatcn ing type of person, Intercstingly. as we saw earlicr (once-ming SUf"\C)'S. the gcnder of U1C rcsearcher o m be 3 factor i.1l th e success of an obsef"\'ation study. Sociologist Te rry Mil.l"ahi (1986: 185) nOI,cs thal fcmale sociologislS swdying predominantly lI1ale environmcnts can find il difficult 10 dcvelop the coopcration and trllst l1ec c ....;;.1.11 for

cfTcClh'c ob..,crv.nion. In her view, more attention mUSI be given 10 the impact of genclel of the datlgath('I'ing process ilsdf. Observcrs immedi<ttely lace: another qucstion which has bolh pnlclical and clhical illlpliclltion'! 10 whom (if anyone) should they reveal lhe ultimatC' purpose ollheir obselvJ.lions? In our societ), many people resent the feeling or being MSlLldied." Thu.,. ir a group fi'f!.{ the researcil('r as :111 ~olltsider' and an o bscl,'cr-rather than as a mcmber or the group-its members may feel UIIC:lsy alld hide many thuughts and emolions. 011 lhc other hand. iflh~ rc:searcller disguises his 1)1" hcr identity or purpo'\{:, Ihe n th~ group has added a p:I\'lidpanl (and observer) "ho is being somewhal dishonesl. This may .....e ll ciistOl'I the group prnccss. Moreo\cr, it i, 1I0l cas}' to maim;lin Lhis l)1lc ur lI'Ia.sC:llIcrddc ror weeks 01' months while attcmpting 1 get to knOll ,0
s tl' lllgel1!.

Observation is. in addition, a moSL lirne<ol\' suming I'IlcLlwd of reseal"c h . Systematic and thoro ough oi.>senmions arc essenlial; the sociologist C'.u r not simply M drop b( the bowling alley 01' strt COl'IIer c\'ery few wt:cks, Ln slcad , the rescilrcher rnal havc lO wail patiently for a particularly nOleworthl or dramalic e\'cnl. And in some instances. tht deeper meaning" ora seemingly Irivial imeracuoo Illay becomc c1C;II' IO the o bst'lyc r on I)' afler month>



1/."" rW.1fnfllrf AmmCalfS (IIfd II'hit,..,
111""/1(1 '111 thl ffr1 III If!Cially mlU(i

~"'11l1''I.~\1 El/ft.1!

/11 hI.) IJooh Slfeelwise, Andmon (19YO:

UtJ-12/J tI')mlx.ti Ihf ([(l'yl(H/.ay /11ItII'fl'mlH III OOsnlrM "' adjoining





Tt/1nl/I., I'll/oK" anti Nortit/oll. An """,,. ~TI/nIIfIlj((llly rtrordrd soOlIl !Jr..

. "" "'I Ihr ltrHt; j" I/IU

t-; I"






1\1"/6 mam/aill (lis /JIodu through .e-y loorir.

". d ItllUoU:

IMt<; percl:il'(" whites as \lr h~ti l c to them in public.

DiJah A I1dmml.

-sOllle blacks ,Ire \"(:1 impn\ed 10 1

lind ,I ",hile pel'Mlll who holds Ihe;l than is l1orln'll oILcord il lS to Ihe rul~ o f the public sphere. As one middle,aged "'hilt' female ft'sidellt COrlHlICIllCd:
eyt~ 101l~er

TIIC\ pal allc.nliOIl 10

vi 11t'

the al110Unl contilCI gilcn. In gcneml, bl.... k mald gel far I cs.~ timc ill this Ir(oIfrl than do ....'hile males. Whites I~nd not 10 "hold- the eyes of a

It is more common Ill, bl.lLk and "hiLe Slr.l. nge~ to QI("I r,llil olher's e}l'S for onl} ;1 JCII 'It'fOnm, and lhell to ale n their J('IIt ahnlpll). SUlh !J.e lmviol seems lu ~\. "I ,un :lWHre uf' your pn!;rltll.: ;UH! rlu more. Wt)1llcn C~pl:' 1~,lh kel Ih,ll I'ye Ulnt;lCt in\i te~ 1/II"'$11l:'d ;l(h'allns. bu t sonle whill' '''~T' 1r\"llh~ same ;m<! wanl 10 be '~JI ~hnUl "h.1I they inlend. This

I~.~ 1.,1)("0011 .


(". ,\Irk t\ ;l " .. ) to maintain dis.. r~llCl ol,liol) fOl' ,safet) and social pwpt...eJ. Consi~len, wil..h thh.

I.hi~ nlonlin~. I ";IW;I [bl:ll k) )\uy wllcu I \\'1:11 1 o\'el" to Mr. Chuw's [(j gel sollle milk:ll 7:15. Vuu alw .. )~ greet I)(:opk )011 iot'e :11 ; :15. and II()()ked at hllll ;Ind 'llIik'{l AJ ld he said ~ Ue ll (l - 01' ~Good morn ing" o r '>Olnethillg I ) Illile d a,pin. It 1\'a~ clear Ih,11 ht

MlIny jX.'Oplc, particularlv I.h(tSe who sce I.hem~hcs .IS 11I0re eco. numicallr prhilcged Ihlln olheN in tltc commltnllY, art' carcful nOI IU let the ir eyes Slmr, in ol'(\cr 1.0 In'oid :1lI 111lcomfoTttb1c SiW:tUOll. ASlhcy walk down tJ1C street they pretl'nd not to see other pcdL'lIll'ianj, or They look right at the m withuILt speak. ing, a bch;l\ior mall y blacks find 01: Icusi\c. ~IQrcO\'er, whites of lile Village "I"tell sco .....1 to kCI'1l } outtg hlacks at ,\ social ,ll1d phrsical di~llIl1 cc. As llwy \'emurc OUI (Ill Ihe strcl'IS of Ihe Village :lnd, 10 a le~sel l'xtcnt. of Northton, ther ma y planl Ihis luok on t.heir lilfCS 10 "~tr(1 ofT oth, t:rs ,,ho migh t mean them hanu. Scowling by whi/{'S may he COIl1parl'!! TO grinning b) bl;lCks a~ a coping Slralt'g)'. At linh!S nwmbcN of either grou p make such 1 :lcC<l wi th liltle regard ror cirnUlhtanCl'S, ,IS if rhey wefe drl'ss\l1~ for in, clerllCTlI ..... c;)r hcr. BUI on lile Village SHects it does not al"~I~s SlOrm. and suclt overco,lIS rcpd Iltt sUllshine as well 'IS the I';.UIL. flllStrollin,l( nmu)' :IUcmpLS at '>I)()ntancoll~ human communication.

,hi, as

s urpli~ing.

1111t\Jdy. Finally, for lhis method to be cncctivc, lhe '.cllil)llIgist must kcep del<lilcd records of c\'enb and


- n oLhing~

seelll!> to be h:t l>-

{lb"c"'alion rescllrch poses Olhe . complex c ha lIt'ugt"lIOl the iu\'cstig-oI l.ur. Soc i ologi~lS 11\\1.'1 1 bc able IU 1011\ ulldct'5land what they arc observing. In a "I1'IC, Ihen, researchers such as Willi:llll F Wh ylC

or Iijah AlIder'otl ()ce Box 2~1 ) l1lust Icarn 10 sec thc world as Ihe !{roup sees it in order 10 full), comp re hend tilt' evcn ts taking place around tJ ICIll. This raiseS:l dc li<"llt' qucstion regardi n g the clTeet or tlte g roup UIl the obscn'cl'-:mcl lhe obser\'cl on the g rou p. fhe ~oelo l ogist mllSI re tain a ("cl"tain lewd of de ladllncl1l 11'0111 Ihe group undel ~Iudy, e\ocn ;lS he or ,Iw t.r ic~ to unc!ct-"l.and how !l1I'mb!' !':; feCI.


If the resea rch is LO be successful , the observer 0 111not a llow lhe dosc associa tions o r even fricndsh ips thal inevitably develop tQ inHuc nce thc conclusio ns of the stud),. Ansoll Shupe and David Bro mic)' (1980), two sociologists who have used participant obsen'<l.tion, have like ned this chall e nge 10 that of "walking a tight ro pe.~ Despitc working so hard 10 gain acceptance fro m the g ro up being studied . the partici pant observer mU51 main tain some degree of d ct:clchm e nl. In addi tio n to iL~ liSt.' in basic researc h, obscn'<l.tion studies Ill a)' also be used lO improve the po li cies and strU ctUres of o rgani7.:11ions. WiJlialn F. Wh yte ( 1989), thc rcsC't1 rc.hcr in lh e study o f Boston corne r boys described abovc, e ndo rses the use o f o bsenoation as a Iype:: o f appl ied sociolo gy. Whytc notes tha l when Nom".ty's shipping indusu)' was fa ced with .~eve re c utuacks. a te am of researc he rs I\'orkcd aboard a me rchanl ship as pan of:m cfT01"l 10 improve the social oq~.. nizatio n (lnd c fli ciency or Nonvay's tlC('t. Similarly. when laced wilh .Lpo wing competition in the p ho tocopying indllsu),. Xerox Corpor.u.ion e mployed a research tcalll to pr()posc cOst-<:ul1ing mcasures to managers ;'lI1d union leade]'~. In eitch ca."l". the Illethodolob~ of p<lrticipant obS('lvallon p roved usel ullll soh'ing practical problelllS.

When sociologisl.\ walll 10 stud y 11 possible causeand-eifect relationship, th ey lIlay conduct experiments. An experiment is an artificially created situatio n wh ich allows the researc ht.'r to lIlaniplli;uc m ria ble;:s alld introduce con trol v<lriables. In the classic me lhud (If conducting an experiment , two g ro ups o r people arc selected a nd ma tched for similar c:ha r;u;lc ristics such as age o r education. The s u~jecl.S arc the ll assigned by researchers to o n c uftwQ g ro ups - the experimenta l o r con lrol group. T he ex-perilllelllal grOlIP is exposed to a n independent v,lIinble; the CO li troT grollp is 1 101. Thus, if scientists were testing a new type of a nti biotic drug, t,hey would ndminisler injections of that drug to an exper illle nta l g ro up blU no t 10 a conlrol brrouP. While man )' expcl'imc nlS by medical researchers test tl lC impact of'dnr,gNon human or animal subjec ts, a ramous social science experiment exam ine d how people arc affec ted by prcs....ll res to confo rm to Ihe I'iews of olhe rs.

How many orus wi ll Rstick to our conviclions Rregardless o f the feelings of others? Sodal psychologist Solo mo n A.sch ( 1952:452- '183) I\";LS interested in lhe enccts of g ro up pressure on pcople 's opin ions and tcsted this question in an expe rimental setting on a college ca mpus. AsciI pre lcsted this C);. pe rimen t with control s ul:ticc\..~ no! under any group pressure. Th e results of hi s il1\'csti ~,"a ti o n ind ic.. !l' that th e pres.~u rc 10 confonn in group situalinll\ can hal'c i\ powc rful im pact o n saci:11 hchal'io r. A.~c h broughl groups of sevcn lO nin e male wl lege students in to a da'isroum and asked them to look at two white cards. onc Wilh a single line and o ne with tJlrec lines o f l'aryi ng leng ths. All studcnl\ werc askcd to Stale puhlicly which litlc 0 11 tllt'SI.-(ond card most dosely corl"csponded in le ngth !o the line 0 11 the first card . I-I owel"cr, in c ac h group o f stude n ts. a ll !Jilt o ne wer(' aClllal1), in league wllh the researcher!; and had hcen coached ill adva nce to seh:cl wro ng answers 10 so me of tlt e c huitc'o. \1 0H!0\CI". 1 11e UllcOilc.hcd stude nts - Ihe pcOplt who wc-rc Ihe rcal l. rge ts oflh e sludy-were plaetd a lleat' lhe e nd o f each grou p. On a designat ed trial, lhe stude nts cuached Il\ Asch all g,l\'{' the Mmlt' incorrect a nswer. Re m:ul a bly, many uncoachcd st ude nts ignored the t.\'ldence of lheir own ~cnses-a diffen:n l answer ......1.1 clearly th e correct onc-and conforllled to the I)fha\";o r of the (del iherately incon'ecl) majority. 01 AscI! 's 123 stude nts put to this tcst. mo rc than onrthird fo llowed lh(' lead of lhe group a nd c h o~e thr wrong answer evell without any explicit prcs.\um to confo rm . Concl llc L ing sociological research is mort' diff" u ti t, and the refore more costly, ill th e fie ld tllan in a h'bol':.llory setting (oflcn on a college campml Conseque n tly. as in Ihe experime nt described above, researchers m ust some ti mes rely o n sa lllplt~ com posed cnti rely of coll ege sludents. Such par licipan\..~ mayor m:ly not be I"cpresent :Hj"c of !llf larger public or lhl' United Stales. l1le !"e is all :ltl ditional problem in using a lahor:"\LO I)' setting: tflr responses of'subjects in such se llin g~ may he dH fe re nt from theil' responscs in lc.~ s strucl"Ured, real life SitUalio lls. Lt ! an cxperiment. as in observa tion research, tlM' prest!lIce 01 a socia l sciell tist or other observer 111;0affec t lhc l>c1l<t\"lOl' ofth e p('oplc bei ng studk-d.111t rccog ni l.ion of tit is phe no menon gr c\\' out o f al1l~ pelimcnt co nducl('d during Ih e 1920s and 1930. ~t


SorlologulJ (I" u'(lI aUla" tllat IM 1'f"fVna of all ~ rlUlJ alftcl Ill'

btlwl'ltlr of lilt fJI'OP~ ""'/lg JludUd. IVrowlllio/l of Ihu phmQl""uJ1I gmu filII of 1111 nrl,"uflt:J11 rQlIIllu~1 durillg IM 192th 111111 19J(h at Ih~ I-/mutllqnlL
pllllll (If Ill' Wlllml f.ltrfnr CmnprlllJ.

tht, 11,lwthurnc pl:mt 0 1 t/l e We~I('rt1 Ekelrie CompJn".\ group ofreseardtcl's Il t'adt'c l by [lIon Mayo ... t "lIIlO dcu: nl1im: hO\\' the productivity or workt'r-,II the plant could be improved . Ilwes1ig.-ltlJl"S exJllu!Wfllhc impact 011 produc lh'it y or \.lrl ,11lons in 11" IIUt."OSit) or light ali(I mri:uiOlh in worki ng 1to~1I" To lheir "IIVri.;c. theY IOllnd th,tt (/Il .. tep~ Ihr"! wuk seemed 10 inc rease pn,duc tivity. [I'e n Ifrbllfd th.u scelllerl lil-cl} tu haH' tile o pposite dint, ~u(h as rcdtllillg the .1I11cllIn t (It ligh ting in thr pLlIlt. led to highcl p,"OdUCliviIY. Whl did the pl.ent's e mployec!> \\'ork harder CVt;'1l 111l411'1 leg r.wur.lhk cOllditio llS? Their bch:n'ior ap~lntl\' ",-dS innucllced by tht: ~1t:dtCI a llclllion bt.. .... "~!I.ud tJlem in the course..' or Iht: n~!>carch and by I" north)' of being subjccl!t in ,Ill expt.rimcl1t. S!nu: ulal time. sociologistS h,IH' u~cd Ill(" tenn H'wthome effect whcn ~LlI~ccts III fe!l('ilrch pert"rn> Ill .. m.tllllCI diHcrel11 fmm their typical Ix. .... h,\\lurbet;llLse the)' rcalil.c that tilc),.lrc under ob-cnritiOIL (S.Jone~, 1992; I ..IILI{. I ml~).

U!lt of ...............S? ............................................................ . Exislinv Sources _

lu'cc'lS:lIily ha\t' tll collect new conduct !"("..carc h anel test hyl~~hl")('$, The term secondary analysis rcrers to a 1"'1("1\ or n:SC.lrC'h techni<luC8 Ih.1I use or pu~ hd'\: .Irces.~ible inromlatiol1 :md da!.l. Cenerally. in \uudlK"ling 'iC.ctlllda IY .tnal)".is. fC!>Cilrchcl"S milil.c rt.uJ in ways IInilllended by tht: illili,tl collectors or
4i.dJ In

~KI<~OKi.sLS do l10t



illronnatiOIl . For cxample. CcllS lIS daw arc COI11piled for specific IIses by lhe fc::dcr:tl government, but arc V;:11U:lhlc fur marketil1K ~ peci:llisL~ in locating e\'cl}'thin,l; rrolll bicycle s torc~ 10 nursing home:.. Sociologi ..ts camide,' :,ccolld:uy anal)'sis to be lIonf(,(lctilN. "ince pcop!e's bchavior is 1I0t influe nced. A~:III cKample. Emile Durkhcim's $latistical analysis o f suicide lleithcr increased nor decreased human sclrdt..'Strucuon. Whereas subjects oran expt:riment or observation fCSCllI'ch ;lrc oft,e n aware thotl the), arc beillg " r,..llched-all awarencss that . call innuencc their bch:l\'ior-lhis is nOllhc case whell 'k!colld.IlY analysis is uscd . re.searchcl'lt can avoid the HawlJlome effecl by employing .'.t.'colldary analysis. TI,en' h onc in lll~ rt.1Il problem, howt'ver. in relying 011 data collected by ~mcone c lse: the researcher ma)' not find exactly what is needed. S0cial l'(;ie nti!>ls stud)ring family violence can use st.1.tiSlic.~ from police and social service agencies on ft'/J1JI1f'1l cases of spouse :abuse :md c hild .. busc . Yet such guvernlllent bodies hllVC no prccl~c dam on till cases of abuse. Many social .sciCllti'l.s find it u-.cful to study cultural. economic, and political documents. including IIcwspapen. pcriodic;als. radio and television tapes, SCI;PLS, diaries, songs. folklore . and leg-,d pa' pcrs, to nallle 01 rew examplcs. III cxamining these source!>. researchers employ a technique known as conte"t (walysis, whic h is the systcmatic coding



U.~illg conlnll anal)'Sil" DJ lelevision ni!tworks' cOw:Yage of the 1992 presulenlial ~/J'clion in lIuir evrning

Itroadwsls, re.umdle1".l/mwd 1//(1} mQre 11tgalive ml'lOrkl aJllcr.millg Pre$idenJ Grorgt! 8ush thl/I!

IUfW5COS/er.l mad~

they did about




and RoSI Pernl.

and objective recording of data, g1lided b)' some rationale. The slUdy of sexual stereotyping discussed at the beginning or the chapter is an exa mpl e of content analysis. In another use or content analysis, researche rs anil lyzed Lelevision networks' coverage ut the 19!J2 presidenti<ll elect ion in their evening news broadCal;L~ . During t.he primari es, the conve nti ons, and r.he ge nel,,1 election c<lmp<lign , nel.o:scaSlers made more negative remarks concern ing President Ccorge Bus h -whel he r in te rms of hi s ability to govern. his record, or his p1'Opasals-t..han they did conccrn ingchallcngcrs Bill Clinto n a nd Rass Perot. While politica l partisans might insist that Bush eamed these cri ticisms. COli ten t analysis neverth eless allows researc hers to systematically il nalflt' tc1evision coverage and assess possible biases (Kolbert. 1992). Th ese examples llndersco re the 1,,,luc of using ex isting sources in studying contempor..lry mal.erial. Researchers have learned, in additjOIl. that such a nalysis can be essential in helping LIS to ullderstand social behavior front t.he distaJll past. For example, socio logist Karell Barkey ( 1991 ) exami ned village CO urt records from the seven teenth-century Ottoman Empire (cclltercd in modern-day Turkey) 10 assess the extent of peasant rebellions ag<tinst the empire a nd , more specifically, iL'i tax pol icies. Barkey could hardly have rel ied on sUlveys. obserV""..tlions, or experimen ts to sWdy tJl e Ouoman Empire; like othe r scholars studying ea rli er civilizations, she tUll1cd lO secondary a nalysis.

A hiochemist can not iruecl a serum into a human bei ng unless it has been thoroughly tesled. To d\. otherwise would be bOlh unethical and illegal. SociologisLS must also abide by certain speci fi c Starldartls in conduCling research-a code uf ethicJ. The professional societ)' of the discipl irte, t he AJll~r iean Sociological Association (ASA) , first publish~ thc Cm/,. oIE/hies in 1971 (most recently rCI'ised In 1989), which put forth the following basic plinopies: ] Maint.ain objectivi ty and integrit.y ill research. 2 Respect the subjcCl's righl to privacy and di~ flily. 3 Protect subjccLS from personal harm. 4 Preserve confide ntial ity. 5 Acknowledge resea rch collaboration a nd assj~ \."1llce. 6 Disclose all sources of fina ncial support (AmN' ican Sociological A<;sociation , 1989). In addition, in 1982 the Sociological Practice M sociation (SPA) introduced ethical sta ndards fOI sociological practitioners in the ir clinical work \\ith dienL'i. Both th e ASA and the SPA have e mphasized thar. mcm bers h:IVl' a responsibility to monitor nu! on ly their own behavior hut also that of othtf sociologists. On the surface, the basic prin ci ples of the ASA'i f:ode of Elhic.~ probably secm quite dcar-<:ut. h mal'

I'A.HT ONE' 11ft: .iOCJOI.OCICAI I'l-JI.';I't;f."flW, '


In hd book Doomsday Cult, $oriolrr f;lll.fnJm l..oflolld (J 977:xi) Il/wlyuJ lb. "fm' five )'ea'~ hI Amen'm
C 19!9-19(4) of an ob.lcuYr md,oflh~ ,l'Ii,,01I that Wt!111 011 to buOI/U!


I'Q/WIIIIlIy IUIII ;',Iml(/(io/IIII/y jalflmu

197()s. fir a:/,illills (1/lI1 IlJis I'!J.IJ. "JUdl h~ "Jm 10 fU' /liP "Diu;'" 1'r'rrf'lJ, /.11' "D.Ps, is /J!(/ by 11 Korea/! ""''' u'/w omwd ;1' the Vlli/ed Slutp.s ," 1971. /.ojlOIlJ add5 Ih(1I If)' the 197111, IM OPs luul /ltcome whlt'f:,' "fl,W/ fl.I (I "pmu",flll alilf mjm1Q11S S~ (TnI Jq,.,.,. that had (0 IN rorll1lf'rrd. ~ .\fllll,f ,tadl'r.i of Doomsday Cult 1>tI/l"IM 1/1111 Ihe DP.~ wryI'. in fact. /lnm'lld SlIn MyulIg MQlm:1 UnifimII"~ rlwrrh (w Cha/J/1!f 14). N(Jl,'('[JIT. al'l1 Win of OOsf!t'valillll /"I'Sfflrrh,
III ,'''

joJII/ /..oj1mlll,

United StalCs go\'enlment, I would SlOp them , and use personally idclllifi ed il1fo l"l11;ltiol1 on Illcmbers to do so. That is, <I plura listic a nd mo re or \cM free society is o nc ind ispensable conditio n of [lmc ticing sociology itself. I would nOI stand by and allow them 10 destroy Illy discipline (which Ih ey \\'ould do'y could ) and the society lhal makes tha t discipline pos~i hlc . In Ill}' judgmelll, they do not now 1101' arc thc)' ever likely 10 pose such it lhl'Cill,
tf)' to


rtfiWtI 10 Im!al/. hi.! iuilial

If(j/ Nllllfll$

of m'mlymilJ 11/1// ff'11{!1I1 tll,. of /J~ Dl's a '11/ filii,. (I'(IIIIT. ,~II'" (/111,1/ th, book. /"ujlmlll (1977:
UJ-H6) txjJ/nins why hI! mainlflillnl

,ilt! palllion:

I continuc to haw ,I per-

..nn.tJ ,\Od pli vatc o blig:ll ioll to the

membcrs 1\-11h who m I ~ pcnr many nJtlUdt!. I am determ ined lhlll they "Ill not sulTer infamy on my a crrmnt, despite the fact that somc tl.l\~ ilcluC'o'cd infamy by Iheir' own .rtUU!l$, &:(O nd, I am a sociologist r"rher than an inv(."Sti!f<llivc jourtUbSl , , . mucknrkc r or o ther nmnJisr. ... '-oc:iQ\QbtisLS must agree to pro1nl Iht' people they stud y in ex'

change for perm ission to be privy 10 the secrcts of~ocial org;:ulililtion and social life, [ made such an agreemcnt with the group reponed in l.his book, and althoug h the fame of the group now ma kes il diffi cult 1 cOlltinue th i:, protcction, I must 0 11)'. AnYlhiug less e ndangcrs thc f\llUre nf ~ociol nb'Y itself, lhrcal~'n in g 10 bring il into cvtOn more disrepu le by giving credence 1 the charge 0 that ,',(It.:io[ogisls arc mcrcl}' onc more breed of Illut.:kraker, whistleblower. undcrco\'e r agent. police spy. o r worse, ... lllc pu~ilion 1 olTcrabo\'c is nOl, of course, absolUlC. . There are a few circumslances in whic h I wou ld not f,'I"a rH or COIltilluC lhe protections of anollYlllity. A prime OilC is if I belie\'ed th ~lr the Ill's serio usl)' threar.e n(.'(l the pluralis m or I\mcrican society, that the}' had a ll}' SC I;OUS chancc of taking (H'cr the

Tllm- iJ (111 HI/Cleslillg 1!05til~riPtlO this 11(1)'. J)e.lfJilf /..ojlrwd's firm 'if(JIu tQ !,mltel tilt 1III0llymiry of lIu Dl's
rllJd tludr Il'fIda, 1I 1,1(15 (OlllllU)II/),

510111:(/-(11111 t:Un1 jltlfly a.lSl'I1tt/ ill prilll 11)' (lilt,.,. 5dlolars-llwl Il,,, J)!'f I/""-f lIuiml l\'lOOIl:r UllijiCIJ/iQII dllll'dl. By Ihe tllrly 1980s uiflmui (1985:

120- 121) filln//)' colleluded tlwl "Ihl'

'sfcYfl' had b.;COlllt ab~lmiry obvi(JI/li, 50 o/JviO(H iJlIlI wlltillUillg lilt 'WIN:T '

l)lJilltlf-$.I," Cmwqllf1aly, ill J983. Ill' IjJllI~d the presidellt ()f lire

U"i'ttl Slall'( brandl of Iltl' UI/pml/o"

dWl'd, to mlctl..ll' him jrol1l his J962
agrt'f'IIlI'1l1 ",illt clluT ufficia6. Tlu:1 qllfst wa.( !rImlled. bl.ll il !J!(1lJ agretfl Ihal ollly Ill" (Ilg(lIIiurtiml alld its fmllldfTlIIflllld /)f /jIJIIII!d /Jy LoJlaml, /-/, rUIl/IllIlt5 to ImJ/I'(/II,1' it/flllilia 'if Ill" 1'11/1 IIIl'1nlN'I'~ 11'110111 ht 1111'1 tllfring Ms J(II/5 of mm'YlJaliOlI rt5l't1rrh ($a (IWJ If.

Ali/rluli, 1993).

Mt :IHrJl),~

Of SOCIOU)(:I(;Al. llt;,uIClI

be difficllh to imagine how they could Icad to ,my disagreement 0 1' controversy. f-IO\\'c\'t: r , mally deliclle ct..hical qucstions cannot ~ ~'ol,"'Cd 15imply rn' rcading the six points above. For cXlllnplt. should <& sociologist cng:lged in panicipalll-oh!>Crv.uion research (/1l/JaJ~ prou:ctlhe cOllfidenti.lli,)' of .. ubjects? What irthc l5l1 l~CCLS are me m he~ ofa rtligiolls CUll ;.lIcged ly CI1G;lgcd in une th ical a nd pus,ihly ilIcb",1 activit ies? In Uox 2-2, "'e considrr th is se nsitive issue by cxa mining the views of' .. soc i olo~isl wh o studied a highl)' controversial religious group (sec all50 S. lI eller. 1987: Shupe and Bromky. 1980 ). While sociologists and other Khol.11'S m;,) regard all inlormation provided b) intcl'\iew su bjccts as confidcntial. couns do not ah''a),5 uphold this p0sition. In May 1993. Rik Scarce. a doctor.!1 candidate in sociology at Washington SIOIIt Ulli\'ersiIY. ....'as j;liled for contcmpt of COllrl. Scarce Imd declined 10 tell :1 federd l grand jury ",'hOlI Ill' knewor even whe th er he knt'w :lnY1.hing - :abOlIl :1 1991 mid OIL a u niversity rcsearch lahnt~\ltJr)' hy animal rights activists. At the Limc. Scarce: was ulIldllcling research for a book :thalli c lwironmcllta l l) )"Otc:SlOrs and knf'w a l least onc suspect in Ihe hre"Io.-in. Curiously, although c has tised In' a rcdcral judge. Scarce won I"CSpt.'C1 f'rom fellow I)lison inmates who regarded him as a man who ""uulcln 't !>nitch (Monaghan, 1993:A8). In press illlCrviews, ScU'cc s [.IIt,cI tll ... h e relt bollnd by th e j\SA's code of clllic5. which ~ays thal sch o lars II1USt main tain confidcll liality even when th e inlu nlla tio n ilwoh'c d clUoys IIU leg1 ]lIntel" tion. III Scarce', ( 1993:38) \icw:
Promismg confidentiality b [1 norm III SOfial-sde:ncl:' 1(" researc h, .. . Whcll journali~u "lid 'IoC:hol;u'!lo can 110 longer offer confidemialit} 10 lht'ir 'ltlUrcc' in gocxl rahh -and Ih(" ",lings in Ill}' CASe ,lIId !It-hen; mdke it clear that the}' cannot-then ~il:'t) \Unl'n, fllr Ihe roundation or modem .social-M:icnce rl'M:an. h, :lIld a c:rlldal lool III reporc:lgc, is irrq:);Il1luh IIl1tll-nnillcd. T h c Am erican Socio logical ASl>Oc:iatinn Sllppol'tcd hi ~ \(lIIenc(:. Ultimatcly, Scllrcc maintaine d his silcllce. the judge nllcd that nothing ....ould be g'dincd by furtJler incarc~ration, and Scarce was relcased aftt'r serving 159 days in jail.

Most sociolOf:,ricl1 research uses proP" as SOllrtM \4 infol1n:uioll-.1S R"SJ>OndclILS to sun'c)' qUelilior~ l>3rticip.lllt.<. in cxpcrimclllS, or ~1I1~cC IS of ob!n. \~uioll. In :11\ GL\CS, socio logi,", need to bc crltlin that Ihey:lre nOt im"<lding th e pri\':IC) or their 5U~ j e(Lo;, (;('Iler.l llv, this is h,lI1d1c:cI by :t!o~IU;ng IheM 111\1)I\'e<l nr ;lIlull)'lll it)' :md by gllar;ln tl'cing that persunal information discluscd will re main c()nn denti.ll . Il ow{'vcr, a swdy hy L:llIci I I 1Irnphre't~ r;:liscd important qut:stions abolLt llll.' extent tn "hich S(')Ciologis15 could thre,llell peoplc's rightt" pri\>;tC'l'

Trade Sociologisl La ud Ilumphrt'1' (1970;1. 1970b. 1975 ) puhlished a pionec ring and (11 1111\1\'('1'51.11 sllldy of ho moscxllal he havior in which h e rlt.''<oCribcd th e colsllal hnmOS{')l.ual enCOII[lIl'rS bc:lwten 11lalc ~ IIl ct' linK in public rt.'Sl rO(Jm~ in pa rks. Such re~lromns .Ire so mctimt~ calle d Immmll.\ hy homosexual mell. As o lle COlL~ C']lIellLe of Ihi!> IJro\,OCHi\'l' rClIc.lrch, I he ch.UlcellOf of the ulli\'t'rsily \,here I hlllll}h rl1~ W.IS em l)l~ tcnnin,lIt'ci hi!> rcscarch grant .lIId tc..c hing elM"
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millt'.. in 1(':II'OOlIlS, HlIlllphl l')'s .\(' tl'd :1$ a paniri-

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pallt obst'ncl by senr\ng as ,\ - h)(,knlll .~ III:tming pat1'011~ wht,1t police 01' otlll'r ~ tl':1ngNs :Jp' IlI'oaciJ cd. Whi le h e was prim:ui l)' in tercsted in tht behaviol of lllc-.e men, 1-1 tllll ll ltl")," ,11-.0 wOIntee! III lelll'l1 1I10rl' ,Ibout who they .... e rt' ami why thcy tOO~ such I;Sk.,. Vct ha ..... could he- obt.tin slIc h infornut ill1l? SecrcC) a nd silencc wCI-e l.h(' norm" of 'hit scxu.. 1 <.'nvironl1lcnL NOllc (Jf the /lIcn under Sl~ klllV.' of Ilumphrc}"5's idcntilY, and thc), \\'ould nOt ha\'c consent(" to ~tandaJ'd MKiologicl l inlc ....;~" As a r('sult, I lumplll't}"i decided on .1 research techniquc tha t some social sde llli ~1S I.lIel 5o'!w as il violalion u ! p rofessional ethics. Il c rt:cor<lcd the I~ ccnse plate lHunbe rs of' lel.l!OQtl! patrOlls, wai ted a )<.'M , (' h1 1111-:('d his <tppt:araIlCl', ami then ill1cl' \'iewed them in their hOllle.. , Tht, il1tl'n'\cws' condllcwd as pan or a la rgel ~ III'\'(')" bllt thl did ')' provide information that 1 -lulI1pI1l c)"1I fdt .......15 IItt c.~ln' ror hi~ .....o rk. While f-IlImphrc~'i's ~ubjts conscnll'd In be inlcn;cw('cI, Ihf'i l agrecment rei

I'tNI 0'" nl~ SOCJOI11('J('AI 1'f.R. J'ftTII1 \

ul iriff)17IU,!(/ conSCllL, since they ',"CI'C u ml\'~ l rc IIIf [rue purpose o f the st.ud),. \hhough the researc h e r recognized c::ach o f the mell imcrvie\'led from his observations in lhe rcs t~ I\,lhel'c was no in dication tha t they recognized him, lIumphreys learned thal mOSI o f his subj eclS


gethcr), a nd none were child ren (sce alsoJ Grny,

1It'I'C ill lhcir middlc th irties a nd ma rried . T hey had our ,1~'fragc of t\'lO c hildre n and te nded 10 have a l ki)1some years of college educa tio n. Fa mi Iy rnelllbcr.o; appeared to be IIn:m'are or the Illt;:n 's \rjs i L~ 1 0 "....k ~ t rooms fo r cas u ~1 ho mosexual e ncoun lCrs. h't'TI before lhe publi c Olllcl)' over his resea rc h ht,!(JI1, Humph rcys ( I970b: 167-173, 1 97~: 175-232) .. ,l.~ ;I\',';\rc of the e th ical questions that his study "unlel raise, He exen ed great care in main winillg tll~ f(lI1fidentia lity of his subject.'!. T heir real idc nrint"lll'crc recorded only o n a master list ke pt in a \.tk-deposit box. T hl:' list ' ' '.15 deslmycd by IImnphrq'S afte r the researc h " ", IS conducted. for wcial sciem ists. the ethical proble m in th is rcr.t:4fch was 1I0 t HUlll phrcys's choice of subjeCl ftWtl'r. but rather lhe deception inl'uhed. Pau'ons ult/!I:' t~a roo m were no t aware of I-Iulllph rcys's pllrpt)"'"~ ,lIld were fl.ln hcl' misled abOllt Ihe real rca~1Il) rur the househo ld illlcrvicws. Howeve r. in lhe Tt''f;u'Cher'll judgmen t, I he valllc of h i:. stu d), ju~ t i lird the questio n able means bwohed. HUlllphrc}'l> hdl{'\(:d that, \\'ithotlt the fu llow-u p in tcr\'iew~ , we \I'llltld know liuJe about the kincL~ of i11 en wllu engage in tearoom sex and wo u ld be left with false IltrCOI),pes. In addition. Humphrc),s believed tha t by de...:tibing such sexual in te rac ti o n s accll r.:ltely, he "Quid be able to dispel the myth tha t ch ild mQlcsL1tion is a freq ue nt p ractice in restroo ms. O ne unintended conseque nce of the research was tha t 11 h:'l:! bee n in creasingly cited hy a tto rneys see ki ng ilcquittal for cliellls a rresled in public b:lIJlI'oo m ~. "'~ lawyers have used the study [0 establish Ih:1I 'Ill h heh:lI'ior is no t llll llslIa\ a nd typically involves rnll.ellting adu lls. A rece nl SUlcly or Gmadia ll poli'i' u.:cords by sociologist Frederid: Dcsroches (1000) supports J-Iu m phrc}'s's earlier nn d illg.~ rcl(:Iuling tearoom sex. The m.yo rity o f Ca nadian pJrtidpants \\'C I'C married . and many of th e m h"d children. or 190 males studied wh o \\'ere involved in such sexual activi ties. on ly three \,'cre teenagers U\\oofwhom lI'ere part ici pating intearoolll SCl( 10-

199 1). Do these gains in o ur k. n o \\'lcd ge a nd understanding offset Humph reys's actions of e ncroaching o n people's p riva te Ji ves and dcet:.ivi n g the m d u ri n g in lClVit.lI's? Essem ially, in re fl cCling 0 11 \he ' study, lI'e are Icft with a conflict be twee n the right to know and the right to pl;vaC 111e re is no casy }'. rcsoll1lion to this clash of p ri n ciples, Yet we can certa inl yask tha t sociologists be full )' awa re of the clh ica! implica tions o f a ny such rcscMch tecll1li(llIes. Accident or Suicide? A simi lar e thical issuc-wi th th e right to know posed abF.linst tile riglll to pri vacy-beaune a ppa re lll in researc h o n a tllo mobile accidents in whic h fa tali ties occur. Sociologist Wil li ::un Ze lln cr ( 1978) wished to lea rn if ra tal car c[';!Shes a re som e times suicides t ha t hil \'~ been disg u ised as accide n ts in o rde r to pl'otcet ramily ;lIld friends (a nd perhaps to co ll ect OI he rwise lI nn:deemable insll nl1l ce ben e fi ts) . T h ese acts of ~ a mo cidc arc by Ililtu re co\'e n . c\'cn morc so t,han the sexual behavio r of I-I um phre)'li's s u bjects. In h is erforts to assess the freq uency of such suicides, Zcll ner sought La i1llcrview the frie nds, coworkers, and fmui ly members of the deceased . H e hoped to obtain infon mu1011 tha t would allow him 10 ascerlain whether the deaths were acc idental or purposefu l. People approac hed fo r interviews were told that Zcllner's goal was 10 contribute to a reduction of future accidents. For this reason (as the), were fa lse I)' info rmed ). Zelllle r wished to learn abou t thl:' emotio nal c haraclerisl its of accidellt victims. No men tion wa~ m;tdc ofl hc illt en~ewer's suspicions o f at1l.ocide. ali I of fe ar Ihat potcnt ial respondc ll ts would refuse t.c) meet wi lh him. Zcll ne r ('l'ctHua lly concluded th at a l least 12 perce nl of all fa ta l singlc-(JcCt lPil ll l cras hes are sll icides. T h is informa tio n could be valuable for society, particularly since some of Ihe pro bable suicides aelll a lly ki ll ed or crit.ica lly inju red innocent bys tande rs in lite proC t~ SS ofta kin~ their own lives. Yct the CU1ical questions still must be faced. Was Zell ncr's I'C$C,u'c h lllle thical because he m isre presen ted ule motives of his sludy a nd fa iled to o btain sll l~ecLS' informed cQnSI.,;Il1? 0 .. W:L~ h is deception j ustified b)' the soci .. l l'lllut! of his findings? As iu the study o f tea rOOI11 trade. Ihe a nswers lwe

C.J/AV/Nf:! ' .urn/Oil. r'II'SOt /0/ or./{.. Il_ //f~'iI':MI(.U '

Arr .\("'" IIHJI"I' Ij,ll(IlIi,. rn . mf{lr{ oauplllll alllOJllobIk Ct{j.\hl':5 flrlUnl1J \IIjnrln~ D,u, wrialogical ~/mlJ of /KnQbiI' "CWJondl'l, whirh mtlid
;'rll'TI'.sling t!llrimlqrm,-lion.r MIlrt'miMt t/ll' riglrt 10 Imow (md Ilrl' righ/to ,lriII(1(1. r(",rlmll'lllhat /1/ {m{1 12 /II'T'I'''I of Jrlt/r arridl'''I1J/(III'U havt ill (arl rom'ml/i'd srl/rI/iI'.

nOI immediatc.Jy " pparent. Like 1 ulllphny:.. Zcll l Iler appe:tred to havc admirabk llIotive'! and look greal carc in p ro ll"cling conficltmialiIY. Name)' of suspected s lli dde~ were nOI revealed to imu t":l nce companie~. though Zell ncr did recom mend that me inliur:mce indusu\' drop dOllble inrlcmni t} (paymen l thl' per.lnn s benefits in Ihe tVPn! orilccidcnt.'11 deat h) in lh(' rutllt"c. Zellner's Mud ), rai"ld :lI1 add itional et hieal i ...~ue: the possibi lilY of harm 10 thow who were imcr\iewed. SubjeclS were asked H the den.'Olsecl had ~ ta lk ed about suicide" aori ir they had ~pokell or how "bad o r uselc'Ss" ther \,'cre, Cou ld th ese questions have led people to gucS$ Ill(' true intc""llI.iom of the researcher? PCl"hap)', hUI according to Zellner, none orthe inlonmtnts voiced snch suspi cio ns. More seriously. mi ~ht the st.udy ha\'t" eau "I'd the be Ic,wcd la sttspecl suicide-whc'; Il be fore the Mlrvc)' me)' had accepted the d(:!:Hh~ as ,tcddenl:tl? Ag-.. in. wc ha\'C no e vidence 10 sugge~t this. but wc cannot be surc. Given om un ccrt .. inty "00111 Ihi" laSI qut'stinn. wa.<; Ihe re'ie:lrch justified? Was 7..cll ncI I:ll:ing toO large (I risk in asking the rricmls and ramiliC'S of th e deceased \'icti ms if they had spo ke n or suicidc he-fore their dealh? DOt,S the light to knnw o ut weigh lhe righl tQ pli\''iu:)' ill Ihis Iypt of ~illl:llion? And who has the tight to m:tkc Sllch:l judgment? In pmc--

lice. as in ZclIncl"'S slUd)" it is Ihe r~rrller. nouhc . subjccts or inquiry, who makes the critic...1 et.itKll deci~ions . -n lel'ciore, sociologists and o eht'r iOl'otig-.uors bear the responsibilit), ro r establishing dear and :,ensiti\'c boundarics for cthiClI scielllific in\cSligalion.

.~ ~~~.~~.i.~r.~.~ .. ~.? ~.~.~~~.~..~.. ~~~.~.~.~~.~~......__ ..

The e th ical considenltions or sociologists lic

o nly in Ihe me t.hods lISt--d, but in the wa), that rt' suhs ;! re in lcrpretc<.i. ~1 :u; Webc r ( 1949; 1-49, original edilion t9(4 ) recogn ize<.i llmt sociologi.~. wou ld be influenced by thcir own personal \';l.IUb in selecting questions rO I rcseal"<:h. in his vic\\', thod l"'-dS perfectly acceptable. but under no cond ition! could a rc<;c:ll'chc r alia ....' his 01' he r pe rsonal fl'tlings to in flu e nce the interprel:.Ilio n or data. In Weber"s phr-dSc. sociologists must practice 1J(J/u t II e lltral i ty in their research. As parr o f lhis ncmraHl),. invest.igators hnl'e ,m ('IIlieal obligation lO accept research findings I!VtII when the data ru n cou nter to their own persoRa/ viel"s, to lhL'OrcliC'.uI), basL"d c)(planations, or I( ",idd y :u:ccpu:.-d bc lic rs. Ourkhcim counte red IXlp ttlar conceptions when he n'pon ed that sociJl (1<111u. r Umn supernatural) forces were an impor " tan I raclor in suicide. Similarl),. Humphrcys chaJ.

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l'N#'urrhl:ll f'..Ili,rwlr I>/Ih, rily \ '''m~/I'$1 IHJf",ltllioll UVI$ Jar bt/ow l/utl offm'd (11..,111 lllt/~ finn IlonllllnllnriQII) ", IIu(oo/llion ,

I!'n~t'd Imditional ~u~piciuns \\'hcn he found that IN't' 11f tt!arOOlll~ W('t e not preying 011 adolcsccnl~ "r munger boY!, ~,ml' ~io l ogi~ts hclic\"e that il is impossible roJ' ",hulill'" to preve n t their personal \"::lllles fl'orn inlluI'IH'ing their wnrk, ,\1; a result, \Vc bc (s call ror a \",IIudr sociology has beell CI;licil.t'd b\ ma'lYad\!~,IU'~ of !.he (OnOiCI pcrspccti\l'-amollg them \lmJn American and femilll ..t schu lars-on the ~wlI!lds that it leads the publ ic 10 accept socinlngiral rlmdusions wil hout exploring the bia.~e .. of the U''>!',U( her<;, Furthermore, Al"in GOllldncl' ( 1970: I N- ~-W ) has suggesle d . ag<'in dr.n,~ n g on UIl' COIlnkl prrspeclivc, that wcio l ogiSl~ m ar liSt" o~jcc ti \'1~;Il.!..'k\credjt1stilication for remaining UllC1itica l "I tXi~ling instiwtions and cel l ters or power, These olI'J,:'lntt'IlIS arc attacks not so much on Weber hil1l\('11 0\' on how his goals have bc('n incon'Cctlv illtl'rrllctcd. A!; we h,1\'e $Cen . Weber was quile cll'<lr thot! '<O{iologists Illay brillg va lues to uleir su l~eC: l IIldUer, In his view, however, ! Il ey lUllS not c:ollfi l ~e ! Ilwlf own Vi.llucs with the social r('alit" under ~ULdy Ifkmth:, 1968:49:1) . rt,ltl Rossi ( 1987:73) admit'> that '" in my proles,runJI work as a s(JCiologist, my libcml incli na tions h~n' led me to UndCrlllke 'l pplied social researc h JIIlhc: hope tha t , , , my researc h might contribute ultht' J:cnerallioc l'a lllim orsoc ial rciorm", Yet,

in line with Webe r's view ofv:lluc l1l~ utralily , Rossi's commit ment to rigorous research Inethods and objCCli\'c interpretation u rda ta has sometimes led him i to controversial findings not n{:cess.'1.1 ly supportive 0 1 hi~ uwn libe l'a l values, For exa mple. when Rossi and a team of r'esearc hers Glrcrlllly attempted to mea"u re tire exte nt o f homelessness in Ch icago in the mid- 1980s, they anived al estimat es of the cit"'~ homeless population far belml' those o rrered ( .....ith Hlrl e fir'lll docu mc nt.ation ) hy rh e Ch icago Coa lition fort.he l-I o me1c ..s. As a result , Rossi was hitt e rl), atLackf'd hy coalition member..; for hampering social I'cfonn crrorts by minimi7ing the exte nt o f homcie.".sness. Having been throug h similar controversies before, Rossi ( 1987:79) concludes that "in rhe short term, good social resenrrh will oftcn be greeted as a bct l'<lyal or Olle or anothe r side rn a parliculru' conu'O\,crsy." But he insist.s tha t such applied research is exciting to do and can make imponant long-term comdbutiolls lO o ur understa nd ing of roeial problems, Even the decision La conduct a study can spark partisan de ba te. In 199 1. a challe nge t,o a m~or rt'search eO n W11"; pm'tially fo ug ht o fT after the seco relat)' of Health and Human Scrvkes ,mIlOllo{'l,:d t.hat he was C<lJlcciing fu nding for;l fivt."-yeal', S 18 milli o n national SLL IVCy oft.ccnage life in t.he Unilcd Stales. TIlt: sLllvey h.ld strong backing (rom Ihe N;l-


tional 111!ilitutc...~ of Ilcalth. lUll conse rvatives were troubled by the inclusion uf questions on sexual behavior and prC!SSlII'cd thc Bush administr.ilion to kill the study. Imellsc de~LC lollowed, ill which supporters of the research spoke ohhe need to beller umlcrst:md beha\'ior in light or the prevale nce of teenage pregnancy ami sexually tr.msmiued diseases (includi ng AIDS) . Eventually, researchers scaled down the sample size :md slIccdSfully obtained pri'~d.te funding ror the study. The~ developments undl'rscored the ract U1al studying social beh.nior call generate serious con1.rO\crsy (COSSA, 1991 ; Lyon, 1992) . As this example illustrates, the issue orvalue neutrality becomes especially delicate when o ne considers the relatio nship o f sociolo,",,,, to gO\'Crnmclll. Indeed , in the Uuited Sl.mes. the fedeml government has become the major sourc.! or funding ror sociolugical rc)!e;'lrrh. Yet Max Webe r urged tha t s()o dolog}' r(!main an alllOll011l0U S discipline and llot becol11e unduly inlhtelH'ed by allY 0111: segment or society. According to his ideal of \" .duc nelltmlity. sociologists 1lI11 ~ t remain " 'cc to rcvcal infOlmation thal is e mb., rrassing 1.0 g()\t:rrtnU'nt or. for lhat 111:11tcr, is supporti,c of go\,crnmcllI imtitut ions (L. Coser. 1977:2 19-222: Cnllldncl" 19('12) . Thus, re-

searchers ilwcstigathtg a pdso n riOl must be I'm 10 cXilminc objectively not only tile beha\'ior ofinmates but ,,1 the conduct or prison officials be$0 fore and during the umbrcak. This may be mm diOicult il sociologists fC:lr that findings critical j~ go\,cnunclltal institulions will jeop;treli:te Lht'l'l c hancC5 or obtaining redcl,.1 support ror n~ R' st.'arch projects. Although the Amcric.:llt Sociological lion's UNk of Etllla cxpt."Cts sociologists to disckaalt funding sources, the code does nOl address Ihr issue of ....,hethcr sociologists ..... ho .Iccep' rl1nd~ from a particular agency Illa) also accept their ptt. specl.h'e on what needs 10 be swdied. L.ewis Costr ( 1956:27) has argued tlmt ..IS sociologists in t/l{ United St:ltes h""e increasingly turne d rrom bN' sociologic' l! research to applied rescarch fOl' po Cf'Illllent agcncil.'1I and t he pri\~llc .\oectQr. "they haIr relil1quis hed to a large exte nt Ih e rreedom III (hoose their OWll problems, substilll1ing the pro!.. !ems oftltcir clienls It)!' thus!.: which might ha"e l!~ tcrested l.hem 011 pUl'ely 1I1cl)l'etical grounds,' Viewed inlhis light . the importanct' orgo\'crmm:nl funding for sociological sluciic-s mise" IroublinK <luClitions 1'01' those who cllt'ri~h We ber's ideal (j value I1clltr.tlil\ in rc~arch .


order to wrile;t reM!al'ch rcport. students must rol1ow pI' ~ ill1ilar 10 those lIsed bv sociolQo gislS in conduct.jng o rigi nal research. Once a topic has been selectcd, you II1l1.'o t define the problems that yOIl ....ish to slIIdy. A Ic\'iew or tht' !itCnllllre will gencmlly re<luit e library nscal'ch . Where can yO ll linrl inlurm:llion? The following stcps l.,.ill be hel pl'lll : Check lhis texlb(lok :md other textbooks umt YOII own. 110 uul IOI)l'l't to bt.'gin with the materials closest al. hand. 2 Use IJIl' libml)' cntalog. Many lilmuies have a lX1l1dOllcd (fml l':ltalog~ and no" u;;(' computerized ~)'steIllS which ;leCe","" not o nly the college 11br.trr's collcct ;1)I1 hilt .. Iso hooks and maf.,oazines


from othcr libmrie~ "hich can be secured t.hrougll illterlibrary loa ns. These !I)'s tcms a llow)ou tosearth ror books by amhol or litlt::. Title searches CclIl be used la 1 {)CI!t, booh by subject as well. For cx.a1Jto pie, ir you search the litle U;LiC for tht: ke}'""Ord M Mhomclcss. you will leam where books with that word somewhel'c in the litlc :lrc lucated in the 6 b/';;,I ry's hook ~tads . NE'ar lIlt'SI' books \\'ill he other works 011 hmnclc,sllcsS whirh rtl:,y 1101 happen to h:l\'c that word in the titit' . 3 l..uc'ate IIscn d articles lhat havc "ppcared in pcliodicals. Three rcsearch guide~ fo und in mostlihr.tries will be c~pccia ll )' ",ll.Iable. The Ilbidd't Gllid,. IQ PmIHilrnl Ulmllll" indexes mall)' popular lIlaga1i ncs. illdudin~ Nnl/SlLri, l~boIJ), and the Nr.u Refrllbllc. The S()(,IIII SIlf'1J(('$ /1I(11';r li ~L~ ~Irlicles in pro-


"ion1l1 joumals such as the AlIlI!1irtm SonoWgirtll Iltvitll'. the tlmmrull jOlIF'T1fI1 oJ Sorifii()gy, and SociI/I Prnbkms. A third index. entitlt:d SixiologimlAbstmcb, bsh articles from appro priate journals and also pro\1des brief summa lies, 4 Im'(!Sligatc lIsing compllterized periodical in d~es ifavailablc in rOllr Iibr.try, Sociofilc cO\'ers all material in Soriologimf Abstmcts since 1974, alo ng ~lh material from o lher periodicals. Expanded .l.radcmic Index CO\'l'l1i genemlintcrcsl pcliodicals l1i.." Ms., Nll tiotlaI Un';tlll. Atlatltir Motlthly, and so r"nh) for the mosl rcr.clll four yeaN: il also indexes ~ Nnl/ )'OI'k Timl'\ lor UIC,~ I:LSt six months. These rkctronic S):stcms lI1a)' Ix! connected 10 a printer, thereby "Uowing rOil 10 produce yOllr own plinlOut romplNc ....ith hibliugr.lphir infommlion and SOIllt.... tim('$ (:"en abstrdcL~ of lIrtides. ~ Consult the E"l)'dofJ~fifl o ,/ll'. Social Sdetlw. f IIhkh conce nt r,lIe" on maurial ofilllerCSI 10 soci:ll 'l(iclltislS. Each :II'tide includt."S refc rellccs for fllrther ini'ormation . S ExiUninc go\'cl'lunclIl d ocumenl.'l. The United ~.Itt$go\'e rnlllenL M:ltes ,tlld citil'.~. :and thc United ~;uion.'l publish infonnalinn 011 virtually c\'ery sub .. jccl of imere!lt 10 <;()Ci scie nce resea rchers, Many .t\ univcrsity libraries ha\'e access [0 a wide t;mge c)f ~"''trnment rc poJ'LS. Con ~ uh lhe librarian for asvstancc in localing such IllOtu!rial$, 7 U"C newsp:ll>crs. Majol' newspape rs publish indt-'IIC' annually or e\'en weekly Ihal are usefu l in 10C'oItJllg infonnalio n aooul "llCcific C\'CI1IS or issues, ~~"1llapcr Abstracl.'l Ondi<;c is a compute rized inliex 10 eight lIl~or nc",'s~IPCrs in the Unil ed States, "'l[h coverage begi nning in 1985. Aik people. orga ni 7ations. and agt'llcics conIt'mtd ....i lh the lopic for info rmal ion and assi.swu:, Bc as specifi c a... pos.db1e in making requcsls, , If ),ou mn into difficulties. cnn... ult the insu'Uctor, tcaching assistant. or libmriitll ,

Oncc all researc h has been completed , the task o f writing th e rcport can begin. HCl'c arc a fcw tips: Ik sure the to pic you havc c hosen is not loo broad . You must be able tu cover it adequately in a reasonable amollnt of time and a reasonable number of pages, Dcvelop an outline for your l'cl)Ort. Bc sure thal YOll ha\'~ an introd uctio n and :t conclusion thal relate 1 each Olhcr-and lh:lllhe discussion p~ 0 ceeds logic lly throughout thc paper. Use head... ings within Ihe paper if Ih t.'Y will impJ'O\'C c1a rit), and org-dni:t..lttioll , Do 1I01Ic:t\'c all thc writing ullIillhe last minute. It is best to wri le a rough dmf!. I~l it sit fo r a few days, and th c n takc a fresh look before IlCginning rC\1sions. If possible, rC;ld your paper (lfmu!. Doing so may be helpful in 1 0C'.nillg St:clions or phrases tha t do n O l make M: IISC. Rcmember lhat <Ill informat.ioll which you have obtaincd from other sources mw' be cited , If an auIhor's exact words are uscd . it is esse ntial that !.hey be placed in quotation mal'b. Even ifyoll rc \\'orked someone elsc's idca~. you must indicate ule source of these ideas, Some pro fessors may requ ir~ 111:11 studenL5 use footno tes in rescllfch reporL5, Othcrs will allow studcnts to employ the foml of rcferencing used in this textboo k. which follow5the fonnat ohhe Amc r iean Sociological A.\SOCjatio n. If you sce -(Mcrton. 1968:27)- listed afier a state mcnt o r paragraph. it means thal Ihe mate rial has been adaptcd from page 27 ofa wad, published by Mcrton in 1968 and lisled in the re fe re nce sectio n at the back of this tcxtboo k. (Sce a lso Richlin-Klonsky and Strenski. 1994. )

r;J l.WI'F 2 ' ).11;.'17/00..0;('11- WClOI 0('.1('44 1 RI-:1iU .Il('JI .N


Di rect Exptnditures p er Student Jor Elementa ry and Secondary Edll calion, J 992

T ables allow social scientislS la summarize dU 1l1 and make it easier for them to develop conclusions. A croSllabulat io ll is it type of table th:u iIIUSlr.!.les the relationship between two or 1110 re chardcteristics. During 1992, the Gallup organization polled 1004 people in U1C United Stales, ages 18 and ove r , regardi ng the issue of whethe r lhe federal lax burden is d isu'ibllled fai rly. Each responde nt was inlerviel'o'cd and asked: "Do you thin k. that low inco me people a rc paying their fair sha re in federal taxes, are paying too much, or arc payi ng too littler There is no way that. witho ut some type o f SUIllmary, a nalysIS in the Gallup o rg-dn ization could exa mine hund reds of in dividual responses a nd reach film conclusio ns. However, lhro ugh usc of the cros.H.abulation prcselllcd in the accom panying table. we can qu ickly see tha t. t.he more affiuelll (and especial ly people wi th incomes of $50,000 a yeal' a nd over) arc less like ly th a n those in lowerinCf;)lIlC groups to believe lhat lowe r-income people arc payi ng 100 much in taxes. Graphs. like tables, can be q uile usefu l for sociologists. T he accompa nying illustratjo n shows it type of pictorial gr.lph thoU ofte n appears in newspapers a nd mag-dzines. Il doc llmenlS that in 1992 the st.1.te of NewJersey spent more than th ree times as much per stude nt on ele me ntary and seconda ry education as Utah did. However, this gntph relies on a visual misreprese ntation . Th rough use of twO dimellsiolls - Ie ngul a nd width - the gra ph irillalCs the size of Ule expenditure level for Ne ....' J ersey,
AttIbIdIa OD 0I.Iribud0n 01 Fedeni Tu




Pictorial grtlphJ, such as fM on, s/wwJi

hl"n', can be mukading. 771, monq ~ JOT NroJ Jetv.y o(.(upil!5 aboll/ nine lifws t/~ tlrM on IM IHlp as IM hag fur Utah, IhertbJ gilling rttUkrs a fOUt j"'frrl!5Sio,1 of I"," rolO slam' CtJm/KIrnhtlt kttds offundmg for Muca/Um. IICIUOU;', Nw JI:fll!'J Spt:1uL5 1lIOII'- tlu.!n
thrtl t;mi!S

/n/l(h fN!r st udenl.

Ihrdea :;:..~._ _









lIITIf, ""'"'

$50,000 cnd over $30,000-$49,999 $20,000-$29,999 Under $20,000


59 59 6A

30 26 26

9 6


iIr&t ,lithe Utah level,

Allbwgh it should 3ppear about lhree li mes as the New Jcm=y moncy bag IIdDaUv "ppears about nine limes as large. Thus, lilt graph misleads read ers al>otll the compar':luve tpending levels or the twO slrltes. Thilrxample u ndersco res the racl t.hat tables and pIPIts ('.all be easily m isunderstood and can even

he deceptivc, Ir yo u :uc readi ng a table, be sure lO stud y carcruUy the title. the labels ro r V''dIiablcs, .md any footnotes . If you arc examinin g a pictorial graph , ch eck lO scc if the visual representations seem to re fl ect accurate ly the statistics being itlustr'aled ( H u n', 1954:69; Lcw:lndo wsky a nd Spence,


IL~IM .................. ....................... ......... ........... ................. .

at~ comrnillcd to the u~c of the scicmific IIrIhrd lA thdr research e fforl!i . 111 ulis chapter. we exthl' lwic principlC$ of the sciclIlific method and _ . . Wl(JUS lechniquCl uscd by sociologisL~ in con-


~~rch .

I Then .lft! fiv~ bdsir 5lC p~ in the lcir ntijic mrth fJd: the problem. relliewiug Llae literalUl'~. 1 01111ubIItIa the hnXlthesis. selectin g the rc~arch d esigu and .... tIllkt:lmg and analYli l1g data. and developing the

t ~lwllt\'l:r J'CK'3J'chel'll "1sh W sllIdy ai)5tr.act COil ' . . "Kit as intelhgencc or prejudice:. they must (h" wilpwrLablc opllrotionol dsfi"i tiomr, I """olhflsis usually S.:HCS a possible rel:n.iol1~hip IIftwtI1IWO or more ...ari abl('~ .

t Ih




5pt:dalizccl sampli ng LCchn iques. sociol{)o the nccessity of IC,~ting cYcf)'onc in a IXlpula

Accm-ding lU the scien tific method, th e concltlsioll of researc h study Icnniuales :l specific phase of UJC inVe5tiffouion. but s.hou ld 11150 gener.ue id(:as for future study. With tllis in mi nd . how would YOll e.x1 );U1d on ShafOn Collins's stud y of Afric',l.n American exct:ttu\'etl to con ti llue re!M!:arching the isslles ~hc rAises? 2 Suppo~t th:.t your wciology illlilnlctor has asked }'Ou 10 (to a ! tlIdy of homelessness ill th e area where yn \ll' co l lege is IOX:I.ed , Which research rechn i(ltlc (surw}'li. 1'\':lli()II~ . expe riments. use of exislin,lo: sourcc!) would you find mOSt tl.'; eful in studying ho mdC'\.~nCS!.? Hm. would }'O\' I"~ Ih<.l t t('(:hn iejlll;. In complete )'fIIlr assignment? :$ C:m :t suciologist genui nely maintain value ncutrnlity while studying:. group that he or ~hl:' til ld~ repuj(1I3111 (for clwmpic. fl White stlprCnmcisl oI'Klmi7.:uinll . a 5..1tauic cult , (lr :t 1ol1'OUP of p riso n iU1TI <ltCS f(uwincd of mpe )?


1 AHooling to the scientific method, researc h rcsul L~ _P'1Ik)5 bmh validl'ty :lIId rllliability. Tht two prillcipal fonns of sflrvllY r~ca l'ch arc the th e ql4l:$lio ullaire. 1'Vo , j"" allows sociologists to stud y ccrmin be
~nd corn m un i ti~



that ca nnOl be irt YcstiJ.,"ll trd

~ other research


""hl'D AOdologiSL~ wish to stud )' a 1'1: -

IMiotuIIIP, the), may conduct a n uperimrn',

In ~T"mining c ultu ral. econo mic. and political floc(,uc h as nc"'Spapcrs, songs, and folk"", )'$). n: IIIrfhn'l IIJt a technique c:t]lcfl tO ll'ell' a nol,I;$. 11 Tbr Code 0/ Ethic. of th e Americ.ul Sociological AllIIItRbIIII IIlcltldes among its basic principles objt."Cti\'it)' ..allltegrity in rese:trch , re!>IJCcI for t he 5u~icCl's rig ht _pnv.tey, and preservation of co nfidentiality, 11 \lu Wtbcr urged 5Ociolo!,,'isl.'i lO practice value 111111_ ~ In rhC'ir research by ensuri ng l.hat th eir pcrso nal ~ do not infl uc nce rhe imerpl'erat,ion of dal:\,

CaTua l logie T tI(' relationship hc tweCIt " condition or \'1u;:.ble :mcl a pa rticula r COlIse(tU Cllcc . h o n c c\'cnt It'ad ing tQ the other. (page 36) Codt oir' hies The stallll:mls ofacccpuabtc Ix' h"viMdt.... veloped hyand for me:lIlbt!l's of a profession. (46) COlltr,,' a"a lysis Thl:' S)'Stemllli( coding :lIld objecti\'l! recording o f data, guided by so me mtion:ll~ . (45) COIll rol group Subjects in .m experiment who ;ll'e 1I0t introduced to Ihe independcnt \';Jria ble by the !'t...
scarch t' r. (44) COlltrol lIoriabie A factor hdd constant 1 tCSt lltc rei0 ati\,<: imp,lct of an independe n t \~AI'iablc. (58) Correlatioll A rela tio nshi p between 1\"0 \~Atiabk"S whe reby a Change in o nc com cides wit h a c.hange in the other. (36) CrOSl'olw la t jo /l A table that shows thl' relationshi p between t WO or more \';,1I1:.blc8, (54)

QIliP11-:.R 2 MI'IIOOS O I'WClOU)GlC\ /
Hf~ 'it::AJl{:JI

Depe"delll variable TIle variable in a causal n:lal.iunship which i~ subject 10 the illnU C ll CC or anolher V,\I;abl e. (~5) El'perimfmt An artilidally c.n :':aled siluation which allows tlie researcher lO rnanipubl.c variables tUld introduce c(ll1tro l variables. (44) Experimental grOllp Subjects in an ex pc rimc1l1 ..... ho ;Ire exposed to an independe nt vari"blc imroduced hy a researcher, (44) I/(lw/hurne eJJecl TIle unintended innuenu: thal oh~crvcrs or experime nts can hal'e on u1t:ir s ubjects_ (45) lIypolhesis A specu latiw sl alemenT :tbolll the rellldonship between two or more variables. (35) brdepellde"t varioble The variable in a O:l\lsal relatio nshi p whidl_ when altered, causes or in Lluences a Ch;UlgC in ;1 second v;lriable. (35) '"d ex An indical0 r of auit.ude~ , hchavior. or characteriSlics uf people or org;.lI1izations. (:n) III/ e rl,;ew A I:ICe-lO-face or telephone question ing o fa rcsponde nt to o bt.ain desired informat.ion. (40) ObservotiOIl A res(.':trch t.::dmiqu(: in which;m ilwestiHalO r co ll~cls infnrrn ation through dircrt in\,oll'cl11el11 with and ohsenlatiQn ofa group. tribe. or community. (4 1 ) Opera/iollal defi"itioll An l'xphm<llioll of an absl.n lCl concept iliat is specific cnoug h 10 allow a researcher tn ijleaSUrc the concep t. (34) QflestitllHlaire t\ p r im ed research instrumelll e mployed to o bwin d~i red infonl1<1tinn fro m a rcspond el11 . (40) Ralldom sa mple A sample:: for which every member of lhe e l1li1"c POP111;ll klll has Ille slime chance ofbl'illg selected . (36) Reliability The eXlCllI 10 ..... hich a measure provid es col1si.~1t::J1l re s lllL~. (:l7) Represelltative sample A seleClion rmm a larger populalion lita t is statisticall y round to I.~ lypiral of tha l poplllmion. (36) Research desigJ' A det ailed plan or lIle thod fOl obtai ning data scientifically. (39) Scal,. An indiQllOr of a tti tudes. behitvior. or chamClCt~ istics of I>cople or organi~ations. (37) Sdelllific me/hod A systema tic, organized selies or Sl.ep s dIal. C I1~u rcs maxilllum ot!ieClh'it)' and cousistenc}, in n :scarchin/ol a problem. (33) Serolldory allaly~i5 A vUI;etr or rest;Oli"ch r.ed1l1iqllcs Ihilt makc use of publicly accessihle illf01"l1IatiO I1 and d:tta. (45) SIIrvt'y A sllldr. generally in the 1'01"111 0 1 i nlerl'i ew~ or fJuc~li0i1l1aire~, which provides sociologists and other

researchers wilh infOiTl1atkm concerning how prop. t hink a nd act. (39) Validity llle degree 10 which a scale or meiiSIJ!'e truil rellccls tht:: phenomenon under s\l1d )', (37) Vallle Ilell trolity Max Webcr's term for o bjccthil) ~ sociolobrisrs in the interpretalion of data. (r1 0) Variable A measural)le lrnit or dmracterist.ic thalis~ ject to ch'lIlge under diO'('re!H conditions. (35)


Cuba. Lee .J. 1\ Slw,' CI/idr IQ Wntmg a/HIUI Sodal .IitU'llif G lell\'iew. Ill. : Se(JII, ForeslIlan, I V8H. l\ concise \It{! page) but thoro ugh summa.,' or the types of social cnce literatu1"e. with s llgge~t ioll s o n ,""TiLing:l reSC:'Md! p:lper and orb'<llli/.ing an o r~11 preselllalioll. Dcnisolf. R. Serge. 11I,~itll' M7V, Rut ge ..s. N ,I.: Traru;~~ti(c. 1988. Kll own 1'01' his st udies of populal' cultUIt Denisolf cm ploys the sociological perspecti ve to !:t' ami ne <I profitable 24-110111" cable OllUC1. DCl11jn , No rm<lll K., and Yvonna S. Lincoln (eds.). fllJ'bJ. //Ofjk ,yQllulil(ll i!'t: f/.l'lmrch. 111OuSol nd Oa ks, Calif.: Sagr 1!J!J4. The 36 ;Jrticle~ in this anthology co\cr I1(I\'I:f techniques used in conuucling obscn'3tio n and h n b'l"aphical researc h. as well as ethical is..~ ucs racing ff'o searchers. Gilber!. Nig'Cl (cd.). fV.lmrdli1lg Soci(ll Life. Ncwbury Pad. Callf.: S:;!ge, 1993. Lsing ac tual studies, the conttlbto tors co\'er intclvicwing tl'chnif)lIcs, q ll t:slio nn:til'~ df' sigil. alld documcll1 !"L'\o;ew, and e\'en disruss hOIl I'" put collected da!:;! into written fl)rm . H:;!niing. Sue (cd. ). FeminislII (Iml Jl./l'lhooolofrj. B1OOllu~ LOn: lndi<ln:;! Unh'ersity Press, 1987, A collet:tion ofct s.lrS which exa mine the W;!ys in which c01l1'enrional ~. cial scientific reseitrch fails LO consider gender Md dr.lw upon the feminist perspcclive. Hull Danell. Hmu 10 Ut with St(llislir:;. :-.Jew York: NOI'IIIl. 1954. "Figures dont lie, bilt liars do figure" is all act;w lhat poims to Lhe way that statislics can he abused. Hili o ffers guid;mce to Ih t: reade r unsop histic;l1ed in \li tislics as to how to beller und crsl.lnd graphs and ~ hIes. Lee , RaY11l0 nd .M . lJoi/Jg HI'.lf.ftrY"h 0// Sr1lIilil~ Toflics. New bur) Park. Cflli t.: Sage, 1993. Drawing Oil a '~\riejf!ll research techniques, 1 au thor cOllside rs how OIlCIlII .llc slIccesstillly stlldy religious cults, child a busc, g<>HI~ IIlCll t policics. :md OUlce topics. Miller. Del ber! C. HlI/uI6(J(Jk uf /Y.!;earch DeSign 111111 &aM

1'lIIrr O.\'Jo nIESOCIOl.OGlC .lt1 I'1:RSN.C l"Il'l::

,,,,","Im'tnll (5th ed.). Ncv.bury Park, Calif,: S;tgc. 19'.11. A veritable enc),clopt.-dia of .scales, indexes. :md mr;asurC' u~ in .sociological Sludies. Also includes ~ to Jibrnl) r~rch , writing of relwrls, and gram fundll1g. Ikitth.lrI, Shulami t. frmill ;JI M~lhods ;11 Sj(j( Ilr9(lrrh. Nrw \'01\: Oxford Univcnil y Pros. 1992. A feminist -=hllbr offcn a critiquc of ~ tablishcd research Icch.-quo ",hill! examining allcmati\'e ways of conducti ng npmments. observations, comem anal)"Sis. and oral

(tt1( llIlr J\lt(UllrtS in Illr S()("wl &irous (2d ed.). Uoslon: l-Iougluo n Miffiin, 1981. '!lIe authors identity UIlObtrusive methods of obtaining 50cial science dat:! other than (lueslio nnilirC! or imcrvleWll.

J..~.~~~~~..........._ _ _ . _ ..........._ ....... ..................................................

Amo ng the journals tha. fOCll5 on methods of sociological .U1d oth scient ific research are the following: fro: A Rn.~ of lIumml .\.'bJnlllWarrn (founded in 1979). journa( of Conlntf/lOffl? Etllllogrophy (197 1). f,bltlllllllrt-,r Sodo/ogJ ( 1977). SoclfIl Scif'tlu IWorm ( 1972). ami Sori%glml M lIllot/l aud &t{/rrn ( 1972).

,,'riIh, lugene j.. Don.tld T. Campbcll. Richard D. Slh'aIll. Lee Scchre5t, and J<mcl Bclcw Gro\c. N01l-

CIIM'lllll Mt.TII0I)S()fSOC101.OC1'~1 HfY~RQl

. . .. .. . .. .. . . .............. . . . . . . . . .
.............................................................................. ................................................................ , ............. .... , ............................................................ , ........ .



,. ,

Sociologist PPler J JerIP ( J963: 18-/ 9) ona observt!d that tll, "sociologist is (I pt:rs011 jJltefisivtl)~ e1ldl,,ssIy, shmn,lessly inll!ftsltd" in Iht doings of ptoph. bl Pari Two, wt bqJin our stud)' of the orgtmizaliotl oJ sociallifr within Inanml comlnlmilies arid societies. OUlP'IT 3 ,xamines tht basic el,,,,enl of any soritty: its cullurt. It collsidm tht dl!Vt/opmnll oJ cuuu,.,. cultural Ilniversals, and variations among euiWm. Clw/ltrr 4 pranlts llle lifelong socialiullioll proass through whirh TIll! acquiT!' cullure and are ;nlrotiucM 10 social slrucllll'l!. CJwPtlT 5 txa ",illts social ;rlleracti01I and thl! majqr aspects of social SI''1ul lI re: slat'llJf!S, TOUtS, groups, ami institutions. Chapler 6 J()CtI.YS on llle impacl oj groups ami organizations on sorifll INh(lv;or. Chapll!T 7 txamill!'s attempts 10 I!1Ijo"Cl! (lrCl'/Jtonct of sodlll norms, as well as INhavior Ih(1I violales norms.


.................... 'C:=====::::~i'==::==:J.....................


CULTURE AND SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE Cultural L:nivcrsals In novation ])iffusion ELEMENTS OF CULTURE L'1l1guagc Language as th e Fo undation of Cultmc Sapir.Whorf H),poth esis 11u: Bilingualism Ddxt1e :-Iorms Typcs of No rms Acccpt:.lllcc of Nonns Sanction, ValUe!

CULTURAL VARIATION Nipt.'C1S of Cuhu ml Variation Subcultures CoUntcn;ullUrC.s Culture Shock Alti\lIdt.'S toward Cultural Variation

SOCIAL POLlC\' AND CULTURE: MULTICULTURALlSM BOXES 3- 1 Around the World: Sexism in Langullges- English a nd J apanese 3--2 Around the: World: The Skinhc;\{1 Coumcrcul lurc



the traveller wlw has been once from home is wiser than he who has never kJt his own door step, so a knowledge of one other culture should shmpel1 our ability to scrutinise mm-e steadily, to aptJreciate mort linJingly, our own_
Morgllrrt M('{ld C'A mirlg of Ags i,l Samoa, 19)9

How do aspecu of a culture cle\'clop? How do th ey sprcad from one socielY lO a nOlh c"? Why is language ,'icwccl by soc iologist.s as lhe fo unda n o f ('very culture? In I.,.ha t wa ys arc norms and sanctio ns used to rC\\" drd a nd pe nalize behavior? Why arc test pilots. compute r hackers. tcenagers. and Appalachians all considered ex:.unples o f subcultures? Should schools a nd collegt,'s ill the United Slat es contin ue to focus o n the tradi tions o f weste rn c ulwres? O r sho uld the)' revise the ir c urricu la 10 give greateT e mph asis to African Ame ri can s. othe r racial and e thni c minori ties. \','ome n, and no nwestc rn cultures?

Wlile a gradua tc studclll in anth ropology. George Esher. Jr- ( 198i) \','as hired to .....ork with Apaches in Arizona and a group ofarchitecl.s lO d e-sign a new communi t), [or the Apac hes_ Th e a rchitects wcre expected to accomm odate IJ1 C distjnCtive traditjons and custom s of this Native Ame ri can tri be: as a result . E..sbcr was hired to obtain relevanl info rmation concel'lling tJ1 C Apaches' ho usin g needs and prefere nces. T o do so. he reviewed wri1te n records o r the Apacbes (tJlc!'('by e ngaging in use of ex isting sources) a nd conduCted fieldwo.-i;. (including observdtion resea rch a nd inte rvie ws)_ Like ma n)' researchers. Esbe r had 10 overcome the

Apad les' concel1ls a bout a n outsider coming the ir commun ity. asking personal quesljollS. obselving day-lOd ay in te ractions. Esber ultimately was successful in d;:~~~,;,~,~,,~ po rta nt issues wilh the Apaches and 4 r in g tu 4he archjt ect.'> those features o f Apache tha t sho uld guide community d c~i gl\ . q t,e nlly. wh e n the Apaches moved into their ho mes in 198 1. thc), cn tercd a co"" ,,,,,,';ly tJ,," h,.. been designed witJl tJlcir participa tio n and their specifi c lr-.tditiOIlS in mind. For example, esse ntial tha t each new ho use have it large, lil'ing space. The culture or the Apaches I.hat all pa nici pa n ts in a sodal situa tion j full view. so t.hat each pe rson can obscn 'c tJlC havio r of all Othe rs and act appro prhue1y illg 1.0 Apache norms a nd "'lIlies). T he Apac hes a rc also accusto med 10 nutio".,o4 gath e rings at people's ho mes at lI'hich an of lood preced es o the r social intc ....lctions_ q ue mly. based on Esher's findin!,fS, architects sign ed large kitche ns (with extra-la rge sinks, boards. and worktllbles) tha t we re near d ining a reas a nd living rooms. In these a nd o the rs, the pla nne rs of lhis new co" """''';'''<1 speclcd and look into aCCOllnt the unique traditions o f tJl e Apaches.

Cultllre is the to tality of leamoo , soci:.lll)' lcd bchavior_ IL includes the ideas. " llues" ~~d~~ toms (as \>" ell as the sailboats, cOlllic books. a


PANT "/11'0 (}/l(;.'uVllJNG S(K' A1. J

oll',lml devices) of groups of people, Therefore, palnlltu.: .utarbmclll to the Ullit ed Sta leS fl ag is an as-pn:1 of I uhure. as is the Apaches' pl'efcrencc for I.i.~. open Ihing spaces wh e re eyer)'ollC can sce onc- ""OIlier o r the tradition in TIlailand tha! no IHlt hc .Ill()l..'cd (0 touc h their q ueen in puulic. Snmctimes people refer 10 a particu la r 1)(:rso l1 ill> ~\'t'" I ulwrcd" 01' to a cit), as h aving " lots of cuitUft'.- Th'l\ use of Ih e tenn cllltllrr is d ifTe,'c ll t from 0111' It\( in th is lexlboo~, In sociological terms, cl//II'"du.. not refer sole ly to the fin e ans a nd re fin ed . jtllrlll'<.tu;u t.'lSte. h consists of illl o l!ieCL<; and ideas kitllUl " WCict)'. including ice c l'ea rn cones, !'Od:. aUl"I \IId slang "'ords. Socio logistS consider IXllh 01 pnnmlt b)' Rell1 br:'lIldt ,lILd a portra it by a b illbOilrd pamler 1 be as pects ofa cul ture. A tribe th a t 0 cull(\-atl ~()iI b)' ha nd h asjusl as mllch of;:1 c ulture ..... people that relics on diescl-operated machint'n" n\ll~. each people has a distinctive culture "'<i lll lb (1"-11 ('hamclc ristjc \'~ ' YS of gat ll ("ring ~ll ld p re parU hlOd. (OllslrUcling home!>, slnlclu ring th e fant\I ;11111 promOling st;,nd ards of righl and wrong. Shoaring a similar cultu re hel ps tu dcl;lIc the gwup t() ~'hic h we belong, J\ fai rly large Illllnber of propll'.lrr said (0 consljtlltc a society wh ell t.he), hn'intht;: sounc territory, are relati\'e1y independent ~ pt'uJllt' outside the il' rl rea, aucl partici p:llC in a UJffinlUI1 culture, T he city 1)1 Los Angeles is more P"P" NIU th an mall}' mtti o n ~ of the world, ),CI sodulUltbbllo notcoJlsider it a society in ilS O\Y'n ligh L Ibthlr. il IS seen as part o f- and d ependent 011Ibr ~ct 50CielY of the United SUHCS, A weirl)' ~ the ];u'gesl loJ"11I 01 hU llIan group, It ~, ur people who sh a re a C0111111011 he riwge IDd (ultu. c, Members 01" tJ1C ~odet)' learn this culturr dud tmnS.I1lit it fro lll onc generatio n to the 1Jl"I;1. rhcI C\'cn Ilreser\'c their distincti\'e culture &hmI/X" Il ler-lt ure. :m, vid eo recu rdings, illlt! o ther ..-an.\ III expression. If it ""ere 1101 1 the social 01' lJ:In\lIUS~I()n of culture . each gnleration wou ld haw- \(.I rdmenl telc\1sioll. not to menlio n the

wiil provide seaLS for the iludie llce, ),011 also ilssumc th al physicia.ns will nOI disclo:;e con fi dent ia l information. th:u banks will protect the money you deposit. and Ih al pare n ts .. viII be cltrcfu l when cro:lSiug the streel with you ng ch ildren. All th ese a...~Sul1lpli ons l'cflcc t the b<tsic \'illues. beliefs. :\lld c ustoms 01 Ih e cul ture of Ihe United Stntl'S, Me mbers or il socict) gCllcr.aUy sh are a common I:mb"-mge. 11nd th is fac t also radl il:lICS d ay-to'day c:<clm ngcs with m heD. Lallgtl:tgc is a critical elemcnt o f c ult ure t.h at scts h u ma ns :lpart fro nt other species. Wh en )'011 ask a har<!,,/".uc store clerk for a fl ashlight. you do n ot need 10 d",w a picture of lht" instrume nt. YOu sh,lI"(! the sa1l1 e cuhur.iJ tcrlll fo r a sma ll. l: ller}'-OpenHcd. por(;lble light. HOI\lcw:r. ir m )"0 11 were in En gland ;lI1 d need ed this item, you would hal'e tu ask for an ~e l cctr1c lorch." or course, CI'e n wilhin the sa me socicty. a .e rnl can hl.l\'e a nu mber of di lfc re n t mcani ng... In the United S l al C~, gm,\J signifies both ;\ p lam eaten by grazing anim:lls .met an illloxic."lti n g drug. The stud y or cul lll n' i<i an important pan of contemponu), soc i olo~. .icaJ \1'UI'k. This c ha pler I\il l ex, al ninc the development of culture fro m its rooLS ill the p.-eh isloric hU111an experience. T he lIl:yor :ispeCLS of culture-including langu age, !lonns, 5OI I IClioll", and v<llues-will be defined and e:<plol'ed. T he discussion "" iII focus hoth 0 11 ge nera l cultural practices fo u n d in a ll societit-s and on the wide \~ Iri, a lions thal can distinguish I1l1e society imm ~1Il oth er, Wc will COn tl'"i:LSI lhe ways in which functiona list and cf)llllict thcQr1st$ I'iell' c u lt u re, T he mcial I>olicy scclion wi ll look at th e conflicts in CUh 1l1~1 1 va lues wh ich u l\derlie t l1 1 '1'CIlI d c hmcs oye" Ihe lIse o f rnulticultlll'a l cUlTicula ill ~hools and collegl.'S in tI ll' U n ited S I~Il('S.


T h rough ad\~ln ces in cu lturc, hUlIla n he inb'S h ave COmc a long Mty from o u r preh i"lonc hClit;lgc, In the I gODs. \VC C".t 11 send aStronalllS 10 til t: mOOl I. spli t th~ iHom , and prolong lives th rough hCO'Irt tmnsp l:Ul t", T he h u man species has prod uced ~uch :1chieleme lll" ;LS the rng tilllc com l>osiliolls of SeOl! joplil1 , th e paimings of Vi lice li t V:tn Cogh . dw poetry or Emil)' l)ickinsol1 , till' novels or Leo Tolsto),. .lnd the films of Aki'd KllrOS<\I..-:t. WC OH1 CI'I'n

lt'ling a COlllmon cult u re a lso si mplifies ma ny d;w.(o-d.l)' internctions. F(u' exam p le. if)'o l1 p lal1 to plO.l ffit)\; t rnealCr ill the U n itl'd SlfltcS , ),Oll kn ow I!IaI to\lto,i lln OI need to bring :llong:1 dmi,'. Wh e n toil aft' parI of a . ciClY. th ere arc man y small (as W "U:t' more importa.nt) cu ltural 1)3UemS that rOil IlUlur gr:1lllcd, J USI <1$ you aM u me tha t thea teN



eu Telll

analyzc o ur inncnllost reelings LhroLlKh the insiglHs or Sib>1111llld Freud and othe r pioneers or rJsyc!.ology. In all Ihese ways. we are remarkably differcnt from (Jlh e r species or the animal kingdom . The proCt:s.s or expanding cuhUl'C h a'> a lrcad)' been under w:.1)' for thousands or years and will conlinue in the rUlUre . T he fi rst archcological evidcnce or hurnanlike primatcs placcs our :mcestol'S back many millions of years. Some 2.5 million years ago people used tools and had eontaincl'S for storage. From 35,000 years ago wc have evidence or paintings. jell'clry, a nd statues. By that time, elaborn tc cerelllo nies had already been developed for ma rriages, births, deaths ( Havilal1d , 1985), Tracing the dcvc[o pmelH of culture is not easy. Archeologists camlot "dig up" wedding:o;, 1:1W or S. gOl'ernmelll. but the), are able to loca te items that point to the e me rgence or cuhul'al u<ldi tioll S, Q UI' early a ncesto rs were p l'ima tes that had c haraCLc ri ~ tics or human beings. Th ese cmin llS and communicative creaUlres m:lde importall1 :Idva nces in th e use of tools. Recent studies or chimpanlces in the wild bave revealcd That th e), rreque ntly use sticks a nd o lhe r n:Hural objects in \1"1). learned rrom OIbcr members or the g roup. Howel'er, unlike c him pan zecs, our a ncestors gradually made lools rrom increasingly durable materials. As a resu li., the ite ms could be reused and refill ed into 1110 re e ffcct ive implements.

Ga mes Gestures Gift giving Hai nu)'les HOllsi ng Language Laws

~1 alTiagc

Mcd icine Music

Myths Nume rals l~eJ'SO llal nalnes Property rights Relig io n Sexual restrictiom Surge ry Toolmaking Trade Visitil1 g

~,~~...y.~y.~~!~... ................,........................................ .
T hroughout history, human be ings hal'e made drnmalic c ultuml advances. Despite Ih eir di fferences, all socie ties have a tte mpted to mee t ba~ic human needs by develo ping c\lhuml unil'crsals. Cultura l univ~r$als1 such as language. are gCllerdl practices found in eve!)' c uh\ll'c, Amhropo logist CCOI'gc MlII'doc k (194 5: 124 ) compiled a lisl Or CUllllral univcrsals. Some o f Ihe cxam ples ide ntilied by tI-IUI'dock include: ALhletic sports Bodily adOl'lll11Cnl Cale ndars Cool-jng Coul'tship Dancing Decorative ilrt Dream inl l'rprelalion Family Fulklore Food habits Food taboos Fun eral cere monies

Man)' clLiluralunivenmb arc, in rac t, adapta~ 10 mect cssclllial human needs, such as peop~'1 need ror rood . shelte r. and clothing. Ye t althou th e cultll l-;:II practin:s li ~Led by Murdoc.k 11111)' be Ut versal. the ma nne r in which they a rc ex pres~d \\ \'ary rrom culture lO c ulture. F OI' example. oor O ciety may a ttelllpt L influen ce i L~ wea1.her by lit"\.'40ing clouds wi th dry ice panicles 10 bring llbout AnOl h c l' culture l11ay oITer sacrifi ces to tIll' god~ . o rde r to end a long pc riod or d roughL Likt' J:,rames, toys ca n be viewed as a cultural I versal. However. as nOled abol'e, the manner wh ich cuitul"al uni\'c r mls are expressed will I Th us, while it has expanded to intcmational l kcLS around th e world , To)'lI .. }{ ~ Us sells poree dolls in Japan , 1\'()Q<le n to),!! in Ge rmany, a nd m c ls or a high--speed tmin in Fnncc. C hild ren thCSL' countries may all wa nt electronic g'd mes sluJTcci animals. but lhei r o ther toy prefe re nces n differ sib' (A. Mill e r. 1992). \-Vhile all c ultures share certain general p d ces-~ \J ch as cooki ng. gift giving. a nd dancing Lh e expression of any cultura l UIl il'ersal ill a soc' ilia), cha nge dramatically over time. Thus, the popular styles uf dancing in lh c United SLaI('S d ing t.Iu:: 1990s fire Sllre to be dinc rc lll frolllthe SI) that "'e re do minanl in th e 1950s o r the 1970". gCIlCI'Hli oll , and eac h rcar, most human CUltlU c hange and expand lhrough the procc,>!iC') of novation a nd dinusion.

.~g.Y~.~Q.~.........,.. ,.............................,..........-.............. _ _
The process of intruducing an idca or object tl is new 10 c ulture is k.llown a.s ill novation. nlcre two forms o r ill novation : di scovery lIn d imTn~ A discovery invokcs making known or sharing t cxjsle n ce of a n aspect o r reality. Th e finding ofl

PMO' -"l 'U ()lIr /lJ"'r.. SUfJAI I..JF1o .I,,\

l),.romtilN' art

I.J /I

cultural uniwT.J{d.

ShoUln flrr nrtwo'*s from the ISland


IndOlltS;a (top Irfl). Jrom G,WIf'lIIala (111/1 rigllt), (md frolll



ll~.\ molecule ancl the id c milic",ioll of a new 11Ioon of s,'\!UnI arc both a C I,~ of disc()\cIY. A signifICant facial' in tht." procc'is ofdisco\'cl) ' is thc sha l'ilK uf nt\\found knowledge with others, By con1r.1\!. an i"vtmtiot. !'l"SUll\ when existing c ultural Ih'ml ar~ combin ed into a lorlll th,lI did not exist ' ... k,I"(. TIlt" bow :md ,U'-O\\ , 111(' automobile, ,md '! tdnisiou arc all examplcs of in' cnliOlu. as an~ l'rnrnwlllism and dClllocracy,


A'l5tmlio (OOIlom),

Onc dot."S not h:we \0 sample gounnet food lO cat ~ro l'cign - foods. cereal comes originally fmlll Germa ny. candy from rhe Nethe rlands. c hewing gum from Me)(ico. alld the pouno chip fmlll the America o f the Indian'i, Tho United StalCS has also ~c::)(pon(~dM our foods 10 o ther lands, Residents ofm'Ill) nalions el~oy pi7.7a. which was popularized

CJIAI'fI:H J a 'l Tt 'Ill'

in the United States. I-I owe\'er, in Japan they add squid , in Australia it is eaten with pin eapple, and in England people like ke rnels of corn with the cheese. JUSI as a c uhure does 11 0 1 always discove r or invcm its foods , it llIay also adop l ideas, technology, a nd CUSIOIllS from other c ultures. Sociologists lIse lhe te rm diffllsion to refer 10 the process by which a culLUral ilem is spread from group 10 group or society LO society. DilTusio n can occur through a \'<1.riety of means, among the m exploratio n, military conquest, Illissionary work, the in nuence of the mass media, and LOuriSnl. E.arly in huma n history, c ult.ure c hanged rathe.r 510\\'ly through discove ry. A~ the number of discO\'cries ill a culture in creased , inve ntions becam e possi ble. Tht! more inventions thcre welc. the more mpidly funher inven tions could be c reated . In addition , as diverse cullllres came into contact with Olle another, they could each take advantage of the othe r 's illnovalio ns. Thus. whe n people in the United Sta les read a newspaper, we loo k al Ch,lf<lCIt!rs ilH"ClHeci by the a nc ient Scm ilCS, p ri nted by a

Thf lut of slog{lll$ 11"11 T sl/irts 10 ""'" poiilf((ll s/lIleJlleJ!u origiwllttl i1l Iht Uniled SII/Us during Ihe J960s. B:; It. lalt 1980l', Ihis Imlcliet! 1/1111 spmuI acro.u lite lW/M thl'oug" till JIroCm ~ diffUSion. /-fOlJ'f'wr, in 1987 I'" &lII~ Africa/! govmWletl/ brmnfd such mts.mgt.f, most of wllirh tegistrml IJ/J/,fi!;QlI 10 /lIe ",ifm'cffl stgrtgallfJfl (a/Jarlhrid) Ihm had lxislid allhal
fimf. Th~ grJl!trrilllilj/:~ ()1d~ was mII

with Imb/ie ridiC llle

(//Ullll(l.J SOWI

"-scil/did, but WlII)" scJlOols "1 Sol/lit Afrim cantinued /ojormd

-1I1111r.r.1IMblr" Jlogtllls.

process invented in Germany, on a material invCllLed in China (Limon, 1936:326-327) . DilTusioll may take place over extremely 10ngdi!tances. Thc use ofslTlokin g tobacco began when Indiall tribes in the Ca ribbcall invented the habit d smoking IJle tobacco plant, whe re it grew wild. (htl a period of hundreds of years, tobacco was acquirl and cultivated by OI1C neighbori ng tribe after an-


nro OIlG/i,\ /I'j,V{ .\(j("" 11 1


. , I1IIUII,I(h dinusioll , Ihis Pr.lClirt Ira\clcd 8IruuJch (-('Imal America and aero..... I,he North

...... Wlllillcnl ( Kroeber. 1923:2 11 -2 14 ). brn ,,1111111 a 50del), diffusion OCClII'S as i nIlO\~d ....-d~o\t'rics and iJwl'l1lions-Kain l\idt!1" acIIf*DCr, For example, Ihl' l.icc uf~rnp~ wa!> e\"Wm!.&OItlug tert,un inncl"-cil) BhlCks Il)l1g be fore _pl'upl,~ mlhe Lniled Slale~ were a.... ," c llf Ihis _or ~.nging. A IY85 music video by Ihe C I,io tg'u 1atIIIIIllballlc311l helped 10 l)Clpulari1e .a p; pan.!y mult. mp smgi llg groups like Ruu-n .M.C. beoutside ce nlral citit's. \\'hilt Iht'Y..' cxampll-s show lha l din IlsiC)!1 is com_ "llhlll tht" Uniled Stale.. :lIId frolU ("uhure to caIrun-, It "HlSt be e lllphasized Ih:1I dilTusio ll of cul. . . lI"It.~ rI()(:, nOI occur automatically. Croups (l0t'11 .... resist ideas which seem lOO roreign as WI OD I!tOo;(' \lhiclt arc perceived a~ lhrealelllng to Ibtir "",'1 hcli('fs and values. Each c ulLUl'c lend~ to lIf'lllOIl~h,lt .. elective in what it ;Ibso rb~ from com~ ~llIl!ures. Elu'ope acce pted silk. till': lIIagl1l~ li c CIJIIIPiU..~. rlte'l~. and gunpowder rrom Lhe Chinl'St: the teachings of Confucill' alo an idl " tIIap. \UII! I~ple in the United Slale) luu c ac~ ,h(' Idea or un,punew,.", lhe Chinl'sc pracIIu III pUlltlunng lhe body with needlo to c ure !lair nr l"I~ h f:\e p.un, but rew h;I\(.' commiue d ....... IH"lj tu the philo'lOph) behind aCllpunc ture, _h IIl\oIH?S the idea lhat the human body conlIn"1u.l1 hut opposite ro rces c:tllcd )';1/ :tnd ]""g, "''''''I(ist \\~1Ii3m F. Ogburn ( 1922:202-203) . . . . 01 \l\('!ul diSlinnioll be l\u"ell dcments 01 maMIiaI .wt! nQllIllalcria l culture. Material culture "1",11(' ph)'!iiC""dl o r lec hnologic-oIl ,tsPCClS of our ~ IM.... incl uding food ilenu:, h o f.tclories. lid rollo mall~riitI5. NOllmater;al cu llllre refe", to .... ~ IIllllg material objecLS anti 1 Clls lom~ , bl. 0 " Wt. pllllfophies. gove rnme nts, and panerm of ~tuIlC;ttillll . Ccncr.t.ll). Il lc nortlll:lleri,11 cIIIIaR' l'o mort rCsiSt:l lll 1.0 change lhan Lht' nHllerial i~ 'nlcrcforc. as w( haw SCt' n . llll'eign idt'<ls ariftlo,t'd a~ morc tlm.:au.: nillg t t) :1 C'1 t1U1n~ lIwn """ I)(xhlcts arc. This is lJ"llC both fOl residents Iflbr lnil(:d StatClj and for tJlJlcr p('oples or lltc .nt,"('dfC 1II0re "ilIillg 10 1I ~ lcchnologiC:11 inlIIallmhlhat make o urli\'es easie r than we are ide!lwl dmngc o ur '\~d) 01 St:~i ng lhe "'orld. .Pt ", (llIr SOciety h.-LS c;elec thc1) .Ibsol bed ccr. . pr,UU(C' ;tIld belids Iro m Chllm :md o ther

_ w"",,,

no nweSlCI'l1 c.ulturl'S. ~O lOO have th ese cultures been on th e receiving Clld or cullllrnl diffusion. \'Vhile Japall has o nly 800.000 pmclicing Cluistians in its pol}ulalion o f 120 millio n people. Kun.wmasu (the Jall<II1c''ie te rm for ~Chrbtmas -) i5 ne\~ rt11cless a major holiday, Although Ku risll1lUUIl is not a reii gious obsc,,-allce. it i5 a highly c.omme rcial occ.asion . renening o bvious influe nces from lhe Uni ted Stales, TheJ:tp:mese art: encourdgcd 10 buy girLS as they p;L"'~ through s ton~s fill e d \"ilh lin'IClecl Christmas trecs and tJll' ~wecl sounds or Bing CI'O~by singing ~ Whilt CIII;~ lllla.~" (R. "atcs, 1985) .

t.:!J:M~ .Qf ..C;:ll,"!Y..~..........._ .......... _


.. *,('(1

Each c.ulture considers its OWll di~tin cti\'e wa)'lI of handling basic ~ociclal l;\sb ;LS -natural.- BUl. in racl. me thods or education, m;,rit;tl certmonies. religious clOC1I'in t:s, alld other ;\specu or culLUrc arc lcarned and Ir;m smill,cd Lhl"Ough hllln:1n imeractions within spedlic societies. Life long residents or Naplt.-s wi ll comider it natur.ll to speak Iwlian , whereas lirel ong ,csidcnts or Bue nos Aires " 'ill reel the s;une way about Spanish. CIl':lrly. the cilizel1!l o f each counll) havc bct:n shaped by IIIl" c ulture in ""hieh the) Ihc.


-............ -..-.......... _ ..................


Language lells U~ a g reat d(.',,1 ~tlXIIII a culture. In lhe old ,,,cst, words suc h :t!> K"Mi"g. l lfllllfm. mm.,.. piebald, ,lIId smul were :lll u<;ed hi describe one anim.II-lhe hOI"'iC . Even ir wc knew litlle of tJlis period or hislOI) , we could conclude from IJle list or tcnns I,hat hofSCJ "ere quilc impo n .1Il1 in lhis culture. A.. a n:"luh. Lhey recci\'ed a n unustJ.lI degree or linguisljc allenlion . In UIC contemporary culture of llle UllIted St.'ltes. UJ{' lerms ffmvn1iblt', dllllt' buggy, vOII,!Qu r-wh"' d,';w. Sfflfll4, a rId l/a/IOII wflgrm arc all employed tu describe the sallle rnccltanical rorl11 or transportation , PcrImps tlte ca r is all imponal" lO us as Ihe ho rse was to IJ,e I'c~idellts ollhe o ld west. Sirnilarly, the Sarnal people oltht' soUthern Philippincs - It)rwhom Ii~h are:a main source of bulh rood ,md income- Il<\\,c tenus for IlU C than 70 types of fishing and morc ;Il lhan 250 diOt:re nt kinds or fish , Thc Sld\'C Indian5 or lIonhe rn C mada . who li\c in a raUll'r frigid climate . 11,.\... l 'llenlls lo de..cribe ice, including dg ht

f.JMF1l.H J r:t:I-1"I III

(HId t)/III'n 0"

">' (/Iof P4)/1! tlJw.nnlly yj"id ~{j/n"l,. of f'QInIlUHllral iml lu;lI!mj(

Thll S'b"" /(lllgtUlgrJ IISrd

l'JfJirlll um/ .sl",'rh.

101 rldTcren t kinds of -solid i cc~ and o thers for "seamed i ce,~ Rcrackcd ice . ~ ami R floaling ict .~ Clearly. the priorities o f it culLurc arc rcllccted in
itS I:tIlb"-mge (Basso, 1972:35; J. C'lrro ll. 1956).

Language as the Foundation of Culture Language is the fo undation o f e\'ery cultu re, though pank ular l anb"tJage~ differ ill wa)'s. Language is an abst ract systcm of word meanings a nd symbo ls fo r a ll aspects 0 1 c ultu re. L...'lnguage includes speech , written tcrs. nume rals, ~ym bols , and gcstun.'S of nonverbal commun ication. The sign h111 6 "tmges lIsed by deaf people a nd othe rs arc an especially vivid e xample o f communication \\ithollt typical o ra l speech . AI least 50 nati\'e sign languages arc lLsed in variolls cllltu res a rou nd th e world, amOllg the m American Sign L:lIlguagc (ASL). In th e p;L~t, ASL was no t accepterl <IS a la ngunge. but in 1965 educmor Bill Stokoe publ ished Lhe first dictionary of Amcl; can Sign L<lnb"tlage biLS<.' d all linguistic pl"inri ples. SlOkoe's work undcrscorc th ~ fan t11:n ASL users com bine '~driOUS hand and hody movcnu.: nts to produce recognizablc words and an understood languagt. In deed.

Ursula 8ellllbri, a piont!crin g ASL researcher 3t r Salk Institutc, contends th at lhe "deaf IIIill1l ill ~lp! They (iream in signs. A.nd liulc childre n sign u thcmsek es" (Wolkomir. 1992:32. 40; see al!(10. nick. 1993: 1 Lane, 1992). 1. Lang uage . (,f co urse. is not an excl usively hun attribute. Alt.hough the), arc incdpablc of 1111111 speech , c h imp.lIlzces have been a ble la use Split. to commun icatc. Howcvcr. eve n lit lheir rooM vanced lc\'el, animals operate with eSSClllialh fi xed set o f signs wilh fi xed meanings. By COntm. hmmll1s can manipula te symbols in orde r to exprtt abstmct co nccpts and rules and to ex pand hum. cu ltures. In con trast to some other eleme nts of cui language pe nneales al l pal'ts o r ~oci e ty. Certain tu rn1 skills, such lIS cooking or carpe ntry, can 1 IClu'ncd with o u t the use o f langu age t1l1'ough process o f imitation . l-!o\\'cver, it is impossible tra n ~mil compl ex legal and religious sySICI1Uto !IJ next gc ne ration by watching to sec h ow lhl... perfonned. You could bang a g:lvel as a judge c\I but yo u wo uld never be a ble to understand ~ rcason ing wilhout lan guage. Thercfore, pcopk variably depcnd upon language fo r the lIse tra nsmissio n o f thc r(.1It of a c ultu re, Wh ile language is a cultural universal, dilTert' ill th e LISt' of lan guage are t!\~ d ent around ~ world . This is the case even whe n two cOllntrio the same spo ke n language. For cxample. an lish--spcaking person from the Un ited State~ who visiting London may be pll7.Zled the first tim~ English rriend says she "~ II M ring yo u up~ : s h e I she will ca ll you o n the telephone, Similarly, meanings of nonverbal gcswrcs v<ul' from one lllre 10 a nother. Wh e reas rcsicl e nL~ of the llll SI.:lles commo nl} use a ncl attach positive mean la lh e M lhllmbs up" gesture , this gesture has vl llgar conn otations in Greece (Ekman etal. I Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Language doc1l rnl than simply describe realit)'; il also se rves LO the reaJity of a culture. For example. people in Un ited StaleS can no t easily make the \'e ~ uu cli on aboUl ice that arc possible in the Slaw dian culturc. As a result. we may be somewhat likely to notice slIch di fferences. The role of la nguage in inte rpre ting lhe l'I for us ha~ been advanced in t.he Sapir-WIJ


~rt il. whicll is named for 1...... 0 linguists. t\ccordinX III Sapir and \\,hol'f, sinc(" people c::m conctpUUIi/.t' the ""orld only lhmugh language. lanPRt' prlcc.'des though!. 11l1IS, tll(' word symbols .ad Kl'3tnmar of:1 I.mgullgc o rg:lIl i;1.(' the world fo r Ill. CM Sdpir-Whorf h)1>Olhesi!i also holds lha t la llIUIt i~ not " gi\en . ~ Rather. it i~ culturnlly tlt'1mUtJk'f1 .tnd leads to different illterprCL"ltions o f lab", try Jocusing our atlelHioll on certain pheQOIIk'tIil.

Tbi\ hypothesis is consid ered sn import;llll that reprinled by the Stale DeparullclJ l. in lItlr.unmg programs 10 scnsiti1e forcib'll service 01: &rm.lf)lht'~ubtl e uses oflanguage. 1 lowc\'cr, many IDC1aI 'oI\t'nl ists ch<lJlcngc the SapirWhorf h )'po lheIII .LIIII .ugue that language does nOI deLC rminc Mrnalt thought alld beha\'ior panl.'rn~ . A.~ a rcsult , .. h'flCllhesis h:L~ been moderated somc\\'hat to ~tthatlangu age llIay inj7U1'11n ( ralher than d~ trrnllnt) Ix-ha\o1ol' and in terpretations of S()c ial .-~ . . IJ. l.arroll, 19&3:46; K.a.y a nd K.cmpton . 1984; Aknnld 1~~!34 ; Sapil', 1929). 8rtlin .utd Kay ( 199 1) han' noted that hum:m!! ~thc ph)s.ical ability to make millions. of co llJl' 1iIru1cIHIII~, ret la nguages d ifTc1' in Ih(' Illllu bcl' o f ~wh," Ihat an: recognil.ed. The English la nguage 6lillgukhc! between yellow and orange. but somc Olbt, l.ll1l(l.IagCll do not. In the Dugum Dani lanpiIl'.1( Kc"," Guinea's W(!Sl I-l ighlands, then' arc unit n.o hasic colo r terms-lIIodt" for ~w h il('~ a nd _ful -hl.\Ck.~ By COlltl';ISt. there an: I t ba.s ic te rms III Ertf!:11~l t . Russian ami r IUllgarian, tho ug h, 1 1lIVC 1200101 terms. Rw;sians havc tenns for ligh t b lue IDdd;lr~ blue. while Hu ngarians ha"e t.crms fOr two "mmt ~hades of red. T h us. in a literal scnse. lall' . . . m.t) color how ....'e see lhe wodd. (jrndflrclated language can refl ect-alt hough 11 ilJl'll ~I ",m not de terminc-Ihe traditio nal ac.nn of men a nd women in (C)'Iain occupatIOIb. l;lch time we list! a te rm like III(/illllall, I~{)lir,. ~ (If jirtnlllll, we arc impl)~lIg (cspcciall)' 10 J'lUIII chil(lren) tha t Ihese occupat io ns can be I1rd ')111), I)r males. \'~t ma ny womcn work as 'rUn' ."",. 111/"'1 OffiCrrt. anti jirejig"'''''s-~ fac t th:1I is ~ Inucasiugly recogll izcd .md l egi'-i mh~ctl ~ the use of nOnscxist l an~.,..t1agf' (Manyna. 1 1ItI). ~xist biase~ of the Eng-lish and J apanese ~~ are examined in Box 3-1 o n p:.gc 70. JiI't <i' 1'lIIguage ",ay ellcouragc gcnd er-rdatcd

le"" hctn

slen."Ot)tpCs, it O.lll also t,?nsmit stereotypes related to race. Diclion:lrie~ publi..shcd in lhe: Uni tcd St;lle, list, among lhe meaning'> of thc a<ljcc1 Mark: "dishc mal, gloomy or fOI'bidding,H ~dcs'itutc of lIIora l lig ht o r goodl1(:ss." "atrocious," "cvil ," "th rea te n illg," ~clou ded with anger." DiCliullaric.:s also list "pure" and "innocen ," among the meanings of tilt: :I<ljecti\'c whitr. Through such pallcrn~, our c ulturc rcinfOI'CCs positive associations with the Icnn (:t l,t! skin color) II'hiJl! a nd a neg.llivc aSS<lcia lion with "hull. Therefure. il is not surprising thal a list \vhich pre\'ents pcople from working in a profession is called a bhlthli!it. while ,I lie lhat wc think of tL~ somewhat acceptllble is called :1 whill! Iif'.

Language is of in IC I'est 10 all tJl rce sociologit-al 1)t:1sJ>Cctives. Funclionalbas empha.~ize U1f: important role of I<lnguage in IIni/}ing members of a '\O('icl},. By conll':'lst. conflict theorists foc us on the use ul la ng uage to perpetuate" didsio ns between groups and s()c.:ie ti cs-a.~ in the subtle and nOl-so-subllc sexis m and radsm cxpl'csscd itl communication. Intcraclioni..sts stud)' ho ..... people rcl)' upon slllll"ed defini tions of p h rasc..'1 and exp"C-.siOIl~ in bOth furmal speech and e\'e11'd<l)' conversa tiOIl. Language call ~hapc how wc set.:, tast(.', sme ll . ft.:cI, and hear. It ltlSO influences the way we think abollt lhe people, ideas, ,md objects. around us. A c ullUre's mOSt important nonns, values. and sallction'l arc comlllunicated to people th roug h language:. 11 is 1 1' these rc;;tSQltS that the int rod uction of Ilt'W 0 l'lllguagCs into .. society is such a sensitive issllI.' in many parts of tht' world . T he Bilingualism Debate Accord ing 10 a report 1 '('leased b)' the Bureau of the Census in 1993. a l IHO~ 1 32 mi llion residcn L~ of the Un iter! SHlIes- 01' ;thulLt onc 0111 of C\'cry seven pcople-spe;tk a langll:lge: other than Engli~ h . Indeed . 50 di rrerent languag(.'S are each spokcn by a t leasl 30,000 residents or this COUlllty. Over thc period 19RO to 1990. the l'c ....'a.~ a 38 p~l'(: e nt i in the THllltbt-r of people in thc Un iled Slalcs who speak :1 fo reign 1;.II1guage (Usdansky. I993b) . The!oe data a re frequcntl y cited as pa rt of the pal'sion:lle dcbau: under MI)' in the United St;ttcs Iw('r bi lingualism. Bil ; IIg lla l ism is lhe lIse of tl>.'O or mDl'c J:U1g'U<lgCIi in workpktces o r in ed ucational fac ililit,<; <tll d the tr('allllCIIl of cach language as equally

f;IfM'{f) 1 J . CI/T.71'Ht



IlenlC'). Myl..ol II:unillOll , and U.. rie T llonlC ( 1985: 169) "Ir suggesl Ihal lhe sexi!l bias of Ihe English lallgllagr l .. k('5 1I11~ pnncipal form5: ~h iguort'$. il defines. il dc prec:u es. ~ ICNORING Eng lish ig n ores fc:mak-s by favoti !l ~ the f1\;uculme fo rm for a ll gcuelic uses. a~ in the !I(' lHc ncc: M Eadl en [nun ill tIll;: cOillpcLiLion sh ould d" his bell_ According 10 the nl lc~ o f Eng lish grnm m,u, il is incu ....ecl 10 use - t.1I1:ir heSt- as Ihe ~illRu l ar fonn in Ihe previ o\l~ ~e IllCIll:e . M Ol't"on~ .., usage of lhe w he o r \ lIc lonn (M Each c nlr.lIl1 in Ihe compt.'lilion sho uld du his or h cr hc~n i~ ollel1 amKkecl 'L~ being cl ulllsy. NC\t!'I.h t:ldS, f(:m ini \ ts imiSI th at Culllmun use of male ronns :I~ gencnc.. makes \\'O!llen and J(irb imislblr a nd implicitly sUAAt:S15 thal IImlcnc..'SS ,me! m ascu lilll- \';llues llre Ihe standard for hum.ulll ) and no rmalil~ . For this reason, the're has l)e(-n rCSiS!;IllCt' 10 Ihe use of tenllS like m(li/mllll, poJUt:lII'", . md firt1ll'W Dllwn ID reprC'!ie nl IJW mt'1l W ... ho perfor m th ese occupations.


all}' lose their 01'0'11 lIamcs and 1.lke tllc ir husban ds', while ch ild re n ge ner.III )' take the n:U Ue3 o fl) leir faIhers :lIld not their mothers. These tradiuons ofnallling reneet we~ten1 legal tradi tio ns under which c h il d te)! ...ere viC\\t....1 as Ihe prop4'ft}' of their fathers ami married \\'Omcn as th e property of lhdr husbands. ' nIt: \'icwof fcm a lt.'5:1s l>OMe!!siol ls ha lso evide n t in Ihe pmni.e of mill~ fema le ua nH-"S lIlId pronOlllls 10 refc," to m:llc rial posscssiolls ~lIch as car<i, m:u:hi ut'5. a nd shi ps"

m;lle~, s.'lIlle around Iht' world " Indeed. 1993, J apan's lal)()r ministtr lenged tha t SOClcl}"S " ......., pr.Lctic(' of (kpicting WOIIICr!



Thet'c a rc clear d il1hc nccs in Ihe ...'Onls that a l'e applicd 10 male! ..LlId female Ihi ngM whic h Tenet"1 men's ,lumil1:tnt POSL1IOl1 in Ellgli~h soci eti~, "-or es:tlllpk,'n. worl.. m:!} be patro ni1ed as w prt'tly- or M nicc,w whereas men' work i~ more o f: n honorcd as ITI1LSterfur or - bril1 ia nl. ~ In ma ny w instances,:I woman's Qt:cllpatioll or profession is tri\iaJ i:.ted with the femin ine ending "I!Q' o r -rl~: Ihu!, e\cn ,I rlistil1gllis hl"t:1 wti ter lIlay be ghe n second,lass SlalUS as a /#U31 o r a ll (1ll1hOf'Jl5J. In d dC"dr mallift'!lta lio n or ~isllL , terms of sc:xu;11 i .. stili in Llu: English I;mgl.lage arc: a pplied helmingly 10 .... o men. One researcher fou nd 220 LCnll~ fot' a .sexually promiscllou5;m hU I o nl y 22 fo r " sexually pro miscuous m;1Il (SI<llllcy, 1977). Wh lk th e Eng lish I:mguagc: ignorc:.~, d efine5, and depl'CC"lte~ fe..

In I.hc \;l'W of H cnky :md her colleagt' Cli ( 1985: 170). - huI gu age bolh re n ectll :lIld h cl p~ lIlai lH;li n women', seconda ry s t:ltll~ in o ur !iOCICI)'. by defining hc.:1' .111<1 he:r pl:H..c:.'M The powe r 10 d efi n e Ih roug h naming is cspe,'-Cia ll r signilicant in this process, Mamed ...ome n Ir..Ldition-

ernm c nl d oculIle n ts as ':~:~~~:I ryil1g b rooms. The o nicial "''Ome n , fllptl, is rcprcst'l1Ied b) dmrncLC:n whtch li terally m('all 1II:lle person clll'f); ng broom" fb lY, 19tJ3a). The expre,,-~iorls commonl) b) girls :Uld boys in J a pall stnre ge nder tlm" rcllces. A c ret CI' to h ilmelf hy usi ng Iht bokZl , whic h means M _ Blu a I. G Um!)! as..'lC rt he r cxisle llClf' IdcnLity Iha l boldly alld east lt~ must inSle:td reler to Ihe pro noun Ulll/lU iti. Thi5 term ~'i cwed as m o re polite ;lIld Call IbCfl by ei lhel' sex. S;;''''''''~, " C UI c nd a M:1tItllce asserm~ ~ 1 .lILng "Sal/tul JO~ (M It 's sayn _ BUI a Ki rl is c xpt'Cted MSaHlIII WI'J~ (~ h 's cold, do n', thillk?~) " for girls. d lct.1tCll cn ding \\ith a genu(' lio n r.uher I.h .tn :I slrong lio n . ll1cn Rudolph ( 199 1:8), II togr.,phe r from Ihe L:n ited who lives in Tokyo, J.lpa ne llC parenlll" "d as M\igilanl linguistic poliClf'" r(,lIund ch ildren 10 UM' anI) fonns o f ~pc::cC'h d eem ed :It C for lheir sex. G irls wh o t.he!tC gendel' codes a rt' told 1/lIlwJrll n(l rlO 1/i. ~ which "You' re 01 gi rl, don't forget:



IrI(inmatt'. In :m educational scn5C. bilingualism 1l'nllH1 011C way or as..~is lin g mi ll ions of people who do n'lt ~I)t'ak. .:nglish as their lim language. but "hu might "'..1111 to lMm English in order 10 rUtlCI,.., IIIllr( dJicientlywithin the United SId l e!>. Bilin+ ~1\Jn Ius been a IJankularly sensiti\'e mallCI' fo r 1111111<11\\ or immigl'ants from Spanish-speaking nabons.

many intemalional bllsine..~!fdeals. But lhe English language is not being ellllmsiast.icotlly welcomed in all countries. In 1990, sever.!1 oflndia':s largeM states ordered th:.t all gO\emmcl1l work be conducted in Hindi-lhe domi nanl langu'lge of non he m India and that le Hc l'S not be ;U1~wered if wrinen 10 go,'" ernment oniCt.S in English (Crosscltc. 1990). '

hI tilt' bst decade. bi ling ualism has become an ll'utt'a!linp;ly controversial politic.d i s.~uc . Fo r exam+ pII' .. ProllOSed cOnStilutional amc ndrnc lll \\'a.~ inInllitl(cd in the Scmlle in the mid-19808 10 desiglULl" lngh h as the "officiallangllage or the llaLion .~ \ nlot,OI forer behind the proposed constituLional U1M'nrlmenl and other efforts IQ reuriCI bilingualN'II I' loS. English. a nationwide organization .h.h \1e"''' the English language as the ~soc ial RhlC.'- {hat kl't:pS the nation lOgelher. 11y COlHrast, HlslJauic leaders sce the U.S. English c;l mpaign as ~ wile-It t'lIp"cssinn of racism (Pe rez, I ~18 ti 1989). \\1111(' Ihe United States remaim resist:mt 10 ofhrul uw of languages o ther than Ell gli~ h . Olher sollrl~ t);perience the p('lvasiveness of the English 1.In~u~l', The domi n;llion of ot her 1 :lIIguagt.'S by lllRll\h ~1t:I1lS from such fac tors as the demanrls of wntid trade. \\he re English is used to IlcgoLiate


""a>'S of encollr.tging and enforcing what thl-Y "iew :L" appropri:uc bch:.niOI "'hile discouraging and punishing what they consider to be improper conduc t. - Put on some clean clothes for dinncr~ and .holl ~hah 1I0tlill~ :Ire clmmples ofnol1l1S found in th~ ('ullure of the Unitl"d Stales, JUSt as r('spect for o lder people i!>" lIelrrn ofJ apanese culture, Norm' are establ ished st;md:u'ds of bchavior maintained hya society, 111 orcler for a Il orm to become sigrlific:lI1l, i I must be wide ly sha red a nd understood . For ella1l1pie, in mode lhealers in the Uni t.ed States, we typically expeet lhat people "'ill be quicl while lhe film is showing. Recause of this norm, an ushcr can u:lI a member of lhe audience 1 nop talking so loudly. Of 0 course, the application of this nuon can \';:I1"Y, de
AJI societies ha\'e


It rrrmlil'g

/0 Ihl: ill/lJl17lf1lllflT7lU


/1111 U"iI~d Statf", Iyapll m/l)' grn't ~(l(h other 7IIllh 11 h(ltul$hflJu 1Jf'. ill
(0"11' f"llYl, lL,/I1 11 hllg I' fI klls.

kll1gdom of 8hlll(lll, I'f'$ld~1J grm tarh (lOin' fIJ Ixtnldmg thnr umgun and n(mds.





3 CL'/


pe ndi ng on the pa ....ic ular lilm a nd type o f a udie nce. People atte nd ing a seriolls a rtistic 01' political film will be mo re likely to insist o n the noml of silence tha n those a ttend ing a slapstick comedy or horror movie. Types of Norms SociologisLS distinguish between nonns in two ....<1.)'8. Fi rst, nanns a rc dassilied as either fonn al or info n n al. Formal norms have gen e ra lly been ....ritten d own a nd in volve stricl rules for p unishmelll of viola tors. In the Unhed Sl<t tcs, we o fte n forma lize norms illla laws, .... hi ch must be ve ry p recise in definin g prope r a nd imp roper behavior. In;t political se nse, 10 w is tlle "body o f rules. made by govcmmc nl fa r society, interpre ted by the COUI'IS, a nd b.'\ckcd by the pm"'cr of the St.:I LC~ (Cummi ll ~ and Wise. 1993:49 1). Laws arc a n example o f fann al norms, a lthough not Ul C o nly lype, T he requiremenlS for :1 college maj or a nd the rules of II card g-ame a re also conside red formal norms. By contrast, ;"formol norms arc generally u nderstood but a rc nOI precise ly recorded , Sta ndards o f proper dress a rc a commo n example o rinro rmal nonns. O ur socicty h a.~ no specific p UllishmcllI 01' s,,'l llc tion for a pe rson who comes to school 01' l O college dressed quite d ifferently from cvcl)'one else, Mak ing fUll of nOllco nfo rrning slmlt:llts for th ei r unusual c hoice of clOl hing is the must likely rcsponsc (E. Gross a nd Stone, 1964; C . Stone. 1977) . Norms arc also classilicd by their rd ~ li \'e importance to society. Whe ll classified in this v..ay. they arc known as mort!f umJ fQlkways. Mores (pronu ull ced "/>10R-ays") arc no rms deemed highly nccess,uy to th e welfare of a society. often becausc they e m body the most c helished principles o r a people, Eac h sociely dema nds obedie nce IQ its moreS; violal iOIl ca n lead tu SC'\'e re penalties. T hus, lhe Uni lCd States has Slrong mores ~'g-d. inS I mu rder, u'CasOTl , :md ch ild a bu5C Iha t have been inslitutio nalized into fo rmal no rms. Follt way s arc Jl 0 I111 S govc ming cvcl)'d ay bc havior wh ose vio la tion r.lises compa r.llivcly liltle conce rn . For example, w..Ilking up a " dO\m~ escalator in a depa rtme nt store c halle nges our standa rds of a pprop ri:u.e behavior, but il will not result in a line o r a j ail sente nce, Society is mon: likely In fo rmalize 11101'eS tha n it is fol kwdYs, Nevertheless, fo lkways play a n important role in shaping th e daily behavior of Ille mbers o f :l c ultme.

Li ke mores, fo lk...... rcpl'Cse nt cuhurally I ..Iys pattems or bc havior alld can \'al)' fl'o l1l a ne 5()t 10 tlllother. Even fo lkw:tys ccmcernillg tillle::lrt univcl1la l1y sll<ll'ed, AI; an example, some: cult do nOt ~ h a re the weslern conce m Iv\ lh kccl)inK po inUll e nts precisely. King Hassa n 11 of MorO<'t no torious for alTiving la le al mecli llg8. In 1 ....he ll Brit.a in 's Q ueen El il<tbel..h 11 paid a call. king ke pt her wai ting for 15 minutes. The q was 1101 a mu.sed , blll Ihe Mo roccans could nOl dcrst.:lIld why she and lhe Bri tish pulll ic wcre:w set. "The ki ng could never have kep t th e quct'Q a nybody else li ng.~ a Morocca n late r rcmat "because the king ca nnOl be latc" (l.cvi nc, 19t17 In ma ny soc ieties around the world, folk ex iSl 10 reinfo rce paue nls of male domina Men '" hierarchical position above women \'01 the lradi tional Bud dhist areas o f Soulheasl /W.I revealed in various fo lkways, In tJ,c sleeping fan lrJ.ins, women d o nul slcep in upper hel't h ~ a men, In hospila ls in whic h men li f e ho used 011 II rst. fl oor, wome n patie llls will not be placed 00 second nool'. Even 0 11 clOlhcsli nes, folkwaysdit. m;:i1e do mina nce: wome n 's auire is hung lo ....'tr tha t of men (Bullc. 1987:4). Acceptance of Nonns No nns, whelh cr m o r~ fo lkways. are not fo llowed in a ll sit ua tionll, In cases, people evade a norm because they kn()\\ il weakly e nfo rced . h is illegal in many stall') tCC lll.Igers to d rin k alcohol ic beverages, )CI iug by min OI1l is com mo n throughout the nO! ( In fac t. Iccnage alcoholism is one o r o u r ('OU mos t serio us socill l pro blem s.) In ~o m c ins ta nces, behavior tha l appears to kw: socie ty's norms may actually represent 11 ellce to the norllls o f one's particular g Teenage d ri nkers often b reak the laws of it govern me nt in o rder la confonll to the slall or a I)(;C I' group. Similarl)', in 1993. aftC'f a cl g Ull baule wilh fe d er.11 offi cials, ncal'ly 100 l hers of a religio us cu ll :lSsucia ted Wi tll the B Davidia ns roIlO\"'ed the dinates of tilt' cuh\ ItD:wid Ko resh . a nd delled govcnune nt a rfitu a bandon their com pound near Waca, Tcx;~. }: w ally, a fte r a 51 -day lIiL"'l ndolT, the Dep.trU11 C!lI J ustice ordered an assault on tllt! compound 86 cull me m bers (in cl ud ing Koresh ) died, Norms <l1 violaLCcI ill so me installcC!l 'C

I'M{/" nUl

<;()UAI. UH,


.. nt" norm conflicts wilh <tllollwl". for example. sUJr pe~ that )uulive in an apartmcnt building :Hld onc night h(';.r lhe .screanUi: o f the \\om01Il Ilt'X I door h.. i~ bc:ing beaten by hc r hush.'lnd. Jr you decide '" Ullt'r-.eoe by ringi ng the il' doorlx:1I o r calling the pulilt. rou a rc vi%titlC lhe no rlll or ~ mindin g your husincn- while. at the ":lme Lime . fol/owing the I')(IIlll of assisting a vic tim of \;olcncc. hcolI '!I'he n nonus do not conllict. there 'Ire al"U\1o,CCptiOIlS la allY 1l0 1"ln. The same action. lInIkr different cirt.umSlance5. CAll cause onc to be \w.,,'td either as a hero or as :t \; \I"in . E::1 \'e~I)'()Jr plll~ on telephone cOll\'er!:uions is nomHtlly con'lidtlOO illegal and abhorrent. Ho weve r. it can be dnne '!Ihh a court o rder to obl~lin \-alid c\'idc nce vr a criminal trial. A go\'crn mc lIl agcm \\'ho uses !(Ich methods 10 convict :111 org:lI1i lcd crime baron 1IU)'1x' praised . In o ur cuhl!!'c. c\cn killing-ano ther Iwmiln being is lolcrmcd as :'\ fo nll of scJf-defcnsc IIld ~ actually rewarded in warrare. "i011lC' JOCia l no rm s arc so widely accepted that rhf'\ rnrdy need lO be \c rbaJi~cd . TI1l'Y are implichl\ t.. ught by :J society to its members, :md the re 1Il_~ be \'tl")' little need 10 (-,ll rorce lhem , An examJ"" 01 ,uch a nonn is un.' prohibitio n agai n'l canQlll.ih'm. h is unlikely tlt:!1 )'l)1I call recall an)'one Irlling,ou nOllO eal huma n nesh. Nt!\'c l"lhc lcss, as nl('nlix-n ofth' cul ture of the Ulli led Slales. we al,l\u\1 ne\'C~r conside r doing so. -\Cceprance of no is ~u l~ ect 10 change. as the i-"~itK""'. tconomic. and MXi;tJ conditions of;1 culllV\' :art lransfonncd . Fo r example. undel' II":tdilnul nonns in the United Slales. a woman was e.xJI'=llffl to marl)'. re:u- c hildre n . and remain :11 home d h~r husho ('ould lIllppo n tIle r.lmily withuut II('r Uld oMhlOlIlCt, How(. 'e r. Ihese no rms havc bec n dm ng... If)! III rent decades. in JKln :t. (I result ofl lle CO II , lernplll":u y feminis t mm" eme llt (sce Cha l)lcr 11 ) _A... IUpport for trnditiona l nonm weake ns, people will 'trI frtt 10 violate the-m mon fl'eqllc lllly and Itflfnlvand will be less like ly la receivc seriolls Ileg.IU\C {;HlClions for doing ~o .



"You're sick, Jessyl ... Sick. sick, sick!"


Thr Imlll/btll/III ugfJi,UI ralll/ibalism is nmmplr of a Sl)tial nol'l" 1/1 witkly

a("plld 1/1 ,''' UnilM S/(lla Iha' il mm, ,ltnlJ tt, bt 1't'rlxllv~tI.

SaIIctio.~........_..... _."..................................................................
~luJ happen.'! \\'hcn people \'iol:uc a wielely sh:lI'c d mol WldCl's tood not"lU? SIIPPOSt dml .1 foOl ball roI(~ ~nds a twd flh pl;l),cr 01\10 Ihe field . hnag Inr d tOIJege gr.l dllalt~ showing lip in ClI10l fs fo r a

job interview at " IMgc b:.lllk. 01 conside r a dri\'er who IIcgl ecl.~ 10 put any money ill a parkin ~ me te r. III e,tch of' tlICS(' situations, the pe rson ....'iII receive sa llc Lions if his or her behavior is dCleClc d . S(Ulcliorls arc pcnahic~ and rew:lI'ds 1 conduct 01" cOllcemi ng a social nOnl l_ NUll' Iha t Ihe concept of r,../lfml is included in lhi ~ dclillilion. Conformity lO a nonn can le;ld tu positive sa nClio n .~ slIch as a pay raise. II medal. a word 0 1 gralilllde. or a paL 011 lhe bac k. Neg;lli\'c sa n clio n ~ illcllldc fines . thl'e:tls. ;111pr;SO Il1l1CnI . ami even stares or cOlllcmpl. In Table :1- 1 on p;age 74.l h(' relationship bc l"" c(:' n
no rm s and sanctions is Sllllllll.ll'i,cd. As )Ol\ r:1II scc

in tJlis (...ble. the sanc tio ns thal arc associalt:d wi lh formal no nns (those wriuclI down awl t'txlified ) Icm\ 10 be lonnali..:ed as well . 11 a coach scnds lOO

('J IAI,.,,.R J Cl 'I.I VICJo


Salary bonus testimonio! dinntlr

Medal Diploma


Firlng from a


Jail sentence
Expulsion Humilialion


Compliment Ch_,
SallfIIO'U .w'J1.'t It,

rritif(JJ'C' boIh j()nft(ll

ulld wfomllil 'iocJ(lI nQml,,\.

many pl:l}'t:I'!i OntO the fi eld, the l(:"m will be penalized 15 y..rds. The college gmdu:u.e I.,.ho comes lO th e bank interview in eutoffblu c jC:U1 S will probably be lre:\led with contcmpt by bank ofndals and will allllost ce rminly lose any chance of gelli ng Ihe j o b. The dlivcl' who fa.ils 10 pUI mo ney in lhe parking mele r \\;11 be givcn a tickcl ;lIId expccted l O pay .1 lille. Il11plicil in Ihe a pplication or.s.anctio ns is the dctccdng of nonn \;olation or obedience. A person c.anno t be penalizcd o r u:warded unless someone \\'ith t.he LO provide sanctions is aware of the person 's "ctions. Thcrcfol'c. if none of the offici" ls in lhe footb;all game rcali/ell t.hat there is an extra playe r on the fi eld , then' "'ill be no pe nahy. If the police do nOI sec lhc car which is illcg:llly parked , there will be no line o r Licket . Furthermore, lhere can be imfrrOfH'" "pplication of sancLiol1!1 in certain situat io ns. T he referee 111"), m;\ke "u error in counting the numhe r of tootba U pla), and le"y a n undeserved penalty 0 11 one team for ~ t OO man)' pla)'M e l's o n lhe ficld . Th e e ntire fabric of nOl"lllS and sancl.iolls in a culture rcncCb 111:\1 ( uIUlre's \~llll CS and priorities. The mosl cherished vo\ lucs will be most heavily sanctioned ; malic.., re~lrdcd as less c ritic,,!' 011 tile olher h;l11d. will ca n)' light and infonnal sanctions.

y.".!.~.!'!........................................................................................... Each indi\;dual develops his 0 1 her 0 ....'0 personal ' goals and ambitions. yet each culture pro\'ides a

general set ofobjecth'es for iu mem bers. Yaiuuaft' these collective coneepLions 01 what is cOllsidered good , desir.lblc , and propcr-or bold, undesirable. a nd irnpro per-in a culture. Tht.')' indicate ",b,;,u peopk ill;t given culture prefer as wdt as what ~ find imr.tOn;tnt and mornlly riglll (or wro ng). \'~ UL"S lI!.Iy be sJ>ccilic, such 'L~ hOlluring onc's parenl) a nd owning a ho me, or t.hey Illa ), be more general. suc h ;L'i health . lovc, and democmcy. Valucs inlluellce people's bch:l\'iOl' a nd SCM Z cri teria lor a-.lluating the aClions of Olhers. TIU=R is oft e n a dircct relationship between the \<ilue:\ norm!l, and S;lnctio ns of a culture. For ex."Imple, ~ :1 culture highly v.ducs the imlituliol1 01 marriagr il may h;M: nomlS (a nd st~t 5Otnctions). which.prohibil the aCI of "d uhc!,)'.,tf!' a cu lture \'tcws pm-air property as " basic value. il will pmbably ba\'C 1aW\ aWlinst then a net vandalism. The ,,,,lues o f a culture ilIay c hange. bUI mml rtmain relatively stable durin g all Yline persun's liftlime. Soc ially shared . illlc nscJy felt volllles are a fill1dame nml pan o f our liv(:... ill the Ull itcd SUllCS, Ob\~ous l y. IIOt a ll 0 1 the 250 million people in thie; coul1lry agree 011 onc set of goals. Howe\'t'f. sociologist Robin Wi1lia ms (1970:452-500) a uenl!> led to oITer a list of hasic \'< lluc\ in lhe United Stall'\. His lisl included achit."\'Cl11c nt. eOicicncy, material comfort. n:tt.ionalism, equality, and the supreman of science and reason ol'er faith . All)' such effon to dcscl'ibe our n;lIjOI1 's \,;,Iue!l should be properlt \'iewed as but a starting l)Dint in defining tht na tional char.ICler. Nt."\c rthclcss. a revicw of 21 dinerell! 'luemplli to d(:scribc lhc MAmerican \w S)'S ICIll,R including the: work of 311lhropolog;. M:lrg:lrcl Mead and .sociologist TalcOIl Panom. revealed , Ill m'eraU similarit), 10 the '~dlues ideolt lied by Wil1i.uns ( De'~ lI e. 1972:185) . In h is book umlinn,ull l)ivid,., socio logisl Set11101.11' Martin Lipset ( 1990) contrasted th e vaJues ol IWO su pe rficially sim ilar neighbol's: the United SUit es and Canada . Acco"ding to sUl'\'ey dOlta from many polls, people in the Uniled Stales arc 11\ religioul! tha n Calmdians and t.:lkc mo re mQralisfl: altit lldes toward sex, pontogmphy. :md ll1arria~ Wherca.'l C.a naclialll! show grcalt'rCOl1Cem for aj,!. dcrly society and a rc morc likely 10 favor a role for go\'cm mel1l, ci Ul.cI1S of Ihe United SQ show greatcr concern for libeny and are mo~ pon i\'C o f limi ts on go\cnllue11l 1)O\\'c r . In fucl.

""Kr nm .
QH(oA.W7.1W. SOCIAI. un

ill the United States art: more suspiciOlIS of Rbig_ than Can:.tdi.lIls-whcther in lenns or big KIJ\'tnlll\(1lI or plivil(C l'COIlOll1ic l)tl"",er. The issuc or g:1)'S in thl' mililarv rc\'eals anodle/' rumple of the ',IIIIC differc/lct:5 in supcrlicially tinliLlrcultures. In 1993. ",hl~ n I'rcsidcmBiII Oinhili .ulllounccd his intentIOn 10 hh lhe long-s13nd11'11': I>an prohibitinJ; IC!'>hians and gtly llIeJl from sen'" UIR in the United SlaleS arrllcd forces. there W:IS unlllg opposition both inside :\IId ouuide the mil/Yn Yet. only a rear coulier. C:mada had ended a IImlbr ban. According 10 11 rC\'iew of 17 major ai11f"'I1>I the United Srau'!s b) Ihe Gcncml AccotllHIng OUite. only llm:c (Great Ildtllin. Grcece. and ", .. tugal) cxplidlly ban brays frOIll their lllilit'IIY 1011 e.,. A Danish air forn' general Wa5 pllzllcd O\'CI' ltu- colHrO\en)' in Ihe Ullil ed States, notillg: " I don'tundcntant! \\hy yuu haH: ;1 eft-bale 011 it ... . PIonlllltly cures abuw il U. 1..IIH! ;L.;l e l .. 1992: 14). ... One cOll1l11onl)' dted bar'oll1cter of" the \';llues of" tbr linit~1 Slates i~ all annual que~liollrmire Sllr"e ) ul.tutudCJ ofmor!! than ::! 10.000 eltlering lin.t1ear tj~lt-Kc ~tudenL'i ;H 401 two-year ;lI1d four1'(;tr col\rK~ Thi5 5U ....C) focuscs 011 ;\11 ;ur.IY of issues. belI("h ..tIld life goOlI:.. ~Ol eX~lInple, 1"l':,polldcnlS an. ' _It! ir \-arious value!! ;:II"C pe ....unally important to Ihnn Q\cr the last 25 )'can.. tht ,,,,hit" or Mbcillg won IfItlk>lT financi.llI) has sho\>o"II the strung~1 Jl*1I In popularit)'; the ploponiull of lir.,t-y~ar col, Wat \tudclIl$ I\ho endo r~ this \;\llIe as Me.....cl1uaIM ut'\ 11' importallt ~ rose from 44 percent in 1967 "'i:'I~rcrnt in 1993 (~~ Figun' :~l) .. 11) contrast. dk- \"lIue that has ,hll\\'11 the mu .. ' "lriking dedinc LnCmionc111crH hy liIudcllb is ~dc\(:lo pillg a rncanlIlatul philf)SOph) or lifc. \\1tile Ihis ,,,,Iuc ....-;"\S the ID!."tl)l:lpuJar in the IHG7 sun'cy, clltlt,rsed by murt.' dwl11 pc-rcelH of the respondellt!'>, it had fallcllto cilth pLlCf.: on the 1'''1 by 1993 and "'~IS endorser! bv onh iSl>crcent or .. tUdcnLS c lltel"in..: college (Nun I!J87:97. I9tJ3). DurulK thc IURO~, Ilrere was gruwi nJ.{ support for ,".d1lM h;\\ing 10 do \\'ith murrer. P(I\\'cr. ;md stalus. "" tlit !lame lime, tllc n: \\'<1.$ " decline in suppon 1nl' rrrt.lin '~d lue! h:willg ' 0 do with -roci:tl OI\\'";lfelINo .llId Illlnlisll1 ... ueh :\8 Mhclping OIhers.- Hu\\'l'I'l1.ln the J99tls therc W;15 ('\<idence Ihal collegc lIudrnbwere onc(' agailllunring LUw~lnl social conmtn.\ccording to lhl' 199'lualiollwide surwy. 43 pml'lIt of firsl-lc;lr ~Iude rlls slated th,lI "'innuencR

pit 1_-

flCURE 1 .. 1 Liff' Cools of Fi",' .Yr:o,. ColIgr Studwts i" thfl U"itrd Statrs, /967- 1991


P8It*,toge who idctntily 9001 Ol '*Y fmportant or euentiol






.... "" ..: L(JA rtillht1 ,.11I00hOll KnoW"r h A_tin "1:01 , 1\1117.97. t~
lJ>'UI"'~. ;tO

...,,, .....d



thln' llu' hot 2' )nUl, nllmllKfipjl(1I11tgt' slut/nIb HI 11., Unllttl S/(l(1'1

Iw1Jf' tJ,ro,1V

C(J1I(f'lTltri ",.,11


"IN'rJ U!,I/-tJiffinllnrinlfJ nllll

b rOIlrnM Wllh dt'l!dopinf 0 InHINIIlgful pllJ/~, of l'.ft. R 17v.rr hlu bw1I U (,""fll IIlrmlJt' III /Iv.
ProfK1rltall $lull,III.1 rvho VI"Ut' "h,I/llng kJ frrom{J/~ nlClol


ing .soci:tl ,~t!uC!S~ \\~LS ;m Re"Wntial or a R\,Cf)' impOnallt go'I!. Mnrco\"cr.the prllponjon or~ludenu for whom ~ hclping to promote r.Jcial underst::tndingR \\'i.1S an cSSt"nt.i;!\ or vcry importallt gO<I! increased sharply to :1 record high of 42 percent (tip from 34 perccnt in 19tJ I). CleOlrly. like Other aspects or culture. such as language and !loa'IIlS, a ll11liOI) 's "alllcs a rc nOI neccssari ly fixed (I)ey Cl al.. 19tJ2:25) . It is important 10 l'l1lph:lSi"lc Ih"t ...."Iuc s)'Stcrns call be C]lIitc differellt Irom tlml of our own ("u lture. In IlapllOl , C\\' CuinC:l, much or what people: in the United States wou lcl considcr priv.Jle properly is shared . Diffcrent peoplc may actually hold dinerent rights on t.hc same land . There is 110 Mowner'" ill our terms: onc PCl"5UIl mal hold ceremonial

tJIIonw J ' CUI1"(!HI;

1/1 / 99J, II~ r.lm~J '/'/J(IINill'htlJu'r fII/ijI UI( Iflllg'JIlIIUfillg ban IwoJuinlhll(
th,. (Ill/II'({ ~(1/1'.l

/(l/)jtm, fHU/l!ay Ill,." from vrt1iug;/1 anntd IOff~. ga)1

tum'lIlly ,11 Ihl military ollti gay IIrlCTt/llJ ril',"iJlu l rall:tl i" I/"'f rm ID o ,IIIII,,"((/r,. IIt";f $ml;',. ({j 1111'11' ( (f/llllry.

righ ts. :lIIo the ,' fishing "iglus. allQllWr hUnling rights.. :lI1othcr d\\'c lling rights, and so rOrlh. In 1983. yQurl!; me n ill OIlC 1" lpu:1Il village were killed afu:~r dc\'clopillg export busine:;ses rn r their own persona l profit . Tllf'se me n were \~ewcd as being too in dh~dualisti c and a..'i no longer cOIlIribUling 10 the COITlInon good . 11\;s extrcme example reminds liS that what is ",llIed in onc socicl),-Mbe ing \'cr)' wel l-oIT finan ciall)'" - Il\ar lead 10 a d eath selllCHee in II dim' I'en, c ulLUrc (lWis (lm\ Ellis, 198Y) .

S:.I,'!:T..y.!Y.\!' ..!N. q.~,.!~I"9.~..................................

A.'i wc have seC II, the milLl's :Uld 1I0rl1lS of evcl)' cui llLre sometimes conOic t with each o tJler. Cultuml jnlegralloll rcrcrs lO till' hringing together or co n ~

fli cting cuhllral clcm(n lS. n,sulting in :t hamlOo nious ;Uld cohesi\'c whole. In a wellinlcgr.w.-d ruJ. lure. v:.Jrinlls lIo rms. ," .llues. a nd ClLstoms wlU support onc :mO/he r a nd lit togc ther well. Tr:ulitiu nalty, the La pp pcople 0 1 Finland \l'lc:d lhe dogslccl as a basic "d liclc fo r ll'a nsporlation ill wdl as :, mc;ms of hulltillK a nd herding deer. H (M' e\c r. in the early I960s. SlIowmohik"S became ink'graled inlo 1 ";lpP c ulturc .md, 10 sOll\e C)(ICm, If' s haped the culture. These machines were nOltlSCfuI in hunting, since they made tOO muc h noise and frightened aWAy d eer. Nevertheless. the dogskd quickly became a Ihing ofthe past. L..,PPS lIscd thrir ne\\' snowmohiles 10 haul goods and to CSCOl1 tOlll'ists IIH'o ugh the CCIIlllt rysidc, This change in onc clement of mllterial cuilure-the introduc tion of new lec hno logy-I! had rar~reachillg conscque nces 0 11 both maltrUI and nonnmtc lial culture. The Lapps have quick.l\ bccomc much more dcp('n<lellt on their ncighbor. and the o llL~ idc wodd. Where as he rding was lr.Im. tio nally a lIolita ry occupat ion. a L.... pp ",;11 now drlw across the counuy with a second sno"'lno bile r, 'oIM ca n drivc him o r he r back (0 wannlh a nd 5iUC(~ ,I lhe firs t Sllowmobilc breaks down. Ne"" lines d wm'" have eln ~ I'gcd of lhe neecl for [uti ror spare parts, and for mechanical sc ,,~ci l1 g. In di tion. the case of lr.ue! aH rded b)' lite s nov.~ o bile hiL~ c reated a m uc h wider network or friend'iltips and fami ly rela tionships among the LaPfl'I)cople e'lIl IIOW visit co."h o the r nuu.:h more trrquc mly- dcspilc the long, cold. SIlOwy wimers. While the UIPPS have successfull)' illlcgrated lhi sno\\lllobilc in to the rcs, of the ir cultul'C , it has nno crlhclcss tramfunncd their culture in certain 111\1 Social r.tnk h:L'i become lIIore impilnant ,lInong lbr Lapps than il "'~AS in the d'l)'S "" hen almost' c\'cl)'oIII owned reindeer he rds or "pproxim:llel), cqual ~ The need for money 10 buy :md maintain SIlIIlo mobilcs ha.<; causcd SOllle Ix)()r familic~ to lose m<:. of their herds a nd Hlf'Il 10 govenllllclII assislan At the sallie timc. thosc with greate r \\'calll! or 111(cl!anical abilit)' havc hccll able to keep their IfII, chines opelolling efficicIlII)' ;Hld la subst :Ullial~tI large their h(.'rtis, Thwi. \"hile the com ing of IhI Sllowmobik has bro ug ht L..'lpps togcther and i the 1~II'gC I' roci:.1 world. it has sintllltrtnco usl)' CIt aled ne'''' social boundaries within the Lap!> Cultlll ( Pelto, 1973) .

I'IIN" H I'f} OICf.A,\J(J.V . !i(III,11 011<

"d., III ,ulllll~.1 IIHCj.lI':,lillll . Childrl'I1', g;UIJL~ .mc!

tlt'l! rdati\'cl) mill()l' ;l.. I>eC L~ ofa ("Ullll!'(' (.In play ..

IllU'ltI' rhymes uuclouhlCdl) rClIIloru' lhc lIo mlll )u.1 \Jlu~ of .1 culture. uncu cndinJ( ....ill! rather r\ldw 11 ~nsM ,Iho\ll .Ipprnpria ll' .Hld inapprop!LlI~ lM=haviur. Similarly, ccrc m o nil'~ such as \\00dlOjC'I, lunr-mls, .lI1d con(inn.ltinm. IlI'C P;trt~ p.utid1J.lm~ 101 Ill''' .social ro]('S and f\.'duce Ill\. shock of rlwnKt whlc:h might Ihfl'atCII sot ial ('u llIiIlUily. ~lC1OlogislS :1[1;1'(,'(' that IIU Lulturc c.<Ul !>t' 1 0gic'"<\lIy III\Jdn.1 into ~CP<U'IIC parts for ;m.t.I )'~i ...IIHI bl' trul), ullol'1'tood. EI'cry aspect of luhllre ill inl4..'nwinc cI ",lh uthr-I'S a nd conll;bult:s 1 lht culturc as :t .0 "lluIt (At(,l"lSberg .Uld Ncihorr. 196150-51) . Cultural illll'gralion i .. nOI al .... a )'!'o Ihl' rcsull (,f J~'ltll\t:nl b) all mcmhcr'i of:t c1l11111'l', Oftcn this I'fllU"'\ is enfol'ced from the lOp: Ic~s I>OWClful iIlcml)Cr'" of society have little chnict IllU 10 accepl tilt' 'hc IdleS and v.llllt'S uf 1111'S(' in COlll r(,I. COllfJin thl'oriJI~ cllIphasilc that whilc ClIlllll~ . 1 in legration nl.~ , st in cCI'lain sucieties, till' 11()[ 1iI~ and \~ lllI cS ..... 1X"lpClLl<Ill'd arc those 1<lI'OI, .bl( 10 lht, ditcs and Ihr pUI\'ctful (lI also M. t\rc ht' l" 1988) .

dHfl'I'S Imlll till.' pauc m of the largl'1' socil'ty. In a Sl.'I1SC , .1 .. u ocu1ture can be t.hought ul as a cu lture existing within a larger. dominant c\tltutc. The exiSll.' llCe o f many subnllwres is dmracu:rinic of COIllplex socic t..ic. s uc h a5 the United Slates. Connicl I.heoristJ. :tfJ(lIl' that 'iubculturcs often emerge Ix... (""au~ the do minant societ) has 1I1l511CCCSS fllll) attempted 1 i>lIpprcss :\ pr:tcticc Icgardcd as im0 proper. 511Ch a ~ use of illegal dnlW'.

The impact o f !iuhc u1t.ul"e.s \vithin the United

SI;II4..":I i'l cvidc tII ill thc ccle brntio n 0 1 SC;lsonal lta-

ditij)lh , Dcccmber is do minated 1 the rcligious a nd commcrci.d cdebmtion of the Christmas holido -;111 e\'('1II "cll~nll'cnched in thc domina nt n cu!tml' or Ollr ~ icl ). Il o\,'c\'CI', thcJcwish slIbcu ltUfl' o bscnc'l I-Ianukkah . Arrica n Americans ha\'e beb"lll to ob~l' I"\'c Ihl' relatively IlCW ho liday or 1{1\'aI1l;I:I , and somc athcisl.S join in l'i lllals cclebraliug thc willlt, 1' solslice ( K. ll('tcfSOn , 19(2) .

III~..Y.~"!!~I!.9._~_.... __ _ _ _ .. .... ... ... ..............

1.." h (\lhur~ h;u .Iunique (:II.IIOICI('I". Culture'S adapl
!hJ!t', I~""I

'u lurel !opccirk sel... nf dr('umst;all(,c~. MICh as c1ior tl.'chnuloh'Y. puplIl;lIio .. , and geugr:l1,101 This a(\;(pl,uiull I... c\ide'llI in dine n ' nccs in:lll rl"flIt-nlS or l'uiture, including nnrlll'\, ~a n ctiom. , \<11,""" allt.llaugu,lge. nHls. dt"S]>iu' liI( presence of ,,,:,,11111 uni"Cl"$lls such .IS courL<;hip religion, "H'" ~1I11 gn.':lt dh'cl"\il), mno ng the \\orld's m,ln y "lliul\'S. MOICQ\'t'I". C\t'!1 ....;thin a ~ inglt- 11,It ioll, cel"I ,11 ~Illl'nt. a t the populace \\;\1 dcvelop cultural 'i f>l[ll'fUS "hkh dilTl'r frolll thu!tC uf the dmninalll




Aspe~~,.~.~ ..~~~.I.~,~.~~,~! ..y'~~~.~~~,~~.~.......,....,.. ,.......,...........

\ubru!tures Olde r peopl( IhinK in hUllsing for I~t ddcrly, wurkcl""5 ill an un ... horc oil rig, 1'0<1 I) , ... I.~\, circus pc rfol'l"ilers -all "re l.'x.unple'i of IOI'Jt iologisl.S refer to as lll/JroIWrn. A subcul I.rtl~.t ~'glIll'lIt of SOCiety ,,"'h ic h sl);ll"t:s 3 dininc, I"'llern or IIIOr1.'5. fOU...... I\'S, a nd ",Iuc which


111"1' "."'I/IN", rhl' Smt' Tre k. ,,,IXlfl/lll? 1II"1'5~II" KIIIIJ{OI/5 . .,.1t~ '7'rrU"" ~ aUn/(f SI,tr rrd romlt'lIrlOPlI, III&.rrrllr /'I/(j'l IIwgm.irus



lHuI 'In.... /I'I/f'f\ J/~lll"tl all St::ll' Trek, nlj(IJ ,{mUltI III ,hl'l/lJlllldllN' fill'" of dmt /m'tlflll' St,II" r,('k
r hrH"llttf'TI.

U/A.P1l-..R J

(".I r n


Members of :1 suhcu lture parlicip:IIC in the domina nt culture. while :u lhe s:unc lime e ngagi ng in uniquc and distin ctivc foml!! of llchavior, Frequcn tJy, a subcuhure will develop an argot, or SIX,.. dalizcd langual:tc, which distinguishes it frOll1 the wider socie ty. Thus , the ph r<4Se MSmokcy in a plain wrappc r~ h:.l.Oi special meaning for truc k dd\'cl'S :Uld Others who liSlen to citizens' band r.ldios (CBs). It indica tes that a patrol onicer is a head o n the road in (\n unmarked car. T he phrd.SC "be:lr ill lilt' ...Ioods ghting (IlIt grecn SCUlI p.'( meanS Ihat the officer ill giving out tickets, while.' "t:.Ikillg pktlll'ClI" means fhat IlOlice arc lIsing:l r<ldar g llll to mo niwl' cld\'ing speeds. Just as uud;. dl'h'C I'S h;wc 311 UIIWillal latlb'1Jage for describing high",... y police. :I subculture of pdson in mates ma)' create ilS own cola lfn l argot. A study of me n 's prisons in C.1 lifornia re ve aled lh:u the len ll jadulliflg i~ IIst:d 10 refer 11) a b'1.tanl's om ciall) no ting in an inmate's fi l(' Ihal he is II SIISpcc t('d gang mcmber. Often g ua rds obuti n this infOnllalioll aOOllt inmates th rough confide nlial informants (01' Msnhc hcs"). By suppl)'ing slIch infonn:ujon lO guards, a snitch dcvelo ps a Mjuicc: ('.'\Id M_ thlll is, :I fonn of o'cdit with Ihe guard, which the b'1tard will C::"elllually h:l\'(: to repay with some Iype of Hwor (C. Ilulll Cl al., 1993:40 1-402). Even Ihe names thal people ~ivc lO everyday o lr jecls and c\'cnLS mOly '':'I I}', depending on the argot of regional subcultures. For c).:amplc, a study of 1002 communities across tlte Uniletl States n :\'caled lhat III diJrcrent It.'IlUS <Ire used 10 describe a type of sandwich in an unusually lo ng bun that con.n iIUtes;1 lIIea.l in i1.~(:lr (Cassidy. H)S5). Six namcs rOJ Lhis sal)d\'t~c h were cspec.i:1l1y J>OI)ular. Mpoor boy" (primarily in lhe:: svutheastern :.tll lCS :m d parIS of Cotlifornja). M hoagie- (Pcn nsylvani;a ;and N(!\\',1cI1It!)'). "grinder" (Conncc6cut and o lher Ne ..... Eng land smte!)}, " OagwOOlI ~ (Iowd. Minnesota. ot he.r mid we.Slern Sl.1.tes, a nd pans of soulhcnJ California). "hCI'()M (New York Cit),and 'ewJersey) ,! MCllban ~andwichM (Florida ). Argot ~l1ows ~i nsidcrs,M lhe Ulf.'Ulbcrl' o f lhe subculture. 10 understand words wilh s)x."Cial mcanin&'S. It a lso CSI:lhlishc:o 1><11tCI'11S o f conunll n ic~llion which ClUnot l>t- understood by "oul$idcl'5." Socio l ogist.~ :15SOC iaICd with Ihe intemClio ni51 pers pecti"e e mphasize that lan g uage and symbo ls offer a powerful \'t~d)' ror ~1 sllhc ulture 10 main tai n its ic\e lllit)'. T he

p:tr6cular a rgO! Ill' a gi\'cn subculture. thetef6fr. pl'OvidC1l a feding o f cohesion for lIIembers alld conlrihules to the dc\'elopment of a WOu idt=ntiff (J-Ialliday, 1978). Suhcult.ures deve lop in a number of ways, Oflen a sUOClllt,ure c lllcrg:t:s because a SCb"lIent of sodet1 faces p l'oblems or even privileges unique 10 its i sition. Su bcu ltures may be based 011 cOlUmon ~ (I,ecllagers 01' I)ld I)cople) . region (Appal:tchiam)J eth nic hedmge (Cuban America ns). or beliefs /1 militalll po litical group). Occupations Ill:!)' a lso r0I111 subcultures, In hit book 'J1le !light SfllJf. subsc(llIcnuy made illlo.l I l ull ywood fillIl. Torn Wo lfc cxamiJI CcI !h e rcdusiw fl, IIcnli!y of ICSI pilots who p.wl.'d the woly fOI United States eXplOl"ollioll of space. According to Wolfc, members of this subculture !oha red d istinc live:: no rms and \~II\l C5 governi ng their bchaviorin lhe lIir and o n the groun d. They were ex.pectedllf p"."$ continua,1 tests of lhc il' nying skills, couragr, ane! M riglllcous quality" in o rde r 10 pru..'c that Ihl'l ""ere the ~elCClcd :mc! a nui llled o n(!s who had lilt rig/lt st,,g" (T , \\'olfe. IH80: 19). (;crwin subculuucs. such as lhat of computer " hllckers.~ develop be(';) IL'IC of a shared interest ... hobby. III :;Iill Other subcultures, such as that d I)risoll inrnalcs. me mbers have been cxc.ludcd from 110 nn:ll socie ly and MC forced la dc\'c!o p :Ilternativc ways of li\ting. CounlCTCUllul1$ Some subcultures conspicuolI.'" the ce nt ral nonns and v'allles of the pr~ vai ling culture. A CO ll llterf'uit"re is :1 subculture lhJt I'cjects societ:t l norms ami v,llu es and SCt'1ts nitet' lIa live lifes tyles U. Yinger. 1960. 1982). Coumrrcultures are Iypically ~) plllar aml)llg the YOUI" \\'ho ha\c the leasl ill\'eslll1ell ! in tht: existing cuilure. In most ca.."lt.'S, a person who is 20 t'cars old crUl acljust 10 new cultural st:u~dards more t=a~ th:1II someone who has spt'nt 60 )'C01I'5 following the p:uterns ofth~ dominanl cullu,'e. Uy lhe e nd o f the 1960s. some wri le rs claim~ Ulal an c).:lcnsl\'c co ulHc rc:u\t'ure had emerged 1_ the United Stalcs. colllposcd or)'otlllg IX!opic. who repm.liau.. the techno logical onclluu.iofl QfouroU'1.I lUre, This COulltCl'culturc primarily inclllded ~ ic;II I,Hlicals and "hippies" \.,.ho had M droppcd OIU~ 1Il,linSlream sodal instilllliom. These young mt'fl :111(\ wome n .. ~jccl~d the pressure If) ;ICCUIlIU)auo

c h ~llI cnge



80X SI

B tglnllill(l: io aboUl 1968, II new ((JumcrcultuH: lIu rfdccd in Grcal BOIailL The Skillht'ad~ wel'c )'Oung JI"'OPk . . i lll sh:l\~1 head, who 0(Itn ~ncd sU!lpendcrs, ' ,UIOOI, ,llIcht-l-lOCd !lluxs. In 1 ):lrl. Skin had group5 e m(,l~cd as \'OC:I I lmd 'UIIlc'tirno violent slIPIK.lnCD o( (ntun British lIOCCcr lcams. ' -hl"5e llIWIg people geller-Illy c:l.UU: rrOIll
,,"tking-class b.lckg l'o n n<b a nd had
Imle Cxpt-'<UHI(JII o r "making it" in

ThrnughoUllhe 19i1ls, the Stin--

m.unstream MJoCic l)', T he)' Ihle' lf-cI 11' l"tI~ic thal c.xlo l1ed \'Io lenct' .uul

racism, l>cr(l1l111Cd by -lIuch


ll..\ I}rimill'~ Skrl'wdrh'cr, FrJJ1cc', Un.u;11 Comhat. 1IIl(1 lllC l~lIIl00 SllUCl' T"lo;,l BooI Bo)'ll. Mnst !J(!ri(HI.sI ~, $(lmt' Sklnhclld j(fOOp5 championcd r.u-i~1 and antiSrmftic idclIlogit"5 ;\IId lUg;lgt.'i.1 in l'IIfHWism. I;olcna, lmd l"len murdc. Immlb~ nlS rrom India. PakNm, .I11t1 Ih(' \\'C:SI I l1dic~ l. COImc l ~ common largel or Skill helld ,t!l.I<b_ (The", werc, mhl'r

couIII.e rcullurc grd<lu.llly spread from Britain to E.urope, Norlh America, :!IId I\u..~lra.l ia . h ill difficult 10 n~urc prcdsel) Ihe .iil~ nr lhi.~ coumercuhure, Mnte SkiTlhc;ld~ do nOI hcloll]ol 10 II lIa lion31 or inlerJlalio na\ o'branil;lli(.oll. Nc\'crthclCS5, according 10 une olinmlc , Ihet!.: w 't're 3500 Skinhc;" ls in tile Uniu:d St!UCli in IUCJ3, and thcit number'!! appearcd to IJc wo,,;nN. Skiuhcad b'mups in tll;!! (OUIIII) were rcspnn ..ible for III lea51 28 killings (Wt'r Ihe pcrifK\ 19$7 1 IH!13, 0
While some Skinheltd$ around Ihe 1I'0rld lldul)! u nly Ih e dislincti\'r' dro."iltll(ll)Ill.'iic ;s.s.~()ciall-d wil h Ihi! COtllllc rculturc, m C)S1 seem to csl>OtI~ While .~upfcllmcy and r"cild h.ured. In ;dmosl all th e countries I\'hefe Skillhe.ul grouP!! exist. I hl')


hal'e ...00 beCOIIU:' IMgel!! o r Skinhcad :IICII-b. I! "ppl.:ar'!! Ihal Ski,, hea{l ~ aIUlC L. IhOllC \it'lI'cd as "wt'''''er- 10 bolster their 0""1 redings o( 'N[M:riOril). Skinlu:ads conSlitlllC a )'ollthful c(lulltI:rcullurc which c1mJlcng~'S thc ....-..IUd nf larger S4.cietics, Wh ile lhq dUll" an aJlcgi:lUce 10 hisluf')' and 1 Iheir (While) cultural hcr0
ic'gc, lhd l' d f"C'ss alld music f"C'prt'sellt llllo'rmbolic rejl't. tiull or lhe U",Idi liO Il~ or p.-e\inu~ gencnHio lls, Although Sk.inht' ad groups tolt'I':IIt' CCI'm; ., older adult,,-gC:llcrally 1I\t.'IlIUcrs of Wh ite slIpn:macbl


tl~'i.\-NaJ.i ()rw.U,i 1~llions-thi~

countCl'c uhure lIe\'crthe!CM is f!om ;mued by young males who pl'OjcCl , I lough. lIllu: hn image,
'<QI .. ,~ ..... ",. lkf~""

lI'",h, 1!I'J1;

1\1'.101>, IlolIm,... l;!n, 'I I',., I!I'Y.!.


lr.-,,, nf


n. t:-""

8' ,,~i

\,\,1/lMad group's thllt M ,/IlI,.""u, )



ha\'c cOlllmillcd aCL~ ur n:cklc~ \1nlcllcr ag:linsl mc.i:1 :md cthnic lIIi 1 norilit.'S, i ndud illg Jcw~. In the 199IA, I~'l'hidru, gay mcn, Ihe home1 d:S, :1I1d p(:o ple I\ith dL bihliM ....

muft .md more ca.." 1 .ltger ;lnd la rger homes, ;lI1d mtndlcss army of mat c ri;11 ((ood~ , Instead , lheyell!P~:I dt.liirc 10 live in :t culture based 011 more ' huounistic \';LllIes, slIch as sharing. lu\'e . and cotUtence wilh the cm;roullwllt. A." a political force, tk (I'IUmercultul'C upposed the U nited Smtes' infOh<:ment ill lhe war in Vie tHam and cncour:lged d'&II't.'Sista nce (Fl ack.~, H17 1: ROS/':l k , 19(19) . T h e !, a more rece nt coulltcrculturt: with VCI)' ddJmlll political \';llllCS, arc profile d in Box 3-2.
~ Sh ock

IIIQnton , lllc,c her ullcle cxp(IS('(1 her lO the


wo rler:

, .. il wit.~:all a push-bulIOll wurld, _, . I remember lhal li ~l linll~ w 'he n ht' pluNSt.'t1 in the \~lnHUII cleancr :md il wt'1Il - L.:abooll1!- I "'";l~ oMl M:iln~d . I ilL'1 up in a corucr hcc:au5C I had nt.'\'c r llCen II I~u~ utun d c'III('r before in Ill)' lire:', , . , I dilln'l kn o w what t.his 1111111$ll'milY\\"dS,
' 111l' pho ne . I had n('\'Cr e\'Cr lIW : 1 pho ne berore in my lire, I W"d.S ~ix la'n , bUl .,' I hardl) i!V~r \\-elll to !l1I','fl bt'rHII"t: lily d,ld was 'I(J ~Irirt wi lh CI'crylh i"K, . , , So il 1\~.t5 n';llIy JU!!I ut iudblow;lIg. I ,,'cnt lhrough cullural shod li)..(" you ",'Uuldn ' l behc\'C I\h("'J1 I ClIII(: 10 ~ city (ShHl1cn, 199 1.1 (6).

Maggie, horll in 19 'Hi or mixed an-

(Nn', is fir.rcdy proud ot her C.-cc India n herit:lgc. Shr -pent her e;lrly t'e:ln. on a rcse"..uion , but at tilt' ~ o( 16 moved to the C.. nadian ci l)' o f Ed-

ClIM'1J:H. J U 'Ln!Hl'

A torln31 jrrJlII IN L'fII/,,1 Slnlo wlio

gnn ovllD din,," III


(mllll! al'ff1S HI

nndlmm$ IhtJI n /oM1 j/Jm1l11J

iJ dog m",1 ,mghl wtll exllmn,ft' "Ill It'~ l/l(Jr/t.

do not follow Llle "Amelican W'dy of fact, CIIS l u lll ~ Lllal !I('CIl'l 'Itrdngc lO lIS Me con side red 1I0rmal and pn)per ill other cultures, ~h~ b lIlay sce Ollr mOfl"S alld rolkways as odd. IllIe resLingl)'. me mber':! or ccrtain cultures might experience cu lture s hock. sim l>ly by seeing peopl( kiS.'l. In many 1 );105 of Lilt' .....orld, kissing is cornpll'ldyab!oclll. Unlil recently, theJallanesc \-le\1rd ld:.sing as acccpL.lble on ly belween mother and c hild. Japanese poetS wrOle fo r centul'ies :loout tbr ;Illure of Ihe back of LllC lIec k. bUI were si lcnt abool the malllh . In facl, thc Japancsc had no ,,"'Ord fOr kissing IIntil 11It.' ), borrowed from English to (,Jnlr the lel1n kml/. Similarly, unlit the :.trri .....tI of Ift'lol erncrs (amllilcir motiun pictures), ki5Sing was un known among the ilalincM!' of OCl'an ia, the u"pchl or Eur.L~ia . and the Thong::. of Africa. Among Iht-t peoples. the mOUlh-lo- lII 0Ulh "-iss 11~15 cOllSidertd dangerous, unhealthy, 0 1 disgusLing. \Vhen Ihr ' Thol1b>"3 first ~<lW EUl'Opeall~ kissing. th!'y laught'rl and I'cllmd"cd : ~Look al titel11! They COli each olil er's :,alil':l .md din l~ (Ford :llUllkach. 195 1; Ticfrt 1978). Culture ~ hock O\'cr conilicling I, tlue 5}'slem~ 1\ nOI limited 10 cnnt::lCb bC III'ccn traditional and model1l sodelic~. \Ve a li'I experiencc culture lIhotJ. in our own socicty. A consc ....-::tuve. chul'Ch-goin~ o lder perwn migln fee l bcv.ildcrcd or horrilied ,,1 ,I punk rock concert. Simii;lrly. gi\cn traditional 01) Lions abOll! gl'ndcr I'o\t.-s in our c ulture. man)' ~ Illiglu he ~hocked by a wOll'lel1's martial art.!! ciJ!! with a rcmalc instnICIOI.


When immcl"M!d in an Unt'U1lili"r culture. ;1 permay feci strangcly disoriel'lled. nl'lcen;lin. Oll l ufplacc . evcn fearful. These arc all indic;lIion~ that he or sh e may be cxpcliclldn..: \\'h;1I sociologists ('all cultllre shQck. For example. :1 re"idclIL of the Un ited Slatt.'S who \isilS (enain areas in hilla and wants local mcat lor dinner may IX! SlllllllCd 10 leam that the specially is dog lI1 eal. Similarly, SOIllCont' from a strict Is lam ic cu lturt may be shocked upon first scciug the\'dy provocative dress styles and opeu displ.l)'ll uf allenion th:n are com1I10n iJl lhe United Slatc~ and ":'lriOUS E1Iropean cu ltures. All of liS , tll some eXIl'lII , mkc for grallted the cuhural prac lice!> of OU I sociely. As :t result , it can be surpri~ing and dislUrbing 10 rc:tli'lt' th:1I othcr
SO il

ELlmoccntrism Many everyday Slatemen ts reflttl om atLitudc Ihal our cuhure is bcsL Wc use ICl'l1ll such as IIl/dmll'Vrlopttl. INlclwxml, and primililJt to nfer to ot.her lIQCielics. \VIt:1I "wc" belic\'e i,l a rei gion ; what "l ll e( bclit!I'c is lIupel"sLiLion and IlltthrA ogy (Spnull cy and McCurdy, 1980:28). 11. is very tempting 10 c ....;liu. le LllC practicb \~ a other cul tures o n lhe basis of our own pCl'5petlil"o' Sociologist William Gr.lha lll Sumner (l906:15-ljl coined the tcml elh"oc"-,,tr;nn to refer to the It'1ldency 10 ;L'I~Ulnc lhat o n c's cultu rc and ~-::Iy of her ;lrt' superior 1.0 all others. The I'l.hnoccntric pt'1lOI1 secs his or her own group as Ihe cenler o rdefinlll(

1'''/1f nil} ()HC.ANUJ\t . 'ilK.}.\L UN.

"'lilI J.2 Mentol Mop,

0/ tli t;

1Y0rl d

/Ww, tNLlW_


Ill' 5



~HTHT'tAp.J.w u_""




../IWIJI 0

1/S '"



~.r-- ----

wl ........... 19IlM!.

/Iow Ilc
011' (JIIIII

u.'t IJltw

tI., workl7 ()o wr. l

pomt of ruhure and \;c ....'S a ll o thcr culturcs l.LS denMions from what is R nonnal. R As one lll;mircst."1I11III of t'thnocem rism. map exe rcises rcveal that

IIIdmU in many nalions draw

... ,.~J-

map~ ill ....,hich their hamtbnds are in the center or the world (sce Fig-

homtfmltl ill Ih(' (~I/f'f" ' " a lIIap f'Xf'f'riy. a stlldml III Ih, /Jmpk's /Vpllbllf of C.lIilln lnW Chllln tu mlltnJ. IAhi/'. (aJ ,J/I(III111 lit III;J Jiprr) nil A.1I.flm/lnll stud"'l pul Alu/mlia nl 1ht'lap,

'flit' conflict approach to suei,,1 heh,wior points

OIIIltw elhnocentric mluc judgmc nts SC IVC 10 d e. . Jl:mu p~ and contribut c to dcni:.1 of cqual op-ponunitit'\, Psycho logist \Vallc l' Slcph a n no tes a typtr.ll t,'umplc o r ClhnocClIlli!:lm in Nc\,' Mexico's dwJub. Bolh Hispan ic a nd Nath'c Amcdc:tn cullam Itach childrcn 10 look dowlI ..... hen thc), are brine rriticized by adults. yct ma n)' R AngloM(no nHitpmKI le2.chers belic\'C IImt you should look .....-ont'in Ihe c)e whcn YOll arc beiug cliticiLed_ ~'lrachcJ'S can rl..'ellhat these students ;m.' be-

illg disl'C')pcctiu l. nOtes Steplmn, ""h:u 's the kind or lnisl lndcnwndi ng that COlt. c\'olve into stereOlype and p!'cjudi cc ~ (Golc ntan , 199 1:C8), FIIIlCI.iona lisl$ nOl e Illa t cl h noce nlrism scn 'cs 1.0 maintain a !:lenS! of solid.l!'it)' by p l'otnOli ng gr o up plide, Yet this t)'lX! of social stabilil )' is establishe d at the CXpCI1'>C or o thcr peoples. Denigrating olher nalions .lIld cuhure .. ca n en ha ncc our own p:uri. otic rt.'eling" and belicr th.u our W") or lire is ~upt:.... rior, Of course. clhnocclllrism is hardly limited to ci tizens of IIU' United Slatt.'lI_ \li51tOI'S rrom 111"11)'

(JI,..,'HIJ -

u ',n'RI.

AJrican c ullures arc sUI'prised a l the disrespect tha t c::hitdrc n in the United Sta tes show their pal'e nt~, People from India may be repelled by o ur pF.lctice o f living in the s..unc househo ld with d ogs <l nd cats, Many Is lamic fund am e n talists in the Arab wodd a nd .'\sin view the Uni ted as corrupt, deca' dent. and d oomed to dcsU'uction, All these peop le: may feel comfortt:d by me mbershi p in c ultures thalo in the ir vicw, arc sup(.-rior 1 .ours, .0

Cultural Relativism It is nOt necessa ry to view all cultura l variations I'.'ilh an assllmption tha l .onc's own c ul ture is more humane, morc "civili7.ed ," and Illo re ;t(I\"lnced tha n othe rs, Whi lc Cl11110CCII LriSlll evaluates foreign CUltll fes tlsing the lam iliar culturc .of the .obse rver as a standa rd .of cun'eel be havi o t" cultural relativism views people's beha\~or from 1J1c perspective of their own culnwc. 11 places a pri, o rit)' Oil 1wdm((lIufillg o Lhe r cuhures, r~llher tha n dism issing tlt c m as "st.ran ge~ Ot' "(>4XOt.iC.~ Un like (;thnocc tlllism, cul tu ral relativism e mploys th e kind of valuc n eutrality in scientific stud), lhat Max Webe r saw as SO imporlant (see Chapter 2) , Cuhm'al rclati\~ sm stresses that diffe re nt social I:ontexts givc risc to difTere lll nOl'ms a nd values. Prac ti ces such as polygam y, bu llfighting. and mo narch y are exam in ed with in t.he particular Call' tex t<; of the c u ltu res in which th e), ,Ire fo und. While CUhltr.11 relativism does not suggest that wc mWH unq ucstionably acc(~ pt every form ofbcha\~or characteristic of a culture. it dops require a setioLls a nd unbiased effon to c \Paluate norms. values. and cus toms in light of the dislinc ti \'l' c ulture Qf which they ilrc a part , I.n practice. of cOu rSe. the a ppl ica tion of c ultural relativism C(lJ1 raise de lica te qucNtio ns. In 1989, a Chinese immig rant man was convicted in a New York co ur! o f h lu d geoll in g his wife la death with a hammer, Hm,'eve r, the man was aequined o r llle most serio us cha rges against him , and \-.'as sente nced o nly to five years' probation, '.... he n Lhejudge ruled lhat r ultural conside ratio ns waITantc:-d lenie nt}'. The deceased woman had confessed to having had a n ex tramarital a.fiair. :m d the judge revealed that he had bet! tl innucll ced by the tcstimony of an cxpen on Chinese c ulture that husbands in China ofte n exact severe pun ishment o n thei r wives in su ch situations. In postlrial h earin gs.

the judge declared thal tJu' de rendant ~ t (M) k .,11 Chin ese clI llllr'C \\~lh him to lhe Unit ed Sl<ltt,' there fQre was not fully responsible for his I'illl conduct. In res po nse to this ruling, Brookl)'1 trict atto rney Elizabe th Ho lt zman < Illgrily i n ~i MThc: should be one stmldard Of j uslicc. nI)l f that depends on the cllhural background of tht fentlant, .. , Anyone who comes to th is count!) m be pre pare d la live by and o bey the 1a\\'S of coun ur" ( Rosario a nd Marca no, 1989:2), The varia lions in c ultll ra l norms a ro lLnd ....'0 1'1(\ a re read ily apparct1l in standards reg-.uu' sexual n :latioll.s beforc ma rriage, An CX h ;),l" study o f 158 socie ties revC'lled tha t pl'c mal illll W" l~ fu lly approvcd o f in 65 societies, condi1 iut . approved of in 4S, m ild l)' disapproved of ill Ii f eludi ng the United States), and f(Jrbidden ill 41 though sexual n OI'IIl:; in eJl is (0111111)' a re changt ma n)' cullllre:; might ncven he1ess lind our pu discouragemen t o f pre marital sexual r'cl at.ioo~ li cu l! 10 unde rsta nd, Similarly, tu/' may be pcrpl' by the 65 societjc-s which full)' approve of ~udt havior o r by the .1'1 societie" which forbid h. W is the "rig ht " answc r: Wh a t is "pro pe r" st:xu;tl duct: In tlti!> CHse a nd o thers, it de pc uds 011 no rllls and va l u e~ Iha t each individual or (ull accept.~ as valid (Ml lrdock, 1 ~ 11 9: Richal'ds. 1972: T h e re is an intercsting exte nsion o f culwr.'Il :ulvism , re fe rred IQ as -"l'mICi'II/n.u n. XellQcelltr;J the bcliefthat.lhe products. ~tylc s, 0 1' ideas of society are inferior to 1J1osc Ihat originate cl\e\\ (W , Wilson (:1 al., 1976). In a sense. il is lll't\e lhnocenmsm . For example, people in the Un' Su-lIes oft en assllme that French fashi ons or. ncse e lectronic devices arc supe rior la ourowo,. they. or are people unduly charmed by the hUT goods from exotic places? Such fascination BI' c hina o r Dauish glassware Gill be dam to competi tors in the Uni tcd Stales, Some co nies h<lve responded by creating produru I SQIH Id European like Haagen-Dazs ice cream (11 in T l"aneck. New J ersey) or Nik(! shoes (produ in l\ca\'cnon, Oregon), C.onfliCI theoristS are likely to be troubled by the econom ic irnp..lC1 xc nocen trism ill the dcveloping world, Consu in dC\'doping nalion .~ frequently turn their on locall)' produced goods and instead puTtI items im po n cd fro m EltTopc or North America.

I',lffl ,,1'0
Qff(~ ,\'It.H-!(;


Artordi"g 10 IIf!


study of 158

S(I(Id il'..f. ",~nlfll ~ is forbiddc! jll 44. jllt/lldillg m(l/l1 rll{llIftl wh~



lilt do",,,ul/lt ,.eJigioll.

I l.Il;RE AND THE 11' 11f1);."l~I...m!,;Q!'9.<;;y'...................................

\t t, ft'"dil) apparent. sociologists rcg:ud culture as

hlghl)' ~i~;nificant concept. since it cmbracL"S all lc-oIm(d and shared bchavio r. Ne\'crthclcss, there ~If UUj>llrt."lnl differences in the ....'a)'S in which funetllll\Jh~t and can nict theorist" view culture. Wt! h ave \trothat func tion:tlislS c mpha~ i 'l.c the rolc of lan!tll.ll!:t' in unifying me mbers of a SOCiCl)' while conHII\ throrists fOCWl on the uSt: of language L pcrO JII'!' divisions between groups a nd societieS. \!milMh , flUlctionali slS stress that cultural integration ren('ClS agreement among nlt~ mbcrs o f a socit'I): conflict theorists COllnte r th ..n lhe IlVl"lns and ~:.ihtt', ptrpetuated arc those f:wol';lblc lO the clitcs .and Iht' powerful. (k,th sociological perspec tives agree tha t culture Jfllj,oriclyare in hannonywith eac h o ther. bUI fo ,' dl/ft'rent rea..ons. Fun ctionalists main lain th,ll smbllin rtquires a consensus a nd the Sllpport of 5oci1'1'\', members; consequently. there are strong CC Ilu~l ~'3lucsand common nonns. This view of culture hl' popular in sociolOb,), beginning in the 19*,. h"\~lIg been oo.To\\'cd frorn n'itish arllJ1rQpulOf.,'1m who s.'lW cultural trai ts as all working to"rMd n"bilizing a culture. As .....c Icame d in Cha l>d

tcr J. the func ljo nalisl view of cuhure can bc llsed 10 explain why .....ielely condemne d social practices s uch as prostitution conti nuc 10 survive. FI'OIll a fun ctio nalist perspective. a CI IIIllI'allrail or pract ice will persist if it pcrfo l'lllS fun ctio ns that society secms to necd or contributes 10 overall social tabilil)' a nd consensus. Connict theorisLS concur .....iUl functionalisLS that a commo n c ulture lIIay c xisl. bUI they argue that it serves t.o maintain th e privileges of somc g ro ups while keeping o the rs in a subsclv ic nl position . A c lllLUrc. the refore. may o fTc r ~ .. easons~ (justifications) for unequal social arrange me n ts. A.., nOled in Chaptc r 1. Kolrl Ma rx ide ntified V'.tlucs in the culHIre o f c<tpitalist socie ties that justified lhe cxploitation of UlC working class. Today. a society's cuilure may scek lO explain why PrOlestan LS e.~oy g rc.lI.c r privileges than C,ulOlics (Northern Ireland ), why the separat.e economic developmcnt of 1lIacks is hehind that o f Whites (South Africa). or why womcn can be expected to e arn less than m e n (the United States and elsc~"hcrc) . TIle te rm dorniTlaTlt ideology is uscd lO describe a SCt of cuitunll beliers .md prac ticc..'S tha l he lp 10 mainta in powerful social. econom ic, and political imcrcslS. This com,:c pl "'as firslllscd by J-Iullj:,rarian Mal'X ist Ceorg l.ukacs ( 1923) a nd Italian Mal'Xisl


Antonio Gramsci ( 1929). bu{ it d id not gai n a n all(lienee in t.he United SlaleS unt il [he:: ea rly 1970s. In K.,d Marx's view, a ca pitalist so ciety has a do minan t ideology ..... hich serves the imcrests of the r uling class. Ma rx a nd Engels wrOtC in 1845: Thc ideas or the ruli ng class a rc in cve')' age the ruliug ideas: i.e. the class ....hidl is the dom inan t material r{)I..... of sOCicl}' is at Ih <.' S3m(' lime ils dominanl i,,/dlutual rOl'cc (BOlwl1lorc, 19R3:43 1). From :t conOic t pcrspcCLi\'c, lhe social sig nificance of the domina nt ideo logy is dml a society's most powerful g rou ps and insti tlllio ns not only contro l wea lth and property: even more importa lll, th ey control thc m eans of producing beliefs aboll t reality th rough rel igion . ed uca tio n , a nd the media. For example, if a ll of a socie ly's most imporL Ilt in'1 stilLltions Icll wome n that they sho uld be subsClVielll to me n , th is d o mi na n t ideology wilt help 10 con tro l \\'omcn a nd keep th e m in a subo rdi na te positio n (Abe rc ro mbic c t a l., 1980, 1990: R. Robertson, 1988). Func tionalist a nd conflict t h coris L~ ag ree, ag;.lin for d ilfcrelll reasons, that va li atioTl exists within a cullllre. Fu nctio na lists view subcultu res a..~ variatio ns of pa nicula r social e nviro nme nts a nd as evidence tha t d ifferences can exist within a comm on cultu re. Ho\\'('ve r. co n nin theorists suggest Ihat variation oft en refl ects th e inequali ty of socia l

wi thin a society. Conscq ucntl)\ frim a co nf1ic t perspective, the challe nge to d Oll1i llAllI social norm.~ by AfriGII1 Am er~can activists, the fcm in isl movem e nt, and the disability rig hts 1I10VCm etll can be seen as a refl ection of inequali ty based 1111 r'a ce, gende r, and d L~ability status. A g rowin g n um be r of social scientists belien: ,I\iII a ~corc c ul ture~ can not be easily ide ntified il1 ilK nited Sta tes. The lack of consensus 0 11 nation..J values, the diITusion of cul wral traits, the divC/'\i(l of o ur many subCl lllUres, and the changing vi.ewsol youn g people (refe r back 10 Fig ure ~ I ) all are dtd in sup port of this viewpoint. Ye t the re is no W"d' uj den)'ing that ce rtain expressions of values halt grea ter influ e nce than o th ers even ill so complt'l a society as the Uni ted Sta (Abercl'OllIbie el ilL 1980, 1990: 1'\'1. Arche r, 1988; Wuthnow a nd Wilteo, 1988:52- 53)_ Wc see, th e n , tha t ne ilher the rll nctio nalist nOl L conflict perspcctive can be used excl ll.~i\'e l y III he ex pla in a ll as peCL~ of a cultu re. Fo r example, lilt custom of tossing rice at a bride a nd groom carl hI' traced back la the wish l O have c hildren a nd to tilt view of ri ce as a symbol of fe rtili ty, rather than I~ the powedessncss of the proletari at. Ne\'enhclest therc are cul tura l practices in o ur rodery a nd aliiers tha t benefil some to the dClrime nl of mOlm-. T hey may indeed p romo te social stabiliry and consellsus-but a t whose expense?

arra ll ge m enL~



How have c hanges in the population of the United St<Hes anected the debate over sc hool a nd un iversity c urricula? Wha t d o scho la rs mean whe n the}' refer to the "ca n o n ~? \-Vh at ro le shou ld the can on play in the edllcatio n o f ullderb d uatc stucients? ..... How migh t fu nc tiona list a nd conflict theorists view the controversy ovcr m ulticult llralism ?


c ulture of the United Slates can be COlIIpa rcd to <1 kaleidoscope-the rumi tiar optica l device whose colors and pau.erns are formed by pieces

o f colorcd glass refl ectcd from min ors. As l~ vie \\'cl' LUrn s a set o f m irrors in t.he ka.leidoscopt he o r she sees what a p pea r to be an infi nite variet\" o f colo r fu l images. Similar ly. the cult ure of ,be United Sta tes is ha rd ly sla t..ic, especially wilh moo: than o ne mill io n legal im mi gr.m L~ per year and l substantia l numbe r of illeg:11 im migrants COlI' I.ributing 10 c ultu ral diversity (&haefcr , 1992), The re is litt le do ubt tha t the ra cial a nd ethnit. lIla keup of the nation's schools a nd collt'gt.~ ~ c h:lllbring sig niliGllltly. Soc i ol ogi sL~ have oft en be(tT involved in d o(;ulTl c llling tbese c hanges and au~ Iyzi ng tlleir socia l signi fi cance. In 1990. t11e entet'

1\\11'1' '/1\"() OIlC ,,"NII.I.W ;
~()CJiII. I.fH,

Thnr u III,J, dQtlbi lhal In, mClIII {HId rlnmc rrwlvtlP of In, 1IlIIu1P! S Mltools IIml lol~ is rnlJPIgi"K jIKlllfillJ"'i], INdd, 11 is ~ Ih(lt bJ IIv ytor 20' 0. IM {OlflbilU'tl BI(llj, lIuJlllNll. and A.d(l" pofm/mlorlJ of IIv Utlili;d
SIIIIf.5 rmlllJuCltiNI jrw

47 pncf'rll of 11"

IlflliQlI J popull/llDtI.

illlt lil\l;(';II' class at lhc Unh'c rsity o r Ca lirl)rnill at'\' "''at 3'1 percent White, 30 pcrccnt or Asilln nenl. 2'1 I>t'.rcen t or Mexico.tu 01'" Latin American ctn.:cnt md 7 percenl Arric<U1 Amcrican. AI Slilll' ford l'ltIwl1i'Y. marc than '10 pcrcCIll of clHcli ng UIWklRlollltldtes ;ue from Arrican Americall. N:lli\'c \ul<'OC.IJI. Asi.m or Asian Amcrican. or ~'l exiC' n ... \mc-riaul backgrounds, While these ",d,,1 alld eth[Ill: I;lt~ lr~ not t.. idcnl al :111 schools a nd co1kgC5 ... XII'" lhe country. lhey nevertheless rc fl t..'Ct lo ngt.,lllKC'pitl)Ul;ltion trcnds. According to proj(.'Ction~, 11I1!M'h"aT 2050 lhe combi ncd Black. Il ispanic. and ~Il pt)pul.ltiOlls Oflhc Unit(.-d St.ltcs will account Kw 11 pt'reclu of the n .. tion s 1>OI)lIl:tlion (BUI'eau ,itMCtmus, 1993b: Stimpson. 1992:52). \~ tht rad .. l and ethnic profile of student popuI-.mlllU ha.~ changcd, there has been dt..... h.ilr OH'r the proper curriculum 1l1:lIerials th.1I Ih""!d be lI\td in school and college c!a.\Srooms, lr..nilltHtolli~IS belicve lhat it is csselllia llo rocus 0 11 .... hJI I~ ntlC1 1 c lllcd ti le C1I1I0l/ of t he hest books of
Ilro,l('m cjl;li/lllion. including famolls ....ork... h)' \lUkC\jlC,II t'. Hawthol1lc, M c"~ l1c. I-Ic llling.....:t)'. hlll~l1('r . and others, By contrast. u'o llblcd by lhc brl that thi5 canon overwhelmingly consists or

"hUt, In.lle :l1l1hors rrom United Statcs or Eunr plAn b;l(lgrounris. advocates of multicu/lu J'o/is m m,u,t th~1 K:hool and college curricula should be

revised to givc grc:t tc. cmphasis to the contribu tions and ex periences of Africall Amelicans, other r:.tcial and ethnic minoritit:s. women. and lIon ....cst ern peoplcs. Cat lml'ine Slimp$Oll ( 1992:43-14 ). a former president or the Modern L..'Inguage ..\ssocialion. suggests that multiclIlturalisnl - most often . ' , me;ms treating society as the home of sc,'CraJ ''aluable bill dininc! racial and ethnic groups,While sociologists hMe not uniromlly cndorsed lIlulticululrnlism , thcy have long argued agaillsl any type or clhnOC:CllIric ....orld ,;cw, Viewed rrom a fUIlClionalist PC~ I)Cc the. the traditional canon of ....'CSlCI'll culture promoles stabil ity. social solidarity. and consensus by he-tl)ing to define lhc comll1on ,,,lues oflhe Uni loo S(;ItC$, 111CSC "grcat books- arc s,lid to speak across barriers or gender. racc. religion. and geog....lphy and to providc :1 culturnl heril:lgc Ih'H all of us share, By CQnIrast. howc," connicl thcorislS might vie ..... lhc .....elltcr. ern ca non as cc nll~11 1 <l dominant ideology that 0 sCO't.'s Ihc hllt:,'cSts or society's mosl powerful groups and institut ions, From a conn ict l>Crspcc live, the mO"C lnent in SllPP0 1'I of l1Iulticultt,lmlism I'CI)rCSCllts ~I c haJlc ngc to l ong~Ul nding inequilies based on gcnder. race. :lI1d clhnicilY, Intense dcb;ne has eOlptoo across the United Statcs in school systcms, collegt.'S. and llniw:= rsilies regarding clTo lt.~ 10 introduce or protCSI mlllticul

O IAI'n'.11 J


tur:.11 culTicula. At Sm nford University, :t n':(luired one-rear course 011 WCS t t'nl culture for incoming students focused on the tradllional wCSlem canon. When cl;tic.'i :u gucd that lIo n-Europe:1II works should be added to th l' reading list and that suI). st,u\lial attclllion should be given to i~ucs of gender, rnce, and cla.'iS, a long battle re.'mlted. At the Unh crsity of Tex:t5 in AU<;lin , a proposal for a requircd wrid ng course, Wdling about Dincrcnce, ....'<Le; biucrly allacke(1. De re nrlers or the pro posal a rgued mal Sludent.s would sharpen their writing s\tills while le;u'ling (th ro ugh required rt:adings) abOllt cultural divcrsity. cSllCdally as it pertai ns 10 issues of race and gender. T hose opposed to the l)roposal derided it as ~Opp res.~io l1 English~ and insisted that it bro ug ht a loaded political agenda into thc classroom (Ro tJl cn bcrg. I94-,)2a; $earle. 1992: 106- 108; Will , 1992). In 1993. 1IIInter Collegc-a p:U't of till' City Uni ...ersity of New York-adop ted a dctailed and fa r reac hing muilic uilu l-:II c urriculum . To recei ...e a bac helo r 's dcgn'l', eac h stlld e nt IUUSt salisf),:a ~p lu l'alism and dh'crsity rCflllire llle n C by complcting a lhree-cred il co u ~ in e;lc h o r fou r designa ted :trcas: nonEuro pc,m clIlIlIIC$. r:.tcial :11111 e thnic mino rilje.s wilhin the Unitcfl St:lles. ",omcn's studies and issuc.... of gender and ~x 1l 3 1 o rie nta tion . and the in tc llect llaltraditions of Europe. The new lIlulLicultural requirclllcnl wa.~ adopted by the I hmte r College Sena te :aner two ),l""'" or study, discH\Sion, and debate ( M. Nt ....'Tllan. 1 ~'3). At tJle c le mentary :Uld M'condar), ", hOol levels, 'c\'> York Statc has heel! ont< of the ce nt",1 ballJegrou nds concerning lllulticulturalisl1l. In 1989, a laSk force apl)Ointcd by the stale commissioner of education released" cOlltrOvcNir.1 rel)Orl emiLled "A Curric ulum or Inclusio n." This e xaminatio n of the state's histOlY .. od social 'itudies cuniculum insiut-od that ~Mric<IIl-AlIl e l; c:lII.s, Asian-Amcric:ms, Puerto Rica ns/ L:.lliIlO$. and Nalive America ns b;we all been the viclims o f an illlelleclUal :lIld eclucational oppression that has c h:II':tClc l; the culture and institutions of tht.: Uni ted Stales and tJ IC European \\'orld Ii)l' ce nlllrie<l~ ( R:l\'itch . 1992:29 1: Smoler. I 9lJ2) . In Ne", YI)rk and elsewhere, some critia of traditional curricula have gone beyond a broad mul-

tk ullural focus t.o ad\'OC3IC A/roce Pltrici". term refen. 1 the lIse or Africa n cuhures. 0 than solely tJu!' European cxperience. to dersmnd hllnmn bchaviors past a nd presc"nt. cc nu'icit)' would place the African and American cxperiences .. t the hean of cuhural (Asanle. 1002) . An impon4\lI t \'Oice opposi llg and Afrocentricity has been the National lion of Schola l'5 (NAS) . Founded in 1987, gani"'<llio n has 2500 members. most of them fes.<lOrs a nd many or them political Like otJlcr critics of muhiculturalism, !hr ( 1992) arguC$ th;tt r.tdic tls art: ll;:~:::l~:;;:.~: lecuml inquiry a nd acadcmic freedom ing ~politically COI'l'ect curriCU\;.I. Me mbers a nd othcr defenders of the ll';.tditional canon eluding conscrvativc studcnl new:.pal)(:r!l (Ill Cillnpuses) imiSI Ihat tJ1C d;l1>5ic western I tradi tion must. he taught ill sc hools and the United S tatc~ bccausc Ihis lI-:tdilion shaped the dcvelopmcnt o r Oll r c ullure. M,,,,,.. ....'orks by Pla to, S hakespeare, and o thers are or such high intelleclllal and artistic quahl\ the) wi ll have mcaning for all stut!ell l.$, of gender, r:ICC. 01 ethni city (Kimball , Sc:t rle. 1 992:R8; R. n. Smith, 1993:26) . Defendel"l of mul!icultur'lli<l1l\ counter I),..t tr:tditional Cl llon reflects the interests and spC<:ti\'c:. ofprivilegt'd White f:u ropc-.m largely igllorin~ the cOlllributions o f calor. a nd working people. I lclII), J r. (1992: 197). o ne of the nation 's IIlOSI gUilihed Arrican AmeriC'.tn scho lars, the ~rel l1rn of 'the' canon. lhe canon rna~tcll)ieces, represents the ret urn of a n wh ich my people \\'e ,'c the ~\lbjllg-.t led . tJlt less. the invisible .. . .~ Critics of the (".anon tha t placing the w(.'Stern c uhural a nd ;"'1<11, hed tage in .1 preemi ncnt position represenl$ ample of ethnocentrism alld nlcistll. In their a genuinely lIIulliculLUral lIpproach to \\'iI\ help 10 e mpower remale and non-White de llls while broadening o ur appreciation \If manity's multiface led cult\ll" .md illlclltwJ al tory (Rothe nbcrg. 1992a:265-266). Sociologist Tro)' Duster (1991:82) suggesu


tbt' wnt(M'e.rsy over is actually a ".rruJI;Hlt o\'er who gelS lO dcfinc the idea or AmerIU, I}llurr asks!
""'''"'~nti;dlya n;uinl1l'.ilh a common-oral leillit d,nmUlJnI-cu!lurc 10 which immigrdna ;uld "fl1i-

IIUritit."SW IllUJI adapt? Or is Ihis a land ill which Clh-

nicit}' and d ifTerC'nce arc:1II .lIxeplt.-d pan I'.'hole;

a 1.00d III l'.'luch wc affirm Ihr- richllt."SS of our diffcrcncc~ a nd simultaneousl) 11) 10 lorge agn.:emCIII aOOm

b;tsic values 10 guide public and social policy?

t:.Ih" 11 the IOtality of learned, 3'u cilliJv II~m!lliucd be-ba-.l"l, Ihi, dmpter c)(:lInin e~ Ihe lxlSic elcmcnts I'.'hich aW.t IIp;a ruiturc. social p~c lict."S which :lre CUll1l1l011 to

III cultures. -and YJriatioll~ which rliuing\luh onc cullurc &om ,(.IIfllher,
I 111\ were nOl for the- sncillllrnn~llli!i3'ioll 01 culturc. would h:l\'e 10 1 'c1I11't:1I1 Lt'lt'\'i!oiulI, 1101 1.0 flltf\MII the whcel, I \l1Ihml)<)logist Grol'Hc Mmdod, cOlllpill-d a lisl or II"N' practices found in l'\'Cl1' whu1"C. including (UIoIfbInp. I.llnil), g-dmes, 1.IIIKu:IKc, mcdicine. rcligiHll ....1'W'Xu,,) rr1ilrictions. , !ootJ(H'11d req" ideml which lIt.'<"m lOO rordgu ;(! wdl ao !hllllt' "'hich are pel-cc1\1X1 lb Ihrealt' ning lu their " ....11

1I Culturcrl rel(ltivi,,,, pl.lCC') priorit}' 011 \lnticBI;tI1ding o dwr cultures mtJu:r than ciismilllinF: them 'L~ str.UlHc or exotic,12 From a [t)unkl l X'r~ l}Ccti\'e. the social sigmliclllce of the cou cept of Ihe do",inQllt ideology i~ lh.1I a !IOC:iet) '~ most pOl'.'cl'ful groupl~ .md imuwUons cOlllml Ihe mC,IIl' of producing bellcr. aboul reality through religion. I':C'IU(:llioll, :md Ih(" lIIedt;t. 13 Ad\flClllt~ or mullicu/tl/rQlis", a.rgue dlat the t!';tdiliol1,11 curricub of sch()ol~ :md ('ollege's ill the CUlled SI;I1l'S should be l'e\'i~t'( l to includc mO l',' work, b)' :md aUc)llt Aftic;m t\me'; ca n~ . mlwr ",cial 0111(1 t:thuic minorities. :mrt ..... omcn.

,..... ,and beliefs.

lA1If'l1J8( include~ 'pl'c<h, wriueu e h:""clt'l"1. 1111fWTll., ",nlbols, and ~nturej :111(1 other fonll~ of uon-

ItTbd wt'nnIUJli("oIlion.


J !:M"'I'*'glsU di!til1KlUsh OCI...... "t:11 "OP"'"III IWO w:ws, tlw- ~ cb.Wfied al c1ther 10,.",0' ur jnjo""'(l/nonm _oru or jol"w(I,' , l1It- mOllt chcrishc-d v(l ll4n ur a cultun" w111 n ..-cd\'e dIr ht"\lt51 .o ndilm,. whercas m:tllenlO regarded :1.\ Ic!!.)

mbl';U "'Ill carry light and illfur lllallO;, 7 "w... Kif~l Robin Willialll~ hou ulfe1'l'd:. 1i~1 ur basic, or Ihe United St.1tt'.li. includillg achit:\('lu<! nl . emntflq. maltnal comfort. n.ui(lllalill1l, equaJi ly, and Ihl': ...... tllUl'V or xiellcc and rraron O\'CI f.lilh . Ii In a ",'cIHntc-gr.l1ed CUltll rc. \'ilriOlIS elcmcnts or cui Iwt "'Ill 'UPI)()n onC' allol11el' :lIld III togcthe l' well _ t (~m(,I"ollly. mcm hel's nf :1 , ,,bCl/lIl/ re IKII'ticip:.uo in Ihr d'1InlnaUl cuilure, whilc :11 Ihe .s:UllC lime cngaging In IIn"l"C :md distincthc ronl11 of hcha\'ior, fll"Ifulltne people ~ thclr own culture as supt'no. olIICl \l"~ all olher cllhllrl~ as dc\;atKnlJ rrOIll whOll

Select IhreC' ( 1I1t\l!';,1 un i\'e l-:"'lls liolll Gl.'urgc \IurdClCk's list ,me! ;Ul:ltpC 1111'111 fnml :l fllllCliol1dlist perspecun'. Wh)' "rc tht."!Ie pl~l c lin'~ found in CH'TV culHlre? Whal rUnclions d o Ihcy )C .... c? 1 Ilrnl'.'mg on Lite: theo,;" dnd cnncept! prl'M!ntcd III lhe cha pter. "PI>I), "OClologu:al :lnalr~i!i 10 Ollt' 5uocultun: wllh ,,11Ich )'()LI arc ramiliar. t)~n bc Ih(' I\,)nns. \'aluo, argOt, alld ~U1('tions c\idenl in Ihat 5ui>culturt" 3 111 ..... h," .....ay~ is the 1I01l1ll1.t1l1 idoolob'Y of Ihe Uniled SC.I I~ (... idem in Ihc nalion's li ll.' r""'re. !IIUSIC. 1110\11.'5.. tl'lc\'isioll PfORral1ls. and ~po rtinK C\1.'T1\S?

-nIl." ILW nr Arrican culturcs, I~uhcl' Ihall solely the l-: umpe;u ll')(lx'riC I1Ct'. 10 bCller unde r~"lI1d huntan bt'h:I\~or~ pa~1 :lIId prC~C lIl. (p;lge 86) Argot SIK'ci:din-d lanf"ru:Igc \bed b) lIu.:mbCl'll or " group or !luhc ulLure, (78) Bilingualism The ll'IC of twO or more lanl-Cll4Iges in wQrkplac<'5 0 1 e ducation:11 fanliut.'S and thc trealment ' or cadl l:lngu;tge as C(1"all~ lcgilimalc, (f09)

Ajroc,." ,ricity



(J1,u"JoJl J ' C/ ILJ"'Hf

A ~ubcuhu re 111<11 rc::jcct.Ssocicl:llnorInJ :Uld seeks an a ltc rnalh'c lifcstylc. (78) Culturol i n/ef"ol io n TIle bringlllg togcther of conflicting cultural C'lenlents, r('sulting in a hal'lllonious ami cohesh'e whole. (76) Cullurol rdoliuis m 1111;' \1Cwmg of people's hella\10r from the ~npct:Li\'c of tll6r OWIl culture. (82) Cu" urol "niV, r.oU General pr.tctices found in l;\'ei) culture. (61) Culture 111(" to la lit}' of lcaructl, 5O(ia ll y UllllJooI1lIH('d beha\'ior. (62) Cllllll re sll od. TIle feclill~ of ~urprise and diwric n t3Lion th"t ~ experienced when people cuhural practices difTert'lu from their OWII. (80) Diffusion T he process by whidl a cul tu r.d item is ~prcad from gmup 10 g roup (lr rociCly 1 wcielY. (66) 0 Discovery TIlt' p rocess ofmakillg kl10wn or8hari n g the ('xblcl\(,c of an a~lx'ct of rea lilY. (6~) Dominonl id llo /&gJ A SCI 0 1 clll u m,1 be l ief~ a nd pm('tires tha! h t' lp 10 mai n l<l in powe rful M)(i;ll . '~Ion(l mic. and polil ical irllereSIS. (8:\) ElhIl OC f'n/ r;sm T he lcndtnq 10 as~u m c Ih:11 OIlC'S n tlIU rc a nd WIly of life are ~l1pe rillr to otlwn. (HO) Ful ltw ays Nnnn, );O\'erning c'\'I'I)day social Iw h;wior "'hose liolauon \'ai!;('~ compamlh'1!lv lilllc' rUl\ccm . (72) Fo rmal norm" Nnnns whic h haw ge ncr;uly 1)I.'~ n writIt'll down ,m" ..... llIdl invnh'l' s,del "Ilcs fUl' pun bhnlcn l of viola lOTS. (72) In/o,,,.tJl no, ,,,s NonllS "Inch "n' gellerJUv Ill1ciel"'ilOOd bUI whICh are II0t pn.'Ci:wl)' n..'Col'd(~d. (72) In novolio" T he p roce~ of Inlrodunlli! IJew elements lOin 11 cuhure thro ugh d iscO\'('I)' 01 illvt' min n. (64) /" vlm ti on TIle combi nation of cxisli ng ru ltu ml itcm, ill10 i& foml Ihal did nOI prt....iolls!y exist. (G.'J) umguoge An abstrJcl s~lem of WQrd tnc-.lOings :lIld ')'lI1 bol ~ for a ll aspt'cl.~ of cuh,lIre. It a lliO I1lcludc~ gesIlI re~ and Olher nonve rhat lo llllllUnicalion. (68) Lll w In a political sellSC. thr- bOlly of" I h:~ Inadc by gO\Cl'Ilment for MKi('IY, interprl'lcd by thc cou ns. and hacked by the l)Ower of lilt' SI;IIC. (7'1) Material cultur~ The ph}'sicJI 0" tech nological ,t.~pcct.S o f ollr dai ly li\'(.~. (67) Mor,., Nn rrllS dcc merJ h igh ly neCC!I.'kH to the wel fhre )' ,)1' a 5ocit'IY (72) M,1I1 icuUurll/ism r ile dTo rt 10 I'Clolsr school and college curricula 10 Kll'C gre;uel cmpha~iJ 10 lhc comrii)utions and expc.:ric lICt'lI of Afrk'lIl Aml'l;can.s, o lher ~cial and e lhnic ll1inoriti('s, \'Iomell. and nOnl.'eSlcrn peoples. (85) NonmQ'~rial cllllure Cullu rnl <I(lju~lnte n L~ 10 m:tlcrial

CO /H,/ereu llur,
\'a luC."S

conditions, such as custom.s. bdlcf~. pallern! of cc.. Hlunicalion. ill1d '1\'3)'5 of 1l$lng I1l;1lcrial OI~l'CU. (liil No r"" E.~Ulhli~hcd sllil1d;lf(l~ of bcha\;Of maintllrwD by if; sociel)'. (71) Son cliolls Pe nalties :lIId fewOt,.ds (or cOlltlll~1 conr~ ing a scei:11 lI unll. (73) Sapir. Wh orJ " yp& "i, A h\l)Qlhesi~ conc~nli nfit la I" mic of lallglmgC' III ~h;lpillg I:uhurcs. 11 hold. th;&t LIlt guage is cllllurall), clc' lcrminccl ,md ~~'(5 It) in/lll,_ o u r mode of Ihought. (f,s) Sor.i f' Iy A fairly large nu mber 01 r.w:oplc \<o'ho li\~ lenilory. arc rcl;uh'dy indcpendelll of pC'IlJ*' oUl5ide h, and panicipale ill J common CIlItU!',.. illS! Sllb cll ltu f'fi' A li4:gment of socicl), which sharti a . . tincti'ic p..ll1crn of morC!l. folk'l\~"')s. land values wh-t d iffers from the pallern 0 1 1111' largcr society, (n, Va lu er Collecli\',' c.:onrcptiom of ..... hal i8 COIl'I(\rrr( g()()(1. {h:sirahll'. :1\1(1 propt'r-or h,ul. undc~irnhk.llll im proper-i n a culture , (74 ) ,'(enocftnlri,m Thl" belief IIUlI the p rodurl.\, Stylt'\... idl'as of OIU"S 1I0dCI)' :Irc inferior lU l110se l hou N1!II' mile c1scwllcn. (H2)



Abcrcrombie. NidllJhlll. St ('ph~' n Il ill. and ISrr.l1l Il Turner (t'ds.) J)O/I/'lIfml Id~t':J. C..Imbndgt'. M& Un""11l H),lIlan. 1990. A criliqllt:' of Ihl' \olew thllll~ lI)llI! cuhurt:'~ cn1('l'gc a~ irlt'flIOJI1l-al 5}~lelll! , Bellah. Rohtrt N . Richanl Ma(bdcn. Anllt' S\o'ldI&f William ),1 . !'IlIlIh~UI , and Slt'vclI M. l1plOlI. 1I(Ji.1J 4Iflr Iltfll1: ImlwlfIU(j/i,m " .,,1 Q,ml1111I11ml In J\JIIlf'I("~ ' . lkrkclly. Uni\'t~ of C..lIiforuia Pn:M. 1985. !inN .social scielltisL~ 'cam up 10 .)1I1111l1.ui7.e the cqnl""", rary p hili)l\(.lph)' of !.he peoplc of the Unlled SWtt .. renecled ill slIch '~II IICS a~ indh'ltlllalislIl and COlD" menl. Iknnan. Pilll1 (1.'(1,) , IHha{I"R I'.G.: Till C.tllJtrf1Lwt] Dlitt" I./Imf Co'T(t"I"f'jJ (jll (',o/ltgr r. "puJo'. New Y m orl Od 199'.!, This t,illlcl)' :lI u holog}' (':r<piores mlllly ;\sPIt lh e d eb,lIt 0\'1.'1 m\llli cu l wntll~m aucl IIId lld~ N'kro r io n ~ by I lcn ry Loll is G'I[ l~, J r .. 1~{l wanl Said. Catha Slirnpson , GCfJl'j.te Will . I) i l w~h 1) '50111.3, Moldl As:t mc, In 'iuK Il owe. a nd 1) i:1JI~ Ib\'iu:h. FelnheDLOIlc, ),Iikt (cd.). GloboJ Cult",.,.: NfII ......,. GllI6ahUllw". ,md MorVnu/V, I.ondon: Sage. 1990. lntlll <lnthology. social Kiell1isu Imm man)' nation! 411 .... the ~:r<l~O\ 10 whkh wc aa' wl1ne~ing a glob:llit:\lllll of CIIIIIU'(',

l',l Hr flltJ OHC"w/7JW: S (XIM. /.1,..,.

flll.l<fo,\'lrd T., lInd Mildred Reed I-Iall. UlldlnlfHltlillK

tmmll),/fnmm. Yannomh . Me.: In tc rCllltuml l' rcss.


19911 T,,'o"/ .lIItl1 ropologists review their lifelong \o\'Ork 111:11 UhUf~ll h ff('!rcnces and focus 1)11 spc.. dlic a pplic-d' UQh' 01 how corpor.l1ioUJli operate in Frnnce. Gcnn.1ny, BId Ih" l 'nih:d Statcs. (;aI)' (cd.). Li(lmillg iF! TW(} Ul1Iglltlgd. New Bnll~id N:I.: l'r.II1'\;1c lioll . 1990. T h is COIlt."c lio n of tMaW hrillJrltogcther the research findinWl of those nl .u!ll)C".. te and those who a rc c ri tical 6f b il i n ~\I ~1 1

WallCfStcin, Imm:U\uel. C.mpoii/lCf "rid ~dll"l'; 1'J'")"l on IIv Changi'lg lI'orld S,}/l'In . .Cambridgc. Eng.: Cambridge Universit)' I>re". 1991. Wallerstcin argul'$ Ihat in ligh t o f the coll;lpsc of the h'On curr.tin and the dedine of the United SIl'tlCS dUlIlimuu:c, a lIew ,,'Oriel cconorn), is emerging a lo ng "'il.h all ;Lcc(Jmpatl)'ing
~g !()Cullllrc.~


Wcinslcin . Dcella. NttWJ M twl: tI Cldillml Soriology. New York: LcxinglOll . 1992. A sociologist cxalllir1c~ the suo. c ul uuc :lssl)Cialt,<I "'it h "hea,,}, Illeml" music and effons lO curtail thi$ ~ U lx:lIlt IlI'C.

1mbi1l.1>I111.l1tl lt '/'ht' RIl14le oj.4.mi.sll Cll/lllrt'. ll:lhimort:: )oIIM U t>pkin~ University Press, 1989, f) rall'ing on ot>1fI'\7IIl1tlll rcst'an:h in Lancastcr County, !'c nns),l"an;;l, ""''bill '\u to darif)' how Llle Amish cOllli nue 10 ~ d~rite their resismnce to tC'dlllologic-.t1;l rd. F'r;lIlris E. and Patricia Sltarpc (<-,<!.s.). Tal... l!}l1tl". Mu/i /Ill/oll, and Adormnnlf:

J.~~~~~~............................. , _ ,._......... _ ",,,............. ..... ............ ........

Among Ihejournals that rocl..lS on issllcs of cul ture and language are A'IItriaHl AlIlliropologiJ/ (fOllllded in 1988 ), Crrm,Cllllllml lVSMrth (1991). C,d/ SlInln'fll QuaM/)" (1977), flhll fl{ogy ( 1962), tlll..,-" tll/fJ,mljmmml of I/', SfJrifJb'lrI of L(IIrgrlage ( 1974 ), alLd Thl'Ol)" CII/IUrf, (/lul Sarir,., ( 1982).


Tn, /HII(I/rlfn/-

...,..,. r.j/ht &11)111 C,lllure (md Tal. AIb.1ny: Smte t..:n iI'tnil\ HI New York I' ress. 1 ~}92. T"'o professou o f anlhlllpulogy :u1(1 wom t:n'~ studies consid er the manflC'I' in "hieh '<lrio us cultures and subcuhtu'cs d eal with land .utt'I') the human body.


......................::::::::::~:::::::::::::::I .................... .


1HE ROLE OF SOCIAUZATlON t:n\ironmcm: The Impact of Isolation ntt: Innuenct: of I lcredit)


School Peer Group M<U5 Mt:diu

TIlE SW AND SaCIALlZATION ~Kioll>gical Approach~ In the Self

Cooley. l..ooki ng-GI;L"'~ Sdf 'l(';lId: StagCl' of lhe ~ Ir

The Srate

Colfman: Prcscn tation of lhe Self I'wchological Appro.-tche! 1.0 Ihe Self SOClAUZATION AND T HE LIFE CYCLE "yges of Soci;llilA11ion Anticipatory Sociali.,:nioll and Re!JOCi:tl iLOltion


Ik ha\;OI': Imprcssioll Management by SludcrHlI a(II.. , Exam~ 4-2 t:\'crym.y Bch,1\'10r; Soci;lliz:uioll in Mexican American Families
4-1 .\'(,I)'d 'l)'


Children have l1wre need of models than of critics.

JOHf>" Joo,,"
PtTISin, 1771

\v11;11 would happe n if a child was I'ca l'cd in t01<l1 isolation from other people? Will identical rwin s show similarities in personality lIaits. behavior. and intelligence if real'cd apart? HO\.., do we cOllle to deve lop sclfidentity? What stages of sodalization do we p.w through during th e Iifc cycle? HO\'I' clo the fa mily. lhe school. the peel' group. the mass media, the ","orkplace, and the state conuibllle to the socialization process? What are lhe social implic ltions of placing young children in child care centers?

acob ;me! his family are part of the Amish com mUlliLY in Lancaster County. Pennsyh'ania. The Amis h li,'e in a manner quile sim ilar to their nint... leenlh<c nulIY ancestors. They reject Illost aspects o f modemi:r.ation and cOlltempOI'3J)' technology; consequently. the), shun sllch convenie nces as e1cc Lricit)'. automobiles, radio, and teie,iltion. The Amish mainrnin their own ~c hools and clo not want tlleir children socialized into many nOI'lTlS and values o f the domiuanl o l llUl'C or the United St'\tes. A~ onc example, they arc lXu:ilisLS I..'ho oppose all fonn s of ""~.lf under any conditions. As a I+)'ear-old Amish )'ollth, J acoh is in the final year of his schooling. Ovcr the next fcw years. hc will become a fu ll timc ""'orker on his fami ly's fann , taking breaks only for the three-ho ur reli

gious scnrices held each morn ing. On nights. .I acob ''I'ill attend tlle conn."",,"" Msi llgi n b~'" I,,' hel'e he will meet young Amish sing songs. and enjoy refreshments. ( Accordi~ the norms of Ihe Amish . ho .....ever, there is no of Illusical instruments or playing of recorded. sic al these singings.) When he is a bil ol",J ..... may bting a d,lle lO a singing in his f3mB)"s drnl"'1l buggy. But he will be fo rbidden to dme onc o utside his own Amish community and man')' o nly with the consent of his deacon. J acob is ",,'elkm"are of the rather differem life oftlle ~ English ~ (the Amish term for Inon',''''kI people). O nc summer, he and his frie nds hiked late at night 1.0 a nearby town and movie. His parell l!i learned of h is ad\,(,Olure, like most Am ish they are confident that " ",;;, ""'ill choose to continue living in the Amish munit)'. Indeed , more than 80 percent of children choose the Amish way of life as Give n such data, it is likely Ihat Jacob will gl'O\ll creasing]), uncomfortable with his ~Et1glish" hors and will acccpt the Am ish view of the and evils of tlle outside world (Kephal1 and 1994:28-3 1). As was seen in Chapter 3, eac.h culture and culture Ilas a unique char.lcter which shapes ues and behavior or iLS members. S"oI',, U.. ,';_" the pl'Oces." whercb)' people leam lite allitud~, lies, and .. cLions appropriate to ;"~~.;,~~' :~~,:~~,:;:3 bers of a pa n.icular cult ure . J list as domiu'Ul I cu lture of the United Stales are ized to accept use of eiecuici ty. aUlomobill."l>. television as M nonllal. ~ J aco b and other


",IH'I' lWO OHCANIU.w: .W'.lAJ. Uf'!!.

Amuh JII/mllt'!>

III IJ"'III~v/lJ(lnw l't'fl PIlt)$l mprr-b v/llloon'niUl/IOtl arul (Olllnnpomry 1"lInolog)'. CC"YfJIII'fIIIy.

11"'1111", \tuh ((/IIVt'l/ln/{,f'..1 IU ,("lnnIJ. mdonwb!ln, TtulilJ. and


""Ir.h \uh{llhurcs art' socializcd 10 accept hol'scdnYtn hw.UPt~ as 0\ COllllllon mcans of \l';l/lsporU\. bun Ami -'IIIj.,riIlWt without recorded IIHI"jc 01' 11111' ... ;d I\l\UUmellb as a familiar c uhural C\-'CIlI. ".<,~ltr.lljlJll occurs through human inlCmcbill \. \h' "'ill. of COUI'SC, leant a great deal frum UwN' I'mpl,' 1I105t impOft:lnt in our li \'c~-inlllll.'" ~I" 1.111111\ member.;. beSt friellcb , ami lIadlcrs. Bu.,,'!" JI.... ,I("'dm from people wc see on lhe streel, IIfIklo,\''ilIIl. in lihm ;lI\d lIlagaJ'jne~. From a 1IIIff(N.II t<,II~luJ ~1'5pec:li\'c. !IO('iali7;ltion helps us dnt'I'\'('1 hIJ" 10 beh;l\~ ~propcrly" and ... h;1I to nprtl hUII1 (\thcl'!i if wc follow (01' c hall(' ng(' ) \0~I\', IInn!" and valucs. From a nmcrosociologicai prfllX't ltH', 50dalization provides for the p:t~illg ilIl'~,I ,,,hure and thcreb) for thl' long-term COIlhIlUJ1I11" 01 a \Odet}'. ~1I\Jht.. til)fl affects Ihe rn'cI,11I c ultural practice)' .... "N.lrll-lIld it also shapes Ollr scif-images. For rulhpl. III the Uni tcd Sll.ltt.'S. a persun who is nt""A'tII \ "ilK. hea\'( 01 100 5hort dOes 1101 COIlIIlJI 1111111' idf',tl cnhural stMldard. If he or she is Mlllnl!' judged umttlraClive. the ("valuatiun Cim

. This c hapter will exa min e Ihe role or sociali~...1 tion in human developme nt. 11 will begin by ana" the debalc cOllcellling Ihe interaction of heredity :Uld t"lwlrOllll1enla l f.. ctors. Panicular allentioll will be givell 10 how people develop pcrceptions. feclillgs, and belief... ahom themselvcs. The dmpler will explo re the lifelong nalure of lhc soci:llil.;uion process, as well as imponanl agents of socializ.llion. among Lhelll Ihe famil)" schools, and the mediar Finall}. the social policy ~ction ",ill focll.\. on group child care for ,'Oung children ;as a sociali/;ltion cxpctiellce.

TI:!.'... ~Q!d>.. QE ..~QG.I~.I .,I?:~T~Q.l>I .......... I


Illnu~nce the 1)C~on '5 sclf-t.~ leelll . In "l('ialiaHioll cxperil'nces ca n 11;1\(' an im .... r "ft Ihr ~h.lping of people's personali ties. In 1"/UVI1.1I 'perch. the terlll persrmalily i<; used to ..efrr IOJ pt'NIIi'S tvpica] pallCI1IS of a Uilmlcs. n ec d~, twrJ' Il"n,u(~. and bchavio,.



Researc he rs have traditionally dashed over the rela live importance of biological inheri tance and ellvirollmenlal faclOfs in human dc\clopmclIt. This conllicl has hccn called thc ,wIllri' lllT.ruS nur/Ifri' (or hm_ ' llily 11/'7'$115 f7lvironI/lNII) debatc. Today. 1110.'11 s0cial scienlisl,<, bavc 1I10ved h('yo nd Ihi ~ debate. acknowledging inSlcaci the ju/e11lr/io7! of these \':IdabIes in sllOlping human de\'elopmenl. l-I m:c\,cr. we C'dll beuer ;Ippl'cciatc how hcrcdital)' and ell\;ron-

mental f:IClOnl intcr.lct and influence the socialil.'tion process if we finll examine si tuations in which o ue factor operatcs almost cmirciy ",ithoUL the IIther (1I omam. 1979).

(JH /'llIll 'tOCJAUlATI(),\'

Environment: The lml'act o f Isolation ........................................................................................................" ....

For the first six \'can of her life, l.s.'lbclle lived in alII10St latal sech~ioll in II darkened room. She had liute conlaCI widl other people with the exception of her mother, who could neither speak nor heaL lsahcllc's mother's p:trcnL<; had been so deeply al);hamcd of ISllbcllc 's illegitimate birth that they kcpt her hidden away from the world. Ohio authorities finally discovered lhe c hild in 1938 whe n 1s.;.lbcllc's mothcr c!!Capcd fro m her pare nts' home, laking her daughter with he r. When she was discove red , despi te being more than 6 )'Cl\r:s o ld , IS.lbc llc could not speak. Her on ly communications with her mother had been by sim plc gc.."SLUres. Verbally, Is;lbel\c could merely make I";UiOIl5 cro.'lking sounds. Mane Mason ( 1942:299). ;, ~peech specialist who worked close ly ""itJl U1C child. obser.'cd that Isabdle
, . , wa." :lppal'cmJy unaware of relationsli ips of ally lc.ill(l. When prcsclllcd with a hall. she held it ill the

Yet, without an o ppot'tunity to experience ilalioll ill her first six years, ' lsabclle had h:lfdly human ill th e social scnse wl,<" ""e .." discO\ercd (K. Oavis, 1940. 194 7:4~5-437), babelle's experience is impon:lIlt<;( arc relatively few cases of children i real'ed in isolauon. He r il1tlbility 10 a l the lime of he r disc01'cry-dcspi lc her and cogniuve potc ntial to her able )lrob'TCSS o\'cr the next few )'e"rs~:<~;,'I~;: the imp<ICl ofsociaJi....'llion on human cl Unrortunately. in other cases ill which havc been locked away or severe ly ncglcCtI"d. have not fared so wel l as lsabclle. In "";;"';"'~M the consequences ofsociaJ i50la!,ion h:l\'e be much mo re damaging. For example, 1 3-}'e"r~ld Californian named Genie was cred in a room where she had heen confined

f'l GUR.E 4 1

Gtm i e',

Skclch f!~

pOllm of her h:md, then rcachc..-d our :md lilrokt.-d Illy

f"cC' with iL Such hchavior is compamhlc ICI thal of a

child of SIX months. She lIlad(.' no auc.'lIIpl to squeeze it, throloo it. or haunce il. 1 !\:lbclle had been largdy deptived of the typical interactions and sociali7.aoon expel'iences of c hildhood. Since she had actually .seen few people, she initia lly showed a strong fear of !otr.tngers a nd reacted a hnos! li ke a wild ani mal when confromcd with an IlIlfamiliar person. Asshe became accl ls!olllcd to seeing cenain individuals, het' react ion changed to o nc of extreme apathy. At fi rst, it was believed that Isabcllc was deaf, bm she soon began to rcacllO nearby sounds. On te.~1S of m:uun !)'. she ~orcd .u the Ic..-",el 0/'''11 infanl rdther than a 6-}'C'oU'-old. SI>eciaiisIJ developed a :system.lIic tr.tining program lO help lsabelle adapl to human rcl'ltionships and sociali ...ation. After a few days of tr.lining, she made he r first aHempt 10 verbal ize, Although she stllrted slowly, Isabcll e q uickly passed through six years of de\'c1opmeI1L In a liul e over tWO months. ~ lt e W"d.S speakin g in cornplete $('l1tences. Nine lIIomllli later, she could identify both words and senlt:ncC$. Before lsabellc reached the age of9. she ""as rcady to attend .school with other c hildre n. By her fOllrLCemh year, she was in sixth gr.JCle. doing .....e ll in school. and was cmotionally well adj usted.

'I'Im lit"lch w//.j 1II(j(1~ i/l 19JJ., (;,rli,,-a girlllllUJ h(lll /xwt

fqr most afhnfint 14J1f1n


d/..J('(/lJl'f't ", aNtIwntto ,.


her drlfunPl Iter ''',,"'. P"""

t1v kjt)

plaJJ tlw pJnrlll


iislm.i. GDlII' Ihis piltll~

18 r.M

PANr ', ut} 0RGI..I'11J." G SQ("J,u l.Ill-.

RJI/!lllS nu:mkep disp/fry (/ 'IMf for sonfl/ illl('7'(1(liOIl Whnl IM)' dillg 10 mO', nn, lrrry ,lbih -JlIl!!otiluk mDl~. 'rhl lIl()7lltry hf'7l' is muhjllgfur mjlR on fI "mQ lh" - mflflt of bm-, II!j~ whiil

'~III(j itlillg ()7l t/~ rlmh "wl"~. "

dw oIW' 0[20 months. During he r year.; of isola tio n. 00 lanuh member had spoken to her. nor could
. . 00

W he,u .Ulylhing othcr than swearing. Sincc the re u:I(:'oU1on or mdio in he r home. she had arwf liblt'Jled (0 the sounds of normal human ~h On~ year aner beginning exte nsive ther .,.. (ofoil"s gr.tmmar rese mbled that of a typical IlWnuutlH)lrl child . She made furth e r advan ces as hn thrrap) COlltinued . but was unable to achievc Ww.Kuageabilily (Curliss. 1977:274. 1981. 1982. 19L').lt~I09: Pint. s. 1981 : Riglc r. 1993: Rymcr. o 19I1b. 1992b. 1993). Tht ca~c !udics of Isabcllc and Genie document Ihr adl'l'~ impact of e xtreme dcplivation . Inma.,jIl)(I\ , rcsearch e r~ ,lrc emphasizing the impol' tIDIt',1I folrl) sociali7 .ation c xpericnces 1 1' human s 0 ..... ~)I'I up in more no mml e nvirOllmCl11S1 h is IlO\l rn"'WlilCd that it is not e n o ug h lO care fo r an Wlnl'l phV!;ical needs; parenLS must also conce rn Ibmtwll(~ ~ith childre n's social d e \'clopmc lltl If dlildtTn.tre diS(.oumged from having frie nds, they trill hr dtprived of social inlc r.lctions with pec rs lIIII;ut criucal in their e motional growth. Srud~ofanimal5 raised in isolati o n also support tbr mlportAZlce of socialiJ.a.lion on developmellL Ham lIarlOl1' ( 1971) , a researc he r al the pl"illliltC

lalx>f<l.Io ry or th e University o f Wisconsin , COIIducterl tcsts with rhc~ lI S monkeys that had bec u r' liscd away from th e ir mother.; ,11ld away from C Olltact with othe r monkeys. As was Llle casc with Isabc l1e , tJlC rh t.>s U nlOnkc}'S raised in isolation S wcre fo und t,o be rearful a nd easily rrigllle ned. 11ley did not malC. and the fe males who .....cre a rtificiall y in~ e minated became abusive mothe rs. Apparentring ellc ct on the ly. isolation had had a damab monkcys. A cl'e:lli\'c aspect of Harlow's cxpe n W"dS his use of M artHicial mo the rs." In one suc h e x pc rim c m . Harlow prese nted monkcys raised in isolalion with two ~l.Ibs li'ute rnoth c rs- -<m e cluthcovc red re plica and Onc covered with wire wh ich had the a bility to o nc I' milk. Mo nkey afte r mo nkey we nt 10 the wire m o the r for the Iife-giving milk , yet spe nt muc h morc dme clingin g to the more mothcrlikc d oLll model. In this study, artificial moth e rs who provided a cOUllo ning ph ysical sensation (con"cycd by Llle lerry d o Lll ) were m o re highly \" dlued than those who pl'ovid c d food . A" a result, the infanlm o nkcys de\'cloped greatc r social lluachmCIl r.s from their need for I'.'<mnth , comfo rt, and intimacy than from thcir need fot' milk. Harlow round that the ill effecr.s of being raised

CJ IM'"r7iR 4 ' ,iiQCJIoUlATION



in i5Olalioll "'ere often irrt:"\cniblc. I-I Owl. 'er, h'C ... need to be caUlious 011),11\ drawing pa!":llIds bt. .... lweC/I .milll,II,lIld human beh vior. lluman parenb arc not cowl'cd wit h cloth (or fur); lIu:,) use m O I"t! bchadOI,lllIIc;ms u t o;ho\\'ing affection for their off spring. Noncthl'lcss, Ilal"lo""s research s lIgg(:5ts that tht' h:muful c OIl-'>t.'(IUCIlCC'i of isolation cm al>ply to o thcl primates be"idl'~ hurnarls (R. W. Brown , 1965:39) .


The Innuencc o f HcredilV........................................ ,. ..-................................... - ... ~I.

T he isol;tt ion sw d ics discussed above lHay seem to suSgc1\I that inhcriulIlcc ca ll be dismissed as 11 fa cIOr in the soci~ll dc\'clopmclIl of humans and 'lIIi mats. Il o\\'c\'c,.. th t: illlcrplay be twee n he reditar}' and c m;r()lllllent-a1 faclol'~ is evident in a i'asciua l' ing stml), invoh-ing pairs 0 1 twins. Researchers at Ih e Minll csolll Cenlc" fur Twin and Adoption Rese;lrch .u-c snad) ing p;til'$ 01 idcnticall\\;II~ rearcd ap<u' to dClcnnillc "h.ll silllil.u-

nies. ir :UI~','} ~ how in perso llaJi,), u-:UI!. inl', ;md illu.-lIigllIcc. I hu ~ r.lf. th e preii, resullS Irolllthe lwailablc l"in studies indic,,1t both Kt'I1CL '<lCIOI'S alld :'UCi.lli/.ation c:xpc i<a rc IIllhlt'lIti:t1 "' hum.1II dc\dupmclIl. r l hamctcrbtics. such :as twi ns' te mpe ramenu. pallems. and nCl"\'ous It"bits Ippcar 10 IX' \tIl ~ <-,,- e n in twillS ""areel apan. then'!, \ ing that th ~ (1U:llitit."I mOl\' be linked lO hI: C.tuse~ , I IO\\'C\'cr. there ~Ire flu g reater dillc 1>C(\\'CCII iclentil al twins r('ared ;Ipal'l in u:nm tiwd(..'S, , .llues. t)'pe:, ot malCS clu)SCn. and drinkill ~ ha bits . In examining c1usttn; or it}' L rail'i .Inlo ng such twin s. Ibt' MinnCMIt<l han' tuu ml l11arked silllilati ties in ulc,r ({" toward iL',ull,... hip or dominance. but ~ig tlifrer,-'n(l.'~ in 111t.-it' need lor illlinmcy. comf, ,lS,<;iSI:tI ICC, ReS4.: ardu:n. h.l\'t:' .. 1-.0 been impresosl si1l1i lal S(..ores on illlciligcllce I(:S~ or ","Ill.' O'i IXtrt, .Ilthuugh in rough I)' similar social Must ..I the idcllliC'dl lwilb regilller VOI('\


. . tho~ that \\'o uld be expcc lt~d if lhe __ JX'1'Y1l took a test twice. At the 'l;:unc time. ~, Idenucal twins brought lip in dmmll/;ullly " " ..nri:d environments score quitt: differe ntly .. tuwlllJ(C'lIc~ tesUl-3 finding that supports lhe tIII,II" , .. \U(i;lli1;ltioll on human dt..'\"Clopmcllt ...., rt .11,,1993; Boucha rd. 199 1; R~'11 C and I'ar..,Imj lIorgan , 1993}. III tmt\f\1I1g the studies or twin p:'lil"ll and other R.'Starch. onc should proceed wilh a sigdcgrC<' or caution. Widely bl'oadca.~l findflpWOhfll been based on extremely SlImll $am ... ~ ptcliminal)' a nal}'Sis. For example. o ne _loot inmMng twin p.1.irs) was rreqllently cited ,m5mung genetic links with bchavior. Yet thc ftCIRik'~ had to retract their conclusiollS after anpW "'015 incr~ased rrom 8 1 to 9 1 cases and _01 tht original 8 1 cases were rcclassilied , After .... change in the study were complc ted, lhe in;IIndinl(" "ere no longe r valid . Critics add that fir tllId iN on twin I)ail's ha\le no t. provided sat isfIann illlunnJtion conce l'ning the ex te nt to which . . . tr'p.!rJled idcmical (wins m ay ha\'e had COli~ I'J(h OIher, even tho ugh they " 'e re ~r.t iscd ~: SuI h int.cractionli-csptd "lIy if Ihc)' were ~t'-(t)uld call il1lo qucMioll the validity of IIIrnnn'\IIldits ( Kel~ c t al .. 1989) . r.b,)II.gi51 Leon Kalllill fcars 01;11 o\'crgcller tIaDR from the MinneSQt.:.1 twin rc!!u tl.~-a ll d too much impol1:'U1cc to the impact or """t,-mAY be. used 10 bbmc the poor and .....undckn ror their unrorllllHltc condition. ru. . . OWl' nature \'ersu~ nurture COIll;l\lIC5. can ft' ltunly :t.llticip;t1c numerous l'eplic ll Jllr',atth drofts to clarity Ihe inlerpl;w between JImiIW'! ;iud emi romm.' utal r,lclors in huma n de1IiopaN'nt (llorgan. 1993; Leo. 1987: I>lo mill . !Ill: "~I". 1987,67) .




pi" of thc continuing debate 011 the relal ivc in-

lIfocn.ol heredity and lhcen"iro nm c nt . thel'c ha!! tkft ft"IlntI'f'lt inte rest in sociobiology in recent
is OI l! !o'\'S tCIlI:.ltiCstud)' 01 Ihe bi ..... bl~ or sociallJeha\;or. Sociobiologisu /).1..... If'I1t\ naturalist Ch arlt.~ 0 .11"';11'5 principles ., ......aI \t'I{'Ctjon to tile s tudy or liOCial beJ\a\ior.

They assulIl e Ilmt particular fOflllS or bc haviol' become gen e tically lin ked to a species if they contribute to io. fi rm'ss to sU f'\;ve (\'an de n lkrghe. 1978;20). III iL~ c): trcllle rorm , wciobiology fesc mblt..S biological dc u.'nninislII by suggesting Ilmt all ' be ha\;nr i!l lllt.llI" th e rC~lIh (If genetic or hiologic",1 raCtOI'5 ;\I1d Iha t social ilHe ractin n ~ 1 )lay 111) role in shaping peo p le's conduct. Socio biology d oc~ not seck to describe indi\< idual beh:t"ior o n the level 0 (' ~ Wh y is Fred more ag grcssh'c th anJilll?~ R.1.ther. sociobiologius rocus 0 11 how hum,m nature i'i affected by lhe gene tic composition or a group or pt. Oplc who share cenain " ch ar.&cteri.suc5 (suc h as men or wome n , or me ln-bc~ of isol;ued tribal b.lI1ds) . In ge neral. sociobi ologlslS have st ressed the bas ic genetic herit.age that is shared by all humans .lIld ha\'c shown liuJc interest in specula ting about alleged differenCe!! be tween racial groups o r nationalities. MallY social scie ll tists have strongly auacked the maill te nets of sociohiology as cxpl'esM!d by Ed wa l'd 0gist at Hal'~ O. Wilson (I!l75. 1977. 1 ~)78). a 1.001 ":Ird University, Some researc hers insist that intellectual illlcrest in sociobiology "'ill o nly deflect sclious st U(h' o r the morc significant ract,or influ e nci ng human bc ha\;o r - sociaIi7.alio n , Yet Lois Wladis HorTman ( 1985). in her p residen tial address lO the Soci('I" rol' the Ps)'cho logical Slud), o r Social Issues. argut.'d that sociobio lo&'Y poses" valuable chOlllengc 10 social scic lllj~1.S t,o bette r docume nt Iheir OWI1 resc<lrch, Irllt:rdctionisLS. ror example could show how socia l bcha"ior is not J>J'Of:,rrammcd by hum.m biology bill instcad adjusts con tinually to the anilUde:l and responses or others. Tho: connicl perspccti\'C shares ";lh sociobiology a ret:ognition Ih:al human beings do not like to be dOlllin.:ne:d, yCI there Ih e similarity e ndll. Con Oic t theori.~l~ (like rtlncti on ali.~ l! and interact,ionis!s) belit.,,c I.hal SOci:ll realily is d e fin ed by 1 O ple's Ix >t..' ... h:wior r.tthcr tha n by their gene tic 5tnlc tu re. Conseque ntly. con fli ct IheorisL~ real' that. the wciobiological "I>proac h co uld be used as an argumen t against clfo l'l~ t,o assist disadv,lI llaged people. such as schook hildrel1 wh o arc nOI compet ing success-fu lly (A. Capl3n . \!)78; M. I-larlis. 1980:5 14 ). Wilson has argued Ih:lt th e re , h ould be pa ....t.Ile l studies Orhuma ll beha\'ior \\;th a rocus on both g<"nelic and social C:IlISCS. Ct: rminl)' most social scientjSlS would agree lhal there is a biological basis fo r


social bch:wlor. BUI Iherc i~ I cs~ support 101' the more extreme positions taken by cen.tin advocates of ~ iobi olog)' (Gove, 1987: scc "Iso A. Fishcr, 1992: Lopreotto. 1992) .

THE SEf..t'



w~ ,,11 h:wc \';llioll~ perceptions, feelings. and belicls aboul who we arc and what ....c arc like. 1-10\\' do .....c come to devclop these? Do they change as .....e .Ige? Wc ....ere nOl born ....;!.h these understandings. Buildingon the .....ork ofCeorgc Hcrben Mead ( l 964b), MXiobio logists rccognil'c tha t we create our 0 ....'11 designation: the self. The sdf represenlS lhe 'iUIn total of peoplc 's conscious perception of their own identit), as distinct from others. II is no t a static phenomenon, but conti nues lO devclop and Ch:U1g(' lhrollghoUl our li vc~. Sociologisl!I <\l1d ps)'('hologisl:i a like havc expJ'('ssed interest in how the individual develops alld modifies a sense of sclf bc(;au!iC of ~ocill l intcr.u:tio n. The work of sociologists Chm les I-Iorlon CooI<.y ami Gcorgc I-I erbcrt MC:ld , pioneers of the inle.-.tctillnisl a pproach. has becn eo;pccially lIseful in furthering OU I' lII11iel'Stall(ling of Ihcsc importan l iSliUCS (Cccas, 1982) .

A crilical bul subtle aspeCt of 'it'll' i!lo lital the sdi results from an M imagin.tlio n 0 1 hO\.. others view him or her. resuh .....e can de\'elop selfidentities based on correct per(,eptions of ha....''C us. Ill") rt"acl slrongly lO ;t le:achcr'" criticism and cide (\\'1'(H1gly) Ihal lhe inSI,'u cIO' view.. ,h,,".'" as stll l)id . Thi... rnispc.'rc(.plioll ca n ea.~i l ) he \'crtcd into a neg:u.he SC Iijf\l"lI il) Ihmugh Ih" lowillg procc$.): ( I ) till' le:lchel' criticized me. the Icacher ruusl think tlrat sllIpid, (3) I pid. YCI scJfidcntilic.."S arc a lso subjecl 10 tI,e slU<lent above received an "AMat the course. he or sill' might no longer feel stupid.
g l ;LS~



~.".~i?I?~.c.'-"..~.!'.p'.~~.~.!:",..~? ..~.~...~~.I!...... ..._

Cooley: Looking.G lass Self In the e:lrl)' 1900s. I-Ionon Cooley;,dmnccd the belief Lha l we learll ..... ho wc arc 1' illlcr.:lcling with others. Our \;ew of o u rsc hes. then, comes nOI on l)' from dire<:t t.'o lllemplation of our 1>C1"i01l:11 qualitiL'lI. but also from our imprcss i on~ of how othcrs perceive w . Cooley used Ihe plume IDOki1lg.gllUS self to ernpha."Ii7.c that Ihe self is the product of ollr social int('I-:'lction8 with othe,' people . The Ilfocess of devcloping 1I seU:idell til)' o r se lfconcepti h:l"l llrrcc phases. First, .....c imagine how we present o urst'l\'cs to o tllcnl- lo ,'clati\'cs, friend s, c\'e n slI':lngc l's on the stree t. Then wc il11al;.';lIc how Ol/ICrf C\''dlualc us (attr.lcli\'c , ill tclligelll, shy, or '';'~c-:) . Finally, wC develop some son of feding l al t ollrst:lvcs, .such as respc.."C'l or shame, a!i a re!ill of these impr<.-ssions (Cooley, 1902: 152: M.. HOw:lrd, 1989:249).
Cha rl <.~

Mead: Stagrs of the Self Gem'gc I-lt:rben ( 19W:706) acknowledgt.tJ to Cha rles Horto,d~ Icy t.hat ht wtt'i M prorolLndly il1debtcd~ 10 "insighl and conMructivc tliOllg1 .M\'\'<" are III u indcbtcd 10 Mead ro,' cO,v illuing Cook1"s ration of irHCr-:.lclio nisl lhl":o,), and for hi~ billions to -)ciologic:t l lI11dCI'St:tllding or tht Mead ( 1934, 196<1,,) dc\'eloped a useful du: proccSlt by Id,ich the self emerges, d<fin'rd~ liuce distinc t st:lges. OUling tile prt"/lOmtqry 5Ia~, c hildren 1Ilerd\tatc the people around them. C51 >cciall),famih hers with whom the, con linuaJl)' illter.:L small child will b'lIlg on a piece of ....'OOO wl',il'.~ en! is e ngorged in work i ll a ball if;111 ol{kr sibling is doing so nCOI ..11)o As lhc), grow o lder. c hHdren become """".


01' . . 11) In

at usillg th<. gesturc.1i, objects, and I to bDb are

~Ylllbols conHnUl~;~,,:;,,::c;:w:.;;::tI;"~f.~~~ ;~

forlll the basis of humltn 1 tcracling .....ith rc1:tti\'cs and friends, as well w;uching cartoons on television and IIIrt' oouks, c hildre n begin to , uf s)lnl)l}ls. Ljkc spoke n languages, from cuhul'c 10 culture and evcn bctwttn H,res. "Th um bs lI p Mis not a lw:l)'5 a no dding lhe head up and down does /lflt yes." As pan of the IlOCi;Lli t;.",": ,: , .~:;~,:: ,o;: drc n le;II'1I Ihe symbo ls o f their p I (Ek rl1<111 ct :.1 .. 1984).



Me:ld ...... IS among sociaJi/.alion. lionship ors)'lnbo l ~ tothe veloJ)skill in commun icating gT'.td u:llI)' become mOl'e :n..-art:



Dlm/lg /h,. prCp;lr.liory smgc Ikscri/Jt(11Ty GtrJrge HaIxrl M f'{ld. c/lildlVl imllllr(' I'" fNOIJk MOll/ill then, e:!/JMully family 1Mmbn's with whom they aHlli ,wlIlIy ill/eruc/,


result, during thc I,'ay stage, the child b.:..... ilhle (0 imiulIe the actions of OtJ1CI'S, inJudillg ,1duhs. Just as lU1 actor ~bccomcs~ a rlUf;lttt'l", ,I rhiJd becomcs a doctol" parcnt, superMtI. Hr IllIp caplain. \11':((1 Iloted lh at an importll nt aspect of tJ1C play 'Ilaj(t' i.\rolc taking. Role tnk ing is the proccs.'i of mtntJlh ,L'iSlIllling thc perspective of a no thc r, Ihrrrlr. ell,Lbling onc to respond from tJlat imaglord \ic'''''poinL For example , 1I young c hild will lJilIltlJIl) It'3nl when it is iJcS I 10 ask a pa re nt fO I' ~ 1'. U the parent usually comes ho m e fro m work n ~ 11,111 mood, the child will wait until ancr d inI1C'f Jl.hl'n the parent is more relaxed ;:md app'tr,llhahlt'. Although for children role tak ing llIay I/IltW,( {'Onfonning to the be havior of others, for Illulc-xl'nl5 and adul ts role taking is mo re se lective lIIdut'JUn' (R. Turner, 1962) , In \Irad's third stage, the ga"'~ Sillgt', the child o f thout M01 9 years old bcgim to consider several LDb~nd rc1:HioIlSh ips si rnulwn eously. At this poi nt mdtlclopment, childre n g rasp not only their OW I1 wxUJ ptlSititms, but also those of others aroUlld tMm I ~lIIs,der a girl or boy of tllis age who is pa n 1'I.l'llUuIlroopout on a weeke nd hike in the 1II0unCIIIl\ nu~ child must ullderst.. mcl what he or she is npnlrd 10 do, but a lso must recQbrn ize the re 'fuINh\lilies of other scouts (as we ll as th e le'ld rr.). nli.~ i~ Ihe final ~tage of developm e nt und e r'

Me<tci"s model: the child ca n I\ OW respond to nu merous members of the socia l e nviro nmenl. Mc,.d uses the tenn gerJern li:ed otherj 10 refer to t h t: ch ild 's O1W" dreneSS Of lhc attitudes. viewpoints, llnd expectations o f socielY as a whole, Simply put, this concept suggests that whe n 0111 individual acts, he o r she takes into accoun t an e ntire group ofp eo-. pl c. For eX01 lllple, a child who reaches this level of development will n OI aCl courteously mere ly to plcase::;t particulm parellL RatJlcr, the child comes to unclcnll... "lnd !.hal councsy is a .....idespre ad social m lue cndonit.'d by parents, le achers, and re ligious le01ders. At this developmental stage, children can take a mo re sophistic01led view of people and Ihc socia l environment , The}' now understand what specific occupations and social positions a l'e and no longer equ01te Mr. Will iams only with the role of "librarian" 0 1' M5, Franks o nly ,\tj lh "principal." It has become clea,' to the c hild that MI'. Williams can be 01 libr.trian , a p01rent, and a l1mratho n runner a l the same Lime ;lI1d that Ms. Franks is but o nc of many pli ncipals in our society. Thus, the c hild has re01ched a new level of sophistication in his o r her ObselYdtiOI1S of individua ls and insti tutio ns. Me'ld is beSI knO\\'I1 for this theory of the self, According to ~o{ead ( 1964b), the self begins as a prh" ilegcd, celllrdl posi tion in a person's world . Young c hildren picwre th e mselves as lh e focus of evel)'-


thing around them and find it dim w it to co n ~i d cr the per~pcc ti\'cs or o thers. For exa mple. \\'hen ~h own" monn"" '"!in seem. and asked 10 dc.."SCrihe \\,hat ' .111 o lue rver on the o ppositc side or the mOI/IIl.,in SCeS (suc h as a lake o r hikers), roung c h ild re n nev ('nh(: l c~s describe on ly objecL~ vi~ ihl c from .hdr (m'll van tage po int . Th is c h ildhood tende nc), LV place o urselves at .J11: celltcr of even ts never cntirely di~ppears. Wlwn ;111 instruc lOI is rC!'.id y to relUnI tcnn papers or examina tio ns and mentions that cer min students did cxceptionally well , \\'C often ass ume that we fall il1lo tha t selec t group (Fc nigslein.

As people malure, the selr c hanges and bebrl ns to rdlcct greater COll cel"ll about the reactions of oth cl's. Palellts, fri ends, coworkcrs, coaches, and leache rs are often among those who pia), a m;yor ro le in shaping a person 's self. Mead used the letm sig" ifica llt others to refer to those indi viduals who :lI"e moSt imporlan t in the development of tilt' self (Sch len ke r. 1985:12-13) . In some instances, studies concel"tling signific<llll Others ha\e gencr.ltcd cono-ovcrsy among re !lCarc hcl"!i. For cxample. it has often bee n argued that Aftican AOlc lican adolescents ale: Illorc "peer o ricnt ed ~ than th e ir White counte rparts bcGlllSC of presulTled wcak.ncs~e!l in Blac k f~\l ni l ic s, I-I o\\'evel, rece llt i n \"c~tiga ti ons indica te that these hasty CO IIcl usio ns were based 011 limited s tudies focusing o n less amUcnl Blacks. Indced, there appcars to be Iittic differcnce in who African Americal1~ and \Vhiles tram sim ilar econom ic backgro unds as their sign ific.'"! nt othe rs (Giordano Ct aI. , 1993: jllha. 1., .. 1989).

Erv",C C.oJl. "fH/ (1922- 1982)

rnnd, (I diJtinrtiw
rtlntribu /ioll /0

JocioWID Irj
popu{an"zmg {/

parlirllitfr t>YH' of

kll/;lIIm /Lf dmma/urf{JlIl apjlllJ(lfll.



Goffman: Presentation o f the Self As was ~ ChOlptcr l. the intcr:ictio nist approach, which/,.. a gre:.u deal 10 IXlth Cooley and Mead, cmph;c Ihe micro ({)f l)llIall--'l."ale) level of anal}"$i\' ThII thi .. socio logical pe rs peclive is especially 5uilt'd an examination 0 1" ho \", th e se lf dc\'e l (l p~. ~'mIII CoITmall , a I'ccenl sociologist associated with intcraction isl pcl1lpcc li\"c, suggested thal Irlam o ur dail)' aClh~lies involve allell1plS 1 com('\" 0 prcssions of who wc <tre. Earl)' in life, lite indi,~dual leams 10 slant It. he r p lcsentalion of the sclf in order to c("(ale un Clive appe;lI.Hlces and It) sati .~fy particular aut clIces. Coffm an ( 1959) rcfers to this altering nI prescntation of the scl fas impression nla" agnMI Box 4-1 provides an everyday example of lhi.\ cCpt b)' describing hm", smdents eng:tge imJftll gio n manageme nt after e xamination gr'''d~~ bce n awarded. In examining such everyday social inlerac CoITma n makes so many explicit parallcl~ /(I theater that his view has been termed the lurgicaJ approach . /\ cconling to this pcrspt people can be seen ;IS resembling perfortn(ft. action . For example, cle rks may try to apJX3r than the)' actually are if a supenisor hapJ>Cm. It) wa tchi ng th el1l . Waite rs and w:litl"csscS 11);11 ' sccM:t CIlSlOmer who wanL~ more cof1"ee ifthn o n a break. Face -work is another aspt.'CI or the selr 10 Comnan (1959) ha~ dr.MIl attention. Main the J>mper image c:m be essenti;llto C Ol1linlltd dOll intcraction ; laC('-S;LVing beha\'ior mUM he OIled if the selr suffers because or c m bal"r'o,s.~IIJtnl IIOmc fO lm of rcjec tion. T hus, in response In~ jeclion a t a singles' b. n, a person may l'ng-.. face--work by saying, M rea ll)' wasn 't feeling \'itR I W<\( o r ~111 ere isn ' t an interesting person ID e ntire crowd .~ Conman's approach is generally regarded. insightful perspective on everyday life. bUI it ~ with o ut its critics. Writing from a con fli ct pt: live, socio lob';SI Ah~ 1I Gou ld ner ( 19;0) SCd Iilan s \\'ork as implicitly rcaffi mling the status including social class inequalitk-s. LSillg r ne r's c ritiflllc, onc might ask if women aJld norilics are ex pec ted to deceive bolh lhem a n d o t.hers \\'h ile paying homage to 111054' In I



l'Am /11'0 0Hr""''''1J\'(: 'tIJ('JAL OH::


S'II'IC,logllIb u ..."t .\JbaJ




(1988) dfn. UPOII

.l'\ln~ GoffRQn', COlIccpl 01 mlplt....o manaR~mclll 10 ~x;lInin(' Ibr t1r.1lt~'ft 111011 colkoge ~lUdenl.) nap.,., 10 Cr('llf: dc:s.irt'(1 :IPI>f:ilr~~ ,u1l 1 w:W" ha\c been ' ...Ndrd and tt"unm;IIIQII papers ftllUlll'tl .\llxu: and All>.:" dwide lhr..- ('1I(()tmlel"'l i11l0 Ihree Clle ROl1n Ihn~ bctW(C'11 5IUden ls who Mt' .. Ulcu'Iu!d lugh KI, ulcs (Ace. Al. r!llUUnlcra), IhO'lC b('I"'eell "udrllh IIlw h,l\e n:cci""d high ... W ',.... U1d dlu,\(' who Imw Icccived low nr 1'1'e1l liliUll.ll grades (Acl'Rllmill'l "IlCOl/l1tcn) , 1 Ilu,~ lit.. 11.<1 ftlTt'n ""d('nl~ who h[wc :.11 n .. ,rl\,t~l hilt KY'.l.des (Bomlx: rnwubcr rncO'lItnlrl') "'(mm/If. occur ill it ~('I "1'"' .1unospherc IK-cau~ tbn .. III wrnrol1 in shilring onc's 1rirh nurk "'ilh IIII01h('r 1111(" h IS C'\~II arc~ptable to .;ua.- tlwo noon uflllodeslv ;and bmg . ' ~I~ Oth('f Act'S, since, ;a~

Ollt' )Iudenl admitted, ~ 1 l'5 much easier lO admil a high mark 10 q)IIICOIIC who ha., dom: benef ..hall }'Qu, or al Icast as well.,\ rr-80'''M mroullin3 :u(' often scnslliw _ numbers gencmlly .1.1 tcmpl 10 3\'oid .such cltchango be cause: ~you , , , emerge looking like tlle dumb Ol1e~ or w feel Iil.. e you are 1;1l), 01 1II1rcliable.~ \VhclI forced imo imeracliolIS wl lh Acc:s, llumbers work 10 apl>ear gmciolls alld cl)lIgr.lI,ulatory, For lheir parI, Ac("~ ofTer ~)'lTIpalh)' and 5uppnn

,,, "I"

fuf' I.hc r diss;iti~ficd Bombers :U1d C\'t'lI r.Ulollalil;c their own ~luck ( high scores, To help BombcNl ~it\'e 1 ;ICC, Aces may cmp ha.~ile the dimcult), of Ihe Cl)urse :I.lld unr.'inll"'l5 of IJle ex;m.,

pily thal Ihe), Ihcm'Jf:I\'t,,;\ call ~pit} pal'lj ~ - Fan"Sl\,ng excuses :are dt"\'dopcd fO I Ihe BoU1JxI'S' poor I>c:rforumnccll, such as ~ I WaliI1'I feeling ...cll all wet' k or-I had lour ex>ull) and 1"'0 l)apeD due 11l.l.I week.w lf lhe gr.llle dilltribulion in a d;us included particularl) low S('oret, l\ombcn ma), engage in 5C:apcgo,'ling the prolCMUr, who " 'ill be ... tlu:.ked ,IS ,I ~;Idi'l, d ...1,1\'tdrin'r, or 3il1lpl)' an incoml>Clelll leacher. As i~ cvidcnt from lhc!IC desclipliOtl5, s lud('tll! ' ilJ.\C IIlCI II ~1 1~l l cgic~ arc conslr.tillt;'d by sockty's ini'nfmalno1'lns re~fdrd ing 1II0dcsl)' (11)d ClImidC!'alion for 1('1os ~uccl:lIsht' pt'Ct~. In rh,,~sl'Q()m k'lIill!(5,"'" in lh(' ....(lIkpl,lce and ill


/Jmnh,.,.IJo",M' I"Ilfmw/m u~ lId to be closed, relle ning th(' group !'f. lorl to wall ofT lht" feared disdain of Olhl'~, Y(,I, ..ithin the sUel\ of IhC!Se e nCOUn1 e l~. Bomlx-rs ol>C:III} shdre thcir di~ppoiunllelH and en gage in cx prcssionll of mUlual self-

uthe l 1)'lll's 01



,-Ilo ns :u h1lPI'(,55ion

illiell.lot' whcu 5tattl.'> dif a rt' IllOSI prouounced,Cl iu ellcuunlers btI..'Ccn lhe highIClln"H Ace<. ,Ult! Ihe Io..-st:unug Bombcl'll.

MtICt'fl'tl.'r. AS ditCu~ in !lox 12 ( rcfcl' bac k to "':!~1. \O(lologi I ('';lroll1l'ool.'\ Cardncr (1989) ha "'JI)('''tt'(j that GolTmall's view of inter.1Clions 11 pubht pl.1t~ gi\'e5 iOSl,fficic ll1 .mcntion to WOtnnl\ ",dHuunded fear of Ihe sexual harassmcnI, IIIYuil. .uul rapt' t h o can occur lhere, In comidU rrill imprl's~i(ln nmnagclUelll 0111(1 the o ther con dndnpcd by GolTmall. sodolob,;slS rn USI relIIetulx'r 111.1\ hy dW:l'i/;;"1! social reality OIlC is nOl 1Iftt'!tSaI'il) cudol'sinK its harsh impact 011 mall)' indhiduah .1lId groups (S. Willi~Hns , 1986:357-358). (.uUm.m\ work rcprcsclIlll a logicd progression ci lhe "'1f1"logical cOons begun by Cooley ilnd ...,,11111 hnw personality is aC{lIlil'cd lhrough sonuUf1l1O Jnd how we m:m.tgc Ihe prc"C lltaLion

our self 10 others, Coole;:y stres~cd Ihe;: pmccss by which we come to creale a st'lr: Mead tocused on ho ..... Lhc self dcvc::lol>S as \\'C IC:l1'II 1 illtcrdcl wit,h 0 others; GolTman c mphasi.tcd Iht, wa)"i in whic h wc consciously crcale images lor olhcl'l!I,


.I'Sy'~.~~.1 ~.ll!~~. ~I'I'~.?~.~.~.~.~ .. ~~.. ~.~...S.~I! ........... .

Psyc h o logisL~ have shan'd Ihe interest of Coo lcy, Mead, and Ol.her soc iologi~ls in th e development uf the selL I!arly work ill psychology, suc h as thal of Siglllund Freud (11:156- 1939). SII'cs.<:d lhc role of inborn drivt.- s-among thcIII lhe dl;vt: tor sexual grdLific:ttion-ill channcling Illlln:m bcha\'ior,



Othc r ps)'cho logiSIS, such as J ea n Piage t a nd Lawren ce Ko hlberg, have e mphasized the stages thro ugh which humau beinW' prug n::ss as th e se lf devdol>S Like Charles I-Io n oll Cooley and Ceorge Hc rbcn Mead . Fre ud believed that the self is a sodal product! that ~peclS of une 's pel'SOnalit)' arc influenced by o the r.. (especially o nc's parents). Howevcr. unlike enorey ami Mead, he suggested that the sclf has co mpo T\t'nts that art' :llways lig hting with each other. According to f rc ud . people arc in conSlalH connic t be ,wcen their nal1lrnl impulsive instinCI~ a nd sodt' Ial conslraint~ . Part o f liS see ks limitless pleasu re. whi le ano thcr part seeks Out ratio nal hchaviOI" By il1lcl'lclingwith o 'h e~, we lea rn the expectations of socie ty and the n selec t heha\'io r most appropriatc to o ur own culturc_ (Of course. :IS Fre ud W .S well-::lwan:. wc somctimcs disd to n I'cality and behave irrationally.) Rcsea rch on newborn b:l bi es by the Swiss ch ild ps),chologistJean Ph,ge t (lS96-lgSO) ha'! underscored the importancc of soc ial illleJ'anio n:. in developinga sensc o f sclf. Pi:Jget found that 1I('\\'I>orns haw 110 self in th e sense of:'1 loo king-glass image. Ironical ly. tho ugh . they :Irc quite sclf-c:cnlel'ed ; th e} de mand tha t a lt allcmio n be di rected lo\,,"rc! ,hem. Newbo rns have nOI yel se para te d themselves from the uni ve rse uJ'which th ey arc a pan . For th ese babies, thc ph ~ Myou a llclll1c" has 110 meani ng: they unde rllland o nly M me .~ Il owever . as Ihey mature, childrc ll arc g ra dually socialized into social relationships cven withi n u lCi!' mthcr seJ!cente red worlt!. In his well-known cog1litive th fJ. ory of develop",ellt l Pinget ( 1954) ide ntifi es fOl ll" stages in lhe de\'c!o pment of c hildren's lho ughl processes. In the firs t, or .(DUorimolQr, slagc. r u ung c hildre n lIse their senses 10 make discoveries. For example, throllgh touc hing uley discover that the ir hands arc actually a part of the mselve.'1. Dur ing the second, or j/~ t'Jper(, sl:lge, children begin L use words :md O '!ym bols to distinbtuish o l~i cclS and ideas. Th e mileSlonc ill the third . or (Om:rf!it' operaliotwl, stage is that c hild re n e ngagc in abs lract thinking. They learn that if .. fo rmless lump ofctay is shaped into:\ snake, it is still the same clay. Fin;,lIy, in th e fourth, or [or"lilt ojH'1'(lIimwl. sInge, adolescents arc capable of sophi~ li ca ted abstract tho ugh t and Ca n deal with ideas a nd va lu es in a logica l manncr.

Piagel has suggeste d that mor,d dcvelOplUl'l1t comes an impo rta nt par I ofsocia lilalion as chi beco me able 1 think more absu-actly. Wht'n 0 dre n le arn the rules o f a game such as checkc:n jacks. they a re learning to obey MK:ietal 1\ Those under ~ rears o ld tli~play a rather ba5l( of mOl~l li ty: nll e.~ are rults. and th e re is no ((). of "cxL nuating c:irctl m ~ l a n ces." However, ..... e maLUIe. c hildrcn become capable of grr:Jtt'1 IOnomy and begin to cxpc den ce moral dilto as to "'hat constitutes proper behavior. Accord ing to J ean Piagel. chi ldrcn'~ d menl is based 0 11 social intenlctio n. As thc), o lder, child ren g ive incrcasing attention Iv othe r people 'h ink and \\'hy ..h ey act in pan ways. In order 10 d evelop iI disti nctive per50l each of us ne c d ~ opportunities IQ intc1':Ict "itl! en;. As we saw e arlier, both lsabdle and Cenl, de prived of IJ1(' chance for no rmal social im lions (Kil.chc ncr. 1991) .

A!'IQ. II :f!ll"lfJ::~y'q,~..


.~.!.~.S.~.~...~.~.~.~.~.~.~!~.~~.~~................_ _....... _ ...

T h(' socializllLion process CO ntillucS th roughlJUl stages of tJle hUlIlan life cycle. In cultu res 10\ plcx tha n our own, s tages of d cvelopmcm

marked by speci fi c ceremo nies. Many societlt." d efin it e rites fJf passage tha .. dmlllatize awl datc ch:lIlgcs in a person's status. For exam young Aboriginal woman in Auslralia ""iIl bt' o red a t a cere mon y (11 Ihc time of her firM SU1 lalion . Dming tJlese fes ,j'~ l ies. her lint. tin daugh te r is ~trolhed to a grown man. HenCt expft.'Ssio n is heard that "there is no such !h' an unmarded wo man ~ (Coodalc, 1971). Fur Aborigiu e.~, the re is :, sharp d ividing line br c hildhood a nd the res po nsibilities of adult hIe. This is not the case within o ur culture. hUl eral psych ologlSL~ and sociOloglsl'S h1l\'e nOllet assigned panicular labels to van o us perio(h tI ciali/':'Hio n. In examining tJ1C socialization in the Unite d Statcs, it is impomuu lO uncll' Iha .. wc do not necessarily move fro m om'" a no the r in U1C dear<lI l \V:I)' Iha , we are pro from Oll t:! grade in sc hoo l 1.0 anorhcr. This ma~

PIINT 111'1) (}RGM'/7.JNC SOCIAl 1.11'''

"nUlIlt' illllhiguity and con fusio n as wc dc\'dop o ur.\1 ~ cen '1in age a nd Ic\ d o f ma turity. arc wc rtukirt'n or adolescents? Al anOlhe r. are we adobrnls or ad ultll? Thl' l 'llIt(:d SliILes does bear some resem blance 10 "mplcr r.ocieties such as tha l o f th e Aborigines m Ih.l! \n: have c"ents mar king th e assumptio n of ""' r..le\ ;and sta tuses. T h e wedding repre~ ntii a "'" "I ')j"'h~e in our .society: yet. there ~ no onc tt'rnllflll\ th.11 cle-MI)' marks the shift from c hild1'1.Idulthood. IIl!llead. \\'C go through a pro~I IM'riod of tra nsi tio n known as (ldol,.Jfl'1lN'. TIll' lI all ~ ition \';\rics dcpellding o n certain soci.ll t.KIOI"'l. especially socia l class. A pe rson fro m a PII')I had.ground may nOI have an y a ltc l'luuivc!t but IQ ,,"ul l hLlI time a t a r.uhe r early age, Bt..-caU!tC of thr nem 11) conui bute lO the family income o r tu bt"cufl1t' fil1 ancially self-sup porting, such a }ollng pt"'lIl 1I1d) nOl ha\'e the luxury of de layin g c ll1 r), mllllht lal)(}r fo rce by cO lllinuillg his or he r e du1('1\1":



I:;wn Jllt'r thc al tain men t of adulthood . a pe rson WlIIIM throug h ;t series of d c\'elo pme nt:11 stages, nu the h.u is of research illm hi ng m:lles in the l nurd >'WII'S, psychologil>t Danie l Lc\'inson ( 197B) .Rntdi('(.\ thret' m:yor Ir.:msit iona l periods tha t ocnil ,Iunnlt men's life time .., O nc o f tileS{: begills at JhulLl "lit' 10. Men in the U ni u;d States o fkn exprJlf'I)U' a nressful I>criod o f self-e\'alu<ltio n . com"RlI>. I.nrn-in as the midlife c,.is;s, in \\hich they f\'ab/" Ih41 they han: nOt achic\'t'd basic ga<t\s and .hr.ltr'lh Jnd ha\'t' liu le time left to do 50. T h us. 1."111""11 11 978: 199) fou nd tha t BO pe rcent of me n WOl.'t',II'\I>t'rienced tu m u ltuo us m idl ifc conlliCls II1thin Ihl' '\CIf and witll the cx tcrna l \~o rld . 1~"lJb(ltl \ fo mlula tio n was dc \" eloped 10 detent.- Iht' hft" cycle of mn. in the United St.Ht's, "'bill- hi\ conclusions an' relevan t for some wnml'lI-e~l)(ci all y those who fo llow the tl':ldibOrIal l dn'l'1 paltcnls of !lie n - they do not nccesW rdlrn the typ ical lit e f.:yc1 c fo r \,Ollle ll . A key "'11('(\ of Lc\'imoll 'S work is th e n o tiOll Ihal. as VlMllh. mCll have a dl'eam of what the adult .....o l'ld "bl.r-A \i~ion tha t crcates t'xc itcl1lcn t a nd a se nse at p...."hihty. Yet. until rece ntly. \lIost womc lI were . . I,;,..hlm illlQ visio n .. of the rUlUl'e cent,edltg cm IIIIfNKt' ,lI1d child re n I":Ith('1' than achic\'em c n ts in tht ~ l.lOOr fo rce, Mo roover, m ost wOllle n carry Ihr mlt III -mother Ihrm lg ho lll the ir livc.s; this rolc

TI" K/II(I !}('fIJ'" of IM Congo 1'/#'111 /HUt as '''t mi(lf Dj dt(/I". A ~ (l I(m/,lm/ml

0/ pm:1(I~ mlO (ui!dlhfJfJ(/, fldobstnll main /N,in/ fkm~1I'lI bI/~ 10 ITf/'lboIlU' /M ,lmflr of dllltlJrood \ 'rI1tr,;m mm prtlnld nlll 1f11W'fJg711~
III~ "1J,t,d - ~oul/u 1111/11


)lI./m"...J 1111" tJ" mll/ rOHlpkll'd 11 "/IUlI /l'tj/lJjorml/I;OIl ;"/0 (Il/U{/$.

IlItnr.)lmgiy, IU (HI IlrfOml/lIK(llIroll /0





"/1111 Afn(Q, thIJ

NHlI nlf'Df

nou, /llAl'.l !IU/(#' wml'ldllll Inln'


/11 lift.lO l"fll ymlllg HI(lkt tirnr p"I,lIf ul.ooImg.

has Irad il.lon;,lIy bt,(, ,, "i l'wed as more timeconsumi ng a nd m orc inrport:! l1t th a n I,he role of M thc r" is fOl' mcn . \Vh ile ~uc h pa lle rns a rc c ha ngfa ing, a... \\c \,'ill scc in C hOlpl('J's I) and 13. expectatio ns a t d ilTcrCIll stage .. or sociali/.:tlio n :l l'e 1I0 t )'CI tIll' s.,me lo r me n a nd .....o me n ( Ra m c h e t a I., 1983: sce a lso 1'. Brown, 1987) , Some researcJl('~ m aill lllin Iha t th e midlifc c ri-

l'J/Wl'f .R4 ' '>OCJIIU7/i1IO.-'I '

sis is clearly e\oidcnl in boIh scxcs. In ber books P(I sag'.J and Pailljimin3, Cail Sheehy ( 1976. 19SI:6.!H fOUlld tha t wome n in the United St<t tcs experience fear and confusio n in their Illidlife years :IS they C1 1COUlller g'.IpS betwecn their YOllthful iIIw,ions and thd l' daY'lo-d ay livcs. Shcchy's Sludie.'I suggesl thnt midlifc t.urmoil may begin som e\~ hal earlier for wome n than for men. ollen a l aboll lllge B!',. An imIXlrtalll factor in the midlife crises of ....o lllc n is the fact that they typic:tlly OI lIli\'e ma le cunt e mporark'S, including their Conseque nt ly. as she rcaches rnidlife. a woman faces a fU \III'1: in which she may eventually Ih'c alone and Illay become d epc ndc llI on her children (Baruch et al. . 1983:23824 1; Roscnfe ld and Smrk. 1987:64. (6) . l.s the phenomenon of the midlilc clisi5 unique to the United States? In some cuhu res. peoplc are glvcn specifi c goals duri ng childhood which they a rc able 10 ach ieve early in life. Howc\'el'. in our society people have unusual ncxi bili,y in selecti ng o bjecti\'e$ :md aspi ..... tiOl1s. This has an unimc nde d conseque nce: il leaves a greal dea l or room fOJ'indecision or e\'en failure . Some or the most difficult socia li :tatioll challenges (and rites o f passage) a re e n counte red in the lalc r years of life. A'lScssing o nc 's accumplish, me nl.S, coping with declini ng physical abilities. expClic ncing retireme nt , and fdci ng the incvitability of death may lead to painful adjusl.IlIenl.S. O ld age is furt her complicatcd by the negalive WoI)' ill which the elderly arc viewed and treated in mun)' societies. including the Unitc..-d States. Older pcopk 's selfimage may weaken if they a re inllue llccd by t.he common ster eotype of th e elde rly as hclpl cs.~ and d ependc llt. However. as we will explore more fully in Chapter 12 , mallYolder people contin ue to lead active. productive. fuUiIlc d lives-whether within the p.'lid laOOr forcc or as pan of reun!1ncnt.

Anticipatory SociaJization and Resocializatioll

The development uf a social self is liter.lil)' a lifelong trallsfonn auon which begins ill lbe clib and conti nues as one prepares for death. T ....o types of !K)Ciali7ation occur at ma ny points throughout the . life cycle: anticipatory soc iali7.auo n and I'esocializa(io n . Pn'paration fur many :lspecLS o f ad ult life begi ns willl a ll ticipalOl), SOCi.lliZiltion during childhood

and adolescence and continues throughout. JiVL'S as \~'e prepare fot' new responsibilities. A.h ipalory sociol;zolitm refers to tJ1(' processes ur cia li/.auolI in ..... hich a person Mreheal'lies w for fut pusitiolls. occu patio ns. and social rc l atio n s h j~ c ulture can fUIII.:lioll more e ffi cienLly a nd SIIlOUI if mc mbc l'S becullle lIcq u;lintcd wiLl l lhe Ilonns. lies, and bchaviOI' assnci:ued ....;Ih a social ~iti before actually ass\ll1liug that status. The p roces.~ of a nticipatory sodali7"ltion h dent in LllC fiunilics of snakc rs (a tcrm tht'y prr to wake clwrlllm) in India. At the ,Ige uf' S 01'6. son of a snakeI' will begin to tOllch the sna):.eli be has observed a U his life. The boy will won Iram how to catch !makes ;md ....iII become familiar lilt! the habits of each species. In snakeI' families. LI ;J maner of inte nsc pride whelL a boy follo ..... in the $ lootl'ite ps of his rathe r, his grandJrnher. and "OIrL ma le a ncestors (Skaflc, 1979). Occasionally. ali wc assume new social and c)((1t': patio na l positions. wc find it to ullltalllj our previo us orienta tion. Resocia/itation rdt'1\ the process of discarding former bchavlor pall a nd accepting lLew Olles as pan of a Imnsitioll one's life. Often resociali:wlion occurs when th is:1II explicit efl"on to transform an individuaLb true in reform schools, therapy groups. pdsolls, litk.,1 indoctrina tio n camps, a nd " cli giou~ COl sion scttings. Much 1110 1 so man socia lilation 11 'C general or even anticipaTOry socialil<ilion. process of resociali/.<ltion typically invo l ~'$ lOR erdble stress for the individual (Gccas, 199'.!: 1 Rcsociali7.a tion is particula rly eHcc tivc whru Lt C lLr~ within a total institution . Erving (',u/Tm& ( 196 1) coined the terOl total jrrstitlltionS(1J tu institutions. suc h as prisons. the milil;tty. nll' hospitals. :lIld COIl\ClIIS, which regulate aJl :ut ora ]>CIWIl'S life undel' a single authOrity. Th(' tal inSlilLltion is ge nerally c ut off from l.he r'-"l socie ty ~lIld the refore provides fO I' aJl the llt'tdI ,ilS members. Quite litt.:I'''II)'. the crew ofa nl~'r vessel al sca becomes part of a total institUlion elaborate are its requireme nl.S. so all-encom <Ire its activities. tha t a total institution ofl.Cn n .scnts a mini:nurc society. ' Collman ( 196 1) has idclLuficd fou r C (1I1 traiLS o f to tal insti tutions. First. all aspcclS of 11ft corLduc ted in the same place and arc undcrthcl tl'Ol o f .. si ngle authority. Second . an)' :rcfil; within tlte insli tulio n lire conducted in the I

I'M rr.,'\t) OH("oANI7J,W \l)QA1, IJff:


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t'KU"'''', IlJ

n lull/llm/illlllml Ill/urn ''f'gUI/'~ (Ill


J tifo. iI,

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ramp- /or jirJ/-JIIIV

n ffrmlm

ill CtlltfOfflI(l. )OIlI1g "''', fll~ 1I,/lI".,oug/l, "IJwRl"MnISl'w dixriptlll'.

,.111\ ul ullle", in thl' same cil'CIIIIISl;IIlCes- for ex .l1IjJlr nOI;cn; in a com'e nl or army recruil~ , Third, tJw Authorities de\;q! rules and schedu le ;lc Li,iLics ... huUl ICl/lSulting partid,J."lIlLS, Finally, all a.'lJX'Cts fir hI! IIlthin a lotal insliWlion art! designed to ful fin lilt purpose of the organi:r:ltioll, ' nlUS. all <lChlUII" III a 1ll0n3SICI) arc centered on pr.l)'er and 'Hu:mllnitlll with Cod ( I);wies. 1989: P. Ros(.' et OIL,
1'J79.~21-32"l ).

Imhlidu;tlil) is often lo!>! within total inSli lutio ns.

and li fclon g socia liz:ltio n process involvcs lIlany different sociOlI forces which illflucnce Ollr Ih'cs and aher our !1f.imagcs. The famil)' is lhe mOSI imponam agem of soci:lli/;ltion in the United StalCS, especially for childre n . Fivc other agents or sociiLIiUllion will be given particular allcntion in this chaple r: U1C school. the peer group, lhe mass media, the workl}lace, and the state. The role of religion in 'W>Cial young people into society'S noml ,lIld values will be explol't.'1:I in Cha pter 14,

to t'Ulllple, upon c lltclin)( pri<;(m lO begin

~ do

Ill: IIml' ,w J person ilia) expcl;cnce the humiliatio n ..I .. dtgradolion ceremO"Y :1 he or she is strippc..."(1 5 .,j dnthil1J.l,jl-v;chy. and OLlwr pcrsonal posscssions III t ,arfinkd, 1956) . EVt'1l the Pt:I'lIOII'1'I self is wken m. I" .... mlc cxtent: thc pri~n inmate I~es his 01' ha' rt.IlJlt' .liul becomes knmm to :lIItho rilie!l :t. " \0 727111. From this point u n , ctail) roulines arc "II('1'lul('(1 ",;111 liuJe or 110 room lor pe rsonal inilulll(' I ht" instillllion is ex pel'ienced as all ovcrhl"M111~ iltlli;LI cnvirol1TllCIlI: the individllal bC(tIlIIC:S ..tnnrLm ,llId mthcl' iTl\'isibl('.

Famil ....._ L ............ _ _ ........ .... ...................................................................

Thl' family i the institlllion most closely .lSSOCiated with 1l1e process of wciali/"llioll , Obviously, o nc of its plimary fun ctions is Ihe care ;md rea ring of chil{h'ell, Wc experience social il.;!tion intl :L'i babies :md infants living in fami lies: il is hL' re thllt we develop an in itial sellS<.' of self. Most IXlrents set:k 10 help their clli lcl l'ell bec(lnl(.' compe tent ado lescenL'i :tnd sc lf'-sl.lflidClll adul t'!!, \\'llkh Illeans sodaliling them into IJIC norms and v.tlucs of both lhe family and lhe larger rociety. Inlhi.. pl'OcellS. adults Ihclllsch'cs experience sociali1.atioll as they adjust to becoming spouses, parents, and in-laws (C<.-cas, 198 1). The lifelong p l'OCe'lS of I(',..... ;ng begins sho rll)' after binh . Since ncwool1'l'l can hear, sce. sme ll , taste. alld fccl heal. cold , and pain , Ihey OI'ient thcllI.l>Ch es 10 the surrounding .....orld. Human be-

AG~ ~S


:\, .... h,n't,' 'K'('Il, the culturc or Ihe Unite d StalCS is "'hllnl Il't ralher g11I(\l1al 1ll0VcmCIIL" from one r nl ialil.alion 1 Ihe ncxt. The con tin uing 0

UIIf"1}.JH ' 'iOClA/.J1A71O\

ings. especi:tlly family me rnbcrs. constitute all imponant pa rL of I,he social env;ronment of the ne wbom . People ministe r 10 the baby's nceds by feeding. cleansi ng. and carrying the baby. The family or a nl,.'Wbol'll and othe r careta kers a re not concerned \\;lh skills per se. Ne\,ertJlcless. babies :tre hard ly asocial. An infanlentcl'$ a n o rg-.mi7C:d .!IOCie lY becomt.'lI part ofa gcncr<uio n, . and t-wi call yc l1te~ ilHo f:.unily. Depe.ndingoll how they are tre"<llcd . inf<ll1lS can de\'e lop 5trong social ,Illachments a nd dependency on o thel'3. Most infants go through II rclatheJy fomlaJ peliod of 5OCialil.a tion gener-Illy called habittraming. Schedules :'II'e imposed for ('ating and sleeping, the terminatio n of breast or boule rceding, and the a c... celHancc or new foods. In Ih t.'~c and o ther ways. infa nts can be "ie""cd a" objt:cts of sociali ..atiOIl. reI they :tlso fUl1 c tion as sociali7el'5. Even as the behavior of ,I baby is being modified by interactions wilh pe opl(' ;mci the c llviro l1l1lt'llt, the baby is c:ausing othe l'S to c hange thei r bdlavio r patterns. He 0 1' she convcrlS adul ts into mothers a nd f;uhel'5, who , in tUn!, assist the baby ill p''Ogressi n g imo child hood (Rht'ingold, 1969) . As bOlh Charles I-Io rton Cooley and Ceorgc f-I erhen Mead noted , the development of the self is a c ritkal aspect or the early )ears of o ne 's life. In the United States, such social de'o'elopment includes exposure to cuhu.-..I assllll1ptio lts regarding gende r and race. African Am erica n parents. for example, have leamed tha t c h ildre n ;lS young a!I 2 years old can absorb neg;llh'e messages about S hlcks in children 's books, to)'S. 3nd Leleo.ision sho'" - all of which are designed rrilm.lrily for White consumers (J . Whilt:, 1993). ..... Child,en al ....) .. re influe nced bycuhuml messages regarding gender. The term ge ndf!r roll!$ refers (0 expectatio ns regarding the proper behavior, ;ntiIlIdes, and aCliv;lies of malt"S a nd fe males. Fo r ex a mplc. M toughn css" hall been traditionally see n as m asc uline-and desir"ablc un ly in m e n -while "tcnderness has heen viev.'I::d as femin ine. As we wi ll scc in Chall ler 11 . o the r euhures do no t nece5$llrilyassign thesc (lualiLics to each gender in the way that o ur culture does. As the primary agents of childhood socia li'l.atio n, parents play a cri tical I'o le in g uiding c hild,c l1 in to those gellder roles dee nl('d appropria te in a socicty, Other adults. o lde r siblings. the Illass media,


and religious and educational hl.Sl itutions also h;M noticeable impact on a c hild 's socialil.atioll into re minine a nd \Il:t.!ICuline norms. A cu ltur~ or subcu lture may rcq uirc I,hat o ne scx o r tJle Other ~kt prim:lry responsibility for SOChl1i1.ation of c hildr~n. economic support of till':' family. or 1'(.'ligiow or inldlcc lual le;rdenohip. Sociali1.atiOI1 within Mexg American r:lllliliel'-including sociaJi1.atiOIl UtlO tmditio nal gender rok-s-i!l exa mined in 8ox ....'! l' sycho logisl Shil'ley We il1 ( 1977:60- 11 0) has ut gested that diffCl'cntiltl treatment of children t., adults is an in nucntia l Ol5J>CCt of gender-role.!'iOCWinuion. Let us consider a h ypothe tical ex:;unpk rI differential II'C01llllcllt of chi ldren "'hich begin!i", the fa mily. ROll ;mcl Loui ~ arc twins who both shw a n unusua l interest in ~ien cc al an early agc, Fnr hi~ birthd:l)'S. Ron is given chemisll)' sets, lelf. scopes, microscopes, and the like; howC\'e r. dcsphc asking for sim ilar gifts. Louisc is given miniaturt do ll ho uses, beautirul drcsst's. ami dancillg ICSSOUl Wh e n the twins a rc in junior high schoo l, teachers t:lkc nou.' of Ro n 's lo\'e fo r science. They courdge him t.O do .51)t."Cial projects. t,O hdp ~iIk their labor.lIory ",'ark, and 10 joi n tllC science clair. Louise is given no such e ncour':lgeme nl; in facl,ont tcache r considers he!' fascination with asU'OIl ~strnnge" for a girl. By the twillS' high sch ool )'eiD. Ran is known a.s a "science wh iz." The gui coullsclor suggests that he atte nd a college ",ith stro ng science program in order L achie\'c his O u f becoming :t biologist. Loulsc hall rcalized she would like 1.0 become an astronomer, bUt U. coul1selorand her parents prCS5ure her inlo pn: ing for a C'.Ireer ~LS an earl)' chi ldhood te- hcr dc career whit"h they sec as morc suilable for a ","onl4 During the ir' cullege YC;II'5. Ro n and l..ouisc mi develo p selr,ill1:lges ,LS "scientist" :l1ld "tcacher: .5pccli\'e ly. On the other ha nd , l..ouisr mig ht get college. switch her majo!"' a nd become .HI tro no mer de~pite c,eryone" opposition , Neilhrt thesc young people is a :tssh'(' acto, who ",ill ' ev;l:tbly rollow lh e tr-;,ditiona l gender roles 01 Unitcd States. Ye l il can be extremely d ilTIcult pursuc :1 Clreer, or ;lilYo tlwr type of life choice onc's parents.le.rc heJ'lli, and ltOCiety as a " thole 10 be: telling you umt yOIl :m~ Hu nrnasculirut or" reminine" for doing so. Without (1IIest,ion , differential socialization hat I)()werl'ul impac t 0 11 tht!' development of fe


I'~ H'T

I1ItJ OHGA ....

w ....c. $(JCMI


1987, San Antonio mayor tlle firsl Hispanic "rl 10 $e11'C as chief cxecuti vc of a UI.Ij,lfdlY in the United States, anI'I<n)ntro tha t he was dropping o ut '~~le r.!ce for governor of Texas. Ih, new son was ailing from birth ,fdKl'I. and Cisneros felt thal his 1.#1111\ mponsibilities precluded <Lninll; acthe in politics. Many oir 11"('1\ 'laW Ci~neros's d,d~ion ;\, ll'J!ICillvl the high v,il ut;' that Mt;'x"-'Ill Anl('licans (also k.nown as Chi""'~) pb,e on !.he fami ly (SehaeIttll /y Ci.~lIer05,



Ml:xiC'oIn Americall subculhas long emphasized tlOld iI ~I~I gender-role soc i alil~'l t ion, 'il1h ~1 bdllg socialiled to expen !AIk' duminance while girls pre(toIlr 10 focu~ on the needs of their 1II1If't' families. An important rite 'I (4 IJoWagc (or Mexicm Amcricul (In_ to known as the quinremiem. \\'lull 'IO!IIe traditions of Mexican 1.111<11\' h;l\'c been discarded by f hlf'Jnll'l. lhis ceremony-marking Ihr n:ul>iuoo from gi rl to WOlnallIw llrcllffil' mort' popular O\'er lhe *1 :Ill r~ars. AltllOugh there are gn;uj')l11 ill Ihe quinceanera. Mex0Vl American gi rls typically panicIpllt' ill ~ Ua)'long religious retreat, m..s..'. !Id an elaborate (and 1'~timt'5 verr expensive) dance wtil!ion. The I'.'eeke nds bcfo!'c thr tldOC~ are fill ed with prepara-


tory rehearsa ls ill volvillg many family members. Duling the dance itself. a Ca tholic bishop often will make an appcal"oI/lcc and a!':ce pt contributions frum lhe girl 's father (GarLa, 1993). In socializing male child ren, Mexican culture and the r.lexican American subculture emphasize mochismQ,,, te11l] wh ich refers to a ~('n~e nf viril ilY, 1"'rsflnaJ "flr'lh. amI pride ill o ne's maleness. Machismo may be demo nstr.ued in man y dif~ fering ways. For some me n . bold challenges or success in fights ma y eS lahl i~h virility; o thers may simpl y altemp t 10 be a tlractive to women. Mexican Ame ricans are :11so believed to be more familistic than other subcultu res. Fomifism refers 10 pride in the eXlended family expressed thro ug h lhe maintcllance of dose ties and stl'Ong obligations 10 killfolk outside Ihe immediate fam ily (5. Wallace, 1984). Neither machismo nor familislll is unique 10 Mexic;!!] Americans and O<:lIll may be found ill other cultures and subcultures. Research data 1I0W suggest that machismo and fami!ism are ill decline among Mexica n Amcricans. T he femin isl moveme nt in both the Uniled Stales and Latin America has challe nged tntditional genderrole socia lilatioll and has cha nged the wars in which men and womc n

intelOlCI. Femin islli argue ulal Chimale~ havt: fu lsdy glorified mach ismo, thereby giving lhis aspen of Mexica n c ulture more attention than it desel'\cs. Moreover. as a result of industJialization, urbanization, upward mobility, and assimilatio n, the traditional values of machismo a nd familism arc likely to become more of a historiral fO(llnole with e;lch p;Js~ing gel1eration. Like othe r imm igran ts fl'om Europe and A~ia , Mexican Americans can be expected to graduall y adopl the no n ns of the dominaJll culture of ule United Slales regarding fami l)' life (I\ecena. 1988; J. Moore and Pachon. 1985:96-98). The distinnive socialb:ation experience of Mexican American children also includes a n unfurtunate and sometimes biller aspect. Like brirls and 1:JO}'s from other racial and eUll1ic minorities, Mexican American YOlllhs will t:xpcrience resentment, pn jud ice. and discriminalion because of their appearance, language. accent. i11ld customs. Along wi Ul pal1.icipation in school, religious activities, sports. ;md dating. young Mexic;m Alllericans will learn how 10 confrOIll, manage, and cope with the particular difficulties of being part of an iden tifiable minority withill the dominam culture of the United Statt:'s.



rhe United States. Lndeed, the gender

roInfir.;( cl1coun lered in early c hildhood are often Uctur III drfini ng a child 's popularity. Sociologist. Pnricia Adlcr and her colleagues ( P. Adler ct aI. ,
1.!19'}) obscJ'\'Cd elcm ent.'lI'Y sch ool c hildren and

found thal boys typically achieved hig h status on

th e basis of thei r athletic ability, "coolness," toug h n ess, social skills, and s uccess in relatio ns hips with bri rls. By conlr.tst, g irls ga ined popularity owing to their pare nts' economic bac kground and their own physical a ppea rance, social skills, and a cad e mic success.



t )'OHng prople may !level" recei\'c Ih.n \\ould qualify them for ollr so; lIIost prestigiolls jobs. T Ill:: 111(' funcLion:llist and conniCl l'.'iIl be discussed in more detail

Peer GroUD ................. " ... "' ...~~."...........-......... - .............. --~...-,-" ..................
c h ild grows o lder, tlte r.lOlily becomes somewhat less imporl'lIl! in his or her social development. Instead, peCI" groups increasingly assume U I C role of Ceorge l-l erbcn Mcad 's significan t ot hers, Within the peer group, )'o ung people associa te \\IiU1 others who a re approxima tely the ir own age a nd who oftcn enjoy a simi la r social Sl at US. I)ecr blTouI>S, suc h as fli e ndshi p cl iques, youth gangs, and special-i nterest d ubs, frcq uel1lly assist ado lesce nts in brain ing some dtgrec o f indepe ndcnce rrom parents and other .lUthority figures. As we will sllId y in more detail in Chapte r 7, COIIfomling to pcers' bchavior is an example or tlt e sQCializ.:nion process at wOIk. If all of onc's frie nds have successru lly battled for lhe righ t to stay out until midnigh t all a Saturday nigh l, it may seem essential to fight fo r the same privi lege, Pec l' b'l'Oups also p rovide for a ntici pa tory socializatiOIi into new roles tha t thc young person will later assumc. Tee nagers im it.'1te their friends in pan beca use tile IX'f: r gnJ/lp IIJ:1;nm;ns .1 meaningru l system or rewards ilnd punis}lI1lCIlU, Tlte group mny ~nCO Il r ag<-" a young pcr:o)oll to fo llow pursuits that society COlIsider~ "Id m irable, a.~ ill a ~choo l dub engaged in \,o[ulHee r work in hospitals and nursing ho mes. On .he other hand , the group may encourage someone t.o violar.e tJle c ulturc 's norms and valucs by driving recklessly, shoplifting, e llbrrtging in acl.'i o r vandalism, and th e like, Gender d il1ercncl's arc notewonhy in tilt: social wod d of adoit."S(enlS. M.. J arc more likely to spend ' c.s time in groups of males, while females art.' morc likely to inleract with a single othe r remale, TIl is pauem rcnL'<:L~ differen ces in lel'els of' emotional intimacy: teenage males arc less likely to dC\-elop strong emotional ties Ihan arc remales. Instead, males arc more indinL'<i to share in group activities. These patterns are evident among adolescellL.. in many societies besick>s the Uni ted States (Dornbusch, 1989:248) , I)eer groups serve a valllable function by assisting the u'a nsition to adult responsibili ties. At home, paren ts tend 10 domi nalC; at school, the teenager m ust co ntend with teachers and administrators, Bli t. wi thin the pC;!cr group, each member ca n assert himselr or hcrselfin a V.~dy thal may nOl be possible elsewhere, NC\'cl,theless, almost a ll adolescents in ollr culture remain cconomic<lUy depende nt on

\Iudenl'l the \~dlues and customs of M-hools in the United SliUt-S have -I children il1lo convcntional Pt(lI~1'$ of cducaLion Myr.1 &J<lkcr SldL-1 (1985:5<1, 1994) nOle that ~a l brlit'\'t:' that classroom sexism disapnrh '70s, it hasn ' t, ~ Indeed , a re po rl I~ In' the AtneriClIII Association of


~::;::~~2.~~;~:I:,::;:n:: that schools in the u IIl1ariI.Cd 1331 stml I I

f.l\ur ho~'5 O\'er girls.

.. , ,,,h,, repon, girls show a disturbing ,

__ """/ illtt"lIertual mobility compared m ull ing rrom dilTercmi:u trcau nclll I"eachcl'$ pmisc boys more than 16.10"" more academic a~$ isl:mce , Boys IlIr tile illlC}lt:cUI:lJ COIlft'11l of ,IIei,.

101 ""'""

":~~;~~~~ morc likely to be pmised for ~ rcv.~lrd boys for aSS('rtiw'! ness {;tiling out answers willlout mi$ing _hlle reprimanding girls for similar ',girlsortcn are flOt expected or enh;'gher.Je,c1' mathematics or sciThe I'('porl concludes that gil'is arc dwllk'Y" to reach their' academic polru.i~t ~ that the ~sys tem must chitngc~ AsSIx:-iation or Univt:rs~ty Women ,

well , schools serve soc:ia1ii'.,aOuting the 1980s. fo r example, Ipa"""'" and ctlucalors were distressed to lhildren I"ere gradually losing the \\iUl chopsticks (which seemed to to sociali ze a nl::\\1 generation ~" ;. ,,,., traditional nOllllS and I':llues). ~u ccd by spoons and chcescburgeould not use hllShi (chopstick..';;) , schools were chosen as the 10 r~lIledy the situat ion . Whe reas of school lunch prognurts provided in 1975, ulis figure had lisen lO fill pe r;tlId to 90 percenl by Ih e c nd or the I 1988).

1""i1 ",,~



their parents, and most a rc emotionally dependent as well.

Mass Media
In the last 75 ),ears, such technological innovmio l1s as r-ddio, motion pictures, recordt.."<I music, and television have become important agents of socializalion. Television , in particu lar, is a critica l force in the socializalion of c hildren in the United Stales. Many p:lrclHs in essen ce allow the television set 10 become a child's favodle "playmate": conseq ue ntly. chi ldren in our society t)'pical1y watch o\'cr threc hours of television per day. Rt'markably, between the ages of 6 and 18, the avcrage )'o llng person spends more time watching the "tube" (15,000 to 16,000 hours) than working in school (13,000 hours ). Apart from sleeping, watching lelC\ision is the most time-consuming aaivily of you ng people, Rchltivc LO other age nts of socialil:tlion discusscd earlier-such as fami ly members. schools, anti peers-television has cen ain distinctive c haracte r.. istics. It permilS imitation ;lIld role p l~l yi ng but does 1I0t encourage more complex forms of leaming, Watchin g t.e1evision is. abovc ,.11. a passi\'e expcri. encc; onc SiL~ back and wailS to bc e ntc nained . Cri,in of ll'Ic\;sinn are furth e r alarmed by tile:' JlrtF gr.lmm illg lhllt chi ld rei' view as IJwy sit for hOllrs in fronl of:t telcvision set. 11 i-; genentlly :Igreed d ial c hildren (.IS wel l as adu lts) arc exposed LO a gn~lI dcal of "iolcncc on television, By llge 16, the average tclt.-vision \;ewer has witnessed some 200,000 acts ot television violence, including 33,000 li elionallllurdef~ (MUlvilree. 1991: \Vaters, 1993) , Like other agcOls of socializ:ttion . tclevision has tl':.ldilionally portrayed and promoted conve ntional gender roles. A conten t analysis of c hild cimr.lcler:s 011 prime-lime television rc\'c;t1ccl lh:u boys are shown as significantly rnor'c active. aggrcssivc. a nd rational than I,rirls. The t-wO sexes arc also s hown as dinering substantially in th e types of actjvi ties in which they panicipate, Young gi d s o n pri lllt'-lilllC television talk on lhe tele phone, read , and help \I'ilh housework. whereas boys play sporlS, go on excursions. a nd get into mischief. In tenns of socialiZ:llio n . television 's porlJ"a),<l1 of child characters is especially significant, since these c hal'actcl'S lIlay be the mosl meaningful for )'Ounger viewers (lcircc. 1989), The \\';1)'5 in \"h ich 1e1C\ision misrepresent'i

the realit ies of clay-uxlay life in the Uni ted StttG a re explored in Tablc 4-- 1. Even c ritics of the medium gCllcrally conceG' lhat t.elevisio n is not always a negatil'c socializingill' tluence . Crea tive programming such as &fmllLSI.. can assist c hildren in dt.. 'eioping hasic skills ... tial for schoolin g. In addition , teIL-visioll progr.lI11 'lI1d e\'cn cOlltlllercia ls expose young pcoplr III lifestyles and c ultu res of \"hich they arc ut1a",oll't This entails not only children in t.he United 5tatG leaming about life in "faraway lands: but inl1er<ity c hildren It'arnin g about lhe Jives offa~ c hildren and vice vena,
TAl1l.E t I

.... "'"""'" T.......


a..r.cten...- a.Ir.r






Children, ages


Older people,

ages 60 and over

White Hi5ponlc Wear glosses Ate overweighl Drink oleaMlic beverages Smolte cigorelltt'
Hove been crime





of l~k...

7' ,




" "
,,"./,ri,';m, .,. .4

(~"'l1l, ~U>i\ I-/""""hutd Sll"~, Nauon:d ~1;o"'HI NC"pI;&/l<r , lOntlltutM'"' Sun.,.... ",Ol :f._. Ad:ol'l",1 r.....m G;.ht ... 19930.. t99.' h.


0"' . ~'L 'p'''d Ih''' ' I/SA '/lob"

Omlnll alltll)'fir

p.ogmms Juu"jound

diJ""IHllldl's bt/Wel'll 1I1I~"::::"::1 of IJarimu grollPS on 11. " Ihrir aCiIlnl .riu within 'N! ~


IJOfmflllio" of'hI' Unj,td 8111'4 1'"

amnpU, White "1011.1


wl,illlllQlIIl''', Hi5ptWIG\, ,wilt (hddrefl, (lIId oItkr fJI!&Pk""


p",,,,,.,; '''''''''11


ll O
/'AHT 'tWO (J//r;A,'I'I1JNC, SOOill.



iIorh>o,,, rhangel\ in self-ide n tity. Rcse.m:.hcrs

RIcans, Mex.ic.m Ame ricans. C uba n

television educate viewers abolll (llher cuhures and subcul tures. it may

rlUl1Ullelllcc:1 the st rong diffe re nces be~

;tnd other Hispanic peoples.





nationwide Spanish-language
t.:nivision and TelClfl undo-


~:III~;~:;:"~~~' While minimizing certai n st ll~

~:;;';:::"':O~I (Mydans, 1989 )
I uU' p O.....c lful

IWJ9 by three-fourth s ofaJll-lisp.ulicsthe'\(! dislhlctions so m ewhat and Ih(: common ide ntity o f these mi-

television a ppears to be having II1flllt'I1CC on lhe IllttiOIl 'S g rowin g: I-lisimpact o f tc!c\;sion , rl('\'I'\o ping countries have at-


b) ron\("y specific SOddl m essa ges. Fo r ex (:Odl Cnno a t DaUJn c ncour:lges \~ l

~ Mloplt 11l0dl"

A II mqUl' /ffll lll jS/ txmnp" 0/ IJUI'/Klliotlnl wnalwll/f)II looN pltlff '"

':::: ::,:~:;;~:;:~~~ :~ O('I:::o ', :n,~ell. O n e surw :: vie\,'crs ' Iprl

ot !Ill:
1II(' 'i. .gt.'s 1

11 agricul tural practices. while \\'t l'tf~pk) has promo ted ra m-

beillg d,..:tJl1:11J/c"lJ jn 111,,"

BrnwlI ,uld Cody, 199 1). h,(\I' focused 0 11 television as a n agent

All ril I 'i9J. a ll (I "Tllb Dllr lJll llgl!lm III \\'0'* Oay, - orgt!mud Iry Ilu~ Ms. "'mu lI/aliIlTJ /()t' W Olllt71, 1Il(Jllu~n fl rri1I tht Ill/film 100 fMI dmlKhftTl IQ Ih",llJO>itlliatn 10 Ivl/llllnn iJ,lkr (lIlt/lnlmlll till'''' mQlhm' QfrulJ//lw rn lIIul r(lrtm, j;f(h{'fI 011' d ;lh J'ml Cl!? t'mnpllg l' 'm,j" , o/H'r(/ll)l' (whll Jrr"ntJ 9/ / mfls)

.w."!"'''l. it

1..\ importlulI to no te tha t simila r Ik'('1I rdised l'Cgn ('ding th e com e nt of DUbi! h.>lOpecially rock music and I -dp"). , ,md motion pi ctures, T hese fonns of

(/lid"'" dllllglJln'.

serve as powerfu i for many :~.:::':~.1;:I;I:k::',o:U::Ie\ision,re, yo ung people inl .)tatt.'S and elsewhe There has been
11 the cont(' 1Il of nllL'; ic, ,';!n" ..,,'" <I films- sometim es le adi ng 10 cc ltoun hatllcs-a.~ certain paren ts' o rg<lIl iI religious groups cha lle nge the inl11.Inll'di,l into the Jives of c hilrlre n and

.. ",,,I,..,.;,," ,

;hpect or h uman socia Ji zalion inheh<l\'e appropriately wi lhin all In rht' Llnilcd States, working rll ll time . "Honl;", ,ldult ~talU.s; it is a n indicauo n to onr h:t~ l>asse<.i out o f adolescence. 111 a into a n occupation can re prc;I h:U'50 reality (- I hm'c to work ill o rder
.. It)


to buy fOtXf :.In(1 pay lhe re lll ') :md the reaJil.<uiol1 o r an :un bitio n (M (" \'e ah\l<lYS \\I<I nted to be an airline pi lot-) (W. Muorc, 1968:862). O cct1 pmio llal social iz:llio n cannot be se parated from the sociali1.ation experiences that occllr du ring c h ildhood a nd ado lescence. \Ve <I n : m ost full ), exposed to occupatio .ml Iol c.~ lhro tlgh observing the wOl'k o f Ollr 1 l<II'CIIL\. of peo ple who m we mee t \"h ile they afC pe rfo rmill g the ir duties (d oclOl's o r fi refi ghtcrs, fo r exam ple), :md o f people ponrayed in the ll1edi:. (preside nts. professional ath lc tes, a.nd so fo rth), Th e~e obsen 'lltio ns, along with the subllc Illes."tgcs we receive with in :, culture, help to shapc-;lnd oftcn lim it- the type o r work we may consider. Wilbc:l't Moore ( 1968:87 1-880 ) has d ivided occupatio nal sotialization into rour phascs, The fi rst ph ;lSC is ra"tercJwiu, which ilwol\'cs sclection of acadCln ic o r vocOltionaltr.liningappropriatc fo r the d4."sired job. If onc hopes lO become a p hysicia n, o nc ')' mllst take ccrtain courses, slIch as biolo b a nd



c hemistry. which are I'cquired ofapplicanL'i to Ifo nc 's gOOlI is lu become a violin maker. il will be useful 10 work as an apprentice for an exper! p'-dctici ng Ihat ( mf.. The next phaore idcntilicd by Moore is ""tiriP,,Iory s()('UliiuJ/um. which may last only a few months or e,uend for a period of ),:;1.1'5. Some c hildren in the United Slates "inherit" thcir occIII>ations beca usc their parents mn fanllS or~ma and pa" stores. I n a sensc. these young pcopk are expclicncing antici patory sociali7. nio lt throughout childhood and . adolescence as they observe their p.uc nts a t work. " In addition. some pcople tlm(/~ o n occupatio nal gUll!, Ilt rclntin:lr enrly ugell und nt=vcr W'i l\'cr from tlleir c h oic(:~. A young woman or man lIIay resolve LO become:l dancer at the age of 1I or 12; the ellure adolescent period may focus on training for that fUlure . The Ihinl phase of occupational soci;llizationconllitinn;'IC fIIul rom lllifmr lll-occ urs while onc actually occupies the work-related role, Cmlllilionillg consists of rclu ctanLly atljusting to the more unpleasant aSI>ccL'i o f one'sjob, Most people find that the novelty of a new daily schedule quickly wears ofT and then re;\lizc that paru or the work experience arc r.\thc, tedious, Moore USCll the te rm [011/m;lmmt lO reI'Cl' to the Clll.hlL"iasL acceptance of ic pleasurable duues tlmt CO lll es as the recruit idenufies the positi\,l' tasks of an occupalion. In Moorc.5 view, if ajob pro\'cs to be ~tisfaclory, LlIC person will a fOUI'Lll stage of socializmion . which he calls ro"/;'lIlQl/f rommilmrol, At this point. the job become an indi,linguishable ()ar! of the pel'5On'.5 .self-identity. Violation of proper conduct becomes unthinkable. A person may choose to join professional as..'iocialions. unions, or othe r grouJ>!i which re prc~c nl his or her occupation in the la rger society. Oceupalio nal socializ.uion can be most intense immediately afl.c r onc makes the o";:msitiOIl from sc hool lO the job. but it continues through one's work hist.oT)'. Tec hno lugical advan ces may .. ILer the requircments of the position and necessitate some dCb'Tee of re!f()CiaIi1... tion . T lllIs. aHe r ye;u" of work. ing at typewriters, .secretaries may find lhcmsckes adjusting to sophisticmed word-pl'Ocessing cquil)melll. In addiuon, man y people change occupaIjons. e mplo)'ers. o r places o f work during their

adull years. Therefore. occupational socializ continuc.s thro ugho ut a pcrwn 's ye... rJ in tJlt marke t (Mortimc r a nd Si nullo ns. 1978:440-44 see also Becker e t al.. 1961 ; Riu.e r. 1977).

Th.~!!:~....... "... ,..... ,........ ,........ ,~ ... _ _ ... ..........._ _

Social scie ntists have in c rc:;l.~i n gl y recognized importallce of the sta te-or government at levels-as a n lIgcm o f socializaLion because of' gro\\;ng impact on the lifc cycle. Traditionall)'. ily members ha\'c sen'c<1 as the prinMT)' car
in n ,,,' ... ," ....~" h,,, in , h" ,"""' ,,Ii"'III ""nh,flo'
f~uuily's pro lccLive fun c tion has steadily been lril ferred to Oll\sidc age ncics sllc h as hospitals. tal health clinics. and imur.mcc com panit!'l ( burn and TibbiL'i, 1934:66 1- 778) . MallY of th agencies arc 11111 hy the govcrnme nt; the rest art ccnsed a nd rcglll:Hcrl hy gO\'crlllllcnUlI bodies.. U1C social policy lIcctioll or this chapLe r, wc ....ill that the sWtc is undcr pressure to becomr prodde r o f child care . which .....ould gi\-e il .t and direcl role in t11(> sociaJilation of infa nts young child re n. In the past. th e lifc cycle was influcnced most' lIiricalllly by heads o f households and by I groups such as religiolls org'lIlizalio ns. H()\o'n'tt, the 19905 the indhidual as 1I citizen and iUl nomic actor is influe nced by national intercsts. ex... mple. boor un ions a nd political parties ~M intermediaries be tween lhe individual and Stale. The st:lte has had a notc ....'Orthy impact on life cycle by rcirt.5UtUlillK lhe riles of pas.sag1! had disappc:a rcd in agricultural societies and III riods or ellrl)' industrialilatjon . For exa mple, c mmenl rcgulllliol1s r;;upulatc the ages 'H \\'hich person may drive a car, drink alcohol. \'Otl' in tions. marry \\'ilhout parcntal permission. overti ml'!, and relire. These rcglllatio lls dO!lor c lItiLul e stdCl rites o f passage: most 2 1 -ycar~lds nOl "OlC and most pcople c hoOse UJ(~ ir age of tirement without refe re nce to governme nt di Still. by reb"ul:ui ng thc life cycle 10 some dcgrt't. . Slate shapes the sociali1<ltion process by iofll ing our ...icW.5 of appropri:'llc behavior at partku ages ( Ma)'er and Schocpflin, 1989),

PtlRT nil') ORC;.A..V,J.....c ,'iO(' .H l.lfl: _ J



I """.,hle
nt'ot 111

expose youn g c hildre n to the

influl"nce of day care?

or ('Onnict theorists, wh )' d oes child [iuJe govcnllne nl suppo rt? (0li!S of d ay care progr::ulIs he paid b)' ""n~'''I. hy the pl'ivaw !reClOr, or e ntirely b)'

illcrcascdjob o pand the need for :lddition;l1 t~rur",I~,,, all propelled 'lIl incrt!asing num,.....,,~ ()r ,o"ngchil dren illlo the paid lahor

' I~ )r \\1)ll1cn,

Ih" Lnltcr! Stale<i' (see Chaptcr 11 ),

:,7 pcr(;CIII of alll1\oth( l's wilh child re n of 6 were fOllnd in the paiel laOOr the number eithe r working o r looking (XIK'<:II.>d to reach 70 percc tll by the yea r thell, \\ill take care of the c hild ren 0 1 dllring work ho urs? Fo r tWO-lhirrls o f ~....,,, III,~ror who m natio nal dall-l ar c now ' 'IOlulioll has become g roup c hild ca re Oa\' cart' [enlers han! become the fUlle""",,'I,n'l of the n uclear fmnil)'. pe rfonlling ntllt wing and sociali:t.."llion functio lls handled only by fa mil y mcm bers (Beck,

. I!J<JOb).
indicate that childre n pl aced in high-

quality chi ld care c:eIllCI'!I arc not adve rsely affected by such expe rie nces: in faCI. good ( I;t)' l.'a re be ne-. fi ts child re n . The m luc of prcschool programs ....'iIS docllllle nted in 11 comparison of full -lime ~'l il w;llI kee p reschoule l's with a ~ non- n urse ry" gro up. Those chi ldre n ,m end ing 111 e preschool progmln fro m agc.'i :i to 6 }'c a I'S showed sib "lific:uu ly greate r' la nguage devclo pmcn t and grcon cl' gains ()n achicvcrnell1 tests tha n child ren in the non-nUl'SCIY co n trol gro up did . In add ition , resea rch cond ucted in th e las t fe w yClt rs ill d ic.:ales I.hat childre n in day care or preschool progl';lIl1Sarc m a rc self-sulJicic nL They react \\'c ll to sc par.lIion from their pa rCllIs and Icmito h a\'(' m a rc stimulating interactio ns whent" gClhe r. fin ally, il appears fro lll recent stud ies th a t children llIay be bette r o fT in cente rs with we lltrained carcgivers than Ciu'ed fOI' full time by th ose mothers who are de pressed and fnlSlra tcd becausc they wish to work o ll l'iide lhe home (Calinsk)', 1986; Ca rber a nd I-J e rbcr, 19i7; Shel l, 1988). Eve n if po l icym ake rs decide that publicly fund ed ch ild cart' is desirable, they JIlust d<'le rmi ne the d e-. gr cc to whic h taxpaye rs should subsidizc it. Anum" ber o f Euro pean nations, incl uding Ihe Nedlt!r lands a nd Swcde n , provide preschool care a l mini, mal ar no cost. In 199 1, aboul half of all Da nish ch ildl'c n under the age o f 3 a nd 70 percen t o f chil d re n ages 3 to 6 a ttcnded publ ic child care pr"


gra ms, Parents pay a max imum of 30 pcrcent ofda), care costs, In Fra nce. vi nually all c hildre n ages 3 la 5 atlcnd free schooling, a nd free after-school care is widely availa ble. However, p rovidi ng fi rst-I.t.le child care in the United St.Hes is an ythi ng but ' cheap, with a cost o f S4000 per yc-.t.r nOl unusual in u rb~1n arca.~, T hus, a nationally financed syslem of child carc could lead 10 st.-.ggerillg COSts (New York Times, I 993b; Topo ln icki, 1993), Fe mi n ists echo the co ncern of co nni ct th eOlists t ha t high-quality child ca re receives li u lc gm'em" mcntal llupport because it is n::g".t.rdcd as ~ m e rely a W"d)' to le l wome n work." Nearly all c hild ca re work.. ers (94 pe rcent) are wome n: ma ny fin d the mselves ill low-status. min imum wage jobs. T he average salllr, ur l..hih.1 l..:trt! WorltC1"I1 h I llm Stales III 1992 was on ly S I5,488. an d the re are few fringe hellefits. A child care teacher with a college degree earns only 45 percen t as m uch as a sirnilal"ly educated woma n working in oth e r occupations and a ni), 27 pe rcent as much as a si mila rly educated man. Alth ough pare n l!S may complain of ch ild ca re costs, the:: staiT are, in elTeCl, subsidizing c hildren's care by working ror low wages. Not surprisingly. there is h igh lLlrnOyer among child care leachers. In 1992 alone. 25 perce nl o f all day C""dre teachers (and more than 40 percent in metropolitan a reas) le n theil' jobs ( D. Blau. 1993; N. Carroll , 1993). T hus fa r. rew local commu nities have passed o rdinances to en coll r.t.gc ch ild ca re. Wha t abou I the pRivate secto r? Compan ies a rc ill creasi ngly recognizi ng thal ch ild care can be good for busin ess, si nce many e mployees view it as an impo rta n t fringe be nefit. Be tween 1984 a nd 1987, there was an increase o r 50 perce.1ll in the ntJlnbel' of compa nies thal a lTe red subsidized child ca re. SIiII . even with this increase, as of ] 990, o nly 13 pe rcent o f maj o r corporations sponsored ch ild c u e centers alar near their job sites. Even rewer companies offered d iscou nts or vouchers for c hild cafe (F, Chapman. 1987: P. Taylor. 199 1). Ma ny policymakers be li evc Ih at pa rc nts- ratJ1Cr he tha n govcnunent or L priva te sector-shou ld be solely respo nsible for th e cost.s or day carc progmllls, \'el paren!.'> ofte n rcly on c h ild cart' because they a re a tte m pting to in crea.~e ramily income, Unless rees a re ke pt to a minimum , the ex penses or . day ca re will wi pe out the additional W"t.ges eam ed, As limited as child care is acl'Os.~ the Uniled

States. it is no r equally avai lable to all e nL\ in \\'cal[hy neight)()I"hoods have all fin di ng dayeart' tha n those in pomo,w,,,\l,,,.. commun ities. In researc hers Bruce Fuller and round wide d isparities in tJlI;: cal"e, In the richest commu nities. then.'. preschool teach er fo r every 45 children ' 5: in t.he poores\. commun itics, tl [ere is one ror evt:!), 77 childrcn. Viewed f!"Om a connict perspccti\'e, COSIS arc an especia llyscoous b"", rlc n fod''''''' fa milies, who already find it hm'd to take or limited job opportunities. Moreo\"Cr. cult), (If fin ding aflordablc ch ild h:L'i 1 lI ly 5Ct luusl lllj..lIlGul0l1S rUI IIIUUICIS whu < wish 10 work) outside the home. Even the p:lid la bor rm'ce, m Olh Cn> lIlay fi nd tllrir peri'onnance and opportuni ties fO"';n:~'::~ h inde rcd by child care di flicullics, Si is com monly Viewed as a woman 's (given the persiste nce or traditional " .. working mothers rather tha n working cspt:ciall), iikel)' to bear U burden of these le l)ubl ic support for child Glre has risen in the Ia.'it Iwo decades, In 1987, national showed that. 80 perccnt of ad ults fa,,"(Ire<! t.-. bli.~h m e nt of morc day care scrvices for (comparcd with o nly 56 percen t in 1970), Slu'\'ey, two-th irds of paren ts with child ren ~ea ..s of age agreed tha t gove rnme nt has g-tltion to provide chil d care assistance, cent of these parcnts sta ted t.h at c "'pl: oy" n~ sil11i];l r responsibility. But.. to date. lIIe nl officials and leaders of pri \~.t.te c" '''n'';' lin uc to I,>l\'e low prioRity to tJ1C issue nr,>lW, T his is ironic give n tJle importallce or , hood socializatio n to the intelleclual .,l ",dO "elopmenl of future gener.ltioru in jhe States (Morin. 1989; S. Rebell , 1987). In 1987, tbe Act fo r Hetter Ch ild Care the ABC bill) was introduced in Congrt.SS ' c hild ca re morc alTordable fo r low-income


and 10 increase tile a~~~: :~':~'~;:I~;:~"~~;~:'~ care for {jll r.-.milies, The a focal point of d iscussion for policymaken nally was app roved in greatly mod ified as tJlC~' Ch ild Care Act. Consisting of t.WO act provided for bor.h grants a nd tax

.:;; ;


I'AI(I" 1111'") - ORGANI?.!.\'(: ,'iOf'..IAI 1.1ff.

""loiId rare:. A lotal o f $2.5 bill ion



grants lO the Slales over the year~ .II~~' . \\;111 m o.~ t of this funding inu:ndcd to
Iow-iucome families in obtai ning c hild care The new taX credi15 would allow parents oUI-.of-poc.ket c hild C3l'e expenses from

tlleir income taxes. While this legislation provides much less fin anci,,] supporl for child care lhan had been proposed years earlier. it nevertheless es!.... })... lishes a precedent for direct fe deral subsidies through tll C states for child programs ( Holmes. 1990a; RmTlcr. 1990).

11 By regulatinK the life: cycle. lhe Sl;lle shapes tile sodali/.<ltion process by innuend ng our "icw~ of a ppro-

;~;: the proca, whereby I~ple It'arn tht' al. ,lnd actions appropri<alt' to indi \;dua ls ;IS
.1 panic"lar cuimre. This Chapter cX'".tmine5 tOCWIJ;auon in human d~'el oplllenl: th e: ~~d)' ("Iplt' dC'\~l ol) perception,. fedingl. and be~ thtm,eh,CI; and the lifelong naltlre of lhe

priate behavior 3t l)articular agC5. 12 A!! U lOre aud mort' mothers of young children ha\'c e nte red the labor market of the Un it('d States, the de nl iUld for child care has increased dr.ulIalicall),.

.5IJruIlr.tuon ~n'c1.:ls th e overall cullu l':ll Pt,U't.lcc~ of .IJ1n It aiM) 5h:lpes tlle illlagc~ that we ho ld of

"dIt'rarlv 1900s, Charles 1lorton Coole)' :.dvOInced dl.1I we I~am who wc: are b), 1I1tC'r.tcting wilh

i~~~ lIerlxrt Mc:ad is best known for his tlll."Ory

11( proposed that as pt.'o ple lO:ttUrr, their In ITI1I their concen! about reactions from
(~nman hall \ hmm thal lOan)' of o ll r d ;lil)' ,",tlhe llltempt!i to cnn\'CY distinc t imprcssi{llls

Sh o uld soci;II rcse:lrch in 3re:t.~ .such as socio bio logy be conduc ted C\'cn th ollgh m;lIlY in vcs ti g;lIoo belil'\'t' that this lIn:tl)'!iis i. pote miall), dctritnentallolargc numbcl'5 of l>eople? 2 Dm",ing on Fnoing Golfman'! dr;HIl:uurglcal approach , discuss how the following group! engage in imprell5ion managctnenl : .uhlelf!5, college in~tnlcton, parents, ph)'Sid:uu, polilicians? 3 HO\\" "'"i>uld runctionalists and eon nict theorius diO'er in their :lIlal)"iC:' of tht" mass media?

laltlll b Ihe most imlKl rtant agclI l of 5OCiali/.adw- LllIted States, especially lor (' hild reu. pnmary age.nt.s of 5OC.ia li ~tion, p..'\renu pia)' . .~."'''' I intQ th O'le gender rolu


AlI,iciPfI'ory lociolito,ion

ha\'e an explici t mandate

the Uni ted States-and especially

"',-"""lIle nom\! and ,-:Uut.'S of o u r culture,
~nups frequently assist aclole~cc nts in !rAini ng Ioj"""flfindcpendence from parent! ;1I1c! other




t encourages child ren 10 fOt~lk(' hurn,m rur IlOIiSl\'e vit",;ng. In' m051 fully exposed la occnpational roles

11I:a1 been criticized as an age nl of welal;

I' ofsociali ution in which a pC:f50n - reiu:arses- for future posit.ion.s, occupat.ions, and 'IOCi;!1 rd:UlolIship!. (page 104) Cogni,jve 'ha,., af developmen, J ean Piaget's theory explaining how children's th o ughl progre5sc:S tllrollgh four Sf:'KC'!\ (102) Degrodo'ian cerll"'tJIIJ An aspc!C! of th e process "'~thill 1of:ll institulions, in wh le h peo ple arc subjectcd 10 hum iliatin g ril.llals, ( 10.1)) Dr","o/lIrgicfll approflch A view of social iute nlction, popul"ri1.c(\ by ErvillK Go mnan , uncler which people arc examined It.~ if they were lh catric... 1 perfn nnel'5.

parcnl~, of IX'"Oplc "'hile lhey are l>erfonning their du ties, ........ por1Il1yed in tll(' tIledia.

'-mng the work of our


Face -war" A lenn usc.'(i by Erving Goffman to refer to pec:tpl~'s dTofl'l to maintaih tile p roper image and Fo", ili,,,,
a\"Oid tmb;UTaSSITlCflt in p u blic , (lOO) I'ride in lhe extended famil y,


through the ulaimcnancc of dOM: ut.'S and slI'ong obtiglH io lls to kinfol k. (107) Gend(lr roiu Expectauon! T<-1fd fd ing the proper be" h:lVior. auitudes, a nd acu\;uc.:s of llI.lles and fe mah:s.

Reverse locioiizotio" The process whcreb) nOl'flJaJly being socialized arc at the ~ me tinll' Ri'es of passage
izing their SOCilili...ers. ( 108) R i l\l;i l.~ ma rkinK Ihe S)'lIi bolk uon [mm o n c socia l posi ljon lO anOlh('r. (1(12) Raltl la.illg rh e process of m e n tally :lSI>uming tbfl ~pc.'C l i\e of another. the reby elmbtillK (lIIe IU from Ihal imagincd viewpoint. (99) Self According to Gcorgc i-Icrbcn Mead , the SUln of pcup l c'~ conscio us perception of lheir Idtnf dislillct fmlll others, (98) Significan, othen A tcml Ilsed b~' ('.eo~ I \1('nd III tcft'r I!) Ihu~e intii,iduul, 'tI hu IlI1' m"" por la llt ill the del'elopnwnl of lhe self, SlIch.lS I
friends , :lI1d teach ers. ( 100)

G"nllra/i:tld o/hrrs A tenll u.'it:d by Gemge I'h:rben

Me:ld to refer 10 the child's aW:U'l IlC.'1i~ of the atutudes, \icwpoints, and expectations ofsodclYa~ a whole . (99) Imprnsia" mallag(lme"l A lenn u~ed by Erving ('.00: man 1 refe r' to th e altering ofllll: IJreSe f\t;ltiorl Ofl hc ,0 self in order 10 create distinctivc :lppeal';H1ces ;lIld salisfy partic11lar :mdicnces. ( 100) I nnlti "S'flI" " ~" f .\ I'hf<l~" p ..1 hy '-'1"'1'1'''1 1-i "fI"n (;0011:)' 10 cm phash.t: thal the 1IClf is the prodl1cl of Ollr social intCnlclio ns willl ol1le rs. (98) Machismo A sense of virility, pc n.unal \\orlh, and pride in one's malctJes~ . ( 107) Midlife crisis A .~ll"(."SSful period of 'l(' l f-<"~lhmtiol1 , oftcn nccun'i n g lxtw.:en the :Iges of35 lll1d 50. in which a person realizC!l tJlat he or she ha.s HO! <lehic\'cc! cer taill jlj!T1IOJlal gO;lls and ;c; pi1~lIiolls "rid Ih:n tim e is rtUl' !l ing OUl. ( 103) Peflollalily In cl't'.l)uay speech. a person's lypic:lI,><ll' ler n5 ofattirudcli, ne~ds, c h:u,U:lc riSlit:s, and bch;wior.

SOC;o/iUlliall Thc process where b) I>cople learn

lilUdes, \~tlucs. and aClions :lppmprillh: 10 ind ,I~ IiIt'lIlbers of:1 panicular cultu re, (92) SociQbiology TIlt~ s~~Lt!mati r Sllldy of the. hir ba~s of ~oc ial hc haviol. (97) S}'l/Ibols The gestures, o~jccts. a nd language ji">!"m the \.l3si~ o f homan CUlILlllUuicntion. (98) Total ill$lillltiotu A [cnn coiuc(j by En.'ng Cnlf refer tu in ~litutions whic h regulate all :lspecLSola 1>011" life under:1 single aUlhori lY. such .b prulJl'Ito lIIilimry. Ulcntal hospitals, :Ulc! COil\'ents. (10-1)

Resocialha,;o/l The procCSll or diSC".trding fo rmer beh:l\;or IXlllerns :lIld accepti ng ne", (Incs 3.\ part o f a
InHlsitioll in o nc's life. (104)

I',vrr /lIV OIrGA.\UJ,\G !iOCIM,


~~:~_;':";'~I~G:"'~~:'~~d~!Hl'Indcl. "IvNew York: Ran e.ll/id and Soci~1 (5th cd,),

Ihe wcial.Kicncc 0fI ."uah7~'ltiol\, cIIO:!.mille5 agenu of soci.dInd 81"1!S 5pc'cial emphasis to gcndcr-rok llm book

Lott. Ikm icc. WOmnl j Lulft: 7"hm1n flnd l'nrinliOlU ill Cot'Fltin IA/nung. Monlcrcy. Calif.: Brooks/ Cok. 1987. An O\'(:n;cw of the 5OCializatioll experiences of women in
lhe Unit.e d StalC!i., Bar,), R. (cd.). 1M &If and &ri(ll uf,. New York: foo lrGr:Iw- HiII, 1985. Social scicntists, primarily p,,),ch(,\ogi-l1>. examine the concept of thc sclf:tS ;UI expl:lIl;ltiOIl bchil.\';or, Tobin ,.Jo5C'JlhJ .. \);lVid Y. I-I. \Vu. and Dalla H. D;lIIidOn . ' 'rf.Jfllool m 'I'llrtf' o.l{III,.,S: jflpa,., Cllmfl, lwd 1111' U"it~ Stal~. New 11:l\'cn, Conn .: Yale Uni\'crsity l'n.$S, 1989, ' A coml};U"';lli\'c look ill formal eady child hood education in threc !lations, drawing upon me views of paren ts, leachers, alld adlllil\ istr,I.(Ors.


f..nlnR rltr Ilrtwr/n/wn of SdI In Ellf'ry(/(l] uft.

1959. CQffman clel1lotlst r.I'C$ his ItheoT)' dllU the self is managed in t."l't:.yIII much Utc s unc way that : 1 ,hcalric;.1 r .Irrw\ nUl a stage role.
~' /Mn'ltIg IQ 1 ..IJI'f'. New York: B:.II:IIII;III:. LY""",,--;'' I illustrated book dcscril)d the 1;!I!d-

..I i)(oh,J\ior conducted :tllhe Primate Re.. ,,,",,~'''t the Uni\~n.ily of WiJComin .
(;'01'(1011. TA,





J.~_~~~~.~ ~. _ _. _._. __, , , _ _._ ~. ._ _ .... . .... ..... ...... ......... . . .... .
Among thejournals tha t d eal "'ith socializa tiOIl i~Ud arc Adol4rnl" (founded in 1966) ,j()urnal of Pmollflilty 11'1(1 SoriIlI '~y(ho1ogy ( 1965), a nd )'Ollllg Chi/tire" (19.15)

1\Qnnltll'Of1ltJi AnalySiS. Albany: SGlIC Uni\;t"\<I VI)rk I're55. 1992. A ixlckgrolllld view of

" '.n""


the United


CJIAVf1-.H 4 ' SOG!oJJ7.A1"Io.V

...................... c:::=5:~::::::I .................... .

SOCIAL INTERACTION .............................................................................. AND SOCIAL .............................................. .. - ......................... STRUCTURE

" ,_


Drfining :Uld Rcconslrucling RcaliL)' NcgQli:ltcd Order

SOCIAL STRUCTURE AN D MODERN SOCIETY Dur khcim' s Mechanical and Organic




T6nnics's GerWil/,Ic!lIIjI and Q u /lschajl

BOXES 5- 1 Current ReSearc h; '11C 1 '1'01:<:5$ of Role Exil 5-2 Speaking QU I: Savage Inequalities in Public Educ:ltion

As.c:ribed and Achic\'ed Slams M,lSIer Slams

Social Roles
Wh,lI Are Social Roles?

Role CollniCI Croups

Social inslilutions
FunclionaiiSI View

ConOict View
imcr:lctioniSI View


All the world's a slage,

A nd all lhe men and women. merely players: They have their exits and their en.trances; A nd one man in his lime pla.)'S many parts.
IVillinlll SlJaHesflalre As YQTI Uht If, /599-1600

How clo wc rede fin e reality th rough social intcn\cti on? '-low do sodologis15 use the tenus s/(ll ll.~ and

Wh}' are social roles a signifi cant componen t of

social strll cture? How is ~ n e t \\'orkin g~ helpfu l in finding em ployme nt? How do the family, reJibrion , and government contribut e 1,0 a society's sunriva l? '-Iow do socia l i11lcractions in ;., preinduslrial vi llage ditrer from those in a modern urb(l n center? How has the social structure of the United Stal,es been affect.ed by the spread of AIDS?

S eventy male swdellts at St(lnford Uni,"crsity were asked to panicip'llC in an experiment designed by socia l psychologisT Philip Zirnbardo ( 1992; Haney et. al. , 1973). The slUde n15 were paid to give up their vacation lime and become part o f a simulated prison experience in the b;L~e m e nt corridor of a classroom building. By a Ilip of a coi n, half were arhitr<lJ'ily designated as prisoners. \.h e o thers as guards. The guards were instructed to es tablish their own rules for maintaining law, order, and discipline. Wirh in a shon lime, the guards began lO act ~gllardlik c. Some attempted to be tough but fair and held suictly LO th e prison ru les. But about 0 11 (. ...

third o f the stlldclH guards became cnlel and alii sive in lh eir treatment of prisoners. They shoutd commands. took pleasUl'e in imposing arbr rules, and u'ca ted th e prisoners like animals. In case, a guard ordered a prisoner into "solitary finem ent" and rorced him to stay overn ight iI small dose!. Soon after the ex perimcnt began, the p . became depressed, apathetic. and helpless-or rebellious and angry. Some cried hystcrically, siwalion bCC(l me so intolerable that Zimbardo h is colleagues were fo rced to abandon the prison study arter on ly six days. It seenled \11 cal to co nlinue because of the anxiety and d ~ evident amOllg the student prisoners. Zimbardo's study demo nstrated !.hat college denLS adoptcd predictable pa tt erns of social i action {those expected of guards and priso when placed in a mock prison. Sociologists use tenn social interactiOlllO refer \.0 the waYlI in'" people respond 10 one another. These illlCfal Ileed not be face lO face; fricnrls talking O\'l'r tclepho ne and coworkcrs communicating computer arc engaged ill social interaction. In mock prison experiment, social intcracliolll tween prisoners and guards were highly im pe Prisoners were not addressed by name !)lIt u by their prison !lumber. Guards wore reflcCtOf glasses which made eye comact impossible. As in many real-life prisons. lhe simulated . at St:mford Universi ty had a social stnlctu which guards held \~rlually total cOnlrol over oners. The term social strllcturl! refers \0 thf in which society is organized into prcdinablt

l ~tl/l'

1WO OR(:A.NI7.JNG suaM UPI-;

The 'IOCial stnlCHln: of Zim bardo 's pmun influc:nced the liOl1s bc t w~eu FlIi' ilntl prisonen.. Zimbardo ( 1992:576) . . , dlJ! I1 \\-.t~ a r('".d prim n "in the minds of the )IIkn tlWlr ("Iplh es. ~ Ilis simulated prison expcmnt"rll \\,j~ 1i1. . 1 conduCLed 20 years ago blu has l\l'llt~ been re peatcd (with similar findin gs) boch In !Ill' l'nllcd Stalt.'S lInd in o the r countries. Tht (C1U(t'l'l~ of !IOCi,,1 illle raclio n and social cruelllf. IOohic" arc closely linked lO eac h OI lter, 1ft m1ll,II III 'o()Ciological slUdy. Sociologi!lLS o bp.t11l'I1~ CIf bclm\;or closely lO undc nmmd "lh[uIIJld ~ describe the social intel7lclions ofa UUtt'l ur \!ICielv and the socia l slruClure o f th,\ hdIJ\;o r i~ a P......I. nw. ch,II*r lx-gin by conside ring ho w social in III ,h' the \<loa} \<le vie"' the " 'o rld al'Uund Intrl.Mllfll\\ invo lve ncgolia Lio n, \\'hich results 1Itru't .. h,mging forllls of social organi7A'l lion . rh(, hIptn \'oil! I"uts 011 the foul' 1 ><lsic demc lllS oLso.utKwu': ~1;ltllst'S, social roles, g ro ups, and in11' )inc(' much of o ur behil\ior OCClll1l in ,...,.. .11. \ pan th:ll g ro ups play in a .socie t)"s . . . \Ullflllrr "i ll be . Socia l instilll,.. to ... die amih , religion, a nd governmc nt luon.IlIlC'lIwl aspec:1 social structure , The "Ill (U1Ilr.lS1 the funcuo naliSl, connict. :lIId JmfUfll! n"t JpprO<lches to tlte sUldy o f soc ial ill-


slimlio ns. h \\ill also e~a min e the \)pologie den'laped 11)' .sociologists Emile Durkhcim and Ferd ina nd T on n ic.-s fo r comp. ring modem socic ties "'ith , sim pler fo nns o f social Stru CI Ul'C, The socia l poliC) sectio n will conside r the AIDS c risis and its implica tio ns for Ule social instillUions o f Ihe United St.'lles.

t\ccol'd illK tosociologisl I-l e rbc n Bllllllc r ( 1969:79) , the distinc tive charac teristic o f social inte rac tion amollg people is tha t "human be ings interpret or 'defin l" each o the r 's a cLions instead of me rely reacting to eac h OIhcl"s actions.M III o Uler words, o ur rcspo nse to someone's bcha\ior is based o n the mealli'lg y,'C a u:tc h to his o r he r actio ns. RCOIlity is shape d hy o ur Pf'IT f"plion s, c\~,lu ati o l1 s, and de finilions. These meani ngs typically rcnecl lht' IlUl"ln s and values 01 the d o minant culLUrc and a liI' sodalizalio ll experie n ces within that culture.


P~.~!li~g..~~_~~~~,~.~'!.~~. ~~~,~.~....., . ........

How do wc defin e o ur social reality? As an CX,III1 ' plc, le l LIS examine how abortio n clinics a n e lllp' to present lhe lll.\oel\'es to thei r clic nlS. Two d ill'e rc l1t

I II 1 'llIlip li m/xlTt/{) :' jrllrUIII.' mlJt'lr l"iwlI t:rf~III'.fI/, 7(} I/m/,."II ,,1


Sum/OIll Uni utnllJ tL'"l' MIRlfllnty dl'$lKJI(ll1fi /u pnjQII#'J'l or gtllm/J. Th,. sllId, hilt/ID IN {/barutmlld {/firr (filly

days lxm'Uf

IrMl llU'7rl

of J6~ guard.s ' mitt of pmOllnl, AJ 0 t'Xnmpl,., ""

1 0

K" fmi.J rt'I/" /rtd p m tJlIC'l rot_ wllholl i b/m,.,b. ,



("JIM".,.:R , * 'i(IQ ,' 1\ ,.,..RAr:TIO.\'.,\'OM)(JII \INI

('n 'HJ,

sociologisLS examined abortion clinics: o nc in the 19605, when abortio n was illegal, !lIe oth e r in the lalt~ 1970s afte r lhe Supre me Court's landmar k 1973 decision assuring a right LO abortio n under most circumslances (sce Cha pte r 11 ). Before abortion \oJl\S legal, cli nics atte mpted to reassure wome n by e mphasizing medi cal professio nalism and crea ting an inte ntionally sterile a Ullosphere- rnllc h like tha t of a d octor's o ffi ce or a hospital. However. hy the la te 19705, clin ics had begun to deemphasile th is cl inical focus and instead t.o stress I.hat they we re olfe ring "pe rsonalized ," no nlradilional care. Atte lUioll turned to relaxing the clie nt. offe ring her elUo tional support, a nd e ncoulflbring cliscu$sion o f an)' d o ubL~ or fears. In each time pe riocl. a bortio n ~ : i ::; <.:; - l J:fli.l ;': ii <.u J l.iy iJ j ( pi Hll llliig SULml ~ Ull t LUre-atte mpt,cd to p roject and de fin e a parLicula r social reali ty that would he lp wome n to feel mo rc comformble in se(.'king o ut t11eir services (Ball. 1967; Cha ro n. 1985:154 : P. M. Hall , 198 7:6-7; M. Zimme nna n. 198 1: 15 1). By the 19905. howeve r. 0 PI)(m e n ts of abortion were po rtraying clin ics as killing centers. T he milita nt gr'Oup Oper'rtlioll Rescue tried to shut dowlJ abortio n c1iniCll lhrough pickcting an d harassmen t of heallh care pro fessio nals a nd patie nts. In 1989, forcxample, 11 ,800 people we re arrested across Ih(: United Sta les fo r blocking access to clin ics (Hancock, 1990 ). Des pite the ex plosive atmosphe re O LLtside ma ny a bortio n cl in ics, lite cli nics cOlujnued to e mphasize tJlal Ihey offered a supporti\'e (;.' 11\;rOI1Ill e nt fi)r their c1 i c n t.~. Th e ability lO defin e sodal reality clea rl y re n cc t~ a group 's power within a society. Indeed , O Il C of the most c rucial aspec ts of the re latio nship between domina nt and s ubord ina te groups is tht' abi li ry of L e rlolllinant or m<tiority gro up I Q d efin e a ~c; i h e lY's \':l ltres. Sociologist Willia rn I. Tho mas ( 1923: 4 1--44). a n early crilic of theo ries ofrrtcial a nd gender di ffe re nces, saw that the U clefiniti on o f the situ a tion ~ could maid th e thinking a nd ptm.o nalilYof th e ind ividual. Writi ng from a n intcractio nist pcrspeClive. T homas obseryed tha t people respond no t ' o nly 10 Ihe objecun _ features of a pc rwn o r situation bUt also 10 the meaJl ing tha t the person or situa tion has fo r t.h e m. Fo r example. in Philip Zintbardo's IIl OCk. prison ex perime nt, stude nt "b'uards~ a nd up rison ers~ accepled Lhe defin itio n o f the siI-

mHio n (incl uding the tradi tional roles a nd be ior associa ted wil h being a gm! rd or p risoner) acted < !ccordingly. A5 \Vc Itave seen th roughou l the last 30 yean first in the ch; 1 rights move ment o f the 196(k since Lhe n among such groups as women. the do de rly. gays and lesbia ns. a nd peo pl e with disabit. Lies- :ln important aspecl of tJle process of'iOCill c ha nge irl\'Olveo; rede finin g or reconstn,cting . reality. M em bens of subordin ate groups begin challenge trad ition al defini tions a nd in stead ~ ceive a nd expc!;ence realilY in a Ilew way. For t ample. Ihe Black aCl iviSl M alcolm X (1925-196.; an eloqllelll and cOlllwversial advocatt" of Bbd powe r and Black pride in the cad)' 190011, recalled U m lli t~ IccHii gs !ilii:! pcrsp-eCl.lvc cr-i:iiigccl Clrnmallcally while in eighth grade. His English teacher vised him tJlal his goal o f becoming a lawyer '!Gl wno realistic goal fo r a nigge r" a nd e ncouraged hill instead to become a carpe nt er. In Malcolm X (1964:37) words:


It wa5 then lhal I began 10 change-insrde. I drl'l" away trom wlt t\!" people. I C"olrne In class. "nd 1answcrf4 when called UI)()lI. [r l>ccanre a ph)'S.icaJ stra in simllll

1 si! in Mr. Omowski's cI.bS. I e re "nigger 0 Nh


sliPI)C(j o rr m)' hack before. whe re\'Cr 1 heard ir now I 5tQPI)C(j and looked al whoever said il. And tJu:y loo~
surprised th at I did.


Viewed from a soc iological perspcCli\'e. Malcolm X redefining social realit), hy looking much m~ crilic:. lty:at tJle l'aeiSt thin king a nd terminology Ul a1 restricted him a nd otJ,c r Afri ca n Amclicam (Charo n, 1985:'1).

........ 9. ..................................................................................

Nevotiated Order

A5 wc have see n, people tan reconstnlct social fto ality thro ugh a process of i.llle m al ch.lIlge a'i" !.het take a diffe re nt vie\'" of evel)'da)' behavior. Ye t fX(~ plc also reshape reality by negoliating c1m nge! lt1 pa tt e rn .~ o f social inte l'3ction. The tcr'm 1I ego/i. ri oll re fers to the alternptto reac h agreement \\-ilh others conce rning some objective. Negotiation does 1I 0t involve COercion : it goes by ma ny namer., including bG./gainiltg, compromising, trading off, ." diatjTl~ t1:chnng;ng, ~whetllllg (md tfeali,lg, wa nd collwioll (A. Str"auss. 1977:2: see also G. Fine, 1984).


l'inLwJ from a socIowgwd ~pt'r'i"" ,''' H1atk n(tilJl.St Maloolm X rwf,jinnl M1rial rtality by loo/lll.g ""uh ml)U

rri/lrally nllhl' mnll Ihmkmg mu' lmItmology Ihlll rtllrir.tnf hHn ami elM Afo(al! Ammr.(JIu.

Nrplluuon occurs in many ways. Some social sit- - . (I)("h as buying groceries. involve no medi........Iule other situations require signific....u '-'111\ (If negotiation . For e"ample, \\'e may nepur ",'ith others regarding time (~Whel1 should ~pa('e (~C. wc have a meeting at )'o ur '\Il hnuwi"), o. ('Iell assignmelll or places while W"ditlnJ(llIrt"!ln(Cr1licket.~ . Burglars cOlnmonly b;lrgain lI11h lip'If'1'li ,lhOUI how much t.he lipSICf5 should be fIIid fOf Ihe rnlormation thal Ihey provide-usu ;a IlJI 11) lM!rctnl or the g l'Os..~ p"occeds of a ....... l~hO\'er. 1973). In lfifllhlllldl KlCielies. impending marriages of: InIhd to ot'gOljalions between the ramilies or the t.tand .md ",ire. For example, anthropologisl Ray


Abl'ahams (1968) has described how the Labwor people of Africa .mange ror an amount of property to go from the groom's to the bride's family al the time of marriage. In the view or the ubwor, such bargaining o\'er an exchange of cows .md sheer' culminates not o nly in a marriage but. more important, in the linking or two clans or fa milies. While such family-to-fami ly bargaining is commo n in lr.lditional c uhures, negoliation ca n take muc h mo re e laborate fonns in modern indu<;lrial socie ties. Consider the tax laW5 orthc Vni l.ed States. From a sociological perspecti\'e, such 1 :1\\'5 arc formal norms (reflected in federal and stale codes) thatconstitllle the rrJ,mework in whic h negotiations take placr concerning legitimate tax deductions. Ir audited, taxpayers will mediate with lIgents or the Internal Revcnllc Service. QlangC5 in the taxpayers' individual situations will occur through such negotiations. On a broader levcl, howel'er, the en tire tax code undergoes revision through negotiated ou tcomes involving many competing irllercsl~, including big business, roreign nations, and political action commiuees (sce Chapter 15) . The totX SlnlCIUre of the Uniled States can hardly be viewed as fixed; rather. it rcflecl<; Ihe sum of negotiations for change al any time (Maines. 1977:2'12-2+1: 1982:J. Thomas. 1984). It is imponant to understand that negotiations arc not merely an a.~pect or social interaction; the), underlie much of o ur social bchavior. Most cle ments or social SU1.lcture a rc not Static and arc therefore subject to cha nge through bargaining and exchangi ng. For this reasoll . sociologists use the term 'l~lQ'ed ordUlO underscore the faclthat the social order is continually being construc ted and a hert.-d through negotiation . Negotiated order refers to a .social stnlctul'C tJ13t derives its existence rrom the social interactions through ",.. hich people define and redefine its character. Wc can add ncgoliation to our list of cultlll'al universals (scc Chaptcr 3) bcca use alt sociclic..-s providc..guidelincs 01' nOl'lllS in which ncgoli:llions take place. NOI all behal'iOI' involves negotiated order; after all, there arc social ordcrs involving coercion . Ne\'enhcless. the rec urring role of negOliation in social interaction and social struC(lIl'C will be appa rent as we examine stalUSCS. social roles, groups. and institutions (Strallss, 1977:234-236. 262) .

Cl IAYU;,( , 'lO UAI 1. "'Jcnav A,\1) SOCiAl SfHI ICn'H} "


Sociat Statut e,

Predictable social relaLionsh ips can be examined in te rms of four elemenlS: stalUSCS, social roles. gro ups, a nd social inuitulions. These elements make lip social structurejusl as a IOund. tion. ,,"'ails, a and ceilings make up a building's slrucLUre. The ele ments of social struCture arc deve loped through the lifelong process of sociali1.atioll described in Chapter 4.


- ~t~

20 Y'D'"


Whc n wc speak of a person's "status" in c;tSual convcrsation , lhe term usually CO IH'e)'S connotations of innlle nce, wcalth, and farnc. However. sociologislS ' use $latus lO refer to an} of lhe full range of s0cially defined positions within a large gro up or society-from the lowest to the highest posiLion . Within our society, a person can occu py the stams of president of the Uni ted Stales, fruit pic ker, son or dllllglncr, violinist, tee nage r, resident of Minneapolis, de ntal technician , or neighbor. Cleari)" a person holds mo re than onc S\..I.tUS simultaneously. Ascribed and Achieved Status Some of lhc sta llL <;CS we hold are viewed by sociologlslS as ascribed, while other.; are categorilt!d ;\.'1 fUhit!lN!d (sec Figure 5- 1). An ascribed status is "assib'llcd" to a person by socie ty without, regard ror th e person 's unique talen lS or characteristics. Gcncnl lly, this <tSsignrnem takcs place at birth ; thus. a person 's racial background. gender. and age are all considered ascribed sll:tluses. These ch,lractcrislics arc biological in origin but a re signil:icalll mainly of lhe social meanings that they have in our culture. Con(]ict theorists arc especially inte rested in ascribed SlaIlIse!o, since these statuses often conre r privileges or renect i1 persons membership in a subordinate group. The social meanings or r,ICC and ethnicity, ge nder, and age will be analylt:d more fu lly in ChaP'" lC"S 10. 11 , a nd 12, respectively. In most cases, there b little Lh:n people can do to chan ge an 3SC.ibcd status. But wc can auempt 10 change the traditional conslrai nlS associated with such 5I.alllSCS. As an example, the Grn)' I'antiu!rs ho pe 10 l'eStnlClure social r~ll ity by modifying .s0ciety'S 1l. plivc and confining stcrcotyp<.'S regard1 ing o lder people (sec Chapter 12). Ir they are suc-

C."- ?l~

Achieved SIotuSM
T/u' ~" ill this jigrm- "m.!-(J('cup,t.l many f'ru. tiollJ. in torid]. Md oJ which invoim dul",rt Malu,w.

cc.ssrul , the ascribed status of ~se l1ior citizel1~ ....ill not be as diln clI1t for rnilliOIl~ or olde r people ill the United States. It is important to emphasize Ihat an ascribed SW IllS does n O I necessarily have the s., m(! social meaning in every society. In a crosHulUlral s lud~, sociologist Ca'}' Huang ( 1988) cunfirmed thl' lo ng-held view that respect fo r the elderly is an iIllPOI'l:UH cullural norm in China, In m a ll )' case&. th e prefix "ol d" will be lI1ied respectfully: calling someonc ~old leache r o r ~o ld pcrson" has a sin;. ihll" meaning to calling a judge in lhe United "you . honor." I-Juan s poims olllll1at positive age-seniority distinetion s in language are absent ill th e United Stales; conseq uently, th c tenD oM milll is vic\,\cd as mOT'C of:1II in sult than a cd e bnHjo ll of seniol'ilY a nd wisd om. Unlike ascribed sta lllSCS, an af!hieved slatus is al llljncd b), a person largely through his o r her ~tt effort. Both ~ bank president" and "prison guard


as are ~ Iav.)'cr." ~piallist," Mad_ and ;'social workt'r, Om.' must, 10 acquire an achie\'cd SI;UlI'.-go to Itarn :I .kill, establish a rri('lIdshil', or inan. product



Each person holds many dilrerenl "unt' llIay connote higher social pO.. iliolls 10Wl'r positions. I-Iow is OIW\ ove", 11 po--

..1"". . '

h)' (JIhcf'!l in light or lhc~c conf1ictillg Sociologist EverclI Hug hes (19'15) obIio",~" '1{)delie~ deal with such itu':; OllsiSIt'ncies , ..",.IIK that certain statuses arc morc illlporl"!Clte", A mader stallu i'S it 'SI;IIU' thal . . ."" others and thereb)' determines "it perpo5ition within socielY. For example, -who dlcd 01 Al U~ III I WJ:i, hMI a re~~Ik (;lrCt'1 as a tcnnis SUlr, bllt ;u Ihe end or hl' ftatu5 as ;. person with AI DS nlol) have o.lIri!!h,d hi\ statuses as a reti rcd III h klc. ;m :1lI"political Activist. As wc will sce in Chal> NUY people with disabilities find that. their di~bled" is given undue \wigh t, and ovcrtht'lr actual ability to pcrronn 'illcct'!<osfully

liuch import,met' in ..-irt\thal tilt.,) orten domin;lle onc's lifc. 1nl......' .,,' iUCribetl Sl.:mlCS innucnC'(' achieved St..I,. wc hii\C :.cen, Malcolm X foulld tl.... t his po.u a "Black man (ascribed smtu~) \\';IS :111 tt) his dream of bccotl1itlg a lawyer "~rI ~tatu~). In the United States. ascribed ~t:! _06 rare .tnd gender can runction as masler .st:!... mal hJ\c an important impact 011 OIlC 'S 1)0..aJ to ;u:hie\~ .. desired prorcs.~ion:ll and social

~""~""ill'.U' employmenL Ibrr Vld gender are gi\'Cn

ular role ('xpecl.11 iCJII~. 1 -lowC\cr. <\Clll.I l pCl'formallce "'-tries rrolll illdhidllal 10 individual. Ont' );(.'crel'II)' may ;IS!IUllle cxtcl1~i\c adminisu-.tli\c respoll'iihililies, while another may focus on cleric.11 duties, Sunilarly. in Philip Zimbardo'li mock prison CXlleriment, 'iOIUC ~lIId('1I1S were brutal and s,'Idislic a..<; Sll<lfds, bUl Ilthcl''! WCI'C nOL Rtl\t.S an' a si~nifk:tn t componcllt or ..ocial ~trtlC ' lure. Vie\-,red frum a fllnctionalist perspectivc, roks contribut e 10 a ,nciety's stabilily by enahling members 10 anticipatc lhe bclmvior of othe rs and tu p'Hlern Ijlcir own actiulls accordingly. YCI social rolt.'S can alJl(l bc d)~Ii.lllctiona l by restricting pCOI}le '~ intt:ra.ctiOlI" ;",d relationships. If wc \;Cv. ,I 1)('111011 (mly as a -polic:(' omcer~ or a ~supcr"\isor; ;1 will be rliITkllJt In rl'hw' 10 Ihi~ p(rsnn .I!' a rnt'ncl or neighbor. The dcm.lluls ;1Ilt! reMnClion'i or ccn.lin rolc~ contribuh.' 10 llll' I)roces" or discnb"'g(!IIlC'llt knol\ II as rofe ~xll (.!ICC Box 5-1 on page 12G). [n the quotMiol1 at t,he beginning nf, hr ch:'pt cr, Shakc~pca rc lISl'S lhe lhc,uer a~ at! :ltIalllro' lo r Ihe wodd as .. wlllllt- ami t'or the human expericnce. Actou obvinll.~ l y I kc on roles, bUl50 do the resl of us. We learn hllw 10 rulfill a social rule by observing the bch,lvior and interactiolls of" others. Role Conflict InMgine the delicate sitllllljoll ora wUlllan ha~ worked ror a dccule on an a.\oSClll hly line in an dt'clrical plant and ha ... recently 1 X'('n namcd sttp(:rvis,w of Ihe unit, she .....olkcd in . Ilow is Ihi s wuman l'xpcctcd to relate to her [on~lime rriend ... :md cnv.'nrkcrs? Should she sti ll KO Ottl 10 lunch with thelll, a_~ she has done ;llmOH d"il)' ror YC<lrs? I low ~huuld she deal with the workers' resenlment or an al"Tog<U1l supervisor \\'ho i'l now her equal ,md colleilgue? Is il her responsibility 10 re<:01l1111el1d lhe- firing or an old friend who C"allllQt keep up \\'ith the demands or lhe assemhly hne? Role cQnflict occurs when incompaliblc exp{'cuniuns .tIi~ fromlwu or more socia l positintn held by the same pcr!4on. Fulfillment or the rnles ",ssoc iated with onc' sta!tL~ may direCll)' viol.11C the roles linked tU.1 !4l'f'ond ~\:lttts. In the example ahow, the newly pl"Omoted ",upclvisor will cxpcrlc::nc{' :t serious conflic t bc!\\ccn certain socia l and occu l><'lional role ... As a rriend, she shou ld lr) to prOtect her rormcr cov.-orkcr. as a supervisor, she should repol'l. an 1I1l",HI$racton' employee . Rolt." conlliclS call ror imponant cthical chOICes.


- __

. ..... 101.. ................. .

Througholit filII' li\"l:s, we

... Are Social Roles?

1ft' qlllfntK what sociologists c,,1I ,I(}("jrll rofl',\. A

IIIUI roll I.s 11 set or cxpectatiotlS ror pcopJc who

tUp\' a gh'cn social position ur lltatllS. Thl.l~, ill Ibr rnited Slales, we expect lhat cab drivcrs will
. . . hclW 10 gCI around a cilY. thal \Ccl"t'larics will ... rtlublt' in handling phone mcssaftc.. , and th:u poIn oIliccl"S ....;11 take action ir tllt."Y sec a citi7CII .... I.hrnlcned. Wilh each disti n clh~ social SUltII-....btther ascribed or acbit. ed-come panic...

UW'fl,H , Wc/M

1 .\-nMcnu." ,',SI) ~JU.\I

'irHl nt


flC n whe n th ink jug a social rule. we foculi on lh t:



preparation and an ticipatory socialiatioll ilial a person url(l~l'g(l(."s in becoming read)' for Ihal role.
This is Ime if a 1 >el"SOn is aboll l

become an altorncy. a chef. a ltpouse, o r a parcuL YCI, until r l'ccull}', social !lC"icmisls ha\'C given
less attention 10 lht' ;1(ljustm CIU$ involved in Ittl1'mg social roles. Sociologist I-lckn Rose tuch" t:b.1ugh ( 1988) dc\'tJnpt.>d the term role exit 10 de~cri he the process of disengagement from a role 1.i1'\l is

The IllIllS wcre unwi lling feminists bilek thell ill that they ....'cre the only educaled rok' Illodeb " 't h ad.~ She ldell R~ . spelll 1I yeaf1i as Sister 1 but while ",'orking 011 her dOClordle at Co\ulIlbi:1 Uni\cnity. she Oclfdll questioning het religious life :md reali ~ed she fe ll:1 slnlllg desirc LO oc married and h:wc chjld ren
(ilartlell, 1!l88:C I).
I1\QlIt!i UI tille

exit: the action stage or departure, Ebaugh found that the \'lISt majority o f her respontil'IH.'> identified ~

to onc's sclfidc llIity amI rcc5I:tblishmC!l1 of an identity in a new ro le. Or;lwi ng o n intc"iew!i with 185 pe<tp!t'-:ullong them exCOIl\;l:IS, dh'Qrt('d men and women,
rccol-e.-ing alcoholia, (');-flun$. 101"-

cc nu~ll

mer doctors, rclirecs, lint! trnnSSt:x11:11s-Eb.1Ug h studi ed the P"O(;I:SS of \'o iunmrily exiting from sigmficant MlCial roles. Eb;tugh's interest in role e:o,:it grcw out of he: r own b;lckground 3!( .111 ex-nun. She recall,: ~ I grew up ill 3 ~ mall C.;uh nlic. Cerman community in Olfell, Tex:L~, whel'c at IH wome n had the choic.e o f gelli ng 1II;lI'o<:d or joining the conven!.

Ebaugh h:LS offered a four-slage cd\. ThL 11111l Mugc begins "ilh doubt-:ts the person experiences frust l~ llion . hu rnout. or ~jlllpl y ullhappinc~ ""'illl an <lCt'lISwtl1NI status a nd the role., as, 01 ciated Wilh t.hi~ roei,, 1 position, This dOll ln le:trls 10 ....h:1I Eb.1.ugh calls ,mcrmuious fW'IIIg, which was e\idcnt in the COI\\elll ill the hai rsl)'les of /lUllS, In Ebaugh'.s view, lhose 111111$ who let their hairl{l'Ow longer af'l<i I U1'I1 ('d to fadtiouable hairstyle! were in the initial stage or rok- exi!. "hc sec:ond lILlgC i ll\'oh'~ :\ MM.trch foraitern;ltivc" A person 1111h:'pp) "ith his or h('r career mar take a leave of :Ibscnce: :10 unh:lppily married COllplt- ma)' begin wtlllt th ey sce :t_~ a Icmponu)' M:par:llio n . 'nll:~ n comes th e t.hird stage or rolt:

clear turning point which made them feel it Will! esscl1lj;11 to take final aClion and le,wc their johol, end thcir marriages, or eng:.lge in olher lypes of mle cxil. However, 20 per cellt of responden ts IilIW their fOItexits as a gradual. c.:\'ol utionaf pmc~ I.hat had no si ngle tuntins p....;1'! The last ~Iage of role exit ill\'oh'O the creatiOIl of .. lIew idcnut\, Ehaugh points oul: "11 is importallt to lIlaint."lin contaCt with some proplc in Ihe old rolt-, lQ kcep some
bridges.... h '~ : 11.0;(} illlportalll to he able to lalk 10 someone about whll onc used to lle!," Conscquent.!), whilt- ~he is now a socwIOb"sl. \life, awl mOl.her ..,f twO children, Eh:mgh has nOI blocked OUl 1'\(., lIlelllories ..,r her )'ears in the (011' \'el11. In r:ICI, ill 1\lS8 she <l!tended ....'h"l would have been her t\<o'en\Vfirth anni\cl'Sllf')' :.., a flUII , had :!lIt

relll,.ined in her rdil.:ious order, 'It W;I~:I wonderful kind of closure ror II\C,~ sa)'ll Ehaugh (lbrtlell,

III the examplej usl ghell , the new slIpcrvi'i(lr has

to make a dimw it decision abouI how IIIlLch allegiance she owes her fri e nd. Ou r culture tdls us that sllccess is morc importa nL than liicndship, II' friends arc holding us back, we sho uld leave them and pursue our ambitions. Yet, at the same time. we are told that abandoning o ur fricnds is conte mptible. The SlIPCM$Ot' must decide whether she will I;sk her promotion OUl concern for her frie nd ,


During lhe Second World War. Christians lhin~ in Na7.i Germany had to choose be tween t.ryingto PI'olcCl J ewish fri c nds a nd associa tes and lUrning thcm in to Ihe allthorities, Remcmber that thr Third Rt:ich had d e fined J ews as ene mies of lht SI.lte. Protecting slIch people "~.lS considered uu. SO il and was dangerous for the person who offcn.-d p l'otection , 011 lite othe r hand, the policies orl.b,. NaLi regime, no wbly its biuer and imllional hatrrd of,l c\\'s, vio lal c d Ilumanit~rian values, If German



did not act L assist Jewish rric ndsO irutrad decided (0 IlIrn Ihelll in- Ihe J ews 1'10 I)( murdcred, Cle.ldy, iflhe)' .....ished J social roles of fricndship or being nfl~hbor5," non:lews in Gcnllany \yould '~p"lid to assist innocent ,oiclirns of the Na7.i


u ... .. .................................... .. ....... ..... .. .. ... .. .

lhe individual "bout coninterested in how a Hitler'sThird Rcich devised ("J.mpaiglU to discredit and slan,lI1d 10 cncouragc cili7ens to support the 1JI'I'oCCution of .Ic....'lI. De~pitc such propa.".lI' ;ndi\idI1:l1~ (lIuch :t!J Osk'lr Schindler) thl'lr role connict by ,nakll1g brJ.\'t' ami r!~:::;~' choices: dley opp(~erl thc N'lli .. openly ~ In prolCCl :md hide JC\\'lI. Howe\,cr. Illost ,!=::;Chmti:uu sUPlxll'lcd the nation's leaders \ iutads on t: uroperm Jews. In th(' process, 1M1Il~t'\\'S turned thcil' hack., o n the roles ~ wilh being rri end~ and go!)cl ncighoors (:;cc jiI.C~,,,,, and Olincr. l!)R9) . In 'lime inst:lI\cc$, cha\lgiug gender roles h;we role connict. Suciologi!>1Tr:lcey Wat1I'1H7) ~tudicd lhe ....";1>'" in \\hich fcnmle :tlllU ~porlS programs resol\'e Ihe conllicts b, tWO traditionall)' incongrucnt idcntities; IItlTlliln and ~ing all :lIhlclC. On the b.'\Y (uun, the idcnlil),ofMathlctc" isdcarl) domkif II~ collegc sludents. According to an


~:';;:: :'~;;~~no ma~eup is worn during g-.uncs.


kne~ pads and Ace.' bandages :Ire auin-. 8)' COlltr:lSl. "hen dressing honoring collegt.' :1lhlele5, these Pfl'\('lIl a COIl\'c ntiOIl .. 1 feminine image ..... ith ..... ;w.tunllucnl and I1llikeup. Otark,IhN women rcsoned to imprcs.!iion mall-

a.~ TracC)' W:uson oh~e,,'cd. the genpopulation look litllc or suc h irnfIIIIion lIlanilgelUl'nl and instead stcn::'I'ypcd the!il' JIIIIIetn ..., decid(."(U)' unfe m inine. This stcreot)'Pi llg Tt'11Iinder that while UIt: I'e ha!> been II siSin the United StOltcsC"Vidt-1I\ III dr..llmtlic incI'C:L';oC in girls' :U1d ~.",,~'. p:lniclpation ill tcpol1s-tradilionaJ as~,thllut femininity and masculinity remain .lIBunui.t1 p..1n or our cuhurt'.

!~~'~(~d~~rihCd byco nm Cl~CofTman in athletes, El"ing Chaptcr the rol(: of ....'OlIlen

In soeiologicaltenns, a group i~ any numberol'pco-. plc with similar nonm, \~!lUl'S , :md expcctaulJn$ \~'ho regularly and consciously inlcrl'lcl. The members ora \~'omcn's college b:l..'lL:e(ball team, ora hospital's business office, or I)f a symphony orchcslrn constitute a group. I-Iow(:\'er, thc entire st.1ff of it large hospital would not bc.' considered a group, since the staff members .... relv inter-Acl with onc anOLher at one Lime. Perhaps the on ly point at \\'hich they all come together is the annual winter party. E\'ery 50Ciety is cOIllI)()S('d of man) groups in which daily social intt:r:.lction t;lko place. Wc c;c:c::k OUI 8!"<}IIP" to establish friendships. 10 accomplish certain gO:lls, and tl) rulfill !!QCi:tl roles thal wc have acquirecl. The \~lriou", t)'pe~ or81'Ollps in which people inl.e.-acl wi ll be explored ill d e tail in hapter 6. where .sociological hwcstigat iUI1!( of group behavior will also be exa mincd. Croups play a vila l pan in a !locicty's !lodal sU'uclure. Much of 0111' ",ocial inter'a nion takes place within groups :md be innlll'lIccd by the norlllS ;md sanctions established by gnu' I>!)' Iking a tecnager or a retired per.lll t:,kes nlll'l}t'ci:lllIIeallinb~ as individuals intcract wi thin groups dt'signed ror people \,,;th thal (lOlnicular ..mill". The expeclations associated .....ith many roles, including lhose accompan}ing the \I:IIU!>d or bl'Ulhcr. ~i$tt'r, and student. become 1110:;1 clearly defined in the context or a group. Croups do not lIlt:rcl) sent: 10 define other elell1enlS or thc social strucwr(' , such a.~ foie and Staruses: Ih'-1' <100 arc an illlcrmediate link bet.....een lhe indhidual and the larger S()('icty_ For exalllple, Ulembers or OC'cltp'llion;ll or social groups may be acquainwllces r:Hher than close rriends; con5(. .... quent l),. they ,II'C likely tv COIH1CCl olher members to people in different ~ocial circles. T his connection is known as a social t/ etwork-tJl:u is, a sclies ofsod:tl rclatiollships Iilallink a person direclly to othe rs :md thcrcrore indirectly \() ,~ till mo re people. Social nc twork.!! may conSll':lin peoplc by li mil illg thc r:.lIlge or their ilHCrnctioll~, )'(: t these nelworks may empower people by making available vast resources (M'II'Sdcn, 1992). Invoh'ClllCllt in M>Ci:.1 I,ctworks-commonly known as nrtllJorlrillg- prO\ides a \~tal social re.source in slIch tasb 3.'i findin g employment . For cx-

UI,'l'IlH j , SQCIAI 1N1'F1C1'1O.... 1I..\7) SO(J11 SfH'JCI1 'HI

111 th, U"'ifti SW/t!. gr'OIlfJS /(Ikt nJl forms. Slumm m.,. IflnIIiJns of lM PoI6I
Bmr CJllb /al/mg {I Wtrltn" dIp ill IN ig walnl u!lhr A'/(lnflt OCl'MI, mem~ 0/ fI u'Itlmut:r.J' dub, IInd till

0/ all A/mwl Amniclln



"'10 . OR(;,t'lll,\'{,


'iQClA/ 1.11'1

. ' II'hilt looking for a job o nc )'car Olfter tinmK w-hl)()l. Al ben Einstein was ~ucccs..~ful only .tw-n Iht' f.llher of a classmrue PUI him in touch WIItr h. lullUC employer. 111ese kinds of COlH,,U:LS, ' nt1IlIra a/Id distant contacLS. CIIl be cl"uci:.1 in NJbIt'hiuli! 'IOCi:.1 networks and facilitating III mfonnation. According to onc 1989 sur jl) }K'rCCI11 of rcspondelll~ teamed about elllpkllnll'llt Ilpportllnitics through person:! 1 COl ltacts md v.cial nc(",-orks...... hile only 1'1 percellt did so 1II'lIIu.:h ;Khcnisclllelll'. Yct. :15 conflict Iheodsls hl\t" rmph~itcd. networking is nOl so (';lSy for P!It nl(\j\'jcluals or groups aJ for olhel'S. In comJYf14f1l11l1th WOll1cn, men lend to have longer job bill IIIt"\. iI fact ",hieh leads tl) larger net .....ork.' .twh roll! he used III IULdUlIg mpIO)'lllellt oppor tIIIIItiM. Mcn arc beuer able to utilizc \.. hal is ~n 'old bo)' net.....ork.. (K. Carter, 1989;J. Mont-

!lclti,)klgisl Mclvin O livcr ( 1988) used Ihe COlinf fllttf,1 lit/work to Ix;uer understand life ill Vri,AIl .\merirall Ilrban neigll borhoods, whidl are an \ugm,uiled as chaotic. Oliver intcl'\~cwed . . ~ ulultll in thrtt areas of mcuupolimn Los AnRfit'. If) \lIIdy Iheir rriendship and kinfolk lies. iop,JI1drnts were 1101 found to be socially isolaled: ~nrral~ had liule difficulty identifying mem~


bers of their social netwo rks. O li\'c "'s dam COnlradiet the stereotype of such neighborhoods ,15 being Mdisorga ni zed~ or cven -pa lhologicll." Instead, :, picture unfolds of an elabor.ltc organi7~,\lion ofpcrsonal social nCI:""OI'ks Ihat tic people together \'I';thin and olll~idc lhc Black. cOlllmunity in hands of concern :lIId support. A \cry differcnt Iype of MriCUl American sociaJ netwOI'k is evident in Ihe U.S. Army. In 1975. a group or African American senior ofliccrs rounded Rocks, an ~tSSOCialion named aflel" Brigadier General Roscoc C.,\11wright, who had been killed in an ail'Plane cmsh the year before. Cal'lwriglu, better known ,lS "Rock," was an esteemed role model and mentor for 1ll;1I1)' Black officers who entered the Army during 1111' 19GOs. Rocks does n OI \;ew itself as a pressure gI'OIlP; it is dedicated (0 ll1entoring junior Black officcrs. Unlike Mdca" AmCI;can associations o utside the milicu')'. Rocks and its me mbers lell(l lO distance thcmselves rrom any social agenda thal vie,",,'!! recognition of past discrimination as cell trallO Black achievement. In their political conscl'\misl1l :md discomfort with viewing Blacks as \'ictim5, senior Afdcan American anny officers diner in an way from the types of mCIlIOI'S and 5OCi;11 nctworks found among Blacks' chi lian leadership (Mosk.os. 1991).

I'iJ/lllllrd in 197' by a group of Afrirtm AlMriroll lnlioroffim'$. RlxJts 1$ an IlJ.S6ofill/IOfI dfua/id '0 ""n'on", j1H/jar mack officm In ,h, U.S.


rJ I""IU1' "OC/H 1\' /ENA.C170N A.\D SQrJAJ X/HI C'1t/HI,

g.~J.~...~',~.~!.~.~~J.!9.E..........._.............................................._ . ...
T ilt: mass media . lhe govcrn melH, the economy, me family. and Ihe health carc s)'l'itcm are all examples of social jnstitlllio ns found in ollr socie ty. Socia l j nstillltions are o rg<ulized pauerns of beliefs a nd bchavior centered 011 basic social needs. Institulions an: org-< in response to panicul:tr needs, llLlCh as rcplaci ng personnel (the family) and preserving order ( the govenllllcnt) . By ~Iudying social institutio ns. sociologists gain insight into the 5lruclUre ofa .sociely. For eXlample, the inst,itUlion of religion adapts 10 me scgmelH of U\r;Pl V ,h ~, i, ~"lVe'. Churc h ~'o rk has :1 very different mea ning fo r min isters who serve a slid joW area, a naval base, and a suburb<m middle<lass community. Rcligio lu leaders assigned to :t $kid row lIlissio n "'ill focus on lending la the ill and providing food ;md she hcl'. By conU'"'dSt, clergy in affluent suburbs wil l Ix: occ upied wi ll, counseling lhose conside ring marriage and di\'o"ce, anallging youth activili es, a nd ove rseei ng cultural cveIlL~ . Functionalist View Onc way to undel1lland social instilUlio ns is 10 sec how they fulfil I l."SS(:ntial fun ctions. Amhropologist D:wid F. Abcrle a nd his colleagues ( 1950) and sodologislS R.'l.),lllo nd Mac k and O l.h'in Bmdford ( J97Q: 12-22) have idc mified five m:yor lasks, 01' fun Clio nal prcrequisites. Ihal a sociecy or ~Iati\'d)' pennanent group must accomplish if it is to survive (SL"e Table 5-1). Ikplllnllg J>tncn"I'i, Any 50Ciety 01' group must replace personnel "the n lhey die, lea\'e, or become incapacitated. This is .\lccom l)lished through immigrat ion , annexation of ncighboring grou ps of people, acquisitio n of ,1:1 \'es, o r no rmal sexual repr&dUClion of members. The Shakers, a religious sect found in the Uniled SlatC'i, a re a conspicuous example of :1. group that fai led to re place pcJ'SOn ncl. The Shakers' religio us doctrines forbade :l.Ily physiclll contact bClWCCU lhe sexes; therefore, the gl'Oup's su rvival depe n<icd o n recruitin g new rn e lll~ bel'S. At firs t, the Shaken proved quite efl'ccow,' in atll; lc ting members; howeve r, their recruitment subseque ntJy declined dramatically. Despite this facl, the Sh:tkers m:lin(;l.illCd lheir commitment to celibacy. and their numben ha\'e c\'clllually dwindled 10 ani)' a few IIlc ml)C 1'5 today ( Riddle, 1988).

Replacing perllOl'lne!
Teoching MW rec;ruih

Fomlly Governmenl (immig'ObOI4



Fomily (ba.k: 5killtl

Religion (socr:I
Producing ond dislributing gooch ond

GoYe!nment (regulolions

Fomily '_my

(food ~

PreMtVing order

regording COII'IlMI'c.l


Fomlly (child rearing. regulation of ~


Providing and maintaining 0


Religion lmorall' Government (patriolhlllj


of pvrpoHl
&ri(lllll.l/il ,1I10P art orgrltlnal /S pat/mu of ""Ii~ft (lnd bt~ pnftn'lll fundlOPu nfffWIryp .. IMttyJ $u".';ool.

2 Tm(hi"g "tu! rUnlilS. No group Gl.Il , unw, man)' of iu me m bers rejecl the eSla blished ior :lI1d responsibili ties of the group, As a finding 0 " producing new me mbers is not cient. The group IIIU~l e ncourage recruilS and acc~pt its values and customs. This . take place fonnally with in schools (whe re is a ma nifest fun clio ll ) 0 1' infonnally lemcuon and negotiati o n in pee r gro up" structiOIl. i~ a lale nt fun ction) . 3 PrOtlrlo"g amI dislIllmJjng goods ami "'''''~ ,. rcJati\'ely permanent group or society mUM a nd dislribmc desired goods and .selvices rOt me mhers. E'.;tch society cstnblishcs a set of rult~ the ;llIocation ol'finan cia l and othcr cc,o"",o.] g roup IllUSt satisfy lhe needs o f most "'~:.:~~~;: least to some eXle nt, o r it will ,isk the p di!\Cont e nt and. ult imludy. disorder. 4 p,.tstmitlg (}'ft/IT. The native people a large island J U somh of Australia, are St ducl. J)uring tJle I BOOs. they were dcstl'O)'c<1'"



mu - OIlGM,IlI.\'C; S(JCJAI. I.JFI<

hllnong IMnies of EurOpC~U1 conquerors. who 1M'W UpOIl the Ta.~ manian s as half-hum a n. This ,unilulation underscores a critic;11 fu nction of C"C I)' r;rllupor Ioociery-prescrving order and prOlecling !Udf fmm auack. When faced with tht' more dr.d"prd I:.uropcan tcchno logy of wufan:, the t.bUW.Oiaru I'.cre unable to defend theltlS('h'es and ." .-nbre people was wiped o ut. S Pm.wltIIK and mwnlUillillg (I $f!lIjf! oJ pllrj>osf!. Pc.'OJIk' nUhf lcel mo tiva ted tu comillue as m embers of ~ ...wry in order to fu lfill the prc. lous fOllr re... q urnnrots. The beha\lior of United St,llt:S prison '''01("01-<11' (POWs) while in confi ne mc nt during the w-.u in \lcUlam is a testamen t 10 Ihe importance of ouUllJining a seue of purpose. While in prison c.unp", o;ol1lC' of these mCll mentally madc elaborate ~11"n.\ f(n marriage, Family, c h ildre n, reun ions, and rlt'WClll"cl"S,A few (."\'cn buill II UUSC~ in tlwir minrl _ I1gh1rlul'.n to the last d oorknoh ur wate " faucet. By hnltling OH 1 a sense of purpose-their inte n se 0 dnirt' tll return to lheir hOllldand and live no rmal I,,"-me POW.'! refuscd lO a llow the agony of con flllMllt'm LO destroy their mental h ealth , \I.UII' aspecu of a wcic ty ca n 'l.Ssist people in d ektping and maintaining a of purpose. For .. 'lit' people. religioul> values 0/' personaJ moral ufln, arr most ( nlcial ; for o lllen., national o r tribal kio-uuues are especially mean in gfu l. Whate,'cr these ,ldl,ft'orn, in any society there remains one CO Ill $41 illd critical reality, If an individual does not 1!.I1lt' d ~n~ of purpose, he or sllc has liule l"e<bOl l Illulllnbute to a society'S sUI"\'ival. ThL\ I~t of functional prc rc{luisitcs does nOl spechvll- a socie ty and iL'i correspo ndi ng $OCial ins tiI ~ \\ilJ perform (Y.\('h For exam plc, o lle ~1l1I:~ m.ay protect ilself frolll ex ternal attack by IlI.Ulluining a frightening anwn al or weaponr)', ",hik another may make determined clfllns to reInJ.ln neulr.lI in world polilics and to promote cooprrJtr.(' rehuionsh ips wilh iu, neighbors, No malI~I II'hat iI~ I>anicu la r Slratcgy, any sociery or rruti\t'ly ptnnanent gro llp mllSl attempt t.o s.."tt isIY III Iht'\C functional prert-qu i.!tites for sUI"\i\'al. If it 1/11\1111 t\tn onc condition, as the Tasmanians did , ' ',licitlY nUlS tile lisk of extinction,

Sh(mlPt IS FMm) iJntha I.iHdstry of 'M Shalt" f'tI",mrlrlrlJ nr CaIl'nUt/rv, Nrw

IIlImplhrrt. Th,. Mw/un' rotltl1lrmrg rom",I'".,.,,' tl) It/lMCJ luu 1,,"rIM Ilmr mnulm"rl, find tMay Ilrtrr or,. fnll MaltI'D "ft in IIr,. UtIIl,.,1 SI"'h.




fun ctio n a l i~t

Connict theo l'isa d o no t conc ur approac h to socia l instilu-

lions. While bOlh pt:l"spt.-cti\'cs agree that institutions ,Ire organized 10 meet basic social needs, conmC I lheorins object to the implication inherent in the fun ctio nalist view that tJle ou tconu,' is necessari ly efficient ;md dL'Sir.lble. Ccmflic l rJleorists concede the prescnce of:a ncgoti:ucd o rder, but they add that nmny segments of our wdely-a lllong the III the homcles.'i, the disabled. a nd people with A1DS-arc nOt in a position to negotiatc effec tively, because th ey lack sul1idcnt po....'e r and rcso urces, Fro m a con fli ct perspective, the prese nt organizalioll of social institutions is no acddcll t. Major insti tutio ns. suc h a~ ed ucation. he lp to maintain tite privileges of the most l)OwL'rful individuals and groups \\lthin a society. while contributing 10 the po\\'crlessne'iS of olhers. As onc example, public schools in lhc Unil ed SUtlcs J ue finan ccd largely lhrough property taxL". This allows mo re "lnuent

I H ...Nl.H' ' 'o(XJAL I,WOOCTlo." ANb VJClAI. rrnIJ(..71 'Ht.


t"JiJUfI/(}r j 01UIIJlIlfl


Umrtti Ilu

panIlT' .. h 's \'1:1)' d;;[

n",,, 10


Unitrfi Sll'lltS find /QlJluf IIU1/

pl.bllr u hoo/.s acrou Ih ~ (m /jOlt ",." lit m /lfy juflitlg aptlrl. Kmo/ mlPhfl~iu$ Ihlll w"il~ 1//(111)' $llldnll,l ill (ifJlur", $fllQO/ riislf'lrts '"ffl'iL'f' (/ llig" .qrlflliry

pubil"dIICUlioll, Ih,. mm, is h" ,llly /111' /11 Ih, follou,tlg eerfJl. Krr..ol ( 1991; "8- "9} dt!Scriks Ihl! rlmd,liOlIS 11/

IQ" 51lul",ts in Ww-i","(",~ fln"I'U.

Nf'ljJJnvy~ puhfir lrhoolJ:

in thc'w conditio ns. Al [rvingLOIl Higll " '''.',,~ grm SUl(kn L~ h:wc no , ho.,." b"l'1ll is ll ~~' d h)' tip to scven ; \1 1 ti mc. To shnot Onc ba"t~1 1 accorclillg to ,he CI>:.I( h , a \\11i LS ror 2() minutes. 'n",,,,,'I working lockers. Children portlluilit-s 10 balhe. lllC\ O\'e'f ile ms lefl ill lockers the) lock.on llles

.,. o.'crcrowrli ng in NewJcl'scy. ru; in I i:l rlcm :and the Bronx. is a con stant rC~Hurc or the SC hOO\5 IlIa r St'f"C the poorest child re n . In low.

T,I:;;;~~~,[:'~~::~;,'"~, ~:~I

of thing\ lIml for gmnled i n

income Irvinglon, fo r insl:mce. where 9-1 percent o f studenu arc nOl1whi lC, 11 classes in o nc school (lVII ', even have the lUxury of classroo ms. TIl l:)' share an lIudi lorium in wh il:: h Iher occupy ;l(ljaccI\I .seclions ofl hc stage and back$l"Kc aI'ca.\ . ~ 1 1 's very dimcult,M Silys th e musir LC;jchc r , Mw h :Wl: COHce rt ft' hcoll'll.'115 \,;, h I.he choir \~ hile tell Ilther cI :l ~es try t,o stud)' ill the Soll!)t: ~ pare . "Oll\~oll'I }'." she says, "there is a prublern with sound . . . ." "1'111 housed in a coal room," ~I)'S

lockers, space and lime 1 0 Cl Se-( re;llC~ thc ovcrheated 1 that :llso C:IllSCS trouble
j (}1)(lllum

",,,,';" --" ""'4



a rr.lding leacher m anOlher school in Irvinb'1O Il. "I Ic;u; h ," ~'W" I1 music

teache r, "ill a JowI';ige room." Two o lhcr clas.~c:s, thei r 1I':ll.hcl1l say, art ill COlwcn cd cnal bins. A guidallce cOltnsdor says she holds hcr parent mcctings in a r l ('l~t:l. "My prohlem." saVli a cOilllX!ll(aLOI1" re;ldillg leacher. ";\ Ihal , work III a

h'TOW d irt} a nd il likc who the), are :l1ld h;we beeome. The crowtiing of lhe school n"'CL~ the cro"'ding of lIle . becomcs slIikillJ(.- "'1)"5 a ;Uluuu-r urb;1Il rlisttiet. "hOl'o' lhl'SC schoob rdlc~'1 "" ,d ';,," tics, :t.~ iflhc " hool" 1 prcl),ll'e :i child 0 the bom \0 " [ I It.tfdl), SCCffi.'l


dllly n flhe

< .,m"

llrc:LS lO pl"Ovidc the ir childl'CII wi th beucr-eC)uipped schools and beu e r-paid teachers tha n low-incom e arc:\5 can afford. Chi ldre n fro m prosperous COInll1l.lnilies will therefore be better pre p.tred lO compete acadc lnicalJy than childre n from im poverisllcc\ commull itics. The slrllclufl' of lht! Ila tion's cducll, io na l ..)'Ste m pe rmits a nd eve n pro mo tes su ch 1l1'1 cqu:11 Irea tmen l of schoolch ildre n . In Box 5-2, wc arc rc minded that children in unde tiinanccd sch ools arc d cfcnscless againsl the in cqui'ie~ of <;()(icl),. Conllicl thl"t)risL'I l.lrgu c Ihal social institutions sllc h as cducalion have an inherently con sC I,'alh'C"

nature. Witho ut question , impleme ilY- I,thcther o ppo !'lullnt educatio na l in Ihe "rca U(;'lll011, school desegregation , sl udents ,vi,h disabilit ies (sec Chap, er 16). perspectivc, sod:11 change can fun c tional, since it ofl c n I{'ads 10 instability. ever, rrom a connict vic\\'. I" h)' sho uld ~'C Ih(' cxi..,illg social SlrUClllrc ir it is unrair c nlninmory? Socio logist I). Slan lcy Eitzcn nOtes a basil' dox Oritll illSlilllljons: Ihey are absolute ly



/',urr 'n m 0IlC.1 Vl7JSC YIf'JAI
W '!

ol ~Llrcr- of social problcms. I-le mlds bn;ome lashion.lbl~ lu ltllad .)()d'll ill"Kh ." the family and tlte go\cnl1llcnt. In Eit1.('ns I;Cw......e .. hould not forpl'OpW (kpelld on institUlion!l fur MSl.lbil~..;""" .... ag-dinsl chaos (I978:5..Jf,). We that ~ial institutiollll arc cl>sCllli:tl rqprd penmUlcllcc .IS a justificalion .11111 i1tiuslicc.

~l,,'II" \<oe arc (hiving dO\<o'11

aITcct OUt' thc Sll'Cel shopping line. our c\'t.'I)'day social imtilutiollS. for cx-

;~:;:'::::~:;';)~::~~;;'~;; orJ)Chavior .....ithin At"1 and U'O"',.,I tJf Ill, OntJ()mlit,. .111 impulsi\'e
I\!UlIcr (197701:36) by a lOp cx"H.lIIIlt'iy \tcwct!lIS :111 onler ,Ind ollcn

~ I OS5

:11 a luncheon tJlal bc was ('.n ror h i! daugtller.:I lowcr-le\'t'1 exIt'tl. a purchasing agent 10 mkt' 011 the t1(C' ,hail1llan 11,1(1 no ide .. thal this twI he known. hi' probably would nOl ",...'l'<l. 8111 an innoccllt re-mark. b)' SOntt.... tnp of an organiz,uio,,'s hier.arch) can 10" ,," L, an uliimatlllll . rJft lhr- inler.lcLioni~t Ilf'npcct i\c. ~i "'M.... 'nlOmpson sUldit.-t1 Iht: day-tu-d.lY CIf .-c'lIIbl}' line \\ork('''''' b) cOllductlltR tlwl'\aLion research ill the "'laughof it h("trproccs.~illg in llie lIIill~~I.(l' (1983:215) IIOU''! thal "working in work. not only in tht: li lt:r::11 IRo;'lR 11""<1';,,, wilh perspir.uion and becl' III lhe ligur:ui\'c ~ lI se of pcrfol'lu-

~~;:::~~":~i':'': i<l~,;" nllccc..!.ary anio n by sub' lite vice c hainnarl or


communicate through :ut ('xt('mi\'c S)1;ttm or 11011vcrbal s)11tbo l ~ , including CX.lggt' I~lIed ge\lurt.'.., shrill whi",tic!>. M thlllnbs lIj)M .lIld Mthumbs dO\\IIM signs. and the danbriltg of knh'cll agolinst lit.links... sleel t:Jblcs:lIlcl tuhs. Thomjl\()\l ( 1983:233) SII~'HCM~ thal Mill a \Citi ng \~hich WlI\lld app:II'CIll!)' clilllinalt it. tht" WOI kCI~' dl'sire for sodl! illlerac tioll \\,(111 out and illlcr:lcuc)n 1l0urishe d . Inter.'U:lioni.<..1 lhcorisu cllll)hal>ile Ilmt our SOC'ial bcha\~o r is conditioned by tJ1(' roles and St.UUliC\ which ....'t.' accept, Ihe group.. to which ....e beluu",. and Ihc inSli llll ions wi thin I\hit.h we fUllction . FOI cxample. the "'ocial role .. ",sodllted wi lh beillg a judge occur wilhin lhe largc l cuntext 01 the c rillliIl::tl juslice S)'StCIIl . The strulls 01 ~judge" stands in rel:.ltioll 10 OIllel' Slll(USCj. 1I11(h .IS attorn~. plaintin'. dt.'fcndanl. :md .....i01Cll.. , .I!I .....ell .L$ to the social institulion or gOlcrnmenl . While thc symbulic .IS" i:k:dll 01 tullllS .111t! JIIIS. ttll l'X.tlllpll', :tl l' ,IWUUrJ Il, Ihe j ud icial "yste m deril'cs con tinue d Sig-lIi1icIII1(" rl'Onl th e ro le.'" people C::: II'1')' O ltl ill sodal in le rn,tion~ (P. Ikrger and Lucklll:lIl1l . 1UG6:7<I-7f1).

SOCIAL STRUcrURE ~.!>... MQJ:).~.Q~.r!l.IY ............ _._ ..

A '0111/11011 fe:llur(' or lIuxleru s()cietics .....11t'1I COlitfasted '<lith carlier 'iOCi:tl arr:mgcmenLS is th(' grcltu;.r (,olllplexil) of contcmlXH,U) life. Scx:iolugists Emil( Durklwim :lIld fcrdiTl.Incl TonnH.~" ofrered I)'pologi('s for cuntrOl,-'iting modem ScX: lelll" ....;l11 simplL-l fonm of !>nci.tI stru(,ture.

Durkheim's Mechanical
and Or~anj c Solidaritv ................... :'?......................... _.....".(. ....................................................
1 his J)/1/;JI(m of U,'/Or ( 1933. ori).;illa! edition I 89!i) , .11 Durkhcim .1Is ued that sodal ~truc lllrc depends UII the levcl of division 01 labor in ,\ sol'icly-in othcl wo rds, 011 lhe man lier ill \\'llic lt tasks arc PCI'fomted. Thu.~ . a task slIch :L.. providing fOod can be carried Ollt almost totall), b)' OIa' indi\;dual or Gill be di\ldcd ,1I11nng many people. 111e I:tlter 1).I\Lent l)'pically OC("lII'~ in modern sociclics; cuhh.llioll . pl'Oc('ssing. clisu;bulion , :tnd rctitHing of a singl(' rood ite m <Ire pt'rfol1l1cd hy litl'I'<llIy hUlICh'('Cls of people .


sfK.'ak ....ith 011(' cm the 3.S!iClllbly linc bCC<lIIsc of extht 1It'~d fof' earplugs, OIl1d the isola",.,.,.."" \<o'c)rk iUC;LS. NC\lcn hcll...'SS. WO I kt'I'lI

:~:~':~~~':~~,Z~ ;lslIbllc tJlclll'iCh't.-'S. of unit), as tJlt:y alII


and dcmcaningjob. In ~dirly.M work in this pl:illl i~ IUnlxhaulIling. Tll!IlI1p50n lInd hi ~ lud to h:lUK. bl'llnfi . a nd bag betwcen no!) be~f tongucs in ,Ill cightchollr shift..


- 'i(X.J.M ,,v11:.1/A(710.\ "'NI) VJ(:J,l,L


III SOCiClic!i in which l)ll~re is minim:\1 di\'ision of )'Ibor. a collccti\'e cun.scious lH.."lb devclops with an c luphasis on gJ"Oup solidarity, DUI" kheirn Ic nned Ihis mechanical solidarity, implying lhat all indi \'iduals pctfonn tht same task.... No nne nceds to :I ~k, MWhat do ),OUT' pal"el1L~ dO?M since all arc en gaged in inli l:.r work. E.'tcll pcrllOll preparcs food , hunts, makes clOIhing, builds home5. :lIld so f.orth. f'eople have fCh' nl)lioll5 regarding what to do with thei r livcs, SO Iherc is little COllcenl fa r indi\;dual nct..'tIs, In .~tr-ad. the gwup will is the dominating forl'c in society, I\o th ..od... 1 in teraction a nd nego. n :\T(~ based on clo~. intima le. face-tQ--face so-cilll Co tl1nt: l~ "i,,,, rlll'r,. i, lillle ~p(:ci ali ....a lion , thcn." a rc few saci.11 ro les . As societies beCOIlU.' more advanced Icchnologi c:;.III) , greater dh~~ion of l:tbor takes place, The per son who cutS d O\"'1I limber is nOI the S<UllC person who puts up }aur roof. With illCfcasing speciali ...<\. lion. Illa n y dincrC llt tas","" IIlll!>! be pClitJ!'me d by dillcrent individuaIS - C\'l'll in lll fulufacludng o nc itcm such :l.":1 !';ulio (If ~ I O\'t;. III gc llt'r.II, social in, U'I'<'Clio llo; ~(,OIllC less pcrsonal lI111n ill ~ i c t.i es charaCIc.' I; 11)' mcchanic.t1 solid;II'iIY Wc lx:gin n..... . lOlling 10 o lllcrs 011 lllc o i".hcir social positions ( Whu IChc.r,~ M IIIII"iC - ) r.:ll.hc l Iha n their di!'tinclh'e

hwmU\ qualitics. Statll!>CS and soc.ial col" .", i'j pCLua l nU.I( as lhl' ovenlll ~1Cial struc tul'C of det)' continues 10 change . In Durkhe ims t lrm ~. organic solidari IJi ;! collect ivc COlliCio llslless resting o n the cicty's me mhers h:wt' for one another. et)' becomes more complcx and I,hc re ;, 10> '''" vision of 1"lx )!', no individual c m go Depe nde nce on o thers becomes essential sUI"i\'a l. Durkht'i m c hose the tenn .~ra'''(JOi ,tl. 'Iinec, in hi5 \;ew. illdi\~duals lx'Com~ lK:ndcm in muc h 111(~ 50Ime way as org:ms man bod),.



Socio logisl ferdinand r o nnies ( 1 855- 1 9~) palk-d b)' the n5c of all industrial cit)' in his Germany during the late 1800s. In his vi~. marked a drama tic c hangc frolll thc idcal cklsc-knil comm unity, whirh T6 nnics ( na l edition lSA? ) lermed ermeillsr/l(lfl. to iml)c 1 1IOnal m;\ss '>OCiCty known as Cr..ltflsrMft. '1lc Gemeinscha/t (~gllIH" I"y...s h ofn nity is t),pical of rural lire. It i)o a 5111311 in which people ha\ c !>imilar .

"If r, 1....


like 10 Ihi,,1 of 10U ., ,erso",

mjob to thi,., of ,

'DU .,


D , bu, .


Isr 11 Gescllschafl . ~f'." to "Imf' ID m~ fHwlh~ ill thnr fOI.rJ (a tlvr th(m ,,,," IIIllrvid,m/ barllgrmmdl.

l'AKr 71\'1) OR(;.A. ....'IIJ.W; 'J'NJII. Uf"

Urbon life IypIlies !his bm.

iIo~:'~;':::::::' community which results 'i and Ijfe experiences.


People perceive little MlnMl of CQfTllT"lOfllllily. Their

differences In bockgfOUnd appe<lr more striking than their similarities .

Social interoclions, induding "l!I90tio tions, ore more likely

........... mcluding nagOllo tions, are in timate orld

to be task-specific. Selfinteresll dominate.

The !ask being performed is paramount; relationships o r. subordir.ote.

IrIIphosJs on individuol privacy.

Privacy is volued.
fonnal social control is evidenr.

IIICioI aII'IlroI predominates.

There is greoter kIIeronc:e of deviance.

There is more emphasis on ochieved


IIlalively limited.

Sociol chonge Is very evident-even wilhln 0 gen8fotiol1_

Virtually evci)'onc knows onc another. (including negotiations) are JJld familiar, a lmost as onc might find There is a commiLmcnl lO lhe large r l(tOo.p Ilnd a sense of logclhcmcss among members, Therefore. ;n dealing W ilh .onl rcl;}t(.'S 1 them not merely as "derk~ 0 hut, rather, in a more persollal ""rAY. more pcrsanal imeraction comes less pd 1ft know more about evell'one. !uciaI rol1tJol in the Gemeinsr.hajl commu nity is ~:::;~~ through informal means such tL'i moral go~ip. and even gestures. TheM! tt:ch""-Irk effectively because people are genU1llct'mcci about how others feci toward hidl change is relatively limited in the the lives of members of onc generaquite similar to those of their grAndronh-oLSl, the Gesellschaft

IVriti"g;1/ 1887, I"tI"(/j,wml Tiitmirs two ClmtraJting 1)11'.$ of Jorial Jtnuturr: Ge.mcinschan ami Gl'5C:lIschaft.

"pe c1mractcristic of modern urban life.

,,;111 other communi ty residents. , art- gO\'emcd by social roles which ......., immediate wks. such as purchasing a anauging a business meeting. Self..... d<)min",.:. and there is gencmlly liuJc con-


pcopll'" art: strangers and perceive liule se nse

sensus concerning valucs or commitmcnt lO the group. As a result, social control must rcly on more formal techniques. sllch as laws and leg-..tlly defined punishments. Social change is an important aspect of life in the GI'Sf'f/,ldutji: it can be strik.ingly evide nt even within a single generation. Table 5-2 SU lllmalizes the differences between the ~mtiTl.sclwfl and the Gesellschafl as desclibed by Tannies. Sociologists have used these terms to compare social structures stressing dose relatio nships wiLh those Ih:1I emphasizc less personal tics. It is easy to view Gnne;'lSchajl with nostalgia as a far betIcr way of life t.han th e ~rat race" of contcmporary existence. Howevcr, with lhe more intimate relationships of I.he CemPillSclwjl comes a price. The prejudice and discrimination found within Gemeinschajl ca r.. be quite confining; more emphasis is placed on slIch ascribed statuses as f.1rnily background than on people's unique lalents and ac hievements. In addi ljon. Cmu:inschafllends to be distrustful of the individual who seeks 10 be creative or just to be din'e ren L


The work o f Em ile Durkhcim a nd Fc rflinand T o n!lies shows that a major foctts of sociology has been to identify changes in social sU'uCtlll'C and the consequences for human behavio r. At the macro Ic'cl. m e)' both orrcl' descriptio ns of societies shifting to more adwilced fomls of tcchnolog}'. In addition, they iden tify the impact of these lIocic tywidc dmnges at the micro level in terms of the nalure of social interactions between people. Durkheim emphasil.cs the degree to which people can)' o ut Ihe samc lask!.. Tonnics directs our a ttention IQ

whe the r people look out fo r their Ol\'n intt' for the well-being or the larger group. Nel'cn there is a great deal of simi lari ty 1 Ci:1l )CI\\ polobrie!l o f tht,se European sociologists. Thl'\ that iU social structure becomcs mort (' peoples re l ;ujon~hips tend 10 become m( persolla l. transient. ilnd fragmented . In the policy section which 1'0110\\'5, we 1"iIl cxamint the AIDS c ri si~ has transfonned the 50cialst of our complex society.

Ill:Is AIDS alTected the lIonnal funcl io ning of social institutions in the Unitcd StaICS? Why is there such a stro ng stigma :tIt,le hed 10 infectiOn wi th th(' 1-1 rv vinls and to AIDS? How mig ht sociologis ts influence resc;u'ch on AIDS and AIDS-relat.ed issues?
1-1 01'0'

his no\'cI Pfagut, Alben a nlUS ( 1948) wrote: MTherc have been as many plag ues as wars in histOlY, yct always plagues alld " '< Irs mkc l)Copie equally by surprise." RCg"J.rclcd by many as t.he distinctive plague of the modern era, AIDS certainly c"" gllt major social institlltions-pani clllarly the govcrllmclIl, the hea lth care system, and the econo my- by surprise. Th e first c; of AlDS in the United States were reponed in 198 1. By 1987,50.000 C'L-.eS had been reportcd; by mid-1989, 100,000 cases. A'i o f September 30, 1992, 212,000 C:lSe'i of AJOS had bel'n reported in the United StalL"!>. and more than 160,000 people had died of AIDS-related ca uses. Around the world, abou l 350,000 cases had been formally I'eponed as of 1992, but it. is e~litn;ued that more than I million people actually have AIDS ( R. Anderson and l\'lay, 1992: CelltcJ'S fOl' Di.~ease Contro l. 1992b, 1992c; sce Table 5-3). AIDS is the acronym for m;qllirr.t/ imllHmetitjirimry sY1ltirome. R::uher than being a distinct disease , AJDS is actually a predisposition 10 disease callscd by a Vil' US, the huma n immullodeficie m:y \'inl5 (Hrv), that destroys the body's immune 5)~ l e lll , Ihel'eby leaving lhe c:uTicr \'ulncmble 10 infections such as



pne ulllon ia \Jmt thoS(! wi th healthy i;n"'nun"~ gcncmlly n"Sisl. AIDS is not t I through tOllching, shaking hands, sh ari n~ drinking from the same cup. o r ot her I)'pet; line, nonilllirnale co ntacl in the home or place. Transmission frolll o nc person lo pears to recluire cilhel' intimate sexual csdmngc of blood or bodily lIuids (wl""'"1 comamimtled h)'l>Odennic needles or tr:lllsfusion.s ofinfecu:d blood, or 10,,,,,,,,,;,,,,.1 an infected mother 10 her c hild before or birth). The ,\llc ntion give n by health to me thod s or tr-<Ulsm iltillg the I-IIV rect I'csuh of the absence of a V;JCcitll' or AIDS. Since there is currently IlO W,IY Iv AIDS medically, it hi essclllial 10 reduce tilt' mission ofl ll e vi,us.

'JAIn .r So:i

1981 1983 1987 1990 1993 199.5

SOll" I).ta I..... 199.5 and 19!k> .rO' p"~ .... ti,,n . ..... "':t " r~IILLd .,,<1 IU/><'I. 19'J!I:90-91

35 797

5060 7288

Thu t(lib shQWS 0" ro,"","'" dramatit"SI' III A1J)S (f/.$/j

of OhIO


tAt /lmlJti J "" . ' "


brtn \\'t-U publicized. the high-risk groups IIHian"cr of cOlltracting AIDS in Ihe United homlJ~cxuaJ ,md bisexual men (who ae~hOUI 60 pel'Cent of all cases), intl' I\'C nous u.o,tn (~ho account fo r aboul30 percent (JM"I). and their sexual partners. Rccenuy. M heen increasing evidence that AIDS is a ..."",,,"~.,,,for the urban poor. in good part of ttan5mis"ion via IV drug lL-.e. Whereas ~~~:lispalliC5 reprcseJU about 20 pe rcem of l population , they constilute 48 percent In United SL.'ltcs who have been III haIr AIDS in the last twO yeal1l. Arollnd . \',lImen are bccominFt" infected with HlV ruttll as men. According' 10 Dr. Michael .... 11"" of the World Health Organi7"'nion's prt.lgr;lIll on AIDS, I.he "AIDS epidemic is beht'tl'lmcXUai e\'c rywhcrc~ (L. Altman. (.('I1Il'~ for Disease Comrol, 1992b: New IWlb) . III 1\1':13, more than two-thirds of all tompathe United States \\;th at leaM 2500 e m"''tll all nearly onc O lll of every te n had an employee with H IV AlDS ( 1992). Th e s t~ ggc ling '" >JUS '.l"" has affected the nation in a proliarvC}' Finebcrg ( 1988: 128), dean of .. H.,,,.I School 01' Public I-iealul, has obscrved: c.xtends lO C\'cry social institution, from ",II(M)ls and communities to busi n esses, _.", I", Ihe rnilirn.I')' and Federal, state. and tWIl"'""""'"'" The strain on the health care btrome increasingly obvious, as hospiI by the dema nds or car.. paticn L'i and lhe despe rate need for btd, j(I meet the rising AIOS casclo:tcl . IIIlfl'O k'\'C.1 of !IOCia l inl eraction , it has ~~~ lOrt'ClSI thal AIDS I'd" rcad In a more qoxual climate-among bOlh ho moh('\crosexlIaIJl-in which people will be t,UUiOllS about involvemcnt \-"ith new Vt'1 It appears that many sexually acLive in tht' l"lIited StlltCS have not heeded preabout "safer sex." According to the 1990


AlVS oclitJisl orglmi:.atiulI S bill!!''''), chow. Ihm public Molth tjJarts mill govmlRWl1 fundingfor AfI)s.rri(lIt'1l
m~(Jfch IlOut oc"n I,'TOSJly illmtrqlUllt.

E.Jptri(J11y vjsib/' (//1(1 ulIl.ljxJtnl i'l Illif if/rn1 IJ Ihl' ",J)S (})a/iliall 1(J Vllkash Pm"", (ACTVI, JhOlUII ""' ill a "lilJoi n "lu dram(JIi:~ dmlh.ifmm AIDS.


Beha\-;or Sun'e)'. only hair ',ancl onl)' 40 pcrc.:en l of re males I , ther or their partner used a cO lldo lH Ih,-ir l;ut l'ltp<'rience or sexual intt:rcourse for [)ise<lSC Comrol. 1992a).

In the 1990s, the label or-person with AIOS- or orten /"unc t.ions as a master SI'3LUS. Indee d , people with AIDS or infec led with the HIV virus face a powcrrul dllal stigma. Not only arc they associ;ju_d will! 'f !el/ml ;md contagiolls disc/lSe: mer have a disease which is disproportionatcl), evident in alrcadysligmatized gl"OllpS, such as gay males and elmg uscrs. TIlis linkage \.;jlh stigmatized groups delayed recognitio n or the sevc lit)' of thc AIDS e pide mic; th e llIed;;, LOok link inte rest in tht: d isease unLiI it seem ed 10 be sprcllding beyond the gaycoml11unity. Viewed !"mm a conflict perspective. polic.. ymakers havc been slow 10 respond to the AIDS c risis lX"cause those in hig h-Iisk groups-g'''Y men and IV drug uSt:l"S-are companuivcly powcrless. As one health ca re consultallt pointedly asked : k\Vho
" I-II V-positi ve~

rJI,wn:Jj , - 'i(J(.'JAL lNn:llA c nON A.NI) 'VUM. S7Rf/{:fllllf;

speaks for lhc drug abuser in our SOdel)'? Who's in favor of lhem?~ U. Cross, I 987:A I 6: He rek and GluTH. 1988; Shilts, 1987). Polling dam show how the stigma associated with high-risk groups affecL" people's feelings aOOm AJDS. ACCQl'ding to a nation(ll SU IVt..')' in 1991 ,85 percent of rcsponde llu. sa id Lhcy had a "lot of sympath( or ~solT1e sympalhy" for people WiLh AIDS an incrcase from lhe 75 perC<:1Il \\'ho anSWCI't:d the same question this ....':Iy in a 1988 sun'(,.')'. Yel onl}' 39 percent oflho.~e questioned in 1991 indi cated that they had a 101 of sympathy 01' some sympadl)' for "people who get AIDS from homosexual activity," while o nly 30 pcl'ecrH expressed such sympathy for Mpcoplc who gel AIDS from sharing needles while using illeg-.d dnlgs,HThe disCI'cpancy in these data reflects a t,c ndc ll cy 10 blame members of hig h-risk groups for contracting AIDS. Indeed , those who gOI A1DS \"ithollt engaging in homosexual bl'h:wior o r drug use. suc h as teenage hClllophi liacs. arc often spoken of as "innocem victims" -Wilh the implication I.h;\I others wilh AIDS arc ~b l am:tbl e \'icdms" ( Hcrek and Glum. 1988:888; K.'lgay, 1991:C3), III this c1imalc of fear and blame. tJlCl"{' has been increasing hal1L'iSlllent 01 homosexual male!J. Gay lights leadc l'lI bt.-lic\'e t11:1l the conCe pt of homo sexuals lIS "di~easc. carders" has contributed to \iolent iucidents directed at people known or suspeClcd 10 be gay. KyVhat AIDS has d(}lIe,~ .. rgms Kevin Iknill of uIe National Lesbian 0'111(1 Cay Task force. ~is simpl}' give biguts alld bashcr.. the justification ' 0 aLl.a ck g<"1Y"" (0. AlUll~n. 19Rfi:5S-7/); D. j o hl1son, 1987:r\l2) . Fears .. bout AIDS ha\'c led to grO\.... ng discrimi nation within m:yor social instiHltion~ of the United Stat~s, for CX1 I1Uplc. pt'uple with AIDS have 1 :lced discrimination in employment. housing, and insur.mce, Yet the legal system has hardly taken the le;td ill fighting such discrimination . According L O a reporl issued in 1992 by the National AJDS Program Office. which coordinates 'he wOrk of~lI fedcr..t.l agencies deaJing with lh e disease. II courts seem guided more b) Slcreotypc~ amllc;a , than by scientifi c e\idence- h'hen Ih ey I'll1e on AIDs-\,dated cases. Larry Coslin , a pl'Ofcssul' of hl"a lth l;tw 1l11d a coauthor oflhe repon . points out Ul;)t some couns have cxacerbatcd public fears of the disea~e by plac ing "Do Not TOllch~ .;igns 011 AIDS-rc1ah:d e\'i-

denee. by having defend.tnts with li lV h"ear gloves. and b)' Ic\ying harsh pt:'lla!tics 01\ with AIDS for biling or spiu ing <It oLhers, sists that ulcse situatio ns po~c minimal tl1lnsm issiOIl :lIld tltat tlte COll rt decisio ns ~n} face of a ll lhe public health ....'isdoll1 aOom (M.trgolick. I992: 16). Any ~lIch dramatic. crisis is likely to bring certain transformations in :.t society's social ture. from a functionalist perspective. ifesta social insUludons ca!l not mee l a crucial net-d. social nelworks are likely 10 emerge 10 fulli1\ fullction. In the case of AJDS, self-help especially in the gay communi tics of Ill~orct have I>cen (:sl;lblished to caJ'c~ for t.hc sick. ed the healthy. and lobby for mOl"e responsi\'e policies. By J993. O...y Men 's Hcah1I Crisis (C New York City's Iargesl privatc organizauoo viding AIDS services, had a paid stalT of 2j(j morc tha.n 2300 Vohllltl'el'S typically \\lork.inR -buddy s),stcm with those amicled with AIDS. 'hough initially G~lI-iC's clieJ1L~ h'ere almost sivcly White homosexual men , today 10 per clients are female. 44 percent are no n-White:. llIany ale he terosexlllll. CMHC opc:r.ues a phone hot line. sends a dvoc'llcs to hOSpitab sist on beuer care for patients. and runs legal financial clinics as well as therapy and 51 groups for I~>opl e with AIDS and Lheir 10\00 (Nav'"<lrro. 19(3). G;\11-IC and other groups conccnlcd v.itlt argue that lhe proper socie Lal rC$ponst to dead ly di5<.-a:;e incllldes (C, sting of new dlllgs tu : hat AlDS, ma.'l..i\'c public educiltion campai garding tJ\e need 1'01" ",safer .~ex.~ wide disui :md proper IISC of condoms, ilnel elTectivc co ing and suppOrt services fOl those with AIlJS I-IIV iufeclion. AJDS acti\'ist organizaliOlu bI charge that there has been grossly inadequate' crlllnclltal funding for A1DS-rclated n_"Sear(~ public health efforts. Especially visible and 0 ken in this cn'ort is t.he AIDS Coa lition 10 U Power (ACfUJI) ......hich has conducted con sial prrucstS. si t.ins, and "zaps" in the hall! of CJ'nmcnt. at scicntific confeI'CIlCl.S cOllcemcd " AIDS.:II New York Cily'sSL Patrick's C:uhednl. <111 W':lll Streel. ACTUP h:.1S popularized the it views as the crucial meSS<.lge of tile NOS


nro .

OHGANrlJ"'G waAl. I.JI.1:


Dell lh~

(France, 1988: J. Gamson , 1989;

use their expcni..c 10 assist

t ~J89).

Itnll ran


tn J~nding

to lhe A IDS crisis? In an address be-

H ow d oes an AIDS ~fo lk.l orc~ emerge, and how does il become inlcgJ1ltcd in to a cOll1llltUlity? Why do ccrla in communilics and individua ls 1'esist or ignore scientifi c infonn:uio n abOlll the dangers of

Cur tht' Amcrican Sociological Associatio n , Ca nadloIn ~:.clt'logit Barry Adam ( 1992:5- 15) expressed UlJl(nn (hill research on AJOS has been largely \ IiluC!oo b) biomedical sdc nt..i sL~. Adam argued

H ow arc med ic;l] and social sC ly ices made a\~<li l able 10 people with AIDS? Why ,we these se rvices often denied to the pooresI pal.icl1Is? H ow is hOlllophob i a (fear of::md pl'cjlldice agajnst hOlllosexualit)') relaled lO fears conccnling AJDS? In what \\~<lYS does homophobia cOITclalc with

t/lJ.t sociologi51S can m ake a n imporlant co ntribunon IDAJOS-rc]atoo research; he out line d fOllr dim;tion$ for such sociological research:

other forms of bias?

11o" i!inlonnation abo u t AJDS p l'o duccd and distnblllctl,~ is the d isldbuUoll 01 in lormaUoii alibi!! heM to hart Msafer sex." being limited or even ccnred:

ltti,/ illlrrlulilln refers 10 the \\':1)'5 in which people r("-

'PJ!ld I" unr another. 5Qria i strlll:lllre refers 10 th e way In "hldl ~ "<tlt'itl), is ortpnizcd inlO prcdictahle n :I,\liOllnIt. thaptcr cx;ulIines t.hese concep ts, \~hich an:

/.lltll VlCiologica1 study.

fltllll"sponsc 1.0 I>coplc's Ix:ha\"ior is based o n th e

"'''< \fit al1<1rh 10 .heir actions.

t nlf ahi1i~ It) define lJOCial reality c1l":IrJy rcnecL~ :l Il""'P' pwCI ,,'Ithin a socie ty. S \n alCl"ibtd itallu is gCllcl1IlIy ,lSSigncd 1 persoll 0 I~nh "hcreas an Ci (hitllt d s/a/IU i~ ;tHai ncd I:lrgd) ~~ljIfr-tjljt" uwn efforl. , In tIIr l"niled States, ascribed sta tuses of mec :H1d kl ~Jn hmerion as mas /er sla luses Ihal hal"e an imJol"U1I1lmpilcI on oue's potential to achicve a desired ~'Ilal and .social S laIUS. 5 \'tllh f';l('h distinctive st.atus-whClhcl" ascribed 01" 'I<"lt!l-~o)U1e lYolrticular social roles. 6 ,,, ... h 010111" p,"mcrned bcha\"ior la kes place wit hill .U\!l ~ inflllclICI.'rl by the norms and s;mclions csW!!.\l,rt!1n KrOups. T IM- tn;~\, mrdia. the gO\'crnmCIH, tht, ccotLomr, tht, wrm. J,ud Ill(' health Gl f e syste m 31"C all examples of "dill/lion. found in lhe Uni ted St:ltes. R Ol1r \\01\ tQ wtdcrstand social illslit\ltion~ is to sec j!JOj Ibn luum ~~l1tial flmctiotls. sHch :t.\ replacing pcr new t'eCrtliL~. and preS('I"ing u ldcr. t Thr conflkl pt:~I>ective a rb'l.(l"S lh:..t sodal insti lu


tions help to 1113111 1.;.1.111 ItlC pti\1leges of the powerful while contributing 10 the J>Owede.ssneu of others. 10 ImcraClionist theorists elllphasize that o u r sod,,1 beha \'iol" is co nd iti u ne d by Ihc roles and stat uses tha t wc ac ce pt , the grou ps 10 whidl Wc bel..,tlJ,:, atld the institutions \\ithin which we function. I I Ferdi nand Tunnies dilltingu ishcd tl ' t": close--knil communi ty or Gemeinscltaft frol1l thc impersonallll;I.'Is soci ell' known as Gesellschafl. 12 The AIDS crisis has affected C\'cry social inst itulion in the Unltccl Statcs. includ ing the !::'mily, Ihe sdlOols, the heailh care system, th c eCO IIOTll y, and go\'cnllllc ll(.

.<::.IlJ.!~.~. !1i.l.r-I.({Jr-I.'?.RlJll~:r[().r-I.~..
Anal)'"l.c )'clur college eomlH ll1Iit)' <IS :111 cxample of:t I1cgoli;lwd o rd e r. Wh at typcs o f negotiations arc co mmon ill the day-to-day intcf<\ctions ill titis social inSlitu tion? 2 People ill certain profcS!.ions secm particularly susce pljbJco \(I rolc co nlli ct. Fur ex:unple, jutl nmi isLS commonly experience I'ole conflict dU li ng tl is; L~lcrs, crimcs. ,md otl.e dis trl'~si ll g sitmuiolls. Shou.ld thcy offer!ptallCC to l ie need), or cOI'er brcakilt~ nt'W~ :L~ rcpol'lcrs? Select tv,:.b Oljler professiolls and di !>t..t's~ lhe ' Y P(''lI of role co nOi cl''i:hc)' miJ,: h t expe rience. 3 l1w fUl1('lionalist, co nll ict, and imcr'":tetiuniSI per


call all be l\Sed ill :malt.r.;nJ.: M><.ial ;nstit wions. What :Irc tIll" ~ trcngth~ 0(" \\"t'akttl$st":~ ill cach pcrs pective's ltllalysis 01" social institutions?

r.lIAI'I"I-;U, - S.:J"L /NIJ:/lJlcno,'V "NI)MX:/AI. ~nwc/'/JI<f.

.gY..TI.BM~........ _...................................................... .
Athitfltd s'ahlS A 5t)Cial position :It~i m'd b) a pCBOIl 1 ;lrJ:;eJy through hi! nr her u\\'n drOll. ( p;tge 124) ASC'f'i bed .rtal/.., A wclal position -assigned- to a per~ SOil by socict)' without r~g.l rd for the PCI"'OIl'5 uniCJuc t:l1t: 1\ ~ or ch:u~ l cri5 Iic5. ( 124) .IC CemeiNsclrojt A Icnl1 lucd b) Fcrdin:lIld Tonnin lo d ....... !lCrihoc dose-knil cOlllmllll;lid, oflcn found in mml ate..~. in which strong penon.l l bo nds IIniu: members.
( 134)

Soci al rt dU/o r"


serics of pel"llOlI din: cLl ) W othcn ami therefore i ~ull more people. (127) Social ro le A 5('1 ut cXIX'ctll.iurls or 1"01,1 . 1" 000"111 , ab 'l\CII social \~i tiCl n or SI:tlU5. ( I Sociol stru ctur(l TIle \\~Iy in .",1,1" into p rcdict;lhlc rcl:I.I.1onl!hip~. ( 120) Sto tu s A tenn I~I hy.soci04ogisu 10 '0'"" full ra nge o f socially dclin(.-d posiliuns 1'I;lhin a group o r sociel)'. (12'1)

liOCial '~:;:,I~;:I:I~~~::::':J

!>CI""" ",,,,,,,,4


CeullJ(:haJl A !.cnn used by "'cnlinand TOllllies 10 describe communities, often urlxm. that an: I;uge and impersonal. wi th lin le commiUllCl1I lO tJle group 0 " con$t:mi1l5 o n ,a1l1cs. ( 135)

Dgau . Mary Jo. :and Mk hacl Il ill (ed5.l. I\'MIIt'II

Symbolic fntn'tl(tioll. Winchcster, M.w.: Alien o'Uld win , 1987. A \-arit-d and lIJC.'ful colle<tiOIl or dr.t",;ng o n lhe intemct1c:lIIist PCrsl>CCU\"(' to the role of gender in t.'\CI)-day lifc. Duncicr, MilChdl. Slim', Tnbll': UncI', U~llN"tnbifif), MllJnlfi"ity. Chicago: Un il't'rsityofCh icago Press, \


AII\' n UIObcl (If people with )imilar lIonm. val

ues. :lIld cxpecmtiOlls who rl.."gUlarl y and co nsciousl y

inter...c.. (127)
fhmlOph obia

Fedf of ;ulfl prcj ud jl::c.o :'gai nsl hOlllmexu-

ality. (139) Mlu ter $Iallu t\ SI:I UlS th at dO lll inmeli Ot hcrs and I,he reby d e lenninc! a person's gell eral pOSition wi thi n SOCiety. ( 125) M erhanirnl solida ri ty A tenll used by f-mile Durkheim to describe: :1 society in which people gencr:ll\)' :111 per fonn Ihe smile t..s]..s and in l'I'hich rdalion ~ h i ps arc close ilnd intimau:. (lM) N~&otia' ed arder A MK"ial structure th:1I deri\l'S its Cll.istcnce from Ihe .wei:l.] IlItcr.u:tion~ Ihrough I'I-hich J"L'Opit (klinc and rcdclinc ib c har:lctcr. (123) Ne,otic tiort The atte mpl to reach agrccmcl1I with o lh ers conam ing liOffie objectl\...,. ( 122) Orgcrtie solida rity A te ml. ulioCd by rnlllc Durkhcim 10 d~ribe a socict) in which membcl'$ arc lIlutually (it'pendem and in which a complex di\ision of lab!)r cXiSLS. ( 1 ~1) R o l~ t'onf1 it:l mlTicul1ics th:lI occl.lrv.hen incompatible expectauons an!lC' 11'011\ IWO 0 1 marc "<Kial pmiLions ' hdd b)' the Silmc pCf'JOn . ( 125) Role uit The p(l)(' 6,1 of d isengagellu:n L from a role Ih:lI is 10 Olle'~ selr.idcnut)'. and recsmblishII1CIII of an idclllilY in :l new role. (126) .'IlJcial i nstillltiQlI1 Ol'glHl ilCd paltel"tls of belicfs a nd behm'iul' centered un hasic SQ("bl nccc\,~ . ( 130) Social in te ractiOIl 11lc ways in wh ic h people respo nd tu OIlC another. ( I'.!O)

This stlld y d escrilx's t'\'c IJ d :l)' socifl l rela tio nships bCI\'rcel1 Whiles a l1d Africul in a .small diner on Chic;lgo's SoLHhside. Ebaugh . 1-lclcn R~ JolIc h~. lkttlmil.gan Ex: 7>,P"".1I Uok EnL OliGlgO: Unin'l'$it)' of Chic-.tgo Prcsa.. As described in 1.\4)): 5.- 1. sociolOboi~t Ebo' l.l.Igh;::;:~ the proce!\.~ of disclIg;.lging from a significant an d t"stablishi ug:1 new idt:nliIY. Hubcr, J O:UI, and Ikllt t:. Schneider ('.lJllwxt of AIDS. Ncwhury Park, Gtlif.:

; ';",~':~'~:::;;,:~

antholog)' addn.'S~M :1 \OtrielY or w uc.s a.s'-~:~~~:~ A IDS, including race, gender stratification.
a nd ~l"Sistt'nt IX I\t'fl) .

Ikph.u-t. WiIlialll M., ,11Ie! WilliiUlI M. Zcllncr, "'. ..o-j II(Iry Groups: Itn Exmn;,wtllJn o} Unrorlllrn/ionaJ (51h cd.). Nc-w York: St. M:min s, 19\14. Amollg gl"Oup~ deK rilx'<\ in thi5 "cry readau1c book Ami! h . Ihe Oncidot cOlllnlun il)" the MonnOIlI. Jc~,JchO\~ h '~ Witnesses, a nd the ROIIIMli lo",,~ .. knov,1l. as GyfJjiQ). Majors, Richard, and J,II\C\ M'IlIOnl !kI150Il.. CMI 1"111' Oilnnmru of IJln'* Ma"lwod i'l "'",cun. Ncw Lcxi llg lOlI. 1992. An Afric:m American h alld :I White 5ociol ogi ~t :lIIalY1e UII: African American lldok'SCCIlI maId present in cvel)"<l:ly life.







l)iStOllfY, t:moliOIl ,


CIIic:.aI!O: Uni''enil)' of ChiGlgo l'rcM, 199'1. "';" I 01' sociological Ireanut'1lI of self :md H'O mt:rI and , York: Ballantinc, 1990. A popbook that pfO\idc5 an I)\'cniew of how ..,ofllen in the Unilt.'d SIales diffe r in thei r'
'1 U"dt'nl(llld:

Journals .. _... _ -..............._ ........ ....................-...............,... ,.... ,' .... ,' ... ,..........-.......
Among Ih~ journ:tls that focus Oil issud of lOCi ..., interaction and MKial struc ture arc.follntal of ConlcnpOrtl'1 EJhnogmplty (formcrly (!rhon '4r, founded 1971 ) and Symbol/( "rl~fU'/lm ( 1977). Scl'~r.ll relcl.... m publications have dC"ol('(1 special issues 10 the bch:,w ioral ill1pliGltions of AIDS. including Arnmcan l~dwlogl$l (&1'tembe r' 1988), snnr/lfir Ammrml (OclObcr 1988) . :1I1d Sodal f'robknu (OclO1>cr 1989).

O I....''"J-.H. 1 soaM . I.' 71:JC11O... A,\7)SQ("JA'. fTHl'C'1VHI.

. ...................C====="Ir :::,f=====:I.. .... .. ..



T,pn: or CroUI>S
I'rim;uyand Seconda ry Groups

h..croups and OUI-Crollr>S Krrcrence Group!i

~lIIhil1g Small GrO\J I)S

Si'U' of a Group
r.oaliti0l15 Ml\'sical Environlllelll

1~"'IIIIJ)'Inml JJa ~1 all Ttthltiml QllfllijicQliOlU llureaucr.ui1.alion :"IS a 1l'ocd.~ Olig;ll'ch)': Rule by a Fcw Ilw'c:lUcracy's Othcl' Face Volulllary Associations OI'K'.1ni7':ltional Ch :lIlgc Co:II Multipliclltion (;0;11 Succ(.ossion

UNDERSTANDING ORGANlZAll0NS f'onnal Organi/.:ujons ;md BlIfcaucracics l)CO;dopmcm of )." onnal Organiz:uiolls Char.lCtcrinia of a BurclIuc m cy I DmwOIi of tAbor 2 IIJmmlrj of AulhonIJ ; Ifriuf.I'! Ru lts ('wd flrgu/alilms 4 J.pmcrw{ity


BOXF.5 ()... I Cun-cm : Multicuhural Small

&-2 evcl)'d:l), Ikh:l\;QI': Selr. Help Groups


Americans oJ all, Ggt!S, all, stations in life, and. all types oJ disposition are forevtr fonning as.sociati011S. ... In euery case, at a~ head of any new undertaking, where in France ),ou would find the government . .. in lhe United States )'OU are SU're to
find an association.

How do sociologists distinguish between various types of groups? How does cu ltural diversity affect the performance of small groups in the workplace? What are some of th e positive and negative consequences of bureaucracy? How impo rtant arc informal structures within fonnal organil,.lJ.uons? Why do so many people in the United StaleS join \,olunt.1ry associations? How common is sex ual har.15Slllen t within organizations in the United States?

IShaklee was] :1 remarkable mall . He W"5 of his time. He developed VitaLjne first product. :t year berore the word \i~min' evcn coined . H c's [had] a special place in 1nl (Iligg-"rt. 1989: 142).


E\'cn watching (Mary Kay] on TV is real hard I j ust get this knot in my stomach whcnt:\-ct I or listen to her wlk or anything (8iggan, 19i~ I'. These rounders are successful :i:"~',~~:~:~~:'~1 I n izational ideologies that are n ler. DSO employees genuinely believe that clients will be beuer people and "liO)' h.,pp' '' ' by using DSO products. I n most DSOs, the sales fo rce is female. and iIlany of these sa lespcople arc makers. Sociologist Paul DiMaggio poinu om DSOs providc these homemakers with hance their marital power. and offer a .""". ~ munity. Nc\'Cnhcless. DiMaggio ( 1990:210) eludes that DSOs are ~ prcfelJlinistR becau." ideologies arc supportive of male ~\"Oille n sho uld vicw selling as nOI quite husbands' permission 10 enroll, DI"c.llu:olt. caree r, or, when finns recrtlil spouses as rol<:s .~ Pco ple in thc United States arc joincn, they join direct-sclling org-dnizalions, ch,..nixT sic groups, strect g'dnb"S, athletic teams. stiulti ons, or professional organil.ations. ask, R When is the'llex t meeling?~ almost as we ask, "What should we have for dinncr?W . poilllcd out in the earlie r chapters, social tion is necessary for thc transmission ofcullu... ,

o ' miI ",''''h

M any of us know or have been visited by somconc cmployed by a dircct-selling orb",nil.a lio n (050) such as A1nwd)', Tuppe .......ue, Shaklce, o r Mary K.... y Cosmctics. These sales people o flen go door 10 door or arrange ho usc pa n ies in an a!.tempt to reach polcmial custome rs. Involvement in DSO work is an intense experience; the gatherings of DSO e mployces have becn compared to rcligious reviva l mcetin gs. After cond ucting a study of 42 DSOs, sociologist Nicolc Woolscy Biggart ( 1989) characterized DSOs as ~charismatic because of the awe th ey arouse in c mployees. The strong pcrsonal appeal of OSO foullders accounLS in good part for the intense and passionate tone of gatherings. DSO employecs speak of thei . companies' founders in tcmlS no t usually applied lO corporate chief execu th'e officers (CEOs) :


/" IIW.JI diff etselling orga niza tio ns

(DSOs). tllII Sfl ~ fora is O"i!nwMimmgly f t/MU. find I/UlIl)' of Ihe, ;tJ J(lk5fH:"/JU <


jj all Atkm


f'! visiting a humf


Budaptsl, fllmgnry.

Ihr runllll of a society. Our li\'es are fill ed with re lmudum anc,i inconscqllc nlial ime r' lc tiol1s, !lUhtHoolcrsalions with cashiers in stores a nd suprtmMkcb. liowever, many social intCf"dc tio ns arc pbnnl'd or anticipated. We rclate to ccnain people brr.IIN: lit' like them, they have some thing to o fIn Ut. the)' are working to accomplish a goal we iIwt. or we have no othe r choice. Th~ rhapter wiU conside r the impact of groups and orgiUli/.ations on social interact.ion . IL will bcpo hi noting the distinclions be ty,'ce n lI' trio us types . .lflJlJpL I'ilnicular allention will be given lO small ~,md 10 theanal)"Sis of illlCrac tioniSlthcorists Irprdillg the dynamics of small groups. How :md fUftrl,d organiz..'u ions came into c xiste nce 1"iII brrumineO. and Max Weber's model of the mod rru hurraucracywill be desclibed. The lendency of ptup!r in the United SL.1.tes to join voluntary assoallI"'I\'\., ol, noted by d e Tocque ville. will be dllr:Ll'IM"d. The social policy section will focus o n the ~ul ~1Cual harassment . wh ich has beco me a malOOCf'm of both go\'e rnme and privatC'tt{lot urg:mil.ations.

as we noted in Chapter 5, in sociological tc rnlS a group is any number of people with similar nOllns, values, and expectations who regularly and con -sciollsly interact. College sororities and fraternities, dance companies, te na nts associatio ns, and c he.'\.S clubs arc all considered examples o f g roups. It is imponallt to e mphasize that me mbers of a group share some scru;e of belongin g. TIlis Chaf"dcu:ri!llic distinguishes groups from me re aggrega ll'.$ of people. such as passengers who happe n to be togc the r o n an airplane Highl. o r from mtegvrles \'o'ho share a commo n feature (suc h as being retired) but o th c do not act together. A college de bating socie ty is t)'Piedl o f groups found in the United Stales. It has agreed-upon \'alues and social norms. All me mbe rs want to improvc tllcir public speakin g skills and belie vc that inro rmed de bal.e on issucs or public policy is an essential aspect of democracy. In addition. likc many gro ups. the wcie ty has boUl a fornm} and an infonnal stnrcture. It has monu11y meetings, run by elected offi cers . in a stude nt union building. At the sam e time, unofficial leadership roles are held by the club's most expelicnced debaters, who orten .uding debating strategies coach new me mbers relr and lechn iques.

ID n'f'ndl,' speech, J>COI> use the tenn group to le dncribr an) collection of individuals. whether Ibm: 'Irangers sharing an elevator or hundreds ar o1.111ttling oflhc Tuppcrwarc sales force . Howeve r,

!1P~. .?~...~.~?.'!p..~.............................................................."..
The study of gro ups has become an important part of soci ologicannvcstigation because they play slIch

Clf.tI'Tt,H 6 CHOIJPS ....NlJ OHC...N I1..i TIONS

It, wdologJlaL tmfts. a group 11_ rwmbt:r of ~ WI/h UMliar

oo/IJG, and o/JutallOfIJ


and ronmOlUl] mtmut. $AowIt


of IM Full GOJpd M_ HI Piano. TIX/U, nr ,",MIwrl of IhlS g1T1IIp typtftl/lf p~


lUll/tU IN/Ort SiI/lI1g Old 10 tMlIK' hl'lp lIrrmd('(/ mo/om/s, cll1d ~ gm/Itl. 7'M bfAm Inlllllll] InA .:1

moloriJts about tJrnr IJWtOrtyl'ltt .. Ihnl flm Ihi' (O"vt'rlI1IIQII kI "fbtr

tOPI C lu,h tU Mw 1 ~mJtI'Y dJ f, 0 /trml flu' hl~rh/if(/y 10 hI'li W /M 10 IIN/lH'II. ~


key role in the 1r.lIIsmil'sion of culture. Sociologists have made a number of lIscful dislinctions beIw(.-en t}1>C.'i of gmups (sce Tablc ~ I ) . P ri mary and Secondary C!2!PS Chari(."S Honon t'.oole)' ( 1902:23-57) coine d tJ1e u..rm primary

group 10 refer 10 a ~1II;t 1l group characterized Iw lim:lIe, facL'-lo-f.,ce ;L~i:Hion and coopc' '111e members of a '!treet golllg cOnstilute a pri group; so do members ofa famil), living in lhr
h Olll'Cilold , as well as Msisters in " college sor l)limaJ), group .. p ia), a pivotal role both in tht ciali7.3.Uon pl'OCCSS (see C h apter 4) and in tM "eiopmellt of roles and statuses (sce Chaptrr 51 deed, primary groups can be instnlmelllAl .. person's da),-looa), exislence. Studies ha\t' for example, that ndghbors, dOS(" friends. and pccially kinfolk pia), a viml role in assisting to follow comp li c~uc C\ sched ules for laking scription medicincs (Kail and Ulwak, 1989). When \,'e find o u rselve identifying clO5C" grOllp. it is prob.,bl)' a primary group, U(J\fo people in the United States participate in groups which arc nul chardclerized b)' c1QSC of friendship, sllch :IS la rge college dassc:t and !'less ass()ciation~. The term $f!co" dflry grOIl~ 10 a form"l, impersonal group in which lhrrt ~ lie social intimac), or mutual understanding Table 6- 1), '111C diuinction between primV'" secondal), groups i nOl .tlwa)'S clcar-c.ut. Somt tcrnides or social dubs become so large and personal thal Ihey no longer function ;u pri

" \81.1. 6. 1



U.wolly Iorge Short duration, temporory

litHe iOCiol inlimocy or mutual UIldeUlanding ReloIiOlllhips generally superficial
Mere formal and

Relalively long period of

IIlIeroction Jl1Iimole, foce.Woce ouocloliOll

Some emotional depth III relotloll"'il

Cooperative, frleodly

In du/inguiJiling

1yf'e5 of


JOlIoIOgUll hmv

"vial thl'

dlffrmlfc INlwtf'fI ,,"mary (md M'( tmdmy grfm/Is,

PART nl'O ORGA ....'Il.J"C,SOC1AI UH':


~r.,~out~roue.s A group can holdspelor members because of its re lationDlhcr groups. People sometimes Ice l a n 111 or threaten ed by another group. if the group is perceived as being differor r:l.C'ially. Sociologisl.'O identify these feelings by using two tenns first cmi I CrAham SUlnn(' r (1906:12-13);

("'.In be defin ed as an)' group or catpeople feel they belong. Simply PUl, ~'e l)'one who is regarded as "\o,'c" or may be llS narrow as onc'.; fam'~r""

broad as an enlire society. The vcry exis-

" .JIO Ill-group implies lhat there is an out~"tl <l.~ -Ihey or - them" More IOl'mall}" ' .lM......pis a group or C<llegol)' lO wh ich peo"7._--' ._.. 00 not belong. mme United Stales tend 10 sce tht- world . and Oll l-groupS. a pcrce plion \'cry groups 1,0 which wc Ix'does )lot have those sexual

church every \vcck."

" So lo"t. Bdl. ThiJ is "')'


In ~uppon Q lrOOI>S in lhc Pcn;ian Gulr." UI' nQ! explicit, each of th(.'Sc declaratio ns "hu tllt' in1,fToups and OlU-gro Ups are. rYpical consequence of in-groul) mcmberJ frt'ling of distincli,'clU!sS and superiority \,oJ1O sce themselvcs a.~ bellCf than m tho: out-group. This se nse of supcl'iorit), 1' a double standard maintained of the ill-grOL1p, Proper behavior for is s.imultaneously viewed as unacccptfor Ihe OUl-grOUp. Sociologist Roberl 119IltH8I}-481}) dl.srrjbe~ JJJ.i. ~/XtC(.'.!i~ .:J~ ~m"" ol["-g"m'p~' ''''.,, [nlO "outi-fTOUP



come '"."


IUlh J double standald . If Chl'isuans lake tl'riousl) , it is seen as ~co nunend abl e"; if Ih",m"',, il is a sign of~hackwardness" and tIJ enter lhe twenueth cenlll!")'. If Chdg.. 1io,1ft\" other Christians as friends. it is "un-:~~~;;,[~J,: prefer other Jews as friends, " bei ng Mdanni s h . ~ T his view of lhrm- can be destnlctivc, as connic t theo-

po""j" IIf certain Christians toward J ews iI-

;:;~:t~~;:A~1 tl1e sa me tim e, it promotes

li 191\9)

a sense of belonging (Kar-

Referenct. Croups BOlb in-groups and primary gToups can dr.lmatically influe nce the way an individual thinks. and be llavcs. Sociologists use tIle tenn reference I...tTf)UP when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating them selves and th eir own behavior. For ("xample, a high school sll1dcl1Iwho aspires lOjoin a social circle of p11nk rock dcvot ce~ will pattcm his or he r be ha\'o io r after thal of the group_ The stude nt will begi n dh;fJ,9: i"6'"" "l,i(:" dk3'C~ ,ft!e1'r,- 1,!i~ flTirg \0 l((C saIn t! record albums and COs, and hanging out at the same Slores and dubs_ Referen ce groups ha\fC two basic purposes. They serve a normative fun c tion by seuing and cnforcing standards of conduct and belief. TInls, the high school student who wants the approval of the punk rock crowd will have to follOlv the gro up's dic tates to at least some cxtent. Reference groups also per form a comparison functi o n by se rving as a standard affdinsl which people ca n measure the mselves and others. A law stude nt will evaluate himself or hel'llclf against a referen ce group composed of lawyers. law professors, and judges (Merto n and Kilt. 1950) ,



The growing dh'crsi ly of the paid I:lOOr fOl'ce. especially in EI1l'Ope OIl1d N(}I'UI America. is .....ell d OCl1l11el11cd. Wlmt impact will this dil'CI'5ilY have on dccision making within (ll"gani1.alions? How doc..~ cuhlll'al di\'cnilY a fTecI Uw pelfo rmanee:' of small groups in lhe wOl'kplace? Since 1 >olic1(.'S and prOCe-"" dLtrell :U'(~ t)Vic-.lIly developed iu meetings of rcl:uh'ely mod(.~1 s;iJ:c. slIIall-group rl.."l\earch can lx' cspt-.... cially uscrul in hcll>ing us unde!" Slaml thc impac I ordivcl'sity wi lhin org;:lniZaliQns. In lIlallYe xpl!l'imClllal swdies.:1 Sfllll ll gmup i~ Cl'calcd and then as sib'llcd .llask or problem to feM)I\c. Thc ovcmll (nnclusion or ~uch reliC3rch is Ih ;l[ h('tcr(>gcnoous small groups (including cullllmlly di \'cnc groups ) produce SOIUlio lb of higher (Iualit)' than do homogcIlI..'Ous gl'O ups. In f"ct, w; a gn)uI"s composi tion becolllcs 1I10re di verse, additiollal altcl1Ialivcs .. re prol}(lsed th;ll e nhance the quality

of de chion 1Il< T he likcli hmKI that a group \\'ill ofTer mallY ideas and proposals is paniclIl;lr ly atlracti ve ill light of llle C(I['re!ll 1 demallds on mallY o lg;.lIl i't.:llioll~ 10 be morc inllO\' and crc:Hh'c ( Kirch. 1Ilt.'yer. 1993: Ruhe :ll1d Eallnan, 1977). This general fi nding a bo ul LII ,,<kant.ages of d i....t~il)' ill SIll:llI group.-; has been lelJlpe n~d by thc f;I( 1 thflt such gnmps 00t:1I r.. ;1 to bI,'llefil fro m the IUliclue pCI'S pCCtiw~ of members frol11 racial and eth nic minorities. Rescfll'cheu r(.. ... P'OI'I Ihal 1I1inllrilie! :lre It"I,\ ll Clh'c participants wiulin SllIall Kruups and ;Irc ~ I;g htl r le'!:'! CQllllllimd w the gnlllps' clTorl\ thal1 are ,'Iher

For example. one C':lI1adiall study rocu.scd on 45 sm:lll gtnUps ill \\'liich 1ll(r.;I millOlil} P:lrlid l);IIIIS were from Asi:ln backgroundli. In j4 oflhl~e 45 gnJUpS (76 PCI'C(llI ). Ihc m e lllhe r who cUlltribuled leasl fl'crjllcnu y was;] millorit} gro up

member ( Ki rclllllC)'e1' fllld Cahn, Igc.J2: lit!e also Kirchmc},er, 19911 Such stud ies faise two sobennc questions for IJrWkni~Jt1i o f\: (H How do I,he d )'mlmics ot ~l1Ial g-rnups iml>cdc Initlority partl('i~ lion :111(1 (2) how C,HI organizau, assist and bend!1 fmlll empllllM wh o In;l} be rcluc t;llI1 to partid~ in 1I11l1l1l-group d(.."Ci~ioll makin;oti Viewed fro m a connitt ptf'ill'l> live, th e apparclI1l} subordilUlt 1'01 ofmc1al .. nd c .:: :limit millllrlUtt within small gro up5-like VU!. ordinate role or !'cmall'S in coo\lT' Slllions wilh Hmle! (ke Chllpl~ 11) - remind~ lIS that lhe powttrril lions of Ille largel' sucicty infllltl melllbcfll t.f snwll gruu ps \\ithin .. organiuliOIl, So long as in~l. based on gcnder. met:. ,md eth,... it}' is e1:idCI\I throughout ow '10.1:" Ny. it will inllucllce pcoplr' Id confidence :lnd their :abilitl III exercise leaderslli l' within a _ group.

In mall)' cases, people model their behavior aflcr groups 10 which they do not belo ng. for exam ple, a college student majoling in finance may Icad the Wall Slrwl j ounlllJ. s tud y the a nnua.l rcporL~ o f corporations, a nd lis ten to midday slock market n ews 011 Lhe r'a dio, The student is engaging in the proces... o f amicipalOl), socializatio n (sce C hapler 4) by using fin ancial experts as a reference group to wh ic h be or s he as pires. h is imponalll to rCCObTJlizc I.h a l individuals arc often influenced by t ....'o or more ,c!e rt:llce grou ps at lhe same ume. One's famil)' me mbers, ncighbors. and coworkers shape different as pects ofa I>crson's

1;:\tC executive who qlliLS the r.n race a1 ag(: l'l ' become a social v..o rker \"ill find new rer~ grou ps 10 use as slalldards for c\'aluauon, Wt''' reference gruups as we take on dilTerent ~tlllllll during our lives.

, ......... 1. ;.,.9. ....................................., ..., ......., .............. _

SmaU Groups

In an unus ual example of s m a ll-group r~~u~ social scic ntiS L~ .ex;~min cd . the co mlllllJlica~ processes and socl:tI ,n tCldctlo ils bc lweClI merllhdj
ofairiillc nigh t crews. Onc stud) conduCled fur. feeler.11 go\'emmenl fou nd thal 70 percent I~

scl f-c,llIual ion, In addition. cCrlail, reference group allachmellls ch a nge during the life cycle. A corpo-

ch~I-;l\'ialion incidents during a fi'C!1'car ~ were :Htlihumblc 10 human enur, JlI;lmuil" Mt_

I'AHT nI(J (}/(f./l,\'UJ,\ 'f> 'i(If'.JM. IJIJ,.

improperly transmitted ti'om OtiC 10 ;H\or.hcr or was not transmitted at 11) rychologisL Roben Hel m,'jell, a numbt'r of airline accidents arise from fail ure to work .....e ll "'~ .1 1C'.lIn. Vel i I i.~ difficuh to achieve in large ,.irL pllOI5 and copilots frequently fly with 1Imln..,ro; \\'hom they have ncvcl' mct before

11""'",.1962). ~"~:I ;;:;;:;:;~OUI"S is an important aspect of

(scc Box 6-- 1). T he term Jmall to refcr lO a group small enough for In ilucrJ.ct si multaneollsly, that is, to I be acqllai lllcd. Cer, groups, slIch as families. may also be 'l\ Imall group-'. IlowC\'Cr, IllfHl)' sm!lll ,.puiIrTt'r fmm primary groups in lhat they do I\f'tn'ilnl) offer the inlinmle personal rel,,~ d'Jrartl'rh(ic of primary groups. For ex.... imanll(OIclUrcr may bring together its seven,...&In Ifgiruml salel; still twice a year for all 'iIIIeIaiw ,".h~ (nnrercnce. The salespeoplc, who 11 dlfkrt'Jlt cities and rarely see one anOlhel" .-aJlr 6 ~ IIMII 'lCcond:uy group, not a primal)'

C.n7rum ~oriofogiJl Gtmg Simmd (18'8-1918) f!imlmnJ '" IM slud, of

SlIItll/.grotlp bdw' lior mid dl'Vf'~

think of small groups as be ing informal -.:aun ued; yet, interactioni.. t r(.'SClIrc hers ul,Illhere are distinct and predictable . , I I Cec:i1ia Ridgeway ( ha,~ shown, nnnwrl);11 bchavior plays a rol t: in a perS<IIl 's

(1ft/IrfHUMs la l~ formotlQn of lOOlitions "'hill! (lr~ :;tiU iLJtd todtry.

f\'l'cQlltactanci all upright, forward-lean,11'(' able 10 be more pe rsuasive withoul 1",,,1," """e,ni" g ","";<eni"g. Moreover. Itrg:UII61Iions-which will examined r~:~~dlf rhJ.pler-smaJl groups have a defini te I (8Mk. 19tH; Nixon. 1979).

~=::','::: innuence in a group. People "'ho c m~


~r:~':~~;,,~;lt is nOIbecolllesclear at whal 10 be exactly poinl people too large

If there are more tha n 20 II1t:Wfor individuals to interact reguin.i& dirt and intimate manner. E,'e n witllin to 20 people, group size can subs tanquality of social relations hips, ForexoH the ntlmber o f group participants in m~1 active commun icators become IMfI' ac-ti,'C rel;ui"e 1 others. The refore. a 0

..._ me

person who dominates a group of 3 or 4 members will be rclalivcly more dominant in a IS-person group. Group size also has noticeable social implications ror members who do no t assume leadership roles. In a larger gl'OlIp. each me mber has less lime to speak, marc poin ts or view la absorb, a nd a more elabor;uc structure within which la function . AI lhe same time. an individual has grea ter freedom to ig4 nore certain me mbers or viewpoinl'i than he or she would in a smalle r group. Clearly. it is harder la disregard someone in a 4-pcrson work force than in an offi ce with 30 e mployees or a high school band witll 50 me mbe rs. Genuan sociologist. Georg SimmcJ ( 1858-1918) is credited as the li rsl sociologist la empha..~i1.e the importance of imcntction processes wi thin groups. Re necti ng o n group size, Simmcl ( 1950:87, o riginal editio n 19 17) suggested tha L smalle r groups have distinc tive qU:'llilies and pa n cms of in te raction which inevitably d isappear as they expand in size.

O/,v'7l:Rb GROUPSANDORG/lhru.110V$

Larger groups, in Simmers view, develop Jlarticular forms of illleraction which are unnecessary in small groups. Subsequent research has clarified the social significance of group size on beh.nior. Researchers in ule United Slates ha\'C givcn spt."Ci:d auenLion 10 cOlllparisons ofS-person and 12-pef'SOn juries. State Icgisl:nures have shown an interest in I'educingjur)' size 10 S,:l\'C moncy and cxpedite courtroom proceedings; social scienLisLS have explored how this might a(fect ajury's decision making. In one study of criminal cascs, the size of a jury had no impact on the likelihood of comicLion when the defendant appeared not to be guilty. J-Iowever. when the defendant's gui lt seemed more obvious, 12-person jurit.-s were more reluctant to convict than 6-person juries ( Hare. 1992). Thc simplest of all social groups or rel;llionships is the (~od} or IW(>'lllembcr group. The convenlional marital rcl<l tiollship I>Ct\\'CC ll a wife ;l11d a husband is an exalll ple of a dyJ.d, as is a business partnership or 11 sillbri ng tcam. In a ely:ld, o nc is able to achieve .1 special level of intimacy thoU C'dn nOI be duplicated in larger groups. 110....'cvt'r, as Si nllnel (1950) noted, a d),'ld, unlike any other group. can be dc.!slIO)'t.'<i by the loss ora single member. TIlcrefore, the thought of tcnnin3lion Imugs over a dy.ldic relationship pcrhal)S more than o\'er an)' other t)1>C.

Obviously. the imroducLiOIl of onc: addll)' person 1.0 jI dY.ld dramaLically tmnsfonm the aCler of the small group. The dYde! now 1xr thret"... membcr group, or triad. The m..'W 111 has at IC'LSI thrt."C basic W:I)'S of ime'-dCting "'ith inOuencing the dynamics of lhe group, Tht person may play a unijj-j"grole within a triad." a m:u'ric...-d couple has it... first child , lhe babr. sen'e la bind the group closer together. A cOllier may also play a mLdi(Jti"g role within a ID I>crson group. L two room mall'S in an apa f are perpetually sniping at each other, tht' roommate may attempt to relmlin 011 good t with e:lch and arrange compromise SOlUtioN problems. Finally. a memocr of" triad can ch< to employ a djvid~nd, nd.,..sLra(C::gy. Thil is th~ forexamplc. with a coach wh o hope tOg'din cOlllrol over t .....o assistants by making them (Nixon, 1979:9- 13). Coalition... A.s groups become the size oflriaru larger, coa litions ClllI be expect, d 10 dt!\'tlop. c coail'li01l is a te mpordry or p,.:rmallcm allialltr \\"ant a common goal. Fo!' cxamp1c-;ln 199~ Congressiollal Black C1.UCUS in the Hour Represenlitti\'Cs-firsl organized in 191P eluded 38 IkmocrdLS and I Republican, Ib )'car, tJlis coalition used iu voting l)QWC:r t(l spending CUll in progr.lI11ll lhat bcnt:fit poor

A coalilioll i.J I'i lemporary Of' fJn7Mnml allumu lowt,"l/l gaol. TM CongrmioruU BIMi In tM HOWl of IV:fnr:MmUJIwa, P. argnmud In 1970, is /In nsllf/llt., roa/llion.

I'Mff nH) ' OllG'Jo,'11JSCsot/M

famili es. including many African families (Cullningham. 1993). do coalitions work ....;Ihin a small group? that Elena Ri\'cra. Frank DiStefano, and hoping to become editor-in-chicf nc .....s paper. nle cditor-in-chiefis seVOle of the 15 outgoing cc\itol'S. cieClion . it al)pcal"sthal River", fa\'Orilc. She is eslimalt. d to ha\'c sc\'e n while DiStefano has fhe . and Smith

mOI'C leadtrs ....'Quld e me rgc rrom lhe tw~pc rson side. This w.l.~ becausc panicipants on the twOperson .side would ha\'e eas), access 10 three bTfOUP members ac ross the table; those o n the threeperson sidt would have cas)' access 10 on l)' two group members. The dat.a later confinned thesc predictions: 70 pe rcen t Of th e leaders emerged from the t .....C)-'ICat side. e\'cn tJlough it accounted for o n I)' 40 percent orl..hc p.,rlidp;tnl5. TIIlIS, ph)'llical c nvi ronme nt ran ha\ c a clear impact on the dynamic... o f small grolll)!i (M. Sha\\'. 198 1). The cITects of group sil.e. oali tioll, .and physical environment on gToup d)'lIlunics arc but thrce of the lUany :tSpcc15 0 1 tJ1e $111;".11 group which ha\'e been studied by sociologists. Another arca. confonnit) and dc..'\iancC'. is gi\'en particular a ttentio n in Cha}>" le:r 7. Of COUN.!. whilc it is de"r lhal slllall1,rroup
cnct)HlIlf'" h:l\'I' a


"':~:;'~:~~~pSmith have the option offonning

Ri,cra. For example. Smith could of the COlltcst and urge his supponc rs to for In relLlm. DiSlcfano might


~;;~(i~~~~:~~S.milh as his assistant or losomc Such a coalition miglu be p.\t.

two candidatcs h,I\'C some id,:ol,o,i.-.I bond o r some COllllllon rcato keep Riven. from becoming
th~ Qlhcr halld. a different type of coalitiun bt dcveloped. In order 10 .lS),ure her \'ictory, could try 10 make a deal with Smith. If she the support of his thret, he r e lt.'Cbe assured. Thus, ill any political. org- .. or $Cuing. there lire nuW",.IY' In which <:oalitifJll c;an be Cl'eated. experiments b\. ~j)l" ACielllists confirm ....01<0< of coahllUl~ lorm'Hio n (C'.:lplo ....., \haw, 1981 : 107-114).

illfhwnrl' 0 11


lives, we a rc also deepl)' " rrecled b), m uc h I:II'ger b"'O ll pil l g~ of pcople.

.... _ ........ _ .......... 2.:;;............ _ ............................ _ .......__ ........ _....... .

Formal OrP"anizations and Bureaucracies


Snmll groups do


TIle), meet and interacl within

!!<ol "";'" """.,, " wh ich ha\'e implica tions for dVII':lIl1i~ . Rooms. chairs (;I.$ Oppos(:d 10 and e\'C1l the shape of a la.ble call innu~~I",,'P': j>erformallcC' and cxchang(:.s in imFor example. ir a gro p i.. scated .H a table and is allowed la discuss a IOpic ",mb<n across the mble rrom cach ol her comments to ot le a nOlhcr morc than
arrangellle n ts can a l.:;o inn uellce leade rOne controlled experimenl in\'oln. tl '

It;roups scaled ~II a rcctangular I:Ible, mtlllben on onc side of the table and .... "(",,,. Since interactions a re more likel), "'( OM the mble. resea rc he rs cxpectcd thal

Ouc poigmuu Ill(s.'~"gc of rece nt decadelo has been the Ixmer ;uul pc rv.l.~i \'e l\t!os of l.II"g('" orgalli/;llions . SLa t e lllent.~ suc h a.<; "Yo u can ' l ligh l city haW I.,.vc undcniCorcd tht [l'lISlf'dtiOIlS .md dC~I);lir of the: loncl\ indi\idu;tl in opposing the to\\cring structures of gO\'CflUllcnt or big business. In a mock rom mcrci:tl. the tdCI)ho llc o per.ttor Ernestinl' -a dmraclc r lIcated b)' lhe cnmediall LiI)' Tomlillpl'ocl:lims: "\-Vc d o n ' t care: Wt dUll " ha\'(' 10. \Vc'rt' tJ1 C phone COml)aJl ),I" Our li\'eS arc increasingl) dominated b) large second.11)' ~rOllps which take the ro rm of ronllal organizations designed fOl" a lipecilic pU'l>ose. 1\ for mal orgllll i:.a tio fl is :t speci al-pul1>ost: group designed and s lru(' rlln~d ill l!..le hncrcst" of Illl"lxim um efficienc),. Org:Hliza tiolls \~try in thcil' sil.c. specific it}' of &oals. ;lnt! degrec or c l nci c ncy~ hut afe <;trut:tured ill SUCh .i way liS to f:lci lit;llc tit(' 111:111agclllelll uf1arge~:llc uperations: Thc) also ha\'e a burc:mcratic form or OllYtllil'llio\l. \\ hich will he described l.. t(..'1' in tJI C c1ll1plcr. '11c United St:IlCS r ostal Selvice, the Boslo n Po p)' nrc1U:Slra , and the

(.J('II'n.H" (.JH '''11,\1) ORC"'M/A IIOX.,

collcge ),011 a ue nd arc .111 exa mple5 o f forma l or* g<lnizations. El our l>ocicty, forl1101I orgallizaliolls fu lfil! an enormolls varict), of personal ami socict:11 nceds ;"ld S-hare thc Ii"l.~ of C\'crr pcrson. In fac t, fonmll f)rgani/.<!.ti(lItS h,l\'c bc.come such a d o minant force Ihal wc must c reate organizations to SllpCrvlSC othe r fJrg"d ni7.<!.l io IlS, slIdl OIl> Ihe Sccurilic:<; llnd Exchange Commission (SEC) and olher federal regula tOT)' agencies. 11 ~lInd~ much m orc exciting to say that .....e live in the ~s pacc age" than th,\! we li\e in the "age off0 1111011 orga ni 1~'lljons"; hm., e la u er is pro bably a more :U :CUI'i.\!C desaiptinn of the 1990s (Azumi and lI age, 1972:1; ElIioni. 1964: 1-2 ). Deve.lopment of Fonnal Organi7.ations I-I ow a nd \\hy have 1 0rmal ors.,rani7.atio ns come in lo exiSlence? The fil"'1,t lilfgCltlc fonnal org:mif.:nions seem to haw' 1'lIIcrged , I ~ r(' ltll~ 11 gl)\'('rnnlel lt.5 became tH nrc comples . FUlln:, 1 urgan izations beca me illl'vir:tble in ,socie lies which had stalc<o rHro ll cd irrigation nc t\\'ork ~, "lIdt liS E~,'}1) 1 . MesopOlamia. In* dia. C hina . ;mrl Pcru u nder th(' Incus. Cen rll'd,;inns hacllo be mad e about waler disllibmio n , ,mrl nCl work.~ 1'('" fat rying out such policies had to b(~ l'stahlishcd. T he growt h of fOll11al o rgauilalions has been closely lied to til t" c lllt'rgc nce ofindlL<;lrial societies. Earlier socieues had not developed largt."'SCale 0 1 '~an i T.<!.tions to their fullesl extent 1)cC-dUst' their thnolog), w'd..~ rclad\'cly underdeveloped .. CoI15Cqueml)'. t1lere " 'as nn nced tu accullIulate pr()fits 10 invCSI in machine l')'. As mechanica l iIHIO\'ations 'e ('\'olved . 1110 1 sophi.'l tic.lted lllanagenlc nl e me lxcd to m aximi~t' production in order 10 ser"e new marLe tS brought about by improved tr.lIl~porla ti o n nel* works .tncl increased consumer demand . To sec how ,I formal o rganiza lio n can d evelop, let us consider Ihe cs'l1uple o f a carpe tllcr ill colonial New England , whom wc call James V",ooley. Wool!')' began his adult life as a sc lf-('mp lo)'cd arti,san ..... ho perso na lly pcrfnrm cd a ll r,he ta,~ ks o f his trade. Hc cu t the lumber, sawed it, m:tde fu ntilurc. :t lld sold his pnx hlc ls himself. Generally. he \I'o rkcd alone in the building Ihat served as his shop. slort!. a nd home. Ni hi ~ villagt' and business g rew, Woole), concl udcd that he.' had 11101'1.' customcrs tl1:m he could

personall), SCI'\e_ Atlil1ll, he hired a si ngle: ~ A few )'t!3f5 lat('r. as he was ..bit" to r~I)()I1d mand in nCighboring "reas, he began to e small gl'o lll) of workers. Earh of them s in II specific aspect of furn iture and ad"l.11ll'age of new lool" and iIH1 0\'i.IU w: tc.'chniques. O nc wurker cu t Ihe wood, Ollt' bedposts. onc W;L~ in charge of staining, .urd other nUl the store. Before long, a carpemtt become the managcr of a small fumi lUrt (Stark Cl al .. 1973: 1-15) , Woolcy disco\'elcd Ihat b)' coonlin:tl ing the o r sc\'cml ill>~h t;lII l~ elTkicntly. hc could p furniture more quickly and with less cxpc n~ ever, lhis c(J11Vcn\ioll from a one-pcr.;on 0 10 a small asse mhly line illustrates mort' th.aa ply a changc in p roductio n It.'Chn iques. It the c m e rgcnct. o f a dramatic ll1), different I organization , known as burl'flll rrary, that ha" signilic.::a nce for pco pl c'~ imc l'actions and !I lalionship to work, ~realU:r'a CY i~ a c,?m of formal o rga nimtio n illwhich rlllc~ and rhical mnking are u.;cd 10 achic\'c dTicielln.



Characteristics of a Bureaucracy When wr.Y (lft he teml irnrfflllcrury, a , ... nc IYofimagcsunpleas., nt -comc to mind. Ro " 'S of rlcsLs b> seeming ly faceless people, e ndless litW'l ' fortn~, iml>O\'\.<;iblycolllplex language (seeT ,md fmSLraling e ncounters with red ta~-iIl ha\'e combined to m:tk.e Imrmu.r.rtl?adirr, an cas)' targct in politicdl campaigns. As a ft.'w peoplc ~o;rnt lO ide ntify their acall ~bl.lrca uc rat" despite the fact that nil of U~ vanous bureaucratic t..'lSks. Ele mcnts o fbuf'(: arc found in :tltnoSI eve!'}' OCCUP;ltiOI1 in all trial socie ty such as the U nited Statt.'S. 11 is important t,o em phasize th:1I complalUlf bure;IlICrdCY arc nOl limilcd to the United . 199!i, the bllrea' l c l~lti c n:lIltre of the Unill.'fi, ' hlll11a nit.II;<1 11 d ]'orts ;n Somalia came unfit,t CI;Ik.>4 no ted thal th e five inte rnlllio nal agC'1! . Ignaled to rUIl relie!' efforts in Somalia had than 12,000 c mplo)ec.'S, of who III o nl)' 11 6 ,",' ing in thc impove rished , "'ar-tom African Moreover, like llIallY bureaucracies, the mid ra lU.~ 1'o'aS slow in dcaliug with a drastK: pn the wmds of:l former United Natio ns ....


toying off of 20 percent of laying oH of 19 offidols AdvertiMlI'IOnt of uled cors

won force

Workers wele dedored "duplicotive" CoIled 0 "refocusing of !he company's 5kills MICoils
the~ COli

"pr_n!oYed" cors

Inslitulioo of new job litle for drivers who deliver piuo

Drivers now called "delivery ombonadars" Ca lled


Collision of !wo plones on the ground Death of 0 patient 01 molproctice


-runway inCUl'1ion"

rewlt of mediCClI

A "diagnostic misadventure of 0 high


pe~n lakes days to a I.),.... 3,000 pt."Ople can die in 15 days" lip"""' 1!J!J3.9). 10 dC\'clop a more useCu [ .md object ive ::::,:'::h.:;u;~,,::a,( crncy, let u,: co nsider writ91 7:333- 340, original editio n n ib pitmcer of sociology, who was in troJl<jlill ,rJ". "" I. lirst dirccted rescllrchcn to thc p of bureaucratic structurc. In all imlWKiolugical ad\'3.llce. Weber e m phasized simil:trity of S!.fUcture and process foulld dissimilar enterprises of reiibrion , ___...n. education, and business. \It"\1t'd bu reaucracy as a form of o rganidillc,relll fro.m tbe family-run business. "''''p'd,HI ideal type o r bureaucrncy. which most ,haraclcrlstic aspeCts of al l h uma n -:':::'~~I.Slnce perfect burcaucracies arc Iii no aClual o rg'<m ization will corl'(.... n.vtlv 10 Weber's ideal t)'}>C (Ulall and 1 ~: 1 9-22). Nevcnheless,jY,.ebcr argued tmrt',lUcrdcy-whelher its purpose is 10 wro<m.ti<",. o r army- will chardctcrislics, potclIlial , conL J i' ...",,1 in Table 6-3 o n page 154 .

11lc .m:rngc U.N.

1 5

77w Quarterly RJ ...i .... ... r 1 'lnl,hh"",W';,k. n /mbliralbm of liu Na/IQlmf (',ollt/rif rifTrachm of English. ItgldmlJ jighiJ imLgtlGge polllllion by publishing

of bumlllcrtllir

~dollblrfl)t(lk ~



fiesiK'ltd 10 mislma fx.OP/~ al/li lllallipulatr sonal rrality.


of Lobor Specialized ex pcns are emin t"h posilion 10 perform specific tasks.

tbr pn.....idclll of the united Slates need not

be a good typist. A lawyer need lIot be able to comp lete an income tax fonn. By working at a specific task, people ,u'c morc likely to become highfy skilled and c:uTY ou t a job with maxi m um efficiency. T h is emphasis 0 11 speciali zauon is so basic a parI of o llr Jives th::lt wc may no t realize that it is :t fa irly recent developme nt in western cu lture. Analysis o f d ivision of labor by intcr3ctionist rcsearchers has led to scmuny o r how various cmployees at a work place interact with one another. For example. rtfler a c., rdiac patient is brought into a surgical recovery room. n urses and technicians independclHly make 10 to 20 connections between the pauellt and ' '''rlOUS mo ni lOring dcvices. Lmer procedures. by con trast, are mo re likely 10 involve the coo l>CI~lI.i\'c efforts of two or more workers. T h rough these lask-'1. med iad personnel gain pr~ Iicic nC)' in delicate and essential procedures (Su-auss, 1985:2) . Although division of laoor has ccrtainly bct.: n bcnelicial in the pe rronnancc o f many compte,," bureaucracies. in somc cases it can lead lO trained ill capa city; that is. workcl'S become 50 specialized th at they develop bli nd spots and fail 10 no tice ob-

Cl IM'n;R

6 CNOUffl M..n ORGANflA'II(J,\'$




re< THE
Produces 0 norrow peflpttCli...

[)jvisio4'l oIlobor

Produe;es ~fficiency in IorgNCCIIe corporation Clorifies who is in commond lat workers know whot is eJCpected of them Reduces bios Discouroges Iovorilism ond redUCfl perry rivalries

Prodl.lCeS troined incopacity Deprives employees 01 0 voice In decision moking StlR Inllioti... ond e Imoglnolion Contributel 10 feelings of olieflOlion Discouroge, ombition 10 Improve oneMlt' elsewhere

Hierorchy 01 outhofity Written rules ond regulotionl ImpeuoflOlity Employment bosod on technical qlJOli!ication,


vious pro ble ms. Even worse, they may IIo t a lrealXHll what is happcning next lO them on the assembly line. Some obscrvers believe lhat , through such de.. "ciopmc nLS, "'orkers have become much less productive on Lhe job. Allhough trai ned incapacity has negative implicalions fot' the smoolh running or org-.mi7.. -1tions, it is especially dis:tslrollS ror the person "'ho loses a job du ring a layoff, An une mployed \\'orker may have spen t years becoming pro fi cient at highly tec hnic"l work a nd yet may be tOlally lIlISuited for other positions, even lh ose whi ch are direc tly related to his o r her ro rme r job. As an example, an a utomolive machinist who pushes bullons on an automobile assembly line in Michi&"'-n will lack the proper tmining and skill to \\'ol'k as an oil industry mac hinist in Texas (Wallis. 198 1). In some instances. the division of labor (as renec ted in U1 C fmgmentation of job titlt."S) may actuall)' cOlltribmc to sex discrimination by c re.tling unn cces~m ly and inappro priate diStinc ti ons be .. tween re male and male employces. In a study of 368 businesses in Califomia, SOciologist J amcs l3aro n and Williarn i3ic lby ( 1986) found that proliferation o f j o b tilles tended to increase a.~ men and women reached parilY in their level or e mployment. Apparenuy, scpardtcjob tilles-ostensibly designed 10 renect" dh~sion oflabor-werc actually being used lO prcsclVC Lrddilio nal occup"lional segregatio n by gender.

flllrtll!lcmry /1ZI1/tI1ult/llo
/lOSifirH' (lS/ltfi.f. M ort! jriCllistJ lwrH' ducrihtd lilt

conuqUl!tlaS (or hrlrtllUCTIICJJ ;=~,J;:'i::

. I



r1~ 0:


iJUrt(Juf7ary .

2 Hierarr;hy of AuthorJ.!y Bureaucracies the prin ci pl e or hie rarchy: uml is, each unde r the slIpelVision ora ure 6- 1). A proressional b".scl,,,n team is run owne r, who hires a general manager, who hires a manage r. Beneath the manager coac ht.'S a nd last the players. In the Roman church . lhe pope is ule supreme .u'h,ori'~; hilTlllrc cardinals. bishops, and so fonh. medical group pr-dCtiCes have boards of ex(:cutivc committees, a nd admin isU<1lOrs et al.. 1985). Social science research suggests that cics may be a positive e nviro nme nt for the lo, but not the upper echelons archy. Political scientist KaJ.hy 1984) observes that many traits l,",d;,:l.. ated with the femipine gender role-such ing wann. supporti,'e. cooperauve 71 ~:::= are conducive to participation in a


"ART ntI'J ORGA,\"f7J"'G ,\l}("JAJ. lJN-

IICt1 , ., Organil ation Charl of a Govl!nmlllm l Agency

National Aeronaurics and Space Administrotion (NASA)

..... .......... .

H...... R Edua;;..,




TI~ fQ17Iud $lnuf1jrl'

of a I,'vvt'nlment

orplua.ion. Ilowever, upward ly mobi le women find m" ir career progrcss hinde red becaLl.$C Ibn fUlltUoIl more as fadliwlors than as innovaan. And then ,Ire not viewed as aggressive enough "" f\l' in higher managemcnt posts, COnst.. .... IjIIrtllll" olhlwugh .mditional feminine valLlcs may hr fUlluiollal for wom en in the lower levels of bnrrJucrauc stnlClure, IIle}, appear to become d}'s iunUlon,ll a.~ "omen aspire to grcater po\\'c r and

(lgnuy is faill), etJ5] 10 asm1ain. J'',tfUall)' iml}{n1fHlt, bur les5 appafmr, is


infonnal rll(l;n of rotnlll(llul.

J It'rilltll Rllles and Rl!gulalions Would n' l it be

nice if a ba nk tc ller cashed your c heck for S I 00 a nd deliberately handed }'ou six $20 bills, saying; "You have such a fl;c ndly smile; he re's a n cxtra S20~? It would ccnainly be a pleasant surprise, but it would also be "against the rules." Ru les a nd regulations, as W~tlJill.QWI arc a n importHll characteristic of bllrcaucracie~. Ideally, th rough such procedures, a bureaucracy ensures


6" GIiOu/'S AN/) OHGANllATm."'S

III fin o:nmpk of goal disfJI4u-L London l 'rml$/X'rl IIJOI"kM (till

{(fuse chllllJ'
HI ,'"

JUUvItJJ ~u. lo!

5Irir'(~ IUlhm"g III fill

MJ ~

rrguiOliolls (md t~1!j JlfrotllIHl(.

ILSe of (my .UlUu'fry tar flrfll trivial d,prl.

unifOl"lll pcrfonnanee of every task. This pro hibits U~ f,'om recei\ing an extril S20 at the ban k. blll it also guara ntecs us that we .....ill receive essentially the same treatme nt as othe r customers. If Lhe bank provides them with special sel'\'ices. such as monthly state ments or i!l\'esunent advice. il will also provide us with those selvices. Thl'Ough written I'llles and regulations, burcauel'leies ge ne mlly offer e mployees clear standards as to what is conside red an adequate (or exceptional) performance. In addition, procedllres provi de a va luable sense of contin uity in a burea ucracy. Indhidllal workers will come and go, but the smlcture and past records give the orga nizatio n a life of ilS own that o uui\'cs the sc ....'ices o f ,m y o ne bureaucr;u. Thus. if you arc broughl in to work as the nc\'o' manager of;. bookstOre. you do nOI ha\'c to St:lrt from scratch . Instead . ),011 can study the store's records ;md accollnting books LO leant about the payroll, financial dealings wilh c\isuibutors, disCO llllt policies 011 "sale~ books. ,md other procedures. Of COLLr5C .nilcsj!!ld regu lations can o\'ershadow the larger goals of an o rganiz;llion and become dysfunctional. Ir blindly applied , they will no longer serve as a means to achie'~ng an o bjective but instead will become imporulIlt (a nd perhaps 100 imponalll) ill their own riglll. This would certainly be

lhe case if a hospital cmergency room ph} fail ed 10 treat a seriously i,uurcd person bt.'OIlM 0 1' she had no valid proof of Unitcd Stales d ship. Robert Menon (1968:254-256) has u~ tcnn goal disp laceme,,/ tO refe r to o\'cnealoos ronnity 1 official regula tions. 0 In somc instances, raulcr Illan blindlyapp !'ulcs :lIId regulations. employees may am.((iwm g<lgc in goal displaccmcnt. Sociologist O'DOllnell ( 1992:275) obsel'\'cs that BJitbh unions often have their mcmlx:n ~wo rk to (pclf0l111 all ulSks strictly by tllC regulativn.ll bring manage ment to thc bargai ning lable. For ample. London 's mmsport workers can ql cause chaos in Ule subway sysle m by suicu) ing to all safety c heck regulations ;Uld th~n'b! ven ting the use o f an)' subw:ay c<lr that h~ trivial defect. I1 is widely believed liml the n.lles and reguLr of bureallcl, IC)' lend to suppress or destroy thr dividll:llilY uf employees. However, sllldi~ ductcd by Mdvin Kohn ( 1Y78) suggest lha! reauCl1lcies often encourage intellectual fI tolcl':..Ulce for no nconfonnity, and willingnffilD CCpl change. The complexity and dh'ersifi~ sponsibiliti{!s or most bureaucratic jobs aPJd play a n impo nam role in promo ting Oexibihn opcnnes... lO change _

Plllr 1110 0IICoA.\11J,\'(. MJU. II un

hfcrrolftl/ity Weber wrote that in a bu~~~~\\'Qrk is carried Ollt sint ;ra f't slurlin, ~wilh or passion," RurC:lU crdtic non-ns clicLilte perform their duties without the per C'Onsiderntion of people as indhiduals, This 'lD1rnded 10 gual'antee equal treatme nt for each ~; howc\'cr, it also contributes to the often ... and lIne-dring feding associ:ucd with modern

rence J. Peter. According t.o the Peter prim:iple. /::\'C I)' employee with in :1 hier:t rchy tcnds to I;se 10 his or her level of incompetenct' (Peter :lI1d Hull, 1969:25), This h)J>otitt."!lis. which hml not been directly or systemal ica ll) Il'''ted. rcllf'clS a pUSloible d)'Sfunctional outcome of struc turillK lIdVanCelllclll 0 11 the basis of mcTiL Talt' ntcd people recei\'c pl'Olllt> lion after promotion until, sadl). they flnall) achie\,t: positions th;tl they cannot llandlc (Blal l and Meyer. I 987:l! I ; Chi no)" 1954 :40-41) . BureaucraUl-auon as a Process As st:lh.-d ('ilrlic!'. Weber's dm l'aC lcri!>tics of blll'caucr.lcy should be seen as describing all ideal type ralher Ihall as o r fering :I precise definition of an acnml bur'eau
er-UT. Socialogi_~t Aldfl CQuidncr ( 19!i0:53-5-l)

r,..... when .....e think of impersonal bureaucmIDlcre:uingly, during the most tUI'blllc:nL years )%Os, Ittudem aCLivisls around the world bit*'n""",.cd the bure<lucratic mlture of the uni'"'I. CtnenfTht" ~m hn) ~ ftfdw fn'!'spN'ch mOI'i"rhe UniversiTy ofC;llifomia at Bc rkel ey was computer card which st,lIed: ~Stude lll at . Du IIOt bend, fo ld , or Illuulate. ~ In the view If;_d"",s, the uni\'ersit)' had become onc lIIore flatdess, unfeeling hureauc r:'lc)' whic:-h cared the uni(luenes..<, of the individual CP.Jacobs ~l....,,, 1966,2 16--219).

Wr trpically think of big government :Uld big

Tech"ical Qllalificatiolls lfiring is based on tcchnical I rather than on favoritism, and perU measured :lgrtinst spccific st:lIl dard,~,


10 Pl'Otcct burcaucrats against arand to prmide :I IlIcasure of secui a rc dictated b) written pt: 1 ...anncl :md people onen have .. right to appea l if bt~ that pilrticul;lr rult.'5 ha\'e been ,io. ." " procedures encourage loyalty I() the or-


ttm ~me, the "impersonal" bllrc;ulcmC)' call

rmprm-emeru O\'er nonbllreallcl"'dtic urganiA fcoderAI bureaucrat in :t civil ~ervicc pofor t'xample, has ideally been scleClcd on the " ' ' ' 'm. ,r i"not because he or she did fa\'ors for ' ..""'" machine, Abcwc a ll , lhl' burea ucracy is to value technica l and professional COUl""hich is es.~elltial in the day-to-day fllncof .. complex, indll~ u'ial 'Xic ty ""ch as the


1 personnel decisions within a blldo not always follow Ihis ideal pattern, =~::;,7, \\ithin bureaucrac), ha\'e bcCOllll' wel l , p:tn.icularly hccau.. of t l ie work of UlI<;('

notes that not every formal o rgHnil.:.ttioll will po\-sess all or Weber's charactcrislic~, In l'acl, the re call be wide "'....i<ltioll a lllong aCllla) bureaucr.uic organil.aLions, Stanky Udy ( 1959) compa red the struc ture of forma l orgolni/Ol lioll$ in 150 nonindll<ilri:tl sociedcs, Like their coun tl:I'parts in modern induSlria l n .. t;o ns, th ese o .. ganizatioll~ posse~scd many of-hut not IIcceS-SaI;!Y all-the bureaucnttic chamcteris-tics identifiefl by Weber. Similarly. Richard Hall (1963) teSI,eel Webcr'~ ideal t),pe agai n'!t ID 1 'ol1n:.1 orbrani7.. 'llions wilhin the United St..II(.'S, including a hotel and a lltock brokerngc finn . Ilis findings con cu!'rcd Y,ilh those of Udr: bureaucrac)' mus t b.~ \;cwecl as a mallcr of dt'grcc, Iltllt i~, a... more. llr less, bureauc ratir, Tht'I'lfore. in dC'iCribing organi. 'laUons, y,'{, need to apply the Webcrian lIlodl"l carefull), with the- IInrlel~tanding Ihat all organization can be more or It:ss l'ule-orient('cI , more o r less hierarchical, and q") forth (NicLino\'k h, 1992) _ Sociologist.'i h:l\c used lhe term bllreallcrafi:o(jo" to refcl' to the- procelts by which ;l group, or&,llIi7:.1tion, or social move llle nt hccoll1c~ increa),.iogly bureaucralic. Earlier in the chapu'r, we saw the bcgillnillgs of this procc~s as c:upelUcr Jam {'~ Woolcy bec;lme lhe I1I:Hlagcr of a sma ll flll'l1itlll"(: fano!), in colonial Aml'riC:I, Wnnlt,y,,, faClory , ('\,(' 11 earl) in its oprr.ltion, took 011 at least t\\'o 01 Weber's c harac teristics of bureaucracy: divbion of labor and hierarchical authority, Ir, he factory COIItinued to grow-and Woolc\' took on morc anrl 'ltio n IHllllrI UIl mo re emplo),ees-his organi7.. doubtedly become 11101 e impersonal and he would

15 7
O/ II'1'I,H" ' CR()(,I~ .....\71 OHr~Ij,\I~ ~I'IIO\'\

probably develop morc rules and rcglll:ujons 10 e nsure efficiency. Normally, we think ofburcaucrath.ation in tcmlS of large organi7,.:llions. In :l typical ciUZI.'IIS niglllmare, o nc may havc 10 speak to 10 or 12 individuals in a corporaljon or gO\'crnOlcnt agency 1 find ,0 OUl which official ha.~ ju';sdiction over" particular problcm. Callers call get transferred frO Ill one dep"lI"UUCnl to another until they finally hang up in disgust. BureaucrntilauOII also takes place within small-gronp setungs. Children organi;";ng a school dub lUay clect ,IS many officers as thc::re arc club members and mOl)' develop \'OIriOllS I"IIles lor meet ings. In addition to V'drJ'ing from socielYto society. hureaucratizatiQn a lso lien 'es as an independent (or c."lusal) mriablc affecting social change. Conflict theorists ha",! argucd that burealicr.nic orga ni7.alions tcnd 10 inhibit c hange becausc of their emphasis on reb'lll;uion!> and security 1(11' officcholdCl's. As one example, some public (lSSisL<lllCe (or I\< dfare) caseworke rs aIe so preoc( upicd with the required fonns for clien ts that they fo rget to scC whethcr people's bitSic nee ds arc being !>ad1>.iied. Pa per becomes marc meaningful than people; tHUnbers take precedelll'c ovcr neeck Oligarchy: Rule by a Few The burcau(ratizing influcttcc on social 1Il00'cmcllts ha.'! also been a con ccm of connicr thcorisl.'!. German soc iologiSt Rubcrt Miche ls ( 191 5). in studying MlCialist panics alld labor unions in Europe before World War I. found that slLc h organizations were bccoming increasingly bun::auC I' II.iC. The emcl'gillS leaders of th e~c organil.ations-evclI some of the l110st nIdi COli -had :I vcsled interest in clinging to power. If they 1 their leadership posts, they would have to 0Sl I'CllU'1l to fulltime work as manual laborers. Similarly. a team of sociologists studied burC".IlIcrali7A,tion in Mcrisis cclltcrs.~ These urganizations. born in the c(lulltcrc:ultufe o f thc 19605 (see Chapte r 3), were eswblishcd to olTer counscling and Slippon to people expcricncing divorce, de:Hh of a family member, dnlfl, and alcohol problems, and other types of e motional c risis. Despite their initial commitment lQ leM bUl"e;llIcratic. nonhier.trchical Stnlctures. c.risis CC llIel'!! increasingly tUnled III writ le n job descriptions. o lgan i:t.ation charts. and writtc n po licies regarding trealmcntof cascs and c 1icnt~

(Senter et al.. 1983: fOI" a different VlC.'W, Roth.schild-Whill, 1979). Through his n .Sc:U'ch , r"lichcls origioltlt'd ' idca of the iruII law of oligarchy,undcrwhida a democratic organi lation will develop into. reaucracy mice! by a few (the olig:lrchy). '" oligarchies emerge? Peo pl e who achievc lead roles usually have the ski lls. knowlt..'dge, or mm,ic appeaJ (as Weber no tcd) to direct. ifnnr. Irol, others. Mic hels <lrgues that lhe rank md of:l movement or orbrani/':luon look. to lea direction and thereby reinforce the Pl'OCeMtI by a few. In addit.ion. me mber.; of an o liga stJ'O ngly motil~lI ed 10 maint..'lin lheir lea roles, plivileges, :lI1d 1>D\\cr. Michcls' insighlS continue to be rclcV'.III1" 19905. Contelll!lOr.try I:I00r unions ill the r Stales and westenl Europe bear liule resell to those organized after spOlllancous aclivitl plo ited workel's. COIlOict th col"isl.~ hal'e t'lI: co ncern about thc longevity of union leadrl'\ arc nOI alwap rcspomil'c to the needs andd of membership. As Mic hels lIoted in his iron oligarchy, leadcrs may become more co will1 maint."l.ining their 0\\'11 positions and III At least one recent shldy, howel'cr. r.f&\ liuns about Michc ls' vit'I\'S. On die basi5 of sea rch on orbran il;tl.iuns active in the Mpl"lH" social m(I\'CmCIlI, which cndoJ'SCS the lighllll abonions. s.ociologl.~1 SU1..anne Stagsenborg I di~plltcs the assertion th,lI foml .. 1 organ wilh profess-ional leaders inevitably ooCOIIW se n~ dtivc and olig;:lH:hical. Indeed . she 1 111t'" 1l1:IIIYiormal o rgani7.aLions in Ihe pro<hoii t ment appear 10 be more tiemocr.ltic th;\n 11 groups: the routiniwd procedures thul thM make it more difficult for ie,lders 10 achit-wsivc (scc also E. Scou. 1993). It should be added that bureallcrnciC1i ut' wa)'!> a conservative force within a sociell. scielllist Grcgol1' I{.:m.a ( 1987) studied regimes in Japan (in the period 1 937- 1 9 1~ ) ( 1968- 1975). and Egypt ( 1952- 1970). lit that the c ivilian burcaucmcies s("Mng thnt tolt)' go\,cnuncn ts llctually promoted rad ical For example, Eb'YPtillil bureaucrats in .1iwl!eping land refonns that redisuibuttd ce nt of all land suitable for cul tiv'llioll to Iht try's pC;L<;ants. In c ritici zing previous ....'(lrl i


l-'lfllHlIlIg btlYfl ml Ihl h,Ulum matw/1Ji

/N'I'f/ltllit jQ('lIY.s
{ltiJ/"fli!JII .

{notmtilJllj', and nmll;olllll

011 WQlhm'jtt""gJ, /"1" JnI,


rr.lUnaLif CQnscrVlltislII , KaSi';1 elllpliasil.cs tha l d ifIrttnll\llC~ of regimes may CIlCOIlr:tKt radic:. I, libtnI. or coll'leJVali\'c bmcallCr.uic policies. While Ihe "iron law" llIay ltOllleumt:s help us to UDdtrol2ud the concentratiun of formal autholity withlll organizations, sociologists recognize that Lhtrt .tn' a number of checks on leadership. Ltuup-. ()n~n compete for power within a fannaJ arpnllllJ<III, :u in an :mIOUloti\'C corporation in _11 rll\;sioll! manufacturing hco"y machinery oIDd p.n IlKt'r cars COIll IK!IC agai nM each olher for I'L-..rarch and de\'clopmcllt funds. Man.... IIIIn. mfimnal channels of comlUUlIICtUon and CIJIKf,d can IIndercul the power of top officials of .~.mir.lIion . This is bUI'C'HlCr.ICy''' "other facc,"



Oilier Face

Ilow doc~ b\lreaucrati-

lIQ\.'n ot!I<"Ct thc ;wcr.tge individua l who works in

.. ('1J:L11IlOuion? The early theorists of fOl'l na l orp!1t,jIIHIIS tended to lIeglcet Ihis <jIlCSlio ll , Max Wr-IJI'r, fm e)(amptc, focused 011 m;magclllcLll peramelwidlin bllreaucracies, bi ll he had litlle lO say ilbllIlI 1I'''I..e"" in indust ry a' cle rks in go\'crmncnt


.\I;wrdinK 10 the dassic:a l OHIO,., o f lannal oral'IQ known <Ul Ihe sc:ie1l tific: matlage.., .~"rQ(Jclt , 'II'Orkel"ll are mOLi''aICd almosl c ntirrft bot t'COllornic rewards. This theory stresses that

product ivi ty is limited on ly by lite p h ~ica l consll-aints of worken, Th crcfore, workcrs are u'caled as a resource. lIluc h likc tlte machines Illat have Ix.'gun 10 replace them ill thc t",'clltielh celllu'1'. Management a ll Cm pL'i to achic,'c maximum work efficicncy through scientific planning. established pcrfOlmance 'iLandards, and (OIrclul slIl>cnrlsion of \\'o rkcrs and production. I'tanni llg undcr the scie ntific managcmcnl lIpproach imol\'cs dme and moLion studies but not studies of work en' allillldes or fce ling'i ofjob sollisfaclion. It ....~<lS nOI until workers organi7ed unions-anel forced InanagemcllllO recogni/ Iha llheywel'c not objects-that theorisLS or fonn;rl Ollfoll1i~lions lx.'g:1Il 10 rc\;se 111e classica) a pprO<lch . Alo ng l'I;lh management and adtllinislr:llors, sudal SciCllUsts becamc aware that informal group, of workers have lln imporlall l impact o n ol'gani7.m ions (I' errow, 1986:79-118), Onc !'I'SUII "''as OIn,t!t crll;ttivc Woly of conside ring bllrC;tllCI':'ltic d Y lmntics, lhe Iwmarl relatiollS app roacl., which c mphasil.cs the rolc of people, commu nication, ami partici pa tion wilhin a bureaucracy. T hi, type of "\lalrsi, rcnccts the inlcrCSl of illlcraclionist lhcOIist.s in small-grollJl bchavior, Unlike pla nning under lhe scicmific mau agcmCIll approach, planning h.'lSCd 0 11 the human relations perspccU\'C focuscs on workers' feelings, fmstrdtions, and clllOtiOlml need forjob S<llisfacLion,

(;JHPll:Rb ' GROUP$A\VOIlGANI1.lltKJ''l

TIll' g l~ldual 1Il00.'e :"",.IYfrom d )Ole focus on ph)~ jC11 a:.peus or gelting rhe joiJ done-and (o\\o'a r (l the concerns ami needs of WO I kNs- lcd advocates of the human I'c huions appru;lch to su'css the less fom\Oll ,tSpects 01' bureaucl~dlic ,tnlctun:. Inrormal stnu:-tllrcs and socia l network! \\'il1lin orlr-UliZ<ltions develop panl)' as a rt:sull 0 ] peoplc'~ a bility 10 CH.'" att' more direct fonns 0 1 COllllllunicaooll than lhe fonnal ~U1.lcturcs m;mdatc. Charles Page (1946) has uscd the Lenn burnlllmuf s ofhl'T fim 10 refer to the Ullulficial lIctj"jt ic!I alld ilH cl~l cti o n !> which are such a basic part of clllily o life. T\\'Q slUdil...",-one or a r."u' tory, Ihe ulher Of':1 law CIlrurcelllcll t age n C)'-i ll u~lrate the value o r the huI\l , Ul relations approac h. In Chaptet' 2, we looked ;'11 Lh" I-Iawlh o rne s lmlies, \\hich alerted :.ocio l ogist~ tn the laC! Iha l re-.earch .. ubjeclS lIIay a he r Iheir be hal'lor to ma tch the e!\pt' I'i melll e r 's expcct;ttiulls. This m ethod.. u lindin g IIUlwi lllstanding, the In'tio r fo cus of the Ifawlho m c ~tu di es was the role of ..udal f.1C~ lOJ"'i in Ilorkers' Pl'oouctivilY, 1 one aspect o r the \3 re~earch, an in,e\tigation \1'<lS made of the switchboartl-b;mk wi li ng room, where 14 men were mak ~ iug IMrt!\: of :.wi lches for telephone equipmen t. T hese men were found lO be producing far belml their physic.\l cotpabililies, This W;15 es-pecinlly surprising because they would eam mo re mo ne} if they I>rodllccd morc 1 l.'"IrtS, \\1,v wa!> there such an lIncxp('cted restrictio n of OUlput? ArcordillK 10 the da.ssiral thcol") , prod uctivi ty sho uld l~ lIl.tXim i7.ed , sinct' workc,.. rs had been givcn a IinanciOlI illcellti\'e. HOI\'el'CI", in practice the men \\oCI"t- cOlrerully $ub\'cning this .schcm e to boost productivity_ l1ley fcared that if U1C produccd y s\\'l tch parts al a fa.slcl' ralC, thd r pOly rate mig ht be reduced or some mig ht luse their jobs. As a resu lt , this gl'Oup of workers established their uwn (unoffi cial ) lIorlll for a pt-o per da)"s ""'Ork. T Il('), ('fe.lled inlu fl'lI:!1 r ules, sanctio ns, and tlrgOt terms to e llrorce th is sUllld., rd, Workel'!. wh41 produced -' too mu ch" were clllk'd "speed kin gs~ a nd ra tc \)lIs t eI"S,~ while Iho:,c judged to bt.~ tOO slow \\'t:re "c'-hiselers." WOI-kef's who I'lolatl-d this agreemCIH \\'rC Kbi ll ~ed~ (... Iuggtd o n the sho ulde r ) by COWO I ke rs , Yet nran a~t- m enl. was unawlIre of such practil.cs lIml had actually come to !>eliele tha l the men wefe "'orki ng as h;,rd :tS tile) could ( Eujoni_ 19&1:33-34; Roclhlisl>t'fgcr and Dicksun. 1939).

In anOlher study of intcractio ns within bl Pe t('r mall ( I \)63) observed agclllS "'01' in a fede ral law e nfo rce me nt agc ncy. Thcir work ' voil'cd auditing books a nd records and a lso in viewing c mployee" and cmployer.!, If agcnL\ cou lltcred a problem or proce dure that tllf.:y c not handle, they we re required 10 COIlSulllhcir pcrior (.. MafT .Inolne)') rather than ask C'.lCh otl H owt....'cr, man)' "ere reluct.ulI 10 follow lhL~ ... Iisht.-d policy for fear tha t it .....o uld adlersel)' ani Ihe ir job ra tings_ Therefore , they usually so guid;U1CC rrOIll ot her agents-even though dearly I'lolated the official rules. How does o nc gi~ t advice withOIll asking for To put it allotlwl' 1 v;'IY, how does o nc officially ~pcct ;\ poliC)' while ;n 1 :ICl subverting it? Typi when faced wi th this problem . all agcllI would sclibc a n "imCfcsting cllse to colleagues. slO\\I, towing th eTII to illl c rrllpt. Liste ne rs wou ld rem" llle ageTlt arnew chlta that might be he lpful or gcst other \\'ays o r lIpproaching the pro blem. of course, the agent had ne l'c r asked-at I di rct:lly- Io r assistance. The!ie maneuI'C1'5 pe ted I:IW e nrorCC IIl C11l agc lI lS 10 maintain fact', GolTman's leflUS (sec Chapler 4), "'lth both !la cO\\orkers and tlte ir superiors, Both the Hawthol1le sludies a nd Stau 's r~ testily 10 thc impo rLance of infomml StnlCID" within fo rma l or~;'Hl i:/ations. Whenever \\-e examiall sufficielllly snmll scgm e nlS or such org-dniza~ we discover pall.crm of interaction that cannot accounted for by Ihe onicia l SlI'UC[Ure, TIllIs. \00 a bllrC:Hlcmcy m ;I)' establish a dear hicl-arch) wcll-defined rult:!f and Sl.<Ind;anls, Pf!ople can get around uleir superiors. Infonnal unde~ in~ ;ullong workers can redefine official policies'" a bureaucrAcy_ Recent fCSC,lI'ch has u ndcrscored the impact inlo nnal structures within organinltions. Soc' g isl,l amt's Tuc kc l ( 1993) SUlflii:cI e,'eryday fonm n::sisUltlce by tempol':ll)' e mpl o),ee s working iI' sho rHc rm positio ns. Tuc ker pOillL~ OUl that h_ ma l socia l nctwol-1.,s ca ll olTer advice to a te mpol1Q employee on how to l}lIfSUt: II griev.tncc. For ~ ample . ;l reccplionist working for an mo bile dealer was being !>ex ually harassed phrsically :utd l'cl'i);llIy by .. male su pervisor, cOnsuitt.'d other female c mplo)"ces, who were a of ule ~lIper\'isor's behavior :lIld suggesled lhal


1'\1". nlll flllt ,i"'O\ G VKJil UN

, ,~""'''n 10

the manager of lhe dealership. AI

the m.mager said that th e "c wns liule Ih1:l1. 1 dt), h(' apparclllly spoke with lbe supc nfi 1 [; ~l the hardliStnCIH slopped. We will examine h< within organizatio ns in the so-

poIia K:Ction allhe: cnd of lhe c hapte r.

inrlc.pendc nt prcsidcmial candidate appeared all Ltm., Killg Livt! and was . . .1 ~ a C:1l1er if he belonged 10 a ny social clubs ncludedJl'WS or Blacks. PerOl re plied . "Yes. 1


All Ill) Jewish friends in Dallas, they've had a dr~l or fun wilh me over t.his. If it bothers immediately," Perot's mCl11be~hip \vliiiilary associaiio ns- ille Brook
Club and !.he Dallas Country

11 ....

Blacks and Jews on his staff. kw days of the lelecast, he resigned his ,.hiijh in these cJlI~ (Ce rio, 1D02) . ., 11J9'!, mere we re morc tha n 23,000 volulllalY . . .", ,'" in the United Slates-an increase of I ()\'t'r the 1980 figure. Vol 'lII lnry QUOan' organil.ations establishe d on th e basis I~_ .'nn,"n LlllerCSI, whose membe rll volullleer 0 1 ' ~... "" lIJ participate. The Cirl Scouts of Amer .\ml:rican Jewish Congress, the Ki ....-anis

'OM Sllmoo dubs (p' M~rlJ(){Jb M of Nw de jlllu:iro, Ilmtil. (In: 1lOI'"l/ary

(is.Iunlltions Ihal romp'f.11 during mrniIHIII;"" in Ihe StlllliHul rotlU! br/O" IUlIldmu (I/lhmUfllldJ of ~/"rlalllrs. T II

, I

associations; Voters lireare CO I1eso, too, all th I r'bsoriatlon of Aardvark Aficionados, the "-Imps Study Croup, the Mikes of Amcl"Ibr SC\\ York Corset Club. and the WilIia m rrltm."'Ihip. The nalion 's largcst volurmuy

rllf/II/pitm iJ li1r.1' wlllning Ih~ Wodd ,WIII:r or I/If Sulwr Bowl in til, (l"ilni 8Iul" .

American the smallest, ,he School :;::':'i,~,':\:e member.!; A"lomobile Association,

M.:ulllfaclllfcrs Insti tlU.e, has o nly 5 (Burck,

ciatio ns. In ;J sense, belollbring to :I polil ical party or a uni on can be a cond ition of e mployment and
not gelluinely vulul1wry; ncvcrth e lc ~s, politiC<lI parties and ulliolls arc \J.~ lIall y included in discussio ns of \'oluma!)' associat io ns. Participation in \'Olumary associatio ns is no t unique to the United Slates, This texlbook's senior author auc ndcd a carnival in London feamring bungecj ulllping. at whi ch participants were expecled toj ump fro lll a height of ISO feeL Skcptics were given assurances of the attraction 's safety by being told that the proprietor belonged to a \"01Ullt..." )' as.~oc ia[ion : the nritish Elast.ic Rope Sports Association. III a crosKultural swdy, three Canadian soc iologists examined membership in \'olulltary a.s..o;ociations in 15 COUlltries. Re ligio us mc m

"",,,"" m,m,,

1I>'''''gori"of-fonnal organi7A1tion" and "\"01 .\c)(ia.tion ~ are not mutually exclusive. ~"od"tio,,, such as the Lions Club

At the same lime, cersuch as the Young Me n 's (YM CA) and the I'eace Corps, and educational goals u.sually in \ululluuy associations. IIHC,csting ly. the ...,,""' parly and the United Farm Wo rkcl"S considered examples of voluntary as.~

r;lItI/"llR " r ;H/)U/':!i ANI) OIlI;ANI1.JI'l"lONS

bcrship!; were found to bt, pl'olllinClI1 in the United Slalt.'s. Canada, lhe Ncmeriancb.. Ireland. and Nonhcm Ireland. By cOlltmsL, union participation was highcs", in Great Britain. Norw.ty, and weden. While people's count ry of residence llI11y influence the types of \'ohull.ary 1lSSoci:llions they join, memJh:L1ihip in such org;mil.OIljons is clearl)' a common ((" soc~t1em (Curm cl al.. 1992). Voluntary associations can prmidc ~UppOI1. 10 pt-"Oplc in preintlustrial societies. During the poSlWodd War 11 period. migration from rul"' 1 areas of .. AfriCA 10 the cities WOlS accompanied by a !,rroWlh in o \OIUIII:'II)' associ;uions, including trade unions. occupational socic1.ic~. and mutual aid ?,. developed aJolIK old lrib;,i lie,. As people moved from the c,m,;"schrifi of the countryside to the (Agllsdwji of the ch) (refer back 10 Chapter 5). thcse VUIUllliUY a.\.'>OCiatioIl5...J!!:ovided immigrants with substitutes fur tile extended grotllll; or kinfolk that they had l1.Id in !lIdl' villages (Unle , 1988). A com mon voluntary association in nonindustrial societic:s is the milit;I')' association. "'hich may be com pared 10 our own American Legion or VeleraIlS of Foreign Wars posts. l1lf$c associations uni te members through their experiences in the miliLa')'. glorify till' acti\'itie~ ofw-Ir, and perfonn certain services for the coml1lllllit). Membership in 'Iuch associations is lIsually \'OIIlI1(;\ry and based 011 the achie\'cd criterion ofpanicipauon in.1 war. Among l.he North American Plains Indians. slIch military societies were common. 111t.' Che,enne Indians. for example. oligil1.tlly IMd ri\'C milit,tI")' ;tS.'K)Ciations: the Fox, the Dog. the Shield. the Elk., and lhe Bow. string, Although these associ;Hiolls leatured distinctive costUIlICS. SOllgs. ;wd dances, they ,",'ere alike in Ihdr illlcrnal organil.'Hion , Each was headed by four leadcrs. who "'cre amung the Chcycnnc's mosl illlj>ortalll chiefs (Ember and F.mbcr. 1993:359-360). R(.'Sidcl1lS of the Unil('d St."ltes belong to \'ohm1<11")' ;tssocialiOIIS lor:, rcnt;lrkabl~ variety of ,'casons, Some join 10 sh;lI'c in activiti es. :mch ,IS mcmbers of a co ll~ge dc bating society or " scnior Ci li z.cl1l; hiking club, Fo, mhers. \'olunulI")' a.'l!)ociauons serve as <t pOlelll political lorce. :'lIld they Illay join naUOIml lobbying groul)s such as the 0\;1 Liberti~ Unioll , or tlte Nauonal Righl 10 Life Committec. Finally, mallYpeople join ~se lf-he lp groups" 10 deal with per..onal problems that they cannOl handle alone (sce Box (.-2) , there is no I}'J>"

ietl volultlat")' associ:ltion; the si1(~ alltl of slIch groups Vllry dramatic!II} , Mcmbership ill \'ohll1mry associations is ItOI dom, Th(.' most cOII ..i"'CIII l}n~dic1Ur of "","Od", tion is socioeconomic st;\tus-thal is, it come. education. ;lI1d occup;uion. Peuple ,,", . . . sociO('conomic Sllltu~ ;uc lIIorc likd:~'~O~;~~1 alld P<l1"liol'alc acu\'CI)' ill .o,lIch 1':'lrtly. this rcflccb Ihe CO'lt of group which may exclude: people with limited frollljoining (Sills. 1968:365-366;J. Will I I ,.rn,", 1973). Reflecting thc occl lpatio nal patlerns o["h,l... socicty, \'OluntOlI) :ts.'Iociatio lls in the United arc largely seg.egaled b} gender, I-hllf of thcIII cxclush'ely fcmaJe. ~lIld o llt"-firtll arc aJl-m:tIt.". exdllsi\'cI), male ;15Sod:l1 ions tcnd to be larger more heterogeneolls in lerms of ~: .~~~,~~:= members, As noted in CIIoIplcr 5. 11 a ll-male <\.~SOdll li olls hold .. llIort promise for illg desil, lblc business conwcts lhall "">c"nt~"'rn, all-fema le groups ( Mc Pherson and 1986), Although participation varies across ulauon oflhe Uni lCc! Statc,.., mOSI people al leaSI onc \'oluntOtry a~iati OIl (sec



FIGURE 6-2 Mt'mbet',hip i" Vo/.mlory Anol:iolions, 199J

.... 11("'

,Ok(~ I~: '"

Mml IJNfJIt- '" IIv U,".I &',,"""

10 ill ImSI /JI't' 1/OIlw/a? ""'~ .... /lbtml IJ/,...jol.lrth mtlll'ltillll fA""

C y. learl


PMrt nIT) ' e)HC"v,'IIJNf.o;o(JMI.IH


\lib., Lo\-e Too Much,

ShoPFn. Child~n of hrmlS, FundamenGllist!


all members in la rge cities, and AA has become much more accepting of openl}' gay lII(':mbers tban 1I '''.is

in Ihe p;t5l. Mthough il maintllins a national he"dquarters. AA i5 remarkably decentralized and basi




of thousand!; of

III which about 15

III the United Stales A ,dJ-hIp group i~ a

.''''''''"P -in ""hieh I>copk

a common concern or

together l'OhIl1l3r-

cally comins of r.llher aUIOllomoU5 local groups. 1111:: AA modd of group proccu includes few rules. liule hierarchy cxcept for no minal group leaders, and a common purpose of rc:'cU\cry which ol'ercomCll
an)' traditio nal dhision of I"OOr (Leehrscrl. 1900, N. RubCIIWrt,

,. .""'" ~upyort and prole-

~:~':;:,,~:'::;,' instead asthrough ~er sU I)an""'fl.I988: I).

That' groups, thtir ncal'reiigiolUl fC I' t meet wi th out .m y

19M) .
Sociologist No rmall De lll_ in ( 1987, 1990) has dra\\'Tl upon the irHc l~ ctionist a pproach in his ex.. amination of Ihe ~~I f Story tclling~ that lake, plarc in AA and other self-help groups. DClllin 5UggOt.i that :1 fX'l'SOn who becomes :Icl h~ in AA is M)Ciali7.ed into Ihe group's noml~ . ''<illu:,. al ld disl.incl.i,c al'g ot; :u a resull, duo indhidual1e:t.n1.S 10 ,;ew a nd exprCM his or her life ~tory in a manller slnlctun.'d b) Ihe group. As an cxample. Oclll:in (1987:1'1&) quoles a lIIan who h:1Ci been in AI\ for 1 0 )'cars; .... N('\'cl thoug ht I'd lIlolkc iL Rem('mlJcl'" when I first r.ullc here. Could n' l talk. Scare d to dealh. Alune. 0 1 lh:J1 "'d)' 10d.I),. I can lalk. I got the Sleps. I gOI the PI'OB I~lI n . I gOI my mceLiH!fl IU go 10. I gOI Ill)' Big Book. Fou nd my stor)' ill therc. T;ll k w my mom no,",'. Got rny old job hack. You IlCOplt' g-.m.' mc b."lck my lifc. Thanks.

inrre ...,ingly multir'ftc1f1 I.

,md diverse i n tcnll'> 01

~~~;~;,:a; backgrounds.

perhaps !I.tlf of

T he succc~ of AA ill assisti ng many rcc()\'cling alcoholics ha5 IInqucstionabl) conuibUled to the increase in .self.hclp groups. man)' o f which ha,'C' borTO'l'l'cd from AA', model. In thc lasl decadc, the number of ~ I f-h clp OI'g<lIlilauons in till;' Uni lcd Sla l1;'8 has more Ihan (Iuadrupled. Alffcd K.."lU, an cxpert 011 public health and social welf.'\l'c. poilltli OUI Ihal the dralTl:uic rise in tht.'Se Itlluual aid en-oIU renCCI$ a profound di~l ti~faction \o\ilh ('xis!jng mcdirOlI ;",(1 "n\ III ~ lin g \(' rvices. ~ Pt'opll' arc d issatisfied with irnpcnlo rmlily lIlId bm caucr:uic nlll"ro u nds , ~ notes K..'\ll. ~Tll e)' do not want to he dep<':nde ru o n OUlside profe",[onab. Tht')' wanl 10 ha"e mor(' of a saf ( P. nruwlI, 1988;7; l..tehrsc:n. 1990). \,yhile unqut.'Slionabl)' popular, lire 1I10\'('rn('1II also has itJi crilics. Wctld ), K:unincr ( 1992) .:111 :titaniC')' and joul'nalist. has COIld(,lIIned the rC('m'C'l} 11\meOlenl for it' :tnu-intclk<:IIIalism. iu mcI" apcuuc and a '"iu lgd ical o\'C'rsilllpl" licatiom. and its mfatuaLiun \o\;lh chariJirna lic OIllll u:lI;ty. K:.llnincr adds that lIIan), self-help groups place c)'ccssi\'c focus o n !.he m:ed 1 ~gct in louc h "';Ih onc '~ fedings~ 0 a llhe c xpensc of mtio nal di~oll~ conccmirlg such i ' yll~ ti('es :I.!i scxi~rn a nd me,slII. III Irer view. because of tile [mu!;u; lY Ih:u 'he rt.'(,O\'C I) ' 1II \1\'C IIlCIlI CIlCO Ul'agcs, "iI becomes 1110l'e irrrl>orl:U1t 1 focus 0 (Ill )'0111' own problems lIran on larger :roe;:.1 iMlIn~ (Crnbt!r, 199'1:4!S) .


while llbollt o ne-founh maintain three o r more mcmbersltips. Sociologists have applied func tionalist analysis (0 the stud), of voluntary associations. David Sills ( 1968:!H3-376) has l(h:mificd 5e\'("r.11 key funct io ns lhat the.<;e groups serve within our society. First, the), tllt:diate bctv.'ccn individuals and gm'e fOmcnL ProfC!I..'>ional associatio ns such as L American Mcdical he Association mediate between their me mbers and govern ment in such matters as licensing and legis];Ition. Second. \'olutll.'lt)' associations give people training in orga ni1.ational skills that is invaluable for futu re olTicc holders-and for beller performance within most jobs. Th ird. o rganiz..uions slIc h as the Natio nal Association for the Advanceme nt o f CoIOl'ed r'eople (NAACP). the NnI.ional Women 's Po litka1 Caucus. and the American Association of Retired Person,~ (AARP) help to bring tradi tionally disad\';u1t."1ged and uncletTt:prcsemecl groups in to th e po litical mainstream . Finally. \'olullt."1I")' associations assist in governi ng. During th e in nux of Indochinesc and Cuban refugees in lhe late 1970s and early 1980s, religious and charilablc groups became deeply invol\'erl in helping the federal government rescule refugees. T he imponance of ",-oitlllLary associauonsand especially of their un pa id workers (or \'o htnleers) -i.~ increasi.ngly being recognize d. Traditionally. unpaid work has been dcvahted in tl lC United Slates. eve n tllOugh the skill levels, experie nce, and train ing demands arc often comparable with those of wage labor. Viewed from a CO llnict I)(:npcctive, the critical difference has been that a subst."1ntial amount of\'olunteer work is perrormed by WOlllen. Fe min ists a nd connie l tJleorists agree thaI, like the unpaid child care and household labor o r homemakers. tht' dTort o f \'Oluntcers has been too often ignored by scholars- and a\\~drd ed too little respect by the larger society-bec'lUse it i.~ viel,'ecl as ~worne l"s work.~ Fail ure IQ recognize women's vo lulII.eerism LllCreby obscures a critica l cO lltribution WOme n make L il socic ty's sucial st I'UCO \lIrc (A. Danie ls, 1987, 1988). Curiously. althoug h membership in volun tary associations in the Un ited Slates is hig h. people lend to acid and drop a A-i1iations rather quickly. This renects the fa ct tha t a dccision to elllcr :1 volun t."ll")' a.."-SOciauon typically involves on ly limited personal objectives (Bnbch uk and Booth .

19(9). A.. de Tocquevllle wrOlC. pt.Oplt ~II ' Unitt!d Sta les a re "fo rever IOl'llling assOCidtil

Orvanizational Change ......~s~:.;........ _.........................................................,....,._,~.

Just as individuals and rela tionships change... do urganizations. both fOI"I1I:11 and \'Olunllu,\, most 0 ))\';0115 changes often invo lvc person CCll.:d, new prcsicic11t of the Un ited Stales is C1 ecuLi\'c is fired, a star athle te rcUres. Ht socioloJ.,rists are most interested in how the zatioll itself c hanges. These c hanges onen relate to o ther wcial lutio llS, parucularly the governme nt. Its r SlalU tt.'S, licensing proce dures. taX la\'i ,1Ild tr:.lcung ror goods and services directly inn the stntcture of rorma l o'lrdnizatiom. Covrm policies relating to afiimmtive "clion (see ( I.,,) 01 disability rights (scc Chapter 20) inlh ' lhe inle1",,1 decisions o r ol"ga nila tion~ and even req uire the hilin g of new pcrsoll ll cl. In acidition, an organization'S goal~ ma>' c over dme a lo ng with its lcaders a nd StruCl1 churc h SUlI"IS a basketb.111 le:lgue; a n oil rot " purchases a mO\~e studio; a chewing tobaccu bc!,rins to manufacture ballpoint pens. Such' take place whe n an organi/.ation d ecidCli !.hat. dilional goals arc no lo nger adequale, It mu~ modiry its pl'C'.'ious objectives o r cease 10 C:uL Goal Multiplication If an org-.tuization (ond uU\t its goals must change, it wi ll lypically t, additiona l goals or expand \lpon its lrdditional jectivc.~. For exa mple. in the 1970s man} c beg;m continuing ed ucation prog r.tms to m('d lIeeds of poten ual stude nts ho lding fulltunr and wishi ng to lake classes at night. In tli(' the Eld critostel nlO\'cm c n t opened collegt puses in the Uni ted States 1 older peopk 0 could live and learn along wiLh much yOlln!(tf lege student s. Goal Inll/tipli calio" takes place when an nization ex pa nds its purposes. Generally, thl" r('sult of c hanging social or economic ("on I"hidl threaten Ul(' organization 's SIIT\;\;d YMCA has practiced sllch goal multiplic.uiun its name. the Young Me n's Christi:m dation had a ng e\'a llgelistic foc lls dUriDg ginnin g1l in lhe United Sl<lIes in lhc 18.;,h..


'1'111' Yuung AlnI~ CJ"isliml J\5wl('jll/iOI/

( I'M CA) IIlIS ~1,me,,{rd gO(l1 mlllliplicalioll in reaml (femdl'.$. lis mll~ of (lc/ivillt.i rommlly jllc/lllil'S , ~oci(11 wviu !Jrq,"'(l1I1.$ jilT Ihe disabled, flny mrp r"'''/p ..... fi'''''{< rh".p, "Jfirp



r(:$iII'71U f/ormilorip.$ for mllegr

amf single fldui{J, OIul Sl'nior rilivIII' Jari{ili~.

It'UIh ,1nd telll rt.'vival meeungs were p rovided by Ibc rarh V\ICAs. However, in !lIe ear ly 1900s, the 'I'M< \ brlpn to diversify its appcal.l t attempted to lIttf\'\t members by olTcl;ng gym n asi um faci li ties .wd rniden{'c (Iuancrs. Gradually, wome n, Luthc rMll. R OInan C'lholics,j cws, a nd the - ullchl1rc hed IIm' J~(epled and e\'en n:cnlil,ed as members. Th~ 1110)( recent p hase of goal m ultip licauon at .. ~" r.A Ocg'dll in the 19605. In la rger urban ar,lhtOrg-dllization became involvcd in provid illg ftIIpl.,\ Ulcnt trdi ni ng alld juve nile dcl inque nC)' propn.' .\'1 a resulT , thc YMCA received substantial lladill~ from lhe federal government . This was it IRmJlil change for an org-.miza rioll \\'hose inco me I PIY\iOllsly come solely from mem bersh ip fees d 1 1 ~l rir'I I)lc conui bu tio ns. In ti lt.' 19M0s. Ule YMCA contin ued 10 ser\'e the poor. J\ (''I'idrnccd by U1C bu ilding of a new faci lity i1JlH in the Wall! scction or Los Angeles-the rt\Jlorpd\'Oltc conslnlction in the a rea since the _ tlr 1965, et !he organiza tion also maintains 11 hJrnur\! br,IOch in Bcverly Hills and ha.~ expan ded apdl, tu SCIW middle-class residentS of ciLies a nd 411buM. The YMCA's im pressive r;:lIlge o f act.ivities tUlfl'llrh- inclndts social service programs for th e &bil'ti, da ... care centers, fi tness classes fo r oOicc IIOfkl'IS, r('.~irlcnce dormilOries fo r college students IIll ~ n g l t adnlts, M learning ror living" classes for

adults, ,Ind seniOl' c itizcn s' faci li ties (Schm id t,

1990). Th ese transilions in thc YMCA were not always smooth. AI times, lIl<yor contributo rs and board

membe rs withd rew support because of opposil io n to org;:m iz.. 'llional c ha nges; the), p refelTcd the YMCA to rem ain as it had been. However, the YM CA has SU lvived and gro\','1l by expanding i L~ goals from e vangel ism LO general commun ity se.rvice (E.(Zioni, 1964: 13; Zald , 1970).
Go al Succession Unl ike goal m ultiplication, go al successi on occurs \vhcn a g ro u p or organization has e ither feali zed or been de nied its goal. It lIlust 111(:: n idell tify a n enti rely n ew o l~ec u vc tha t can j ustify its cxiste nce. Cases of goal successioll a re I1Irc because most orbraniw lio ns n evef fu ll), ach ieve their goals. If th ey do, as in the case of a co mmi ttce supporting a victorious cand idate fOf p u blic offi ce, th e), usually dissolve. Socio logis.t I>ete r Hlau ( 1964:24 1-246). who coined the term ~'tlfcl'.~.~ion oJ grxd.s, no ted that organizations d o not necessari ly behave in 1I rigid manIler when the ir goals arc achieved or become irrelemnL Rath e r. they may shift to ward new o bjecu ves. A case in point is the Fo unda tion for Infantile P:rralysis, popu larl)' known 101' its an nual March of Di mes campaign. POI' so me t.ime, the

UIA/'/HI 6 ( :ROl II'!!' ANbORGANI;t.AI1()NS

organiUllivlIs may actuall] ~ sucaniqn f" example, f,,'otle17WWIII Ogt1ldtl rt',sJxnI5iblt for e1ljQfcillg drug Inllll
SlIlkt hI alloiding gool
to)!timlf' la exist biJC(lUJt


(hey /(III~".



0/ busintlS.

foundalion's major goals were to support medic,tl research on polio ami 10 pl"Ovidc assistance fO I victims of lhe disease. However. in 1955 the Salk vaccine was found to be an effect ive protection against paralytic polio. This left th e found'llion. so la speak. "une lHpl oyed.~ A vast network of commilted slalr Ille mbe rs a nd volu nteers "'<l..~ suddenly left wit.hout a dear rationale for exiSlCncc. The group might have disbanded allh is po im. bu t instead it selected a new goal-combating arulIilis and binJ1 dcfccts<ll1d look on a new 113111(,. Like many bureaucracies. it sim pl y refused 10 die (E1.1.ioni. 1964: 13: Sills.

1957,253- 271), Ironically, some organil.atio lls may have a stake in a\'oiding goal succession. Thro ugh his observdtion research in ~s k i d row~ missions, socio logist .J 'UllCS Rooney ( 1990) has shown Ulat program fai lure is necessary for the maintenance of certain bureallcmcies. Rooney worked as a migraLOry farm worker and casual laborer as part of his research. Through these work expelienccs. he routinely inte racted WiUl skid row residenl~ with whom he visiled morc than 200 rescue missio ns throughout the United Stales. These missions hope to cOllvert visitors; they urge them la accept. Christ. to allend c hurc h services, to a bstain from liquo l. and 10 accept regular employment. By controlling the dis-lIibution of food and she lter, lhe mi.~sio ns man-

agers arc able to force skid row residellts to au~ gospel selvlces. Rooney found that only a w:ry small portion skid row residents eve r came fo,",vard to makea fession of fait.h. In his view. if lhe missions 3Ch became m ore successful and quickly COIl\"CIIM much higher proportion of skid row visi tors. a \at few rescue missions would be able to handle the auvely small number of "newly fa lle n" indi\;dt Consequenuy, the m~joJ"i ly of missions would hlII to cea.<;e o perations. Contrary LO the usual vil"\l org-<U1izations perpclllale themselves by ate plishing their stated objectives, Rooney su that skid row missions continue to exist bca.u't their ongoing failure. Rescue missions. of course, a re hardly tht' example of programs that succeed through failft't Government agencies responsible for en~ dl1..lg laws conti nu e lO exist because they fail tIJ drug pushers Olll of business. Prisons fail I!) I bili talc inmates, there by gua ranteeing a Slew l.Urn of many clients. With sllch parddoxes in m Rooney concludes by examining the poliC)l implications of his study. In an example of sociology (refer back lO Chapler 2). he quel !:,ri\'ing con tinllcd support to organil.atiolls which rectly benefit from their OWII failure, and ",on if other IreaUnCl1 l options might be more elfet1Jlf

1'lItrr 7110 OH(;M.'I1JN(; IM)('JM. 1.1,..1:

SEXUAL HARASSMENT , .1,,..,,,.1 from ~I con Oicl perspective. bow do [he 4au flll scxlIlll hamSSlllcnt (en cel inequalities


un gender and mce? .. hat 1Va)'S do organi1.ational SlmClUrcs en l'tlUr~I' or pcnnit sex ual hamssmcnt? """" han' women's concerns about sexual! influenced the political syste m of the

harassment received cdt'ntrd aUcntion in the United Stales, as

I,~:::"': Court nominee (no\\.' Associ,llC Justice)

, 1lIoma., 'l\11 lu::nlsed .... r n'p"iW'rHy !

11 ' 1-


aide, law professor Anila Hill, over of years. BUI Anila Hill is far from alolle _iug such a complairu abOllt rI coworkc r. lile}' hold manageliai or clerical positions,
IIII:Y I't'ork i n a volum;u}' <lW)Cialion or a

corpor:llion, women n.:P0 rl being viell) *xual harassmenl. lndtl l'vohing legal standards, sexllal harau " recognized as any lIllwanted and lInwel .... .","11 advances that interfere with a person's _ tlll)t'rfonn a job and et~oy the benefits 0 1 a t111)!!1 blalant example L'i the boss w ho te lls

J:=~:::~a~:~; Put

Ollt gel Ollt!~ the "c1\1"J.llccs which consti tute sexual ha may take Ule ronn of subt le pressllI'C$ re sexual aC lh~ ly. inappropriate sex ual lan


Howeer, v

'tt~~'::i.p~~;;~~:~s louChing, lattemptedr kissi ng ~ I for sexua favors, o sexual

in the compmer age. there i.~ grow Lhal sexmllly ha rassi ng messages arc ...,,'''' aJlonymously over computer networks f ,ulail (Price. 1993) . 0IDrI1 01 all ages and radal and cth nic grOl.lpSM'1l as well-have been Ih c vict ims of sex 1w-a\.~men1. Such harassmenl may occur as a t'f'Irotultt'r or as a rep<...Hed pattern of bt..... III .1 national suney in the United Stales .....,1 ;,. I )ooc,nbcr 1992. 32 percent o f .....o l11cn .hM they had been sexually harassed in ......"k,'"o,,;;,dc Ihe ho me, compared with 23 p CI' In. ,imilar sUr\'ey in Octobcr 1991 . These lUa} :11 fi rsl suggest that thc l'(' has bcell a increase in sexual h:u-:~ m e llt. blll in rolct

.h ey may si mply rcprc.~CI1l a s hift in aLtilUdes con ccruiug sud, :.buses. Milra", BUI't. director M:rvices research :n the Urball Institute. obscr\'c!l: I)eople now ;u'e mort: wi llillg to label these bchaviOfli ,L~ being ~exLlal hamssmclI1. people arc more willing LO talk about it. and people are mo re langryJ about it~ (R. ~1otin, 1993a:37) . Obviously, ex pclienci ng sexual ham_ e nL can .'ism have ;t shallering impact o n all employee's '!.atis-faction 011 lh ejob. In the 1986 ( ;lSC of M entor Sm)illgs /Junk v. Vill,lon, the Supre m e Coun unani mou.dy held that sexual haraSSlllent by a sllpcrvi~or "i"bll'~ fNl/'~1 law ;!.g-.-l i ll~ ' ~f' X fli.~("IimillaUon in the workplacc. as o ut1ined in lhe 1961 Civil Riglw. ACL If suOic:ic n tly sevc rc. sexual haras.<;mcnl conSlitll te!l a violatio n o f the law even if thc unwelcome sexual demands arc not linked 10 con cre te employment benelits suc h as:1 mise or a promotjon . The justices rule d that the existe nce o fa hostile o r a busive wo,'k envi ro nment-in which a woman feels degraded ..... tbe rcsult of unwekOll1C" Oirllll.ion or obscenejoking-- may in itsc ll co nstitULe il1eg-.iI sex discrimina tion. In 199 1, a leder:.ll judge ruler! IIIiIt !l, e publ ic display of pho tographs o f iludc and part.!), nude wome n at ;t workl'lace con sU tul e~ sex ual ha ......s1lH'1l1 (T. L..toNin , 199 1a: \Vithcrs and BenaroyOl. 1989:6-7). Sexual harassment 11,1$ been common ly reported nOI oll ly in the ....orkplacc bl1l a lso in colleges and"S. A ....ariet y of studies invoh'ing bOlh IIn' dergmrluiltc and gr.ldu:tlc st.lIdCnlli show Iha l 20 10 40 perCCll1 o f studcll ts arc [he vil'lims of se Xli ill ha m l.'lII by r.'lCll/ry lIie ill Uers. H'urrrCIl arc by fa.r /111.:


main largets of slid, harassment. bIll mOSt incid e nL~ are nOI re po n ed to college administr.ItOrs. Even th e hallw.\)'S of hig h schools are dangero us terrilory for femal e Sludc nl!l. Accordi n g 10 a 1993 nauoIHtl Sill' \'e)'. 65 pcrcelH of female students ill gradc~ 8 through 11 reponed thal tll<..'}' were ~lD u ch ed. grabbed , or pinched in a sexual wa y. ~ Because of these experiences and othe r forms of sex ual ha raSSlllcnl. 33 percCIII of those female students stated lital they wan led to avoid going: 10 school and were less iJlciined to speak in class (Baningcr. 199:1:8 7: McKinney. 1990:424). In the Unil.ed Sla'.cs. sexual hanLSsmcnl I11Ust be

16 7
(,'/1,11'"1'/;'1 If (,IWtJl'S ""NI) OIIf' ,W7A'/'/()...'_ .... ,

1..II W

Im1ruur AIIlIII


Lf ~

d um'K h" 1991 Ii'll/MOll] S"Wlf j ut/lfil' ,] (;",nl1llll,

1Jtfotr .

J/'f flmUM ~lIpr"'M COl/ rt , _""

(1I01.<l / \ Jl(K'Ulk Just;(I) ('.In ,",,,

(// rl'/Jrfllfdl-;

1nl/ally hllmu l,,, ""

a /JmlKl

(1/ )'fW' ,

umil'rstood in I,ht., context of t ontilluing prejudice and di~c ril'tlinatiorL against WlJ ll1~n (sce Chapter 11 ) , Whe ther it occurs ill the fed e ral burea ucracy. ill tjl(.' corpo r.lle "o dd. 01' ill uni\er,ilics, *xual ha~ rd"SlIIent gcner.llly L kes place i'l o rgani/.a1iolls in a which the hierd rchy of a uthm;t} linds White males .11 Ihe lOp and in \\ hich wome n 's work b valued lc-.s Lhan me n 's. Onc sun t') in tht.' pri\';:Ilt., St.'{:tOI' found lhal African Ame rican \\'o mc n we re Ihree limes more likely Ihan Whilt.' W OIllc:.'U 1 ex pe rie nce sex0 ual har:'I...." IIICIII , from a coul1ict p'>rspcCli\'c , it is not ~uqll'isin g Ill.It "ome ll - <Ind especially wome n of colo r - are most likely tf[ become victims of sexual h ;:u;~1ll c nt , Th c~e gro UI)5 .lfe l}pioJlI)' an org'lIli ~ 1:llio l1 's IIlost \'uhle l, lb1c e llll,lo),cl.'S in te nns ufjo b .. <;tclIl'ity (j , J UIIC!I, )988) , While it is agreed that sext... 1 harassme nt is widesp,'ead in the United Sla tes. il i nl.'\'enhcless clear thal most \'ic lillls d o not re purt Ihc ~c abuscs to prupe r ""Ihudli es, For l'xlImple. in a ~ lIr\'c y of federal government c:mpluyees conducled in 19l'l8, only ,I) pe rcenl of th Ose who had bcen harassed st:l1cd that Ihey had rile d complaints. - 11 lakes a 101 o f self-co nfidence to lig ht ," s ll ggesl~ Calherinc Brod e rick. a lawyer f or the Securil ies a nd Exchange Commissio n (SEC) who .....o n a St.'x lIal hamssm e lll compla int ag-dinst lhe agency's W:lshinglo n office. Brode rick had re fu !>Cd he r s upcl'\'isor' ~ advances

;lIId the n had bec lI repe at e dl y d t' llied promotJoa After a ninc'rea r le wtl bailie, 8mdcrid:. was \'1( riuus ill cou rt :lI1d won a pro m o tio n and }t'iI' ha ck pay. Still , her e xpe rie nce i ~ :.I rt:.milKlfI d p"rl'uing j U' licc against th o~ g uilty of 5e"1,U) rdSSlllc nl CIIl IX' coni)' :'111<1 dl':lining ( Ih\'(' 1988: Sait.J'lllan, 1988:56-57) , Eve n if Ihe viclilll d ot.'S have tJIC will 10 fight, proces... of IIl<1king a sexual hal'assrnc m COIll ill lhe ('otlnS o r in mus t bllrellllcrad cs is sl(1\Ir burclensolllt.', In 1992 , E"<ln Kcm p, headof thdl'il e l'al Equa l Employme nt Opportunitv Colllm~ ( EEOC). admitted thal a ..... 0 111:111 who hJlli filn! cUlIlplaiut o f ..eXllal h ,U;:ISS I1I Cnt may ha\'e to l o n g" ~ !our ymrs to get a he aring befo re the EEX, Th e' ;lgcnC) has a huge ca,s cload ; il I'eceil'n 6111 complaint.'I o f discriminOltiOIl each rear and OI'('I" ('Clj 50,000 o the rs ,hat arc hal,dled b)'s"'tr I:!mploymcnI a ~e nci es, Ye t F.EOGs fllnrlint clc:lll y iuadcquate IU im'eslig:llc all lhc\t' ~ (1Iclllol1', 199~ : 20- 21 ), MOlley, lIo\\'c",: I', is no t the ouly problem many organi zatio ns, w,'iuell procedures fotiuf. (\ling complaint'" or ~cx llal h .U~IS!l mellt lead lu di'lplaceme lll b> tho'le in pm itio lls of power. n.. ' is more cOllet'nI for followi ng the regulations fo r d c alillK "-llh a nd prC\I! ha rassment. P o f Ihe proble m i!l tho umll)' urf(cl ni1.atio lls dll U


nm 0Hf"AM1.J\ ( , 'tOU.~1 .

I ,m

111.'1lOIlIlt!l who are adcqmncly trained La deal \Ilth complaints. This rcsponsibiliry is often

to a personnel ofliccr whose unly backror the msk is a lwo-day seminar on sexual

Ii....m"" bureaucracies have IT-adilional1y given little

)!(t]\r flll\1)l1 10 the pCl"'.".lsivc sexual har<lsstllcnt ill

""' luitlst; the cmOlionai costs of t h is discrimina-

(largely female) employees have

COIlCCI11 , However, mort- regula~'pfnh;Ibhlng sexual har.lssmclU have been isIt., m,ulagcrs and cxccllLivcs have been forced U1C COSl~ of sexllal harassment for the calculating losse~ linked 10 ab'productivity, and employee turnover, ~tud}" of 160 Fo rtun e 500 business finns conthat sexual harassment costs lhe average

(111111123.750 emfjloyees)



'I \'ear. This figure, high a.~ il is. does 1101 Joci.'tlfWC(}St.'i ortcgal defensc and damages when ;00''''1'1"",, sues a company because of sexual haIon Ihcjob (Cralvf'ord, 1993:F I 7). The ,lrterlllalh of Anitlt Hill's testimony before YUJtC' Judicial), Committee. the political sys1!I'lhL United States is responding to allcgaabuse in ways t11:lI were hardly com(,"dllier. In a recent example, the secreta lY or r(\igned in 19m~-and Congress delayed aodf"I,"f Navy and Marine Corps prornolions -


~~;;ii~;'f;I,0;,;"; ''';~'f;f1d 'f ;';h,;.;;t,j by 175 or more naval i;~a; erupted after al lea.~t
(M. R.

Cordon. 1993). Some observers belie\'e that public oflicials arc taking the issue of sexual harassment marc seriously because they believe their political fUlures are at M.ake. Indeed, spurred by the irll ense angcl' of mall)' women about what they viewed as the (a ll-male ) Judiciary Committee's mistreatment of Anita Hill. foul' fe male candidates critical of the comminee defeated male opponenLS in 1992 Democra tic senatorial primaries-and three wel"e subsequen t I)' elected to office. The battle against sexu,ll harassmelll i .~ being rough! nOLonly in the United StaLes but around the world. In 1991 , the European Economic Com nlllnily established a code of conduct which holds employers ultimately responsiblc for combating sllc h bt:havior. In 1992. Francejoined many European countries in banningsextral harassm en t. ThaLsamc real'. III all ImpOlUIfH VICLO ty rul' J:!p:tn 's relll ll11sl movcmCnI , a disuict co un ruled that a sma ll publishing company and one ofiLS mate employees had violat.ed the rights ofa female e mployt'e because of crude remarks tklt led her to quit her job. The complainant had chMged thaL her male supelvisor had spread rumors about her. telling others that she was promiscuous. When she attcmptcd to get him 10 StOP making slIch com ments. she \\~.lS advised to quit her job. In the view of Vukido Tsunoda. a la....)'er ror the com plainant.: "Sex\lal harassrnelll is a big problem in Japan. and we hope th is will send a signal to men that they have to be more ca reful" (Riding, 1992; Weisman, lY92:.A!3).

lII',m.",hc;""f"'lU.ll Tailhook convention

Re/enmcfl groups set Hm\ enforce S!alldards of COII-

dUCI ;mcl

perform a comp;"lrison funcrion for pcoplc's



r among human \:x.'ing'S is necessar), lO of cu lture and tlle:- slIl"'o'hn l of ew'!)' solhe impacl of S1n;"l1l groups.
lUlO VOhllllal)' ;,ssncialions or l so-

cmluations or rhemsel\'cs and Olhcrs. 4 IlllenlCtioniSl researchers have n:vealcd rhat tht'ft' ;"Irc distinct and prucessts at work in the fUllc-

rjo nin g of small grollps. 5 One poib"lant ami I"ecIIlling message of rccent decadcs has been lilt' power and pC1V;lsin:nt'ss of larg(,
organizations. 6 Max Weber argued lhat. in il.>i ideal ronll, eve!)' bllreaucrary "'iII share ult'se fivc basic characteristics: divi~iorl uflabor_ hierarchica l authorilY. writlcn rHles and ft'g IlIHLio ns. impt'rsonaliry, and cmplo)'TIlCII\ based on tcchllic;:al qu,llifica ri olls.

"'Iit'll II"r IlIId oursel\'cs idcntifyillg c10scly wlIh ;, 111\ prohabl~' a primary group.
1II1bo: Lnited Sc.!lt:"S lend to scc I.he worlll in I.grlll/pf and oll l-gro"ps, a perccptiulI often M Ilw "cry groups to whkh wc belong.



7 llu rc;J uc mcy can be u ndc r~lood all a process and as malle r of degree; thus. an organization j.i mo re or less hureaucr.tlic than other org;lIlization!. 8 The infoI"Tual 5Ln.1CL of an organi7.alio n Gin u nUIe d ermine :md red dine o Ricial bureauCl'atic policies. 9 P(>ople belong 10 1I0lunta" aSloda ti ons for a varie ly of pllrpo5CS- for cxarnple. to share in joint activilies or to gel he lp with peDOnal problellls. 10 Changt' is an importallL clement in org'"dllizatio nal life. An org:.lI1iza tion mar need t.o c hange its goals if its OIiginal objcc:.ti,e~ are full y realized o r a n: no longer ,.dcqml1 c. I J Sexual harnssmeOl has been common ly TCl>Orted not only in the federnl wo rkplace and in priva tc-seclor organization!. bUI a l50 in insli tu tiOI1 of higher learning.

Dy'futlction An cle me nt 0 1 a prOCC-SS of ",d,,""~ ' Illay disrupt a social system or lead to bility. (1!)3) Formal orgonhation A spt.ocirtlpllrpose signed and smletu rcd in lhe ;n """,,.,,>r' n.';'"w.~
firiclICY. ( 151)


Goo l dilpla cfnnent Overzealous con formity to reg ulatio ns within a bureaucracy. (156) Goal m.d,iplica,iot/ The proces.s tJ.rough wh;d ", . ~niz:ui o n expands its purpose. (164) Goa' , uccessioPl The p rocess Ihro ugh which an ni/.:tlioo idt'ntifics an cn tirely new objcclh-e tra ditional goals have bt-cn ei ther or
( 165)

.C::.':l::I!.I..~. !'J.:I:!1:'.':l::I~.~...g~!..I.,:?~~...........
WiL hin a romlal o rgani zation . arc )'ou likely to find plimary groups. ~cco nd;l ry groups. in-groups. out-groups. and reference ,,'TOllpS? What fllnction~ do these g-TOUpS sen.. c fOI' Ihe fonnal OI'ga ni7.iuion? What d )'sfunctio ns migln occur as a resuh of their pre~(: n ce? 2 M:IX Weber idemifie<l fhc basic characteristics of bureaucl-acy. Select an acuml tlrg:m it:llioll wilh I'hich }OU ~lI'e familiar (for example. )'our cOlkgc. a business a t whic h )'011 ....ork. a religious ill~tiluliol\ or chic anocia11011 to which YOII belong) and apply Wcbcr'~ analysis to Iha l orgalli7~,lioll. To whal doc!' it correspond 10 Weber's ideal lype of bU fcaucmcy? 3 How mig ht sociologists elmw 011 SUI'Cys. o bser.-;uj o ll researc h. c:xpcrimc nlS, ami cxisling SO ll fCC~ 10 bener un dcn;l:tnd whulIary association.s?

Grflu/J An) number of people ""ilh similar no""". 1It:.~, and expt.octatiolls ,\hu regularly and ro''''''~ illlcmc.t. ( 145) f/umoll r,!Iotio,,, opprooch An ap pro;,ch to tht' of fonnal orga nimuom I'hich cutphasi7.t'.S t.Ilt' people, comlllunication , ;\lld p:llticip.. lIion Imrcaucracy and tends 10 focus on till' infomlal
LUfe of th e org-.lIli~aliol1. ( 1-'9)

BurMucracy A compone nt of fom ml o rgalli"l.alio n in whic h ru les and hiemrchim l r.llIking a r~' used 10 achicvc ('flicienc:y. (pllgC 152) Burenucrati%a tion The proccS$ by which a grou p, 01'Wllli"l.ation, 01 .social mo\'elTlCIlI bl!co.)mcs increasingly ' bure:wcr:ltlc. ( 157) Clasn'ca/ th~ory An approach 10 tJlC s tudy of fonnal orgal lrn.tions whic h \i e~ wo rkcn ;u being moth~dtcd almost entirely by economic rCl1uds. (159) Coali tion A te mporary or penn;Ulcl1I a llia nce tOMLrd a common goal. ( 150) D,a d t\ tWl>lIlembcr group, ( 150)

III .gronp An y group or category w whic h people Ihey belong. ( 14 7) Iru,. lallt oJ oligarch, A prillciple of org:llli1~"\lional dCl"Clopcd by Roben. !I.Iichels under which mn _0011 ocratic organi zatio ns will bceonlt' burca ucrado by ;1 few individuals. ( 158) Olll-group A group or c.llcgor), to which the y lIo nOI belong. ( 147) Pt/er principle A plinciple Cif urganiZo'uiotlal u;, ,,.m>tl inatcd by ["'; Iurencc j. " Cte l', according to "'hich illdl\'i(lllal wi thin a hie rarc hy tends to ri.'\C 10 hi3 !en'l of incompetence. ( 157) Primary group A small group characterized by male. f;lce-lo-t,cc associa tio n :uld coope.ration. (1#"1 Re Jerfmce group A term U5t:d I'hen speaking oj group that intli,iduals IIse as a 5~ndard in t.Iu:lIIsch'CS and their OWI1 beha\';or. (1'17) Scirn tiftc ma"agemrmt approach Another nall"lC' the drusi(al lhtory of ronllal organi L:ltiolU. (159) Se co"dary gro up A fomJllI, illlpcT!lonal grou p in thert' is li ttle social intimac), or mutUa l


""rl"n,,,,, ,

( 1-16)

Self-help group A tl1lillml aid group in which pa'I*' who 1 :ICc a commo n concern 01 conditio n comt ' get he r \'olllntarily fo r c mUli0l131suppon and p,~ .-jl :ruislallcc. ( 16.') Sexual harauPnrnl Ally IInl'alltcd a nd ual a(h"'tlco that inte tfe rc with a pCrwll'~ abili~ 1 lt'lfom l a job and enjoy Ihft 1x-1le.lit5 of a job, (l6'it






A group smllll e no llgl . rorall m CII.bcrs 10 IIIIrt.UI limuhanoously, that is, to talk with one anh~( ",.H leasl be acquaintcd. ( 149) '"ta/lll rily TIle te ndency of wurke rs ill 1I h uInlll"r~rv 10 become 50 specialized that they develop I !d'IIf,U. and Clnllot notice o b~iollS prdblems. ( 153) rl'illl \IJu~mcmbc:rgroup . ( 150) ,''''".,. 11IIocialioll' Organil.ations cSlab1ishcd on .... bl\l.1 Ilf common illlerest ,,'h~ mc m bcl"S "ohmor ,..,,n !lay 10 participate. (161)

ADDI} lON!\!'..B.@.!N.!!..~ ........................... .

ligan. Xiwle WooLscy. CJuHJs1fIatir u lPil(llism: Direct Sell/Jrl{fJlII.lJlhI"//U in Amtrita. Chic-.Igo: Uni l't:I'S ;Iy of 1989. Biggart details the social and cu lr2I WUI" that ha,c given rise 10 direc I-sdling orgo\II&tII"n~ rDSO~) and explores the d yn:un iCli of oqpm~llHt: in these groups. 1i.:Wl1ft'1l M. WOlllm of tlu: Kkw: Racism and Celld" /AI Jlf20r. Ikrkdey; Unileni t) o f adifomia Press, 911 <\ldlolLgh White Ll1en domil1:u cd the Ku KlllX ilia 111 the 19205, ,,"'Omen joi ned th is vo lunt.1L)' :wolOlL in brge numbers. \, Alkne Kaplan. [lIvisible Url"m"l. C h icago: Uni1)1 Uutago Prc!5, 1988. A critical loo k at how m L\ \if'\'~ in the United States, noting tht' I_idetpreJd lilil()(t 10 include th e unpaid labor d ispropordunMti\' pt'(hmned br ,",'omen . ........1. Kathy E. The Fnnil!ist Ca.k (lgai/lsl 8Ur(#lIf:mCJ. ftIIIrIdtJ[>hia:Trmple Univt:rsilY Press, IY84. FI:rb'llson <IhwI "n J broad range of sodal scit'nce litenttu re 10 Iiclawtllt holl' wome n arc a t a cOlllpar:uil'e dis,,1d\,;Hl. . m rfIl1lcmporary bureaucl"'.lcies. Aubrcy. and Donald G. Jo:J1 is. Small Gr(JIJ/J Den\fnkl~ o,mmulliwtiotl mul the GrllulI Process (3d

cd.). Nl.'W Yo r k: McGraw-l-l ill. 1990. Comm unication s peciaJi~1 Oonald C. Ellis h:\s revised the examination of bITOuP structure, decision making, and (onmcl resolution by re nowned authori ty B. Aubrey Fisher. jaco hy, Henry. TI,e HUI"tUlHTflfizalioll oJl1u \Vm"ld. BerkeIcy: University of Califol11 ia Press. 1973. jOlcohy. a German sociologist. offers a historical perspective on bureaucra cies and focuses on lhl' impact of bureauc rati:wtion o n dcmOC l<ltic id ellls . janis, lIving. Viclims(JfCrvuplJlillk. noslOn: HoughlOll Mif/lin, 1967. A presenta tio n conce rn ing Ihe power that small-group dynami cs has over decision mllking. K.-uniner, We ndy. \o\'omm Foflmterring: Tire PfeID1101'. Pain, (Imt Politia; of Un/Xlid I"or#! from 18}0 10 tfle Pr-tUlIl. Gm'den LILY, N.r.: AllcllOl, 19M. A Iti ~luriull cxuminlltion of lhe promillt:1II role women have playt.-d within vol umal), associations. Matyko, AJexander J. The &IfDtJealing Organhalian: A Critiqlle of BllrMucrag. New York: rraeger. 1986. Ma t)'ko argues uLal tmditiorml. hierarchicl!! org-dni:t.ations face a crisis because people are less wi ll ing to accep' s uc h aUlhOlimnan an-angemenls. Zald, Ma yer N. Orgflllizlllional ClwlIge: 7'1J.1'. Politiwl Eoo/lO/Il)' of/lit YMCA. ChicilgO: Universi ty of Chicago Press. 1970. This socio logical study traces the YMCA 's LraIlSfo rm aLinn from an ....vangc1istic ll." .'locialion to a service orgllllil.aLioll heavily d t: pendcnt 011 federal funding.


Amon g the j o urna ls that focus on the study of b oups .... and organizations are ,\liministmlit111 allll Society (fonnded in 1969) , Administrative Scienct Quarterly ( 1956), Qillical Siology Rt:VieIQ ( 1981), Qumtl'l"ly Review of Doubkspe(tk ( 1974). Small Grffll!J fUstorrll (fonnerly Small Group 8e1U1vior, 1970). a nd Social P5)'clloli>g)' /kuiezl} ( 1948).

t:/fAP'I'f.H 6 ClifJUPS ANO OllCANllIonO....S

,....................C=====::"J{;.=====:a.................... .


I nnr"rmll) and Obt:dicnCt (AlOronUlt) 10 l'rtJudict O~llrn(t \0 Authorit) Infumldl and .'0I1nal Social Coll1rol I...", And Sodct)


Types of Crimc !'rofcssional Crime

0'1Pnil.ctl Crime Whiu:..ColI"r Crime Viclimlcss Clill1l'S Crime: Statistic", intemaliOllai Crime R:\le ~ Use a lld Meanill Mof Clime

\\lIJI h 1)c1'lance? i\)ll.liniIlK I)c\'iancc Function.llis! Pt'1'Sp(~ li \'(' IJu rllhtl1ll J 1 .tgI1C] .\1 11011 J 7'htory rif 1"tJ;lwrr 1' iml'r"JctioniJI l'el~ I)l'Clhc: Dllferential /\\'IOCiatioll

St :u.isli c~



BOXES 7.. 1 CUITCIH Rcsciu'ch: !'\cUlr.l l i ~Hioll of D~'i ;lIIct :lIld f'CIIl:lle I\odyhuildcn 7..2 Around the World; Police Power in Jap:m

1...lwhng TheOl)


When is condu.ct a crime, and when is a crime not a crime? \hen Somebody Up There-a monarch, a dictator, a Pope, II legislator-so decrees.
Jeuiro MitJord
Kind and Urual f'lmishmml, 1971

How does a socicty bring "bout 3ccCptance of sod31 nonns?

1 low does obedience dilfcr from confonnity? I-Iow do socio logists view the creation of laws? C'm wc leam deviant bchavior from othel1l? \Vhy is ccrlain beha\;or evalua ted as MdevianL~ while oth~r behavior is not? Wh y is there w litde crillle in Japan ? Should Corlb,..e~ and state IcgislalLlres adopt stronger gun cotHral measures?

would a person all er his or hcr appearallct.--and c hallenge traditional social nortns-by c hoosing lUHLsllal forms of body piercing or deciding 10 be talluoed? Body piclc:ing is common in numerous CU ltlll'C.<; around lhe world and haq become increasingly popular in tile United StatC~. Men have joined WOlllell in piercing Lheir eal"lubes 1 wear ,0 carrings, and mcmbcr~ of both sexes ha\e begun pierci ng their nipples, tlle;r noses, and other body P'lI"ls. Somc e ntllUsiasl$ of body piercing read maglI/ines focusing on this pmcticc or g<llhcr al social aclivities organized fOI" likL"-minded indhiduals. While scm'ned by lIlany mcmbers of the dOlllinant cu lture, people engaged in body piercing view their bc:: ha\ior as merely pan of a continuum of a hering onc's appearance Lil'1! includes use of lipstick, paimed nails, false eyelashes, cosmetic ciental ..... ork, hair coloring and replacemcl1t, and cven plastic surgery (Caniglia. 1993:.1. Mrcrs. 1992). Sociologist Clinton Sanders (1989) stud ied tile


practice of tallooi ng by cngaging in particll~nt obselV.ltion research . Srlnclers not only chose to lr tallooed himself; he worked for a time as an . lalll to a tattooist, suctching the skin of thaw' ing talloocd, and calming lhe anxieties women receiving their first taLtoos. S;Ulders that while those clectjng la be talloocd were &q. aling frolll broad social nonns, they were al tht same time conforming to the ,ie\\'s and beha\ior~ signific;:1Jl1 Olhers, iJlduding family I1lcmbt.~rs ;and close friends who had already been t""OUtd. ORr subjcct noted: 'My faliter gOl one when he wa~ iD the war alld I always "~d.lHcd onc. tOO (Sanden. 1989:42) . For others, however, tauoos allow them to panicil)atc in an lUl colwent..ional subcultult which nalll"lts authority and to establish immtdiatr bonding wilh stra ngers whose values arc obviowk compatible, Veler.lnS, members of TIlolorqcir g-.IIl!,.tS, and otllers can idclllily likt. minded peopIt ... based o n the kind of UlUOOS they display (see aI."'l Mascia-Lec'i and Sha'l}C, 1992). Of COlll"SC, like those Wilh unusual types bo<tl piercing:, men and womcn wilh ea-:;ilyvisible muOOio often face dis.'lpprO\'a1 and e\'c n hostility rrom pt'fl" pie committed 10 u-aditional Ilonns regarding ~ pcar;lI1ce. For women in particular, having a l<Ill()O may be regarded as a dcpanul"t.' from co nventional gender roles. Onc woman illlerviewcd by Sand(,A ( 1989:55) recalls:



My falher's .C'lCUOfl wa.~ J USt oue of disgu$1 bealJl( women who get tallooS to him arc ... I don't I:nQIII ... lhc), j1l5l arc u'l nice )(irl5. They a .: n'l the tYJll!l~ girl he wauts his daughlcr l.O he. He le t me knOWWI 1 lel me h:\\'c it light betwecn the eyes. lie ~id, ~I)" le

l'AR'r /wo onGA,\'I'I.I!\'(; .'iOCJAI, I.M :.



",h:1II kind of girls gel


:U\d j U l .S


nUl uf !lit: roo m .

rn'llk maintain distincLive standards regarding hr "."pt'r appe-dI".tnce of physicians, military om\. lIle-mile" of the clcrgy. and t: \'CIl socio logists. \UJI\ IHl1ra~ues and students would at least he WlllfN11tu lI1eel a sociologist with visible tattoos,) \\ IIr \\111' ill lhis chapter, conformity. obcd iC'Ilrr. dntl deviance can be understood only wilh in il)ClIl'n \Il('iti.l context. If people disrobe publicly, Ibn ~'r Iwl.uing widely held soci<ll no rms. Ho\\'.,., If tht, \<lIlIt' people disrobe within a ~naturiS lM llll' nudi\t) t-oUlIP , they arc obe}'ing the rules and Jlu!lImtmg IQ !.he behavior of peers. C le;u'ly, the n , ""'I ~\ di'\;anl in onc sclLing may be common and ;j(lIptl't1 tn another, (1ttllunnitv and dc\1:lIIce :u t: IwO rcspmlSl,"S 10 .C'~llJr imagined preSSlLrcs front othe r,;. In the l niti'd ~UI!CS , people are socialized lO have mixed kchn~~ .. hmll both conforming and noncollformtlu; t.-ha\1{lf, The term amf ol7liity can cOI!ju rc lip 1It~""\4,1 mindless imitation ofone's peer ~"oll l) wIIe-LIlt'! ;& circle of tecnage rs wcaring punk rock g:.ub or;& group of business people dressed in simU.1I:r.l' 'Ult..\.. Y the same i.t:J'11l can also suggCSt et Uul.n 1fl(II~idlla l is cooper-dti\'c or .1 "team p layer. Whil' ,.buut those who do nOt confonn? They mOl)' hi It' Ilt't.t(-d as individualists, leade rs, or c real,ive ,hnl~t" "'ho br('ak new ground. Or they Illay be lahrit'fl ,I~ ~ II'OLlblcmakcrs~ and ~wcirdos" (Aronson . llJ;.!,[,l- l !i) . TIll, tl1.llUt'r win examine the rclarjo nship bl,'flIrt'11 flIUronn ilY. deviance. and social control. I l ~in' h\ distinguishing between confonuity and otnilrllCt :md lhen looks <11 IwO expc rimellLS repdill~ (ollftlrl1ling be ha\"ior and obedie nce to ;w !hi n1\ Tht' infonnal and formal mcc hani IIsed t>I .. K'iltic\ W cllcour.tge conformity and discour_" dl'liJT1tC arc lIn:llYLcd. Particular :IHc lHion is 1(nl:t1 1(llht' k-gal order and how it reflects uncler11lL1~ ,>odal values. Ihe ",'('ond p.ut of the chapter focuses on 111 eo .rllI;!1 e~Jll:tnations ror deviance, includinK tlte JUllfllonaJi'llllpproacht:S employed by Emile DlIrk

Whim sronltd by mlJll] mtmbt:rs 0/ tht! dOIR Hlunt m /lrm', IJHJfI/t "" g(lp l i,l tattooing and body pir.rc;'rg vitll! l/rn ,.
beh(n>ior as mertl), /HIIt

0 /


(lJllli llurun

oJ nllning ont'$ (lpptomna: Ihat indudn U of li/lllirlr, /Nlln /M mlib . Sl fid~ l''Jrlruht.$, COS/MU- df1/ /aJ UIOtlr.
hair co/nnng (lIId r~plflCtmnlt. mu} ror.7l pltutir surgny.

hrlm "lid Roben Menon, the inte ractionist-bascd Im'l\tial.Lwx:iation theory of Edwin SlIlhcr!alld, ;1.011 LlhI'ling theory, which dra .....s upon both the inItnII um\i~r and the connict perspccLivt:s,

The tJlird part of .he chapter focuses on crime, As a fonn or deviance subject lO oOicial. wrinel1 no rms, crime has been ;1 special concern of pol icymakers and t.h e public in general. VariOlls lypes of crime fo und in the Un ited Stales. a nd the ways in which c rimc is measured , arc discussed . finall y. tht: social policy sectio n at the end of tht: chapter considers II controversy highly illnucnct:d by people 's pcrccplio ll$ or c rime: the deb:lle over gun
contro l.

U/AY,.,. R 1 /).I'/A;\,o-. ANO SOCiA /, (;ON1'HOt ;

As was seen in Cha ptc r !S, evc r), culture, ~ lI bclllturc, and gro up has d istin ctive no rms go\'c l1Iing wh:l. l il. deems appro priate behavior. Laws, drc~ codes. byJaws o f organizatio ns, co urse requi rcme nL'i, a nd rules of sportS a nd g' lll t.'S all ex prc~" social no rms. d Functionalists contend lhal people IUIL,,1 respect such norms if any gro up o r socie ty ic; la sUlvive. In Iheir view, societies lite l, tlly co uld n o t fun ction if massive numbers of people defi ed standards o f appro priatc conduct. By contra.n . connic t theorisl." a rc conce nled that "successrul fun c tio ning" ofa s0ciety will consiste ntly bc nc:lil th e powerful and wo rk 10 Ihe disadvantage of" o the r groups. Th ey poin t OlH . for example, th at widespread resistan ce to social norms wa.. necessa ry in orde r to O\'cl"l urn the ins titution o f slavery in the United St.J!es. How does a socie ty bring nbouI acceptance of basic norms? The le nu social control refe .... to th e "techniqu es a nd sU-'Hegics fo r regulating human bchavior in an)' society" ( R. Ro be rts. 199 1:274) . Social contro l occurs on all levels o r socicty. In the family, we a rc socialized to obey o ur pa re n l.'i simply because th ey arc OILr pnrc n ts. In l)Cc" groups......c arc introduced to inform;)1 nomlS suc h ilS drC5S cod es Lh:n gove m the be haviol' of me mbe rs. In bureaucratic o rganizations, workers mU ~ 1 cope with a fonna] syste m of rules a nd regulations. Finally, the govcmmc n l of e ve ry society legislates and e nforces social no nns-including norms reg<lrdill g ~ propcr" and ~ impl'oper~ ex pressions of sexua l in ti macy. Most of us respect a nd accept basic social non m a nd assume tha t others will do the samc. Even without thin king .....e obey th e instruc tions of police offi cers. foll ow the day-ta-day nl lcs a t o ur johs, a nd move to th e rear of el ev,llors whe n people e nte r. Such behavior re[]ects an e liecti\'e prOCess of socialization to the domin a nt standa rds o f a c ulture. At lhe samc lime. we a rc wel l-awa re that, gro ups. a nd instilUlions o:lJut us to ac t M propc rly.~ If we fail to do so. we Illay fac(~ punis hme nt through informal saPlctiotls suc h as fea r and ridic ule, or F onnal sanc tions such as j ail sentences o r fin es (St!C Cha pte r 3) .

we regdl'd as o ur pect'!; o r as ollr equals il1n UCII O us la act in pa rticulat' ways: the same is true o f pm pIe who hold ;u uhorilY over us or occupy positionl which we view with some awe. Sttt uley ~lil gr.lIr ( 1975: 11 3- 11 5) made a Itsl'ful di ~ti1l1' t iu n bclwCer these IwO impo n a nl leve ls of social control. Milgnltll d e fin ed conformity as going along ....i tll o ne's pee rs- individuab o r a person's own statw. who haY(' no special right 10 d ircct Ihat person', bc havior. By conUa5t, obediellce is defined as compJi. an ce with higher a uthorities in a hierarchi cal struc litre. Thus, a re(""nt ;t cllt.c ring military sc n~ce ...ilI typicall)' rmifor711 to lhe ha bi ts a nd la nguage o f other recruits a ud \\,jll ube)' th e orders or sllperiot' offi cerr..

..................:1. ..............................................................................

Conformitv and Obedience

Techniqucs fo r social cO Ttlm l can be viewed o n holh tJIC group level and the .~oci elallcvd . I'co plc who m

Confomlity to Prejudice We often th ink or COt~ fo rmi ry ;n tc nllS of m the r ha rm less situations, sud!. a.~ me m bers of a n expemi\"e health d ub who \\"On Out in dabom te a nd cos tly sportswear. But ~ semchers have found th at people may co nfo rm It) the auitudes and bc ha\~o l' of their peers c\'e n whe" such co nformity mell ns expressing intolc mllce I~ ward o thers. Amidst conce rns a bout growing radal tension in the United 5 mles. Flelcher Bla nchard. Teri Lilly, a nd Lcigh Ann V:mghn ( 199 1) Cl)ndltctN OIn expe rime nt at Smith ColJege a nd found that overh eard sta tements by othe rs in nu('llce exprbsio lls of opinio n o n tJle iss ue o f rad'lm. The researchers had" student who said she \I;It conducting a n o pin ion po ll fo r a cla.., s a pproach 7! While stude nts as each was \'\'<llking ac ross the c::tmpus. Each tim e she d id so, ~ h t:! also sto pped a steo nd While 5tucle nt- ac tllally a confed erate \.\orkin,( with the rescarche rs- ;ltld asked he r to p:uticiPJU' in the sur\'ey as well. Both stude nts were asked bOil SmitJl Coll ege ~ h o uld resl)Ond la a no nymous n asi notes actually se nt 10 fou r Africa n American S li>den ts in 1989. Howe\'c r, th e co nfedera te W:15 a1w:tYl instruc ted to a ns .....e r first In so me cases. she tundenHled the n OI(.'5: in o then. she j ustified them. Bla nchard a nd his colleagues (I991:102- 1O~ C'fmciud e(\ th a t "hea ring al least onc oth e r pe ex press strongly anti nl cL~t opinions p l'od ltc(:d d matically more stro ngly a mi mcisl puhlic reactio to racism tha n hearing others express equh op inions o r opinions more accepting of racism. Howeve r. a second expeli tTIeTll de mo nst.rated th whe n lIle co nfe d er.tte expressed senti mc ntsjusti ing racism, subjects we re much kss likely to expr a ntimcist o pin ions tha n were those who heard


f11V ' OHf.A.NI1.J,\ G rot'JIoI. f Jlo}

Mr d'IC orrer o pinions, In this experimctH, social rontrut (through the process of wnfo rmity) influruct-d people's auitudcs and the expression of

m.l'ot' attlnnles, In Lhe

next sectio n , wc will sce that vriJJ control (through the proce!OS of obedience) filrl all('r people's behavior.

Obtdience to Authority I f ord ered to do so, would yuU lompl}' wiLh all experimenter's instnlcti rm to RIll' people in cre;l~ingl y painful e lectric shocks?
MO'II I~plc would

say no: ye t, !lI e r C!I(:arch 01 ",w:uI psychologist St:lIlley Milgr.l.I11 ( 1963, 1975:

Alien, 1978:3'1 -(3) suggests that most of us will rho, ~uch orders, In Milgram 's words (I975:xi): "Brhil\il)r that is unthinkable io an indh'idllal .. Mtlng nil his own nlay be executed wilhout het-itatlun IIrht'1I carried OUl under orders.~ Milgmm placed advertisemcnl~ in New I'''well , f.llnn('ctirnt , newspapers to rec l'llit su~j ec ts for "hott \I,U annollnccd as a learnin g expe rimenl al Yak< l~ni\C'T'l\ity, Pal'tici pants included postal cl e rks, rtt(tl1rrl"i, high schoolteachers, alld laborcrs, They 1ft'I'1' t]lld lhut Ihe purposc of UIC research was la IDYntilfolll' the efft.Cts of punishme nt on le.lrning, ' Thr experimenter. dressed in a grny technician 's rttilL explained ,hat in each (esling, o ne subject ,",uM he randomly selected as Ule ~ l ea rn eJ''' wh ile lhr,llherwould fun ction as the Mlc:.chcr," Ho\\'e\'c,', lb. 1011(:11 was tigged so thal the Mreal " su~jcct trllUlrl Jl\\~,)'li be 111e teacher while an associ al e of M&1~r:lm 's St't\'cd as the learner. ,-\lthi~ point, the learner's hand was su-appcd to iIIl ,'IL-ttrie appar,uus, The teache r was taken 10 an rln'trumc ~~ hock ge ncralor~ with gO levcr sl...itc hrs. fah \\1I(h was labeled with graduated vol tage despUOI'lli from 15 to 450 volts, Befo re bcgi nning ihrc'CJ}rriment, subjec ts were givcn S:ltnple shocks 011 4!l \ull.\, \\'hich convinced thc m 0 1 the autlu-n lint! of Iltt' expcrimcllL The I(,ilcher W'dS instructed hy th e experim enter III ~p"lv ,hocks of increasing ,'ollagc each timc tJ1 C ieamt'r ir.I\'t' an incorrect answer on :l Ill clIlory te~1 tR"f.ulinK pair(.'(\ words slIch as blllr ~h)' and wild l'e;tf Jtl'r.\ were lold that ~ alth o ugh the shocks om hi" r~tr('mely painful , they causc no penn:lI1e nt u..", damage.- In reality, the learne r did !lOl rt.... ltn(' ulll;Il ~hocks: hOI ...(.'\,e r, subjects in the ro le of IrMhn bdi('\'ed tJml the procedure was gen uin e , The k,tm('r de.liberately gave incorrect answers .and .lt,-'(I 0111 a prearrdllged script. For example,

I" om' OfStwlk). 1"11/1/10$00

Milgrfll1l ~

rmm:nl;l/g 0/;-1'1111':11"1 /11


r.X/JmlrvnLs a rerl'hH'f.1 (Ill etu/lir

tHl/ll 0 1'i/y,

1/111(11 whtll his ha/lll "111'1/ 011 (/ !horll film,. At Ihi' /5().ll()it l!'Ilf/, 1"1' ~'/Cllm dl'm(mdnllo br rt/"ntfJ fJllIl rt'ftLYd In pkllt his "nulf 011 tht Jnodt /110/4. The n:prrimetlln- f/in, (111irrrxi IIIf' arluol

511bjl/0 fOTal Ihl .... 'u/"n 'j W hUllt/ 0'110 till' P/(I/l (f/.f 5hoWII III fill' pllfJln) , \\'111/1'

40 f~(nlf of /M Intl' suhjrru

immbiiatfiy mded rQmf!/i(lIIu I'll 1/'15
/Juml, 10 jH!rct'1!1 dIll (ma Ill ,

tI"" throug" lilt 450-V(}/1 lnlff, ({t.I/lift

Ms fm'INlded

MlilCtilll',f" hal/d


1111' shOtIl ,,{(lit,



at 150 \'Olts, the learner wou ld cl)' out, "Ex peri ment,c r, get me Ollt of here! I won ' t be in the ex pe limclll a n y mo rc!" At 270 \'olts, the learner wou ld scream in "goll}. When the shock level reached 350 "OiLS, the leal'l1('1' \\'ould fall Sile nt. If the Icache r wamed 10 stop lhe t:xpcrimem, lhe cxperimc ntc l' would imist Ihat th e teache r continu e, using slIch ~latemcllLS as ~The cxpe ,;mcllt n:quir('s that yOll contilllle and ~Yoll hav(' no olhel' choi ce; )'ou "'tu/ go o n" (tI-'l ilgr;un, 1975: 19-23) . The rcsults ur this unusual expe,;mc!U stunne d and dism:i\cd ~Iilgr,un ( 1975:3 1) and o t11el' social scientists. A sample of psychiatrists had predic te d that vil1ua lly all subjects would refuse la shock innocent \ictim s, In their view, only a Mp.llhological

('J/,W/Y ] , /JI-.i'IttNlL A."n MJCJM (:0.\''fI) / JI

fringe " of less than 2 perce nt would conunue administering shocks up lO Llle maximum level. Yet al most Iruq.lhirds of parti cipan u; ICIl into the C.1tegOl of ~obedi ent subjects." As Milgram ( 1975:5) observed: ~ Dcs pite the tact that ma ny sul:!ieclS . . . protest 10 the experimenter. a substalltial pl'Oporlion continue to Llle last shock on Llle gCJlerator." Why djd these subj ects obey? "Vhy were they willing to innict seemingly painful shocks on innocen~ victi ms who had never done them an)' hmm?There is no evidence to suggest that these subjecLS we,'c unusually sad istic; feW see mcd to el"tioy admi nistering the shocks. Instead. in Milgram's view. the key to obedience was lhe experimenter's social role as a ~sc ientist~ and ~seeke r of knowled ge." Milgram poimed out that in th e modem indus. trial world we are accustomed to submitung to imperson;tl authority figures whose stams is indicated b)' a tille (professor. lieUlenant. doctor) or by a uniform (the technician 's coat) . T he auLllOrity is viewed as larger and more important than lhe indh~dual: conscqucntJy, the obedielll illdh~dual shifts responsibility for his or her behavior 10 the authotity figure. Mi lgr<lm's suqjecLS frequently stated : "If it \,'ere lip to me, 1 would not have adminislered shocks." They saw the11lsc1\'(:.~ as mc rely doing their dut)' (M i1b m. 1975:xii. 7-8. 137, .... 144-146). Viewed fTOm an interactioniSI perspective. 01l(! impor13nt aspect of Mi lbrnlm 's findings is the fact that subjects in follow-up studies were less likely 10 inniCI the supposed shocks all Llley were mm'cd physically closer La their victims. Moreo\'cr, interactionists emphasize thal teache rs assumed responsibility for punishment by inrrlmlNllafly administering additional dosages of 15 VOILS. In effect, the experimenter negoliated \\1th the teacher (sec Chapter 5) a nd co nvinced the teacher to continue inflicting hjghe,- levels of punishment _ It is doubttul that anywherc neH t1,e two-thirds rate of obedience lIIould ha\'c been reached h(ld the experimenter told the leachel'~ lO administer 450 mlts immediately lO llle ieal'l1crs (Al ien, 1978:42-43: Katovich, 1987). Milgram launched his experimental sludy of obedience 1.0 better understand \J1(: invoh'emCJll of Gennans in I.he annihilation of 6 million Jev.'S and millions of ol her peo plc during World War 11. In an interview conducted lon g after lhe publication of his study, he suggcsted that "i f a system of dealh

camps were set up in tJ1C United St<lu:s of Ihe sol't we had seen in Nazi Germany. one wo uld be ablr to find sufficie nt personnel ro r Lbose camps in an)' medium-sized American town" (CBS News. 1979; 7-8).

J.~g.~.~ .~...~P.:~.. .f.Qr..~..~g~~...~.~n!!.~~............ _ The sanctions used to encourage conformity and

,o bedience-;md to d iscourage viola Liol1 of social 1l01lll.S-are carriecl Ollt through informal and formal social control. Informa l social cOII /rol, as the term implies, is used by people ca~\lall y. Normsarc enforced through lllC use o f Lllc inforlllal sa nctioru described in Chapter 3. Examplcs of info rmal sociaJ conlrol include smi les, laughter, raising of all eyebrow, and ridicule . Techniques or infomlal conu'ol (Ire typically emplo}'ed within primary groups sHch as families. Ind;viduals learn such lec hniques early in their childhood socialization to cultuml n0l111S. Since thtsf mechanisms o f social cOl1 trol aTe not fOllllali7.ed, there can be great variation in their use even within the same society. For example. imagine that H teenager is seated on a crowded bus in a scal reserved for cldedy and disabled people. r\ rather frai l-looking elderly Illall gets o n (he bus and has nowh e re lO sit, yetlhc teenager does nOt move. Onc nearby passenger may scowl a t Llle teenager, anOlh e r lTlay sta re until lhe teenager becomes un comfortable, while a third may verbalizc Llle conlrol mec hanism by tell ing the teenager to get up. In some cases, informal methods or social con trol a rc not adequate ill e nforcing courorming or obedie nt behavior. In the ex ample abo,'C, th~ teenager might look away from ,J1(; scowling anrl staring passenge rs and might tell the third person. "Mind your ollln business!" Allhis point, passenger'! might en liSI the aid of the bus driver-whose occu pational role carries \\'ith it a cCl'Iain authorityin an auempt lO force the teenager to give up the seat. Forma l social COl/lrol is carried out by au thorized agents, such as police oflicers. physiciaru. school administrators, employers, l11ili:II)' officeR. and managers of movie theaters. As we have Sl::en, il can .selve as a last resort when socialization and informal sanctions do not bring about desired ~ haviol'_ Societies v<u)' in deddillg which hehaviors \\.;11 b(o subjected to formal sodal control and how severe

PAnT 7WO OH(' NIlJNG ......


the- ~(Ijon~ wil l be. In thc nation of Singapore. lhrrr .lre fllles of $625 for lincri ng. $3 12 for eating IWI th(' ,ubl<l'aY. and 594 for fai ling 10 fl u$h a pUDIIc lodcL in 1992, Sing.llxue bomned tJ1C 5:llc of cht!'\\" ~~m.lnd 51 .1 people ..... et"(: comined of iJlegalJy IIDoling in public. Ahhough a la",' has not )'tl been j8IIt1J. SJngapo~'s gOl'cmmcru has ofliciall)' people who come fushio nably laIc for dinner ,.n~: \uch behal;or is \;ewed as a ~S"u\\ing proD)rm "lilt v.ide implications for' naljonal producti,'"

(Sraneg-.m. 1993:36). Ir \) importallt 10 ell1J>hasi7c that fonnal social Ulnlml " nOl alW'.\}'S C"drried OUI on I) by gO\'ernIIImI"fficiab in response 10 \iolations of the law. Cin.Un mlx:uhurcs witJlin a sod(ty exercise fonnal
lb' II'lO.II

conlrol to maintain ad herence 1,0 their di~ ",odal nonns. For example. if a Illelllber of tht\lI\i~h religious minorilY (,'cfcr back to Chaptrt.) liolaleti the cOlll lllun ity's sta nda rds. he 0 1' she ,,111 initlall)' be verbally chastiscd by a mt~ mbe r (i l,()(iaJ t:onlrol). Howe\'er. if a n Am ish pe rtrIO commilS an especially se ri O llS lr.lIlsg,cssio ll or IqIC'att'dly \iQlatcs accepted norms. the commu ni ty . . 1O\'Okl: its IUost scvere means of fonnal social CGbtml. "n(WI1I ~ Mridlwg. or "shunni ll g . ~ With in "c~ilAlIlish community. a fonnal decision lQ.bun<l member amounts 10 ~wcial dea th ~: lllC JIr'V'" la totally ignored. e\'cn by family members. (:rntralh. !lIe shunfled member chooses 10 leave (IMmunity mther than enclu re Ih is I)ainfui Itthl'lIqul.' of fonna l social corurol (Kcphart and
bnc: 11\('

Sociologisu have become increasingly interested in the creallon of laws as a soc ial process. Laws are created in response 1 perceived needs for fonnaJ 0 social cOlllrol. Sociologists ha\'e sought 10 explain how and why such perceptions are manilCsled. In their \iew. I:IW is Itot merely a sl.'uk hody of rules handed down from generation to generation. Rathe r, it I'cllccts con tin ually changing slandards of ""ha I is I'iglu a nd wrong. of ho ....' viola tions arc to be de te rm ined. and of wha t sanctions arc to be applied (Schur, 1968:39-43). Sociologists rc-presenting varying theoretical per Specti\'ClI agree thal the legaJ order reflects underlying social ,'aluc.~. TIlercfore. the cre'Hion of criminallaw can be a mosl comroversia l maneI'. Should it be againlll the la .... 10 e mplo)' illegal'l in a factory (sec Chapler 10). 10 h:wc an abortion (sec Chaptc r 11 ). or to smo ke (In :'In airplO'\nc? Such issues h.l\'c bee n bitte rly de baled because Ihey requi re a ch oicc amo ng comped ng valu es. Not SUI'p risi ngly. laws thal al'c L.ln l>o p lll;lI~s ll ch :L the pro.. h ibition o flh e ma nufacture and ~::d f" of intoxicating liquor.lll l1c\er Ihe Eigh tcc nth Amendme.nt in 19 19 and U1C cSl1lblisluncnl of a national 55 mi le per hour speed limit on highways in 1973-becOllle dif ficult to enforce owing to lack of consensus supponing the norms. It is important to undcrscore the f;lCl that socialitatio n is the plimary source of conCo11l1 ing a nd obcdielH behal'ior. induding obedience 10 l a ...... , Generally. it is nOI exte rnal p,'essul'e Crom .. pee.r group or a uthority figure Ihal makes us go along wiUI social nonns. Rather. we have illlcrnalized such uonns as \'alid and desirablc and ~Irc cornmiued to them. In a profound scnsc. we wanlto sce ourselves (and 10 be seen) as loyal, cooperativc, responsible. and respectful of others. In the United Sta les and otJlcr societies al'OlInd the ,...o rld . people are social ized bo th 10 WOlll t 10 be lo ng and lO fear bei ng viewed as differe nl o r deviant.



a.r aod ..SOcie.'L ................................................................

Samt- I\(.mu are considered so illl l)Qn:U1t by a sottm th.!\ they arc fonna lizcd imo la"''S comrolling

hcha\ior. In a poli tical .sense, taw is the

'1Io!h (If ntlt!5 made by go\'cnllncllt for society. inIr'fJlI'I:ll.'d by the COUI'LS. a nd backed b)' the powl'r statc~ (Cumm ings ami Wise. 1993:49 1). iomr law', such :l!l lhe pro hihilio n agai nst murder. art dlrtctl al all me mbe rs of society. Othcr.l. suc h fi~lIng and hunting rel:t>'t,i:Hions. :'Ire aimed pd"';1\ .11 particular categories of people. Still othen pt'm the Ixha\;or of 50Cial institUlions (corpna...n b.w and laws regarding the' taxing of _ptufil enlerpri~) . Despite IIlIch differences. "l'M of 1 are considered exa mp le .. of fonua] ;1", IDtial nurrnt (Chambliss ancl Seidman, 1971 :8) .

d lhl.'

.lJ..E.;Y!.~G.E.; ........._. ___...._ ........... _ ...........................................

~~J .. ~J?~.yj~~?.._........................

w" _"._,,_.,,_ _ ,,_.

For sociologi!ll.'i. the tcnn droian(f! does nOI mean pcn.crsio fl or dcpr.tvity. D ev ian cfI is behavior Ulal \;o!ale,s the standards of conduct or ("xl>ccl;nions of

('JltWn::M "



muller. PtofJIL

is often 11 rt/lllilNl may (OIlS/tier il (lU4JlabII "intl '1111(/,. 51(1l1fi'S in (l II/flJ'l'l11ll. bltl


(lrt ~'lwdmlll)' srdllf,r 1II111l' S/(i/uN on rteortl alhlm, CUIII:I'. Till' ft'.Jflfli'llg
)1I11Y1111'fl] ((II~

'" 7;11 MUfhi",j

albl/m for,rd Ill'" rrrord wm!IlIP/1 '0 rn1l(!lJ(: Ill' mol, gt'1l;/(llul from 11"
~/(IIII O fll/lured 011 IIII~ tU/1fT.

a grou p or Jlodety (Wicklll:ln , 199 1:85). In the Uni ted SI.II('JI. alcoholics, people with taltoos. COIll pulsivl' gamblers, and the mellla1\y ill wo uld all be classifie d as deviants. Iking late fo r class is c:!lcgod :tccl a$ a deviant act: the s.une is lrue of dressing too casually fa, a f0l111<11 wedding. O n the b.. 'tsis o f the socio logical defin itio n. we arc all deviam fmm time to time. Each of II.~ violales COIllIllOIl social no rms in cCrL'tin situations. De\~;Ul ce involvc..'S Ihe \~o la tio n of gro up 1I01111S which may 0 " may nOI be fonllali zed inlo law. It is a comprehe nsive concept that includes no t only c riminal beh:wior but also many anions n ot subject 10 pmsccUlion . The public official who lakes a bribe has defied social norms, but so 11<1.$ the high school sLUde nt who refuses to sit in a n assib'n ed Sell! o r Cll ts class. Of course, dc'~at io Jl from norms is nOI always neg-.Ilivc, lel a lone criminal. A me mbe r o f a n ex cl llsh'c social club who speaks o ut against ilS tradi tional po licy of e xclud ing ....o me n , Blacks, and J ews from admillancc i~ deviating from the club's nonns. So is a police o nicer who -blows the wh istle o n COl' ruplion or brut:tli t), wi thin the dcpanmcIII . As wt: notcd earlier. devia nce can be understood o nly within its social context. A nude photOgrdph of a \\'0 111;111 or man may be perfectly appl'O]lI'iate in an an museu m but \\Iould be rcgardt:d as 0111 of p lace: in a n clement.'tIY school classroom. A phar. macist is expectcd to sell prescriptio n drugs o nl)' to people \,'ho have explicil inJltructio ns frolll medical a Ulhori lies. If the pharmacist :sells thc sallle dmgs to a narcotics dC<lier, he o r she 1"'10 commi llcd d t'"iall l (a nd crimina l) bc ha"ior.

St.mdards 0 1 deviance va ry frOI11 o nc grou p (or subc ulture) to .lIlothe!'. In the United States, it is generally considered acceptable to si ng along al a fo lk o r rock concen . but II Ot at lh e o pera . .J ust as cl e\~;ulcC is d efincd by the social silllalioll . so lOO is it relative to lime. For inst.'mce, h a\~ n g an alcoholic ddnk ;Il 6:00 " .M. is a common pl'aclice in OUl' $0dell" but engaging in the samc he h;\viol' upo n ;u ising a l 8:00 A.\I. is '~e \\'cd as a clc\~am act and as symptoma tic o r <'I drinking proble m. In Table 71, Wl' oncI' add itiona l examples or u ntimely lIClS Iha t arc rcgarded as d(:\~lI nt ill the United States, Dc\iance, th en, is a highly relative maller. Peo-

Ringing 0 World ng HoYing

doorbell 01 2 A.M.


Yeor', eve dote


on 0 fif~

PIoylng 0 ~r8f'eO loudly in &Ofly morning hoofS

Hoving on okoholic drink with breokfoll

Arllnllfuctor" ending 0 college don oiler 15 minutel
Gelling monied ofter having



For o nly 0

fww days
Toki ng five yearl or more 10 complele high school

Soo'1J mtlJ "K"lfl (mu;" ow

lIS d,lIirwt limply brr.mJV of IN /i"" tILIIWlI1 imJQ/vttf.

I'AI( " 11IYI /JII(;.A",,!.I.W; Sflf'IM UH.

pIt in the Unia'et St,\les Ill:l )' consider it strilnge for (I person 10 lig lu 01 bull in an areml. before an audience of screaming fans. Yel we are nOI n early 'IQ shocked by the pr:tclicc of two hum.lns fighti ng fJ/uh IJ4hd with boxi llg glo\'c~ in fron t of a similar Judience.

Irue of th e clriwr ,.,.!t o receivcs .. speeding licket. the dep:u'unclll ~IOfl' (':t~hier \\'ho is fircd ror yell ing al a customer, and the college stude nl who is pe nalized for h:.mclinA in pal)('rs weeks olcldue.

\\"y do people violalc social lIorms? We have seen tbot, dC\;ant ;lCLS 'Ire subjcct to both inforlllal and formal sanctions of social control . The noncol1forming or disobedient 1X'f1}on limy race disappro'\'2l, IOS! of friends, flues, or e\'clI illlprisonmenL Why. then , d()('lI deviance occur? t:''\rI) explanatiom for clt."Viance identir.~d sllpc rnaturnl cau5CS o r genetic f; IClors (~ II(' h as wbad blooct~ or e\'olution:lI)' throwhacks lO pl'imiti\'e anrC:Slors). By tilt' 1 800~. Ih el'e wc\'(' ~lIh~t:lIl1i;J1 1'(''>titrch efToI'I$lo id~'rHif'y bioloJ.;'icall<lclOr~ th:tl1cad l!ld('VianCI' and c'pt'da lly In rriminal flcdvit)'. Whi](: such research ha.~ 1)('(' 11 disclwlilt'd in I ht Iwcnl ieTh Ctnlllly. conlclIll>OI.II)' smdics. pl'irnaTily by biotht'mim, havc !lnll~ht In ;~nlalt' g~'netic faclors leading 10 a likelihood of c('!'Iain pcrsonality 1101;15. AIIhQugh cri minalil), (nwl'h Ics) deviance) i'l hardly I proollality char.lctcri'ltic, reseal'ch el'<; have fou~d on t.rait.~ that might lead 10 crimc, su ch as ago ~r~ion . Of COIII"\(:, lIgglC'i.~iOlI ('an ..Iso Icad lO sue t~ in the coqXlr.uc world. professional ~porls. 01'Ith!!r areas or lite. The cOlltempOI"aI)' study of po1>Siblc bioiOJ;,rica\ roots or crimillalit)' is bUI unc :LSIX'U or lhe larger 'llXiobiolog)' dcb.ue diSf'u'>SC<\ in Ch:lpter 4. In general, 5OCiologisl..'l rcjt.'Ct :my cml}h;LSis on genelic n>OlS or crime alld dcviallce. The Iimilalions of current knowledge arc $0 signilkam, lhe likelihood of rtmrorring mcisl and sexist asslllllpciollS so clear, ~ntl tllC implicaliom ror rt.' h"bilitatioll of criminals "0 dislurbing, thal socin lugisls han- largely drawn

=._. . .

FYnlaininl!....................................................... _ ........ _ ........ _ ..... Deviance 9.

Dllrkh,dm 's LegoC'J Emile OurkJle1m (1964:67, original edition 1895) focuscd his 5OCiological in\'estig-.uions main I)' on criminal acts, yCI. his conclusions h<l\'c implications ror dll Iypes of de\;ant beha\ior. In Dllrkheim's view, tJ.f' punishments established within :1 cuhure (including what \\'c have identified as forlll:,1 and infonnal mechanisms of social conlTOl) IIdp 10 der.l1~ "cccpl~ble bchil\'ior ilml llms comrihulc to stabilil) . If improper acts wen" nOI commi ll ecl and thell S:ulClioncd, people

Olher "PP' O"clH:S to (Sagarin ,lilt! San ch Cl, 1988).

expla in

0,1 Ihr /J(JlU of his I/Iuly
I'u nlfllll

Functionalist Perspective Accord ing 1(1 function"Ii~IS, deviance i~ a cummon pan of human exislencc, wil.h po~ili\'e (;L~ well as negali\'c) consequenttS fO I ~ia I 5m bilily. l)e"iaTlce helps 10 dcflnc the' lim iL~ ofpropcr lX' ha\'ior. Chi ld ren who sec o ne patrOl scold the other for bdching al Ihe dinner lable learn about al>prm'Cd cunduCl. The .... me i ~

rif Ihl.

Of ~1f"1r1"'llh'",IIII"

I!rrglmlft, ~1)('i(llngi.\1 A.m Enk.,ml

\'I1f!J,"'~fffllhlll tI" J'Im llms' jltTYmlwtJ rif(J!wkl'n Ilnd f'XHldUl1! ofWOIMll a.J II'I(rh,f ''''''ft'VII/M ttmlmlJi1!g llltrmpl$ /0 drJinl' mill rt'dI'filll' ,,,, bcnmdril'l of

tlvi, """mum/y.

(II"YU.J( i IJtI '/AXO "..\'11 'VI.JM (:rJ\' IWJI

might ex te nd th eir standa rds as to what co nstitutes appro priate co nd ~IC L Kai Erikson ( 1966) illl,lsu-;:lIed this bo undarymaintena nce runction of deviance in his sllldy of the Puritans of seve ntecnth-ccllw l)' Nc\.,. Engla nd . By today's st.andards. the Puri tans placed tremendo us e mphas is upo n conventional momls, Their pcrse,:tttion orQua kcrs :uld execution of women as witciH:s re presented cominLling atlempL~ to defill c and redefine the bo undaries o f their cOlllmtlllilY. In effect, changing social norms created ~c rim e waves;' as people whose bc havlor w.ts previously acceptable sudde n 1 fa ced p un ishment fOl- bein g de)' viallt (Abrahamson, 1978:78-79: N. Davis, 1975: 85-87). Unexpectedl}', boundary maintenan ce rcclllc rged in the same area some :\00 years la te r. Tlw town of SaJc.rn, Ma.~sachu se ll.'l, rJr..tWS (a nd proli ts from) I millio n visitors pe r )'ear who come to sce the sites of th e witc h l.I;a ls a nd executio ns. At the urgin g of descendan L<; of 20 innocent victims \\'ho had heen executed . a statu: was designed 10 COmlllc mOl1ltC the sla in women, However, protests blocked th e public inslilllation o f the stallle_ owing to concen. that suc h a ptomin e m mem orial to the I)ictims would d ampen tOurists' in terest in witch lore (DriscoH, 1988), Du rkheim (1951 , original ed ition 1897) also introduced the tenn allo",j~ in sociologicalliter.ullre to describe a loss of direct io n felt in a society when social contro l of indivirl tlal bchavior has become ineffeCtive. A~ ....~.tS nOted in Chapte r I , a no mi c is a state of Hormlcssness which typicall)' occu rs during a period of profuund social c ha nge alld disorde r. suc h as a Limc OfcCO liOmi c collapse. Peopk become more aggrcssi\'c o r depressed , and th is results in higher ra tes of viole nt crime 0 1' s uicide. Since there is muc h les.~ agreemC Ill o n what constiulles proper behllvior during limes of revolution, sudde n prosperity, or econom ic dep ression . con fol1uit y and obed ience become less signifi cant as social IOl'ces_ It also becomes much more difficult to sta te e xactly what COllstiUl lcS dcviance.
M er/OIl '$ Theory of D eviance
A 1.llugger and a scc

olales accepted norms (such as mugging) may be pe rformed wi th the same basic ohjectivcs in mind as lhose o f people who pursue more co rwe mional li fes t),les. Using thc abovc analysis_ sociologisl Robert Me rton of Co lumbia University ( 1968 :1 85-214) adaplCd Durkhc illl's no tion of a nQmic to ex plain why people accept or rejecl t.he goals of a society, the sociaH)' approved means to fulfil! thei r aspiratio ns. o r both . MerlOn maintai rled that one im portant cullut-.t1 goal in the Uni ted StaLes is SLL CCI,!SS, measured 1;11-gc\}, ill lenns o f mOllcy. In addi tion to providing tllis goal for people, our society ofTel1 specifi c instruc tions o n how to pu rsue success-go to school, work hard, do not quit. take adv',Ultage of opportuniti es. and so forth , What ha ppens 10 individuals in a society wi th a heav}' emphasis 0 11 wealth as :l basic symbol of success? ro" lerton reasoned th at people adapt in certain ways. eit her by co nforming la or by deviating from such c ultu cxpccUltions. Consc(luel1lly. he dL c! ... o ped th e a1lOlIIie t/reoly of deviance, which posits five bas ic forms of adaptation (sce Table 7-2), Confo rmity lO social norms, tilt." most conmtOl\ adap tation in MCI'LOn 's typology, is the opposi te deviance. It involyes ae<:e p tancc o f hOtJ1 th e ovcrall societal goa l ("become amuel1l~) and the approved Illeans (~work hard ~), [n Me rton's view. the re must


T,\Ul.f 7-2





Conformity Deviont Innovalion Ritualism Ralreolism Rebellion

"o,,~ f

+ + +


; "d Oc~ '~

huli" u, ... "CC epmlCe; - indka\l'~ ''''jCC:,iQn; ~ Tel'l.00::c:mctH ,",'id , " ..... 'UIfAU~ ~tld b '<la!..

'W/Klt Mmo,r J typology (J 968: / 94)

show.1 1/)(1/, in man)' c~.s, Ihost wllW!

re tary do nul secm a t first to have a great deal in common . Yet , in fac t, e<lch b ~workin g~ 10 obtai11 money which can then be exchanged fo r desired gouds. As this example illusu'ates, bc havio r that vi-

form /If w l(I/llali(nI IS droia/ll Jlill

(lrCl'/Jt f'ilfll'f" Ihl' lUfJrN rOr;c fir tIll' dmr,


lIuflmfl{ wtafflr ",if/ttJ coll[rnWIIJb',

vO/Ul'ti ftJ

I'AlO ' 'IlIYJ - OIIGM.'/'I.JNG .'iOC/,oIL UW

hl' 'iOUle COIlSC IISlIS regarding ;Iccc pted cl/huml Koab and legitimate means fOI attaining tl,e m . Without such consenSIIS, societies could exiSt on l} ' as rolJecu\'t._I of pcoplc-nllhcr th,ln as unified clIl'i' lurrs-and might function in continua] chaos. Ofcourse, in a 'iQ(:ictyslIch as that Of tllC United Sule$, confonniry is nOI uni"C~IJ. Forex.unple. the mtan5 fM rcali/ ing object ivc .. a re IHlt cqually distnhuted. People in the lower social dasscs often identify with the sa llle goals as those of more powrriul and afllw,:nl c itizens )'e l l"ck eqlml :.ccess to high-qu:llity education a nd training fOl' skilled '>\Ork. Even withi n a IDCiety. institutio nalized means tor rt'<lliling objectives \'ary. For i n ~ tan ce. il ill leg-.d . tl)!I'lin money through rou lette 01' poker in Ne... tda , wlnot in nciKhboring Q ,JifomiOl. othe r four types o f bchavior I"l'presclltcd in TOlble 7-2 all inv0 1\'c w mc de p.trture frolU COli forM mil)', TIlt M inllOV:ll or acccpL~ the goals u f a socie ty bill pursues the m wilh m ca n ~ l'eg:lI'de d as illlprol>cr. Fo r example. Ha n )' Ki"g-ll pl'oJ ~ss i on a l thief who ,~ p cciali z(:d in\' fur 4U p:ars1r.l1'C a leCture to a sociology class and \\~ IS asked if he had minded :.pcnciing time ill prison, Kjng rtlIpondcd:


I dldn ' l t'xacLl) lill."

tllIlI1tS :100111 Iht'


Bm it

~~L~ 1111('

or 1111'


I" Hck1 Mn1fn", f'JllI)/oKY, IN

""'tPWllUI~ l/tu btwcolh fIIIiMm",n fmm bofl! IM gooh (lnd mttIns (If a )On11J- /,.. Ihl Urultd Slol", llIm /1 Jfffl/I'''I! mll(,"' 000111 tUlo/J:lrnlls

life I had ch~lI . Do )'011 hke 10 ("oml' ooe:lnd 1(,;lCh lhis da~? I bel if lhl." ~ludt' I' b 1I.1f1 their
...15111:1 they'd IH '
5O",e~"llI'rc t'I~.

1I1.1)" OUI slealmg. he

instead of siuing ill Ihis dum p) 1'00.... UUI Ihey /In iI ba,lS(' it g('(.~ ,l lcm some lhing they ~~\IlL The ":lIlle
"';Ih Illt', If I had to KO to plison from \lllIt 10 UlIlI:.
Ii'tJl. Ih al \ \'a..' Ih e

fl(ldid'lt 10 (jlmho!. IIIho WO/M

rrtrra.hlt" (11 (Ill fIIrty





(Ch :\I nhl l~~,

ui<llion " 'ilhout rememberi ng the larger goals of an org-dnilation. C.crtainl), this wou ld be Inle of a wdfare C:LS('wol'kcr who refuses to owist a homeless family becausc Iheir \;lSl aparuncnt W"",l." i~) a no the r district. Pcople who o\'el7calollsly and rigidly ('11force b ure:l llcr.uic regulations G ill be classifie d a... :
"rit ual ist~.H

1fM1'} King 501 ..... hi .. c liminal lil(''8I)'I(' lts an adapt.-.-

lion 10 lil(' goal of material succcssur "gct t ingsom~ Ihing)" \\; tIII. According lO Mcrton ".lnOlllie theoll ory of (kvi:mce. if a society largely d enic'! pt.'o plc

the 0PI>orhlllit y 10 achicve succe55 throug h SQcially approved avenucs, some individuals (like King) wi l1 turn to illcgiti lll<lIe p;uhs o f upward mobilil)" In Me rl OIl 's typnl0J.,'Y, the ~ri tua1i s t" h a,~ abandoned the goa l of m:Hc rial success and hecOllle compulsively cOnll'lliued to the i'lslitl ltioll al means. Therefore, work l')Ccomes a way of life I<uhe l' than a means to IlIe goal of '\ucccss. In discllssillg goal cfuplacemelll ""ilhin bure:mcr..u.:y in Cha pl cr 6. we noted IIUlI official.. C,IIl blindl) apl}l), rule and fl.'g-

T he " I"e l reat i ~t," as described by Mc rto n , has basicall y withdr11wn (or "retreated ") f!'Om bOlh th e goals a nd th e mea ns of a soc ie ty. In the Unil,cel SGltC.... ",hi le drug a rldi ( L~ and residents of skid row a re t)'Pically po nraycd as rc t.rcatists, lhe re is g l' wing concern about adolt."SCclIl't addicted to alcohol who become retn::alislS :al an early age. nlC final adapmlipn identj(j(."CIIl)' Menon reflects

( JIWI"P-..N 7 11I11tt.\U.tJ\TJSlJ(lAI CO.' -I"HOI

people's aucmpts to cn :all' ~I II C\\' social Hn lctllrt!. Tht> -rcbel" is assumed (0 h:I\'(:t ..cme of'alienaLion fl't)lO domina III mcans :lIId goals :md 10 he seeking :I dr..unatkally different ~ial meter. Members of a n:volution;ur political Org-dllil... uiol1 . such .LS thc Irish Republican Army (IRA) 0 1 the Pucno Ric:.m ' nation:lli~t group Armadas de Ubc:ntc.ioll l\'acional (FALN). can h(' C:lt ( ,IS rebels ac cording 10 ~'I erto n 's model. MCl'lon htlS ~Ircsscd thal he Vo'lL<; not atlcll1pl,ing IU describe five l)'pe'i of indivichml . Rmhcl', he offered a Iypology 10 e );I)lain the aClions Ihal people I/(fwlly lake. 111l1s. ICOIdeo; of org:wilecl crime S~l1rlicates will he cau:goriled as iI1lIO\';:lIoo;. !lincc they do not l)ul'Sue slIrce.s... through ItOdally approved means. Yet the) m;l)' also lI!1cnd church and .send IheiJ ,hilcll'en lu medical school. COIl\'('Nd ~re- spccmble people tml)' occ:t"iioI1.l1ly cheat on their taxe!l or violate trame law!l. According 1.0 Merton. the same pt!l"on will m ove back and lorth from o nc modc ur OIdapwtioll 10 allolitt"r. depcnding on the {Il'm:tllds uf a pOI I'lieul:u' :.illl<llio ll. l)e_pi lc its popul;ui l)" Ml'I'IOt)'1\ Iheor), 01 de5 "i:II\1"t' ha~ hac! f('I:llivcl)' It\\ applk;ttiO I L~. Liule erfnn h.L\ Iwell nmdc to dctCl1nil1t' how COlllp"Ch(,Il'iI\'(' thr- fiw mocles of;ulaptatioll ....e-in other wnrcls. 10 what cXlenl all acl"i of dt....iance roll1 be accounleft for hy intHwation. rillmlbm. rClIe"ti~m, ;md rci)('\Iion. MOI'cQ\'er, whil(' Menon 's thcol"}' is lI'>('ful in ('xami ning ccnain Iypes of hcha\'iOT, such as ill('g:l l glnubling by dis;lCh~lIllagt'cI people functioning 'IS inl1o...." ors. his furmul.ltiun fails (0 explain key dilTerenccs in rtlles. Why. for example. do .some disad\';:lmagl.-d group~ h,,\'e lo rates of reported crime than others? Wh) i ~ crimin,,1 beha"ior 1I0t \;C\\'ed ;is a viablc allc'rnalh'c by m.m)' peopit.' faced ....;lh ildvcrsit)'? Such qlle"lions arc not, answered by Mcl"ton'" theory of deviance (Clo.....ard. 1959; Hartjen. 1978). Nt....,crlhcless. MCl'ton ha:. made 11 key con lliblltion to sociological lIndcrstand illg of d~iancc by ou t Ihm de\'iants (such as irmovatot'S and ri lllalisu) share :t grea t deal with cOl1fonni n g people. The convicted felon may hllld many of the same a_~pil-:'lIions that people wilh 110 criminal background h;I\'('. Therefore. dc\'i;tn("C cm be understood as socially crcolled ~ha\itll . rather than ,IS lhe n;,\ult of momentary pathological impttls.cs.

In teractionjst I'erspeeti\,c: Oiffe rential Association The fl1tlctiot1iIU" approaclws 10 deviance explain why rule violation conlil1ll('.~ to t');isl in sexieties despitt' pr{'~ lIres 1 confomr :md nlx',. 1 0 lowC\'e'T. fun cljonalists do nOI indicate ho .... ;1 gi\'t'1l ~rson C01l\e~ to COlllmit ;t d('\i<llll act. TiI(' thenry of dirfcrelllial ;1:\.~H"i:llion dl,;m... IIpOIl the illl(>racljonist pcrspecthe to offer JUSt .. udl .111 ();pl:lllalion. There is 11(1 natuml. illll:lt( 111:11111(:1' in "hich ~ plc inlcrdcl,h onc another. R.'Ithc,,, hUIll.lIlsll!flm how to beha\'c in o;ocial Silllluion_whether propcri) or improl>crly. l1\Cse simple ideas MC nOI d~ pUled loda),. but this ......LS not the case "hen socic*(l~;ist Edwin Sutherland ( 1883-H.lW) advanced the argument that an IIIdi\idual ulldcfKOt.'S the SlIUlf' ba...ic soriali/';:lIion procc~ ....'ht.thcl Ic .. millS conforming 0 1 dc\'iallt :ICI:.. ~utllt' r1ancl\ idc'.b ht'l'll thl' domimllmg force in rdn1inolog). I !C. drt'w 111'0" the Cll ltll rot : t rn ll st/l;s.fio ll sc honl. which c'lllphasiles Ihal criminal Iwh[lviw' i~ I, artwd tlll'(lIlg h inl(r;l t tion~ \~ith m IH'I'S. SlIch le;lfIling include""ll! (ml)' Icchniquf"i uf IlIwhre;lku lg' (for ,'x.lluplc. how It) hl('.lk into a ('lIr quickl) :mcl rj1tictIY) but al'Oll lIlt" motivd, dn'C5. and ration.llizations 0 1 crimina!',. The cultural tr.tns llli~ion .lpJ>roach call illso Ill' IIscd 11) explain Ihe b(~h ;l\'ior of p('c'pl(" \\ho engage in IllIbi tual-:md '1llimately life-threillening-uS(' of alcohol or dn'h'll. SUlher\:Uld m:linl:lined thlll lhrolrgh intCl"action~ .....ith :1 primary grou l' a nd significan l others. people acqlllre dt.finiliOllli ofbch:wiol'th.1I ;:tfe deemed prop('r and improper. I-Ie uscd the term difJe.rtnlial assuciatiurI tl) dt.'Sc..' ribc the J>1 'OCC"5 through which eXI)O$llrc to allilucit.'S fam,.....blc to criminal acts learls In "iol:n ion ofnll~. Rt.-cc:nl re~all: 11 sug' gats Ihal this \;c ..... of differenlial a...... cocialion can br applied 10 such nonc.riminal dcvi;ml acts as !liuing dowlI dllring the singing of tJ1C Nationa l Anthem or 1)<1ng to :1 spou~ Or friend (E. Jack.~on cl a!..

To what C);tCIll will .. given pC l'son t'ng:lge in activity regarded ;L" propcr or improper? FOI' each in dividual. il wi ll depend on the lhq uc nc),. chll..,Liol1 and impflt'tanc(' of IWO t),pes 0 1 social itltt:'r-dction cxpel'ienC('s-lhosc which ('nelorsc (\e\;:1I11 beha'~ iOl' and Iho'\e which promOle l.ICCcpL'IIICC of social norms. D(',iam Ix:ha\'ior, including criminal acti-


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Pou,. ,",.lItht'/) hllll ro"'"lIlfnl mfN'\ ,/lid hml dn'fMfI a -,rori"g IlI/,.", 10 klV'/l 11~"1r of Ihnr VXJUI/ ro"IJr.tMI~.

D w-h;clI.'d hy tho.~ who ",c(luirc tI1(lre s("lI li-.Nb 111 l.llnf or \iolation or norms. I'coplc art: . . blth 10 engage in llolllHlcfyi ng: bc h;wior if Il'I' pm ill d groul' or su bcullure that strc5.."l'S

ior C\'CI1 wll(:' I it involve d C\c linq. lenl con c/lu::l . s.l ch as che;lIing ill school. usi ng ma r!i U:lIla. o r clJl1ulliIIjng acts or larcen)'. According 1 it5 cri rics. ho\\c.'cr, [he difTere n tial .0 association :lllpro;lCh rails 1 cxplain lht dc.i:ulI!x'" 0 ha\'iOI- or lhe first-lime impulsi\c .. hoplmer or th e impo\'cri'ihcd PCI"iOIl "'ho s tc:tl~ QlI l of necessity, While nOI a preci~: SI:ucmcnt of Ihe process th rough which olle become.. a crimilMl, diflerenlial associatio n does (/irccl oura tlc n liOll lO Ill\.' par-ImOUI!! rolc 01 social interaction in increasi llg PC I'son's motivation 10 eng<lgc ill de\'ialll bch:wiol(Crcs5Cv. 1900:53-54: E. J acKson cl ... 1 1986: ..

Ilo ....c\cr I trnl('II('(/ ho)' living in !l,e same neighlM.lfhuod . . U .110,1\' from hi.~ peers and 3 \'Oid delinquency. O(hnrl)nuJ1unity. an outgoing :tne! ath letic IftlI JI'III a Uul(: l...eague b:t'k!ball team or a '",op because of hi intcractions " 'itlt peers. 1M. J!1'lt1'l.mcl \i~'S leaming improper bcha\ \ht' 'Nllt of the types of groups lO which onc ~ ~Ild the kind!l of friendships OIlC h" .. with .." l~ul\t'rI,lIId and Cn.iSt.'}', 1978:82). " ht.1lI j'mpiricill st udy o r din"crc ntial ;L~OC ialiCl I\ un. Io(lftrllogislli ~brk Wat'r a nd Ma rk StalTonl 1\1911 j\.IIJ1im:d thc aUitudes and beiLavior of J. I , 17"''I.:.Il'Olds. TIlt' researchers found th;!, IIIImJ: f,r'uplc 's a nitudes and (.ospeda lly their Ix.... ltInlf IUnu~'nc('d the bchador of thd. l>cers. InMd. .ht u.mng pt-"Oplc studied b) Warr and lillfwd I\ffl' likely tu imicJle their rriends' I)('ha\ -

SInh. Mlfl m.l~ , Ihll5, adopt such bc h'l\;or.

Su!llerlalld :lIld Cressey. 19i8:80-82). TIle differential association approach dt~ls nOI only ....i'h the J>I'OCC~ by which criminallcchniques are learned. bUI al!lo wilh the com ent that is actuall} passc.d on fro m OnC' person 1 IlIlother. This 0

conlCnl includes mcth ods of commi n ing a cri mc as ....ell :I ~ wllys ufj llsl if)'i n g criminal l)('ha\;ol'. The COIICCpl 01 " l cch niqllclI
(jf nClllralilal i(lll. :I ~ d l'snibctl in Box 7- 1 ol1 l)agc IH6. iI IIlS I1' l l e~ h O\\'('filllimll ami Olher norm-defying sc ntimcnt!> :H'e d cfi llc d by the clC\i:t1H pC1"'\01I 10 juslify his o r hc, condllc l,

Labc6ng Theory T he Sait1 t5 ali(I fl,o ughneds wct-e twO groulh of high school male... "hcl wcr(' conslaml) occupi(.,(/ ....i\h drinking. "ild drh:ing, Il"u-

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W hen

""1.' h;we been obscn.'cd iu ail actiull !.hal others rcgoll'd as illlpropel', .. COll1mon response is, ~ 1~lI t I didn'l do anything wrong .~ Grcsham Sykt:$ and Da\'id 1\1:)(1:;\ ( 1957) clarified the variolls expla. nntion ~ for ,,,rongdoing th;U wc usc in such ~i lllation$ by offering a fil'e,. .. pari model of justificatio ns of deI~a lll behal;or which they call lu h
lIi91t~' than lhe law-wh~lher lhc un written criminal code of ~ nc\-er sClueal 011 a ffi c nd ~ or moral and religious bclicfs said 10 j ustifr acts of ch~ 1 disobed ience.

of ,,~utrali.:a liQn:

DnIJ"'K 1tl//(!1Uibifity. We argue

that larger force~uch as I)QI'cny, poor aClldemic preparauolI, or IlIc bad example of m hers--drove u$ 10) the misdecd. 2 DI!ll),;I.g I}" inpH). Crimes suc h as I,:mdalism or obstructiOIl of Irdf fie Ileal' a collt-gt" campus are called pmllluor ",;sdl/'.! Such tenllinol ~ l>lIggesL~ that these actions are not ~rious liolations. ! 8111"lIl1g 'hell/mm. Wc adrnltlhal wc hurt iKlmeone else bw maintain tha t lhe lictim "had il comi ng" o r provoked the' incidell1. 4 Co"rlr mllil1g Ih, mllfl oriliiS. Lawbreaktrs often insist tha t police ( 11' gOIl;rnmellL leaders are dlC tnlc guilty p.l.rties. The alleged slupidity, brul.lIi IY, :md corruption of au " thorit y figures arc used to jllStify de-11:UH or criminal beha\ior. 5 Appttlling to hlglv.r fm'll':iplo or IIII ,horill,o. People m tio nalil.c ac J tions by a....~erting that they arc ad hering 10 sl:l lldarw morc 1mpol'

B using these lille teehn iqut"S o f r lIculrn.liz,l.tion , people who break the I"w arc able to defcnd their conduct. But how useful is this model in understanding justifications of l1Q1uTiminal deviance? Soc:iologisl$ Roben DuB' and Lawrencc Hong (1986, 1988) applied lIeUlr:IIi1.l!.liun theory in studying impl'ession m<ll1;lgemclll among participalll~ ill a re la Lh'el~' tlcW sport: wo mcn 's bodybuilding. Female bodybuilders arc sometimcs treated lavor.1bl y in the media, bllt they h!\I'c alro been .s0cially bt.-.:-.msc of :llIcgaliollS thallhl..1' usc ! H .'roids, bUI primarily OC....:auSI! the)' rcpn..sent a blatant departure from Ir.t dition:!.l gender-mic cxpcct.1tiollS fo . wom en . 1)1~lwin g upon tht' resulLS of a mail sUI"cy by Ihe 1I1Icrl1allo ll:l1 Federation of Uo dybl1ilders. Duff and Ilongsuggesl thal female body.. builders respond to "egalke leecl from the public and the mrtlia by w.e of three mo re lIeUlrolliz.l.uol1 tcchni(lllt.'S:
C/oimlllgbnlljitJ.. Wume n dcf,'nd their particip.ation in the sport of bodybuilding by claiming II .al Ihey

hal'c dC\'Clopcd health)" sU'Ong, nnd attractivc bodies and imptm'td mental health. Such ~c1a ims of ben efil ~ havc been crnplored by pCCJpit eng-J.ged in othel' role~ and actil, tics 11ewed as deviant (N. Friedman. 1974; L Hong and R. Duff, 1977). 2 8lQJling. ~BI:lSIing" is an atla(i: on criua in order to t"n hancc one', OI,m status (K. Richanbon and QII1dini, 1981). Fem"le bodybuildtn lypicaJly ~blast~ thcir critics by par. tT3}ing lhem a~ igno mnt, jealo\L\, unhealthy. f.n. and lazy. 3 Basking il. rrj/ltd gIOT). Out ri semiti\ity to the erilici~ m tJm .....omCll bodybuilder.l afe nOI "fen1inine ,~ SOIlIC participant!! in th~ spon in the re necu:d glol)' of a few ICM mUllCular, more lithe and slender bod)'buildcrs wno Oal't been glamOri zed in the dectronit and print media. Duff and Hong .~uggest U1al both women 's a nd me n's bodybuilding ma)' ~ licwcd a.s a form of ~ pOO- li\'e deviance" whereby the approved socielrll e mphasis on health and liwells is cameo to nn eXlreme. Apparently, in comparison with IlkneULrali7.auoll of *negali\'c dtliance- (such :llJ crimc ), neutr.t.liza. Lion of positil-e dCI;allce require fewcr tccl11liqUCli and al1ol'o" for greater reliance 011 t1i recl and aggressive sU;llc Kic~ of justification fo r onc's behavior.

alley, pell)' lheft, and I'alldllli.stn. 111('1'(' the .similarill' e nded. No ne of the SainlS wa.~ l. 'c r arrested, but ... CI'Cry ROLlghneck was continually in trouble with police and townspeople . Wh y the disparity in their trc,lI m ent? On the basis of hi l> oi.>l>etYd ti()lI research

il1lhe ir hig h school, Wi lliall1 Chambliss ( 1973) CODeluded that. social class standing played an impol' tallt role in lhe mrying fortunes of the tWO group!
T h e Sai n LS cfTccti\'c1)' produced a facade of Il" .spcctabilit y. They came from M good families," ....'tlt

"IIRT nm


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active in school o rganizations, expressed the in !~lltlOn of atte nding college , and rece ived good grndes. Thcil' de1inqllcIltaCts were gene rally ...i ewed oil! a few isolated cases of '"sowi ng wild oats.~ By con tmst, the Roughnecks had no suc h aura of re~ ~pt:\bility. They d rove around town in beaten-up cars, were generally unsuccessful in sc hool, and . . .ereviewed ....>it.h susp icion no matterwhatther did. ,'he Roughnecks were labeled as Mtro ublcmakcrs," where the Saims were seen merely as "funloving kid~." BOUl grou ps were ga ngs or delinquenl5. yet only o nc came 1 be treated that way. 0 \lOre recenuy, Cha mbliss's o bsen~dtio n s concernUl)lju\'eniles have been con fi rmed in researc11 usiog ,~Ifrcports of ddinquclIts ,md po lice records ill Staule, Washington. Sociolobrlst Ro ben 5...lT1pson (1986) fotmd that juveniles from Ul e lower classes IIhv tame into contact wiLh I,he Seaule police ber.HI'It of delinque nt behavior were mo re likely to ht' ;\rr~tcd and then indicted than were th eir middledass countcrparts cngaged in similar ac[ivitics. Surh discrepancies can be undenHood by use of .1lI 3pproach to deviance known as labeling theory, l'lIiike SuLhcrland 's work. labeling th eory does not lOCus on why some individuals come 1.0 comm it deviant acts. Instead, it attempts to ex pla in why cer liIin people (such as Ule Ro ug hnecks) are TlimVfd as ~('\ianl5, delinquents. "bad kids,~ and cli mina ls. while others whose behavior is similar (s uch as Ihe Saillts) are not seen in such hars h terms. Refit'cling Ul !! call uibuuo n of interactionist th t."IIn~t\, laueling theory emphasizes how a person 1,)TI1eol to be labeled as devia11l or to accept t.hat lihl'l. SociOlogist Howard Becker ( 1963:9; 1964), whn popularized this a pproac h, summed it up with llir ~wtemel1l: ~ Dcvia nt behavior is be havior that pro-plt'!IQ lalx: 1. ~ Labeling theory is also called th e lorit/al-reaction apprQach, rem inding us that it ~ thl' rrjpon.t~ to an ael and not the behavior that deIcmines devian ce, For exam ple, stlldies have r.nnwn Ihal some school personnel a nd therapisL~ ~'(palld educational progmms designed fo r learnTnl{odis"&bled SlUde nts 10 inclllde those with bt.:hav~ 1" rJJ problems. Consequen tly, a " uOllbl c- maker~ (';m heimproperly labe led as lea rning-d isab1cd, and V)rr Wr\a (Osbo rne el aI., 1985), r'r.lwing on labeling theory, a rece nl slUdy of 111")11,11 illness in the United States suggests tha t ",,11I1e the labding process does not f))"{xill ce me ntal

ilInes... , it neverU,c\ess ha.'i negalive elrecLS for those individuals labe led as ~ m e nt.all y ilJ." Thro ugh socialir.ation into Ul e nomlS and values of o ur culture, we are all exposed to fears a nd prej udices concern ing the me ntally ill. Conseque ntly, when people e nte r m e ntal hospit..lIs as patie nts, they mar expectthal others will devalue them, shun th e m, and even discriminate against UIem. With this in mind , former men tal patien ts may be secretive aboul Uleir problems and may avoid interactions with UlOse who I.h ey fear will reject Ihem . Thus, as people accept the label of ~ment.a\ly ill," Ihey ofte n experie nce a decline in self-esteem and isolation from social netwo rks (Link e l al., 1989). L1beling uleolY call also help us to understand Ulat while some people routinely and 1ofte n cruelly label severely disa bled people as ~vegelab les" (set: Chapter 20). Tll ere are ma ny nondisabled people who rio nOl stigmati ze, ste reo type, o r rejecl those with severe and obvious disabilities. Robc rt Bogdan and Steven Taylor (1989) conducted o bservation studies over a 20..yeal' period at settings in the cam .. rntmity tha Lsupport peo ple with severe disabilities . The researchers supple mented their observations by illl.clviewi ng agency administrators a nd caregive rs. Bogdan and Ta}'lor found Ihat many family members, rTiend~, and he lpe rs of the d isabled are cari ng a nd accepting of people with seve re di....abiliti es. These nondisablcd people assume that tJ1C sevcrdy disabled haw ratio naltliougilt processes, see individuality in them. \>iew t.hem as reciprocating, and define thcm as actors in a social environm en t. Rathcr than adhering to negative label ing based Oil obvious "deviant" behavior, the no ndisn bJcd accept the severe ly disnbled as valued and lm'ed human TS beinb Tradition ally, research on deviance has focused on those individuals \\'ho violate social nomlS. In contrast, labelin g theory focuses on police, proba lion o tncers. psychifllrisL~, judges. leachers, em ployers, school officials. nlld other regulators of social conuol. These agents, it is argued, play a significant role in creating Ule deviant ide ntity by designating certai n peopte (and no t others) as ~de viant. ~ An importaotaspecl of la be ling theD!), is the recognition Ulat so me individuals or groups have the power 10 llrfine labels and apply th e m to others. This view recalls the connict perspective's e mplm si,. o n Ul e social significance of power.



10 explain why somc de\'i:II11S continue to be vi,-~'fii as conformists .."he r than as "iolalol'$ of rules. M cording to I-Iow:lrd ! ( 1973: 179-180 ), I.. bdillg theory was not cOllceived a... the wk explanalion lor dcviance; its propo ne llL\ mel'dy hoped to focus morc attention OH the undeniably imponalll actions of thosI' pcoplt o llic-ially in chllrge of dcflJlo illg de\iallcc (I':. Da\'i~ , 1975: 172; com pare C ultcn and Cullen. 1978:36-37)_


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" Imrut


' nIl' lane ling appmach does not full y ex plain wh)" certain people accept:t label a nd olhcl'~ arc able la reject its appl ication . [" fan, this pe rspective may cx:tb'gcr,\lc Lilt.' ca...c wilh which our sclf- il11ages ca ll be ahered h)' jutlglllcn ts. Labcling theorists do suggt.-st. howl'\er. I.h,,1 din e re lllial power is imponant in dcu'rmining a Ix:n.on 's ahility to resist . 111 undesirable labe l. Competing: appltJachc .. (including those ofbolh Me non :1Ilt! SU lhCI I,Uld) fai l

Connict Theory Wh, is certai n bchavior evah; :lIcrl lI.\ de\'i:lIl1 \\'l1i l(' o the r bch;I\;or' h. not? Mcurding to counict theorists. it j .. because people wi tl. power protec t tlleir OWII i1l1erC~L\ alld defiru: d e,-iancc to suit their own Ill_ed s. For decade!. la\lo, ' ;lg".tinst ..... pe rencc tc d the O\'c l"whcllllingly male composition of slale I cg i ~ laturt.'li . As one conseque nce. the lega l ddinitio llS o f ..... Ix penained onk to se)( ual relatio ns betwecn people not married bl eac h other. It was lega lly accepl"ble ror a husband 10 have forc:iblc:: sexual intercourse Will, his wife-without her consent "11(\ against hc r will . I-!owc\'er. repc <lled prOICSL\ by feminist Ol'b'1HliZ3tions fillill\led to c hangc.. in Ihe criminal law. Ily 1991, hu\i);lI1d in all 50 s t~I\t.'$ could be proseculed undrr .. ccrl.lin circ lIlllsr;ulccs fOI' lllC rnpc of the ir win.'S (altho ugh 34 states ~ till required:l highe r ~la ndard fOt conviction if an accused mpisl I t he victim's hutb;:md ). In this insl:t nce. ,he rise of the women's libel1ldon 11l0l'e m CIlI (sec C h.tptcr 11) led 10 im~ t..,nt changes in lIQCicl:1I 1l00iuns of crimi nalit}-b il has in cduollingjudgc.), legislators, and police ot ficel'l 10 \;ew "ife b.meting and other forms of d0mestic violence a~ setio u~ c rimes (National Cenlt'f o n Wo men :md Ram ily Law, 1991) . Sociologist Richard Quinney ( 1974, 1979, 1980) is a leadi ng exponem of the "iew thal the criminal ju ..ticc ~)'Stem St'l"\'t.'S the interests of Ihe powerful Crime. according to Quinncy ( 1970:15-23), i5 ~ definition o f hum,llI t.ondllct c rCOIled hY:llllhorizt"d age nts of social cU nlro l-SllCh as Icgi~I"l ors and lal\' entorcet11cn I omcials-in a pol i Iically org;lIIilcd s0ciety. He ,me! Qth c r ("0110i CI III c;o ri~t S argue that lawmakin g is olicn all alll'lllpt hy Ihe powerful 10 Coel'CC others into lhe ir own mOI'3lity" This helps 10 t')(plaill wh)' OUI" MlCie t)' has la,,' again"l g.nnbting, ch ug usage. :tnd proSlitution \\'hich arc violated on a lIl.lssi\ c ",alc (wc \\;11 ex ;tmillc lhc ~c M\'ic timl c~s c rimL'S" Itllcr in the chap

"IHrnIlJ '
om~"sl/.J'I!I ;

\(If_ HI


not represent a consistent application of sodmJ I,dues. but imtcad fencets compding values MId interests. Thu!I. lIlarUu.llla is outlawed in the lmted States bcC;IUSC it is ~'lIcgl'd to bt., Immlfulto tatl"l,) I cig-dretlcs :me! alcohol :In.' ~ Id Icgall} aiIIIrl'lt t\'eJ} The connict perspc(lil'c rt'mincl~ us that while dIf' basic pU'1>osc of 1:1\\ I1l.1) be to I1l.1intain !<itabilir\ J.nd order. this cm 3(tuall)' meal1 perpctuating mrquabty. For examplc, rcscarchel1i havc found tIw .\frican AnlCI;C;t1lS .Ind Ili ~p.'l.nic.~ rcceive stiffer pnwn !iCnlences and ~'I'\e longer term'> than Wtlll~ comicted ofsimilill fclonic ... A 1991 smdl' repclCtcd by the United Slate.. Sentencing ComDli~on rcported that Black.~ and J lisrm nics arc nmre likely than White, 10 I ecci\'l' 1IlamlatOl")' minimum sentencc~ ill fede couns. Ironically. Con~ h"d adoptcd ~\lch mandalOl)' minimllms tor

ttrl . .\ccording: to tilt' cuntlic! ~chool, criminal law

certain fcdcr:d cri mes in order to cnel di<;(:rirnilHllion based on gender, (:lce. ,lIld af.{c. Y('l, \\'hen'a~ 68 percent or Africall Anwl'iC:lIls 1;lcirlg' rnancl:\lOI)' minimunl sen t,c ntcs cltlally get the m, rhe sa nle is true for 57 pcrC'clII of Ili ~i>;lIlic'i and on ly :I.t percent or Whi(e'). According 10 Ihl' rOllnuissinn. Whilf''i arc 1110rc likeh to ~nlCI 11 110 pit-a harg:uno; which lead to the drollpinK 01 thoS(' ch.lrg(" th,u requil-e mandatol) minimum sentences. COII~'" qucml)'. \\1,itc5 an more likely 10 receive short sentences Illan arc Ilisp'lI1ics or Blacks (utU(hon , 199108A). On the whole. connlct th corb l.~ com end Ihal lhe criminal justice <;)~Ie m of till' United Slatcs lrcau> suspects and on enders diff(n:!llly. on Ihc basis of radal, ethnic. :lnd sodal cI:w backgrounds. In commellling on lhe t.xercisc ofdi\cn.. tion in 'he courts (see Tahle 7-3) . .I11~ticl Lois Fore!' ( 1984:9) nf Philadelphia s l1ggt: SI.~ th.1I there arc:

1\111 1 7 1



... .t......


Enforce specific lows Investigate 'PKilic crilTle$ Search people, vicinities, build ing,
Amut or detain


File charges or petitions Fo.- judicial dec,sion

Seek indiclTnenl5

"'''''~ Reduce chorges

Recommend senlences
Se! bo~ or conditions



Ac.cept pIeos Oerennine delinquency Olambs charges Impose sentences Revok. probolion

Plcbation officer,
Correctional offi clol.

File prflsentenCfI reports

Recommend senlences



U,rhrml Quhlll"

Assiel! people 10 type of correctional focility Aword privileges F'ul'lilh for disciplinory inlroctions
Determine Oole ond coodi lionl of porole Revoke porole

flm/r"lI, /l1f,/ "/fUl/ ((111/1'01 ;1 aNI/irrl rfi,ffn'f'lIlially /0 It!l:i/lrrl, IN-mll _ oftllf';/' If \IJ(j(j/ rllln /i(trll/.,"' 'II""dj, 111 rl 1988 I

,"'!lQfI by

1/11' l1u/'1'(/1/ 01.11H1UI' Sill/IS/if.'),

PoIoIt outhorities

durrtliOlwry pmrllU\ IVtr'I' our/Hied aI 1'ImOlo II'I"lt DJ fI", rrimlll(j{ jlultrl'



.. two scp;ll"\Ite and IInequal '1'Stelll\ of justice: OI1C Iou the rich in "hkh tht: courts ukc limilk...s time to cltlllninc. ponder, cOIl~idcr. and dclibcmw on'r hUll dn:tis of thu\lSilllds of biL\ of l"Vi(\CIlCC .... :lIld hear cndlc-.s apl)('.tI~: the uther ror Ihe poor, in \I hit::h hasty gllllt), plea.\ and bricl hearing'! art' the r\lle and appcal~ :m~ Ihe txn:pllon. Quinnq ( 1974) argues tha t. through such djfferCllIi"l ;lpplic.ltions of .social oolltrol, tlte criminal justice systelll helps 1 kccp the pOOl' and oppressed .0 in their deprived position . In hb \~cw. disad\"antaged indhiduals and groups who r('present a threat to those with power become the primal")' targcl~ of c riminal la ...... Ycl the real criminals in poor ncig hix)rhoods alC not Ihe pc_Ople arrested for vandal" iSill and theft. but ralher abse il tee lalld l ord~ ami exploitativc sllJrc owncrs. Even it wc do Ilot accept this challenging argumcnt. we G II1110t ignore the role of the PO'M".' lfu! in creatin):; ,I social M,r U ClUrc that perpetuateS sufferi ng. The pel"Sp(~elivc a(h~lllccd by labcli ng and CO IIniCt lhcf)Jisls runllS (Iuile a Cf)nlr.l'olt to the func Llona,Hsl .lppro;lch to dc\i;IIlCt'. FUncliomllislS vi(w stand;lrds of deviant bchavior as merely rcnccling cultural nonm. \\ IIt.'reall COllnicl :llld labeling theari'\a poilll 0111 tlt:'1I the lIln:lt powcrful grourlS in a socielYcan .\/wpt' 101\\',," ,IIU \ sta ndards a nd determine who is (t,r is 1101 ) prosecuted as a c riminal. Thus. M the 1.Ibd Mt\c\'idnt is nm::l) :tpplit'd 10 the COl'ptr rail' cxecUli\l! \\hose dl,:cL"ions IC3d 10 larg('--SCale cn\'irulltne ll la l pollu lio ll . In the ()pinion of conflict LhcOIi'its. agcnts of social control ;lIld IlO\I'erful groups can g:lnlr:.llI~ itnpusc their own ~ I r-sel"'ling dclinll.ions uf'I('e on the ~enera l public.

of crilll(' that ilrc reported aJlIIuall)' by the Federal Bureau ot" hwcstigollion (Fill ) in its UlliJofm Cnllll &portJ, Th i5 Cl l1 CgOry of cri minal behavior gCIIt'r, ally consists of those :riolls om~ n scs that peopir think of when th(.1' express concern about the Itt tion's cri mc problem. Index crimes include mllF' del", 1":11><". rob\)cry. and as.liault-:tll of which a~\... olent crimcs commillcd .llfd.insl people-as \I'cll .. the property crim<."S burglary, thert, mOlor \'tJ.. ell' then. and "'''011. There arc :llmost 2 million \~o l ent crimes It'ported c<ldl )car in the Uniled St;IIe5, inclttwlII! 0101"(' than 22,000 homicidt.'S, The I.ey ingredi(~ in the high inddcnce 01 ~ln: C I ('ri me ap pcar to tit dntg \I~ and thc widc\prc:;ld presence of fire-MIll. (l1le COlltrO\'t'I""i) over Kun comrol \\'ill be eUlt ined III the !toci,11 policy 'lef:tion m the c nd of tic


dmpllr,) Givcn Pl'oj('ctions the ~~l~~:~:~;~~1 plc in the Unil('(1 Statcs in lha~~"~,:c:.:

15 to 19 \I~ II tisc 2~ percent bcU\'CCI I liu' re is liu le reasun to cxpect fill)' decline in level of Sll'eet cri me UI viule nt C'Iime I orJ 1993; Mcddis. 1993) .

of Crime
Rather thall rcl)'ing :.OIeJ)' on legal (";'llcgorio, o logisb classi l) t:ri1l1c~ in lCIIllS ()fholV '~'::~ milled and how the offellses ;arc \'iewed i~ In this SC("liUII, wC' will examine !(lIlr

as differentiated by sociologists: p::~r:~:it~~;,:::~ organi /.cd crime. ",h il ('<oll:lr 11 and


Crime is a \'iolatio n uf cJilllin;1 1 law rOI wh ich rOl111.11 penalties ; lI l' appli{'d hy some gm'crnmcntal aulhmity. illcplcl>I.:nts somc type of d eviatiun from fonnaJ social lIo rll'lS llf l mill i ~ lcrcd by the stale. Crimes arc divided by 1,Iw into mtious calt'gories, depending nn thc sc\ crily of the vffcm.c, the age of tht on"cnder,, potential pun ishlllCllt tha t can be levied , and liu':" COllrt which holds j UIi'<dict.ion o"er Ihe case. The tc nn j"du crim{!s rcle~ to tilt' e ighl types

Professional Crim e Allhough the ;Idage dnc~Il't pay~ L'I familiar, lTIany people do '~~~~I rcn vf illegal aCli\>itics, A profeu;o1lal Cl a 1X'I"SOn who PUl'SlIClt crimc as 01 cta)'-Io-da> patioll. deve loping skillecllcc hniqllcs and it ccl"tai n d egl"ce of SI:IIII'I among olitcr Solile professil)'I .. 1cri lllin;lls speci;:llile in s.lfecr; hijacking uf cargo, a nd shoplifting , SlIch pc()plc can , c~::~:"~;~": hood of ll1'rc~t. cOllviction. ;md i through their ski ll . As a rC$ult. the), Illay halt careers in thcil ch osen M profes.~ions.M Ed.'in Su~hcrlalld ( 1937) ofTercd sight.\ regarding professional I 1'1 ing a n annotal,c d ,ICCOII Ill wriucn by a

pi"'f>OC" '"

1',iH1" '1'10




thief, Unlike th e pe rson who e n gages in Cl'imc olll y once or I....'ice. profc...sio mli lh ieves rn rlkc a business I~ stealing, These pro fessio nal c rimilmls d evOle lh('ir cmire ....,orking lime 10 plr:l Il1ling a nd eXe<:lIIing crimes and SOIllClinl('S " "I'd ac ross lhe na lio n 10 pul'llUe lhei r M roft."S.<;ional lhllje~," Like people p 1ft legtllar occupa tio ll<;, p rofco;sioll;lll,hic\'es comull lrim their colleagllC'l conccming the d e m a nds of 'A'lIrk, Ihus becoming p an o f ,I slIbcuhu rc:: of similaTh occupied indhidua l;" They exch an ge info rIlUtk1n on po&Sibl e pla("(" 5 1 b u rgl" J'il.c . o n o ulle ts 0 rul' unloading sto le n good.... .me! on ....'ays o f sc::cur1111; bail bonds if ;1ITt.~tcd . Lr,lnung technical skills is a n imponant ,LSpect ut Itourl<.ing as a pro fession.11 criminal. Sociolog i"l PN('r Lc:lkcmann ( 1973: 117- 1:'1';) nl.lke~ fl di .. tinc IJIln belween two type s 0 1 criminal .. kills: those \\'hi{h are extens ions of the Icgili rnale socia l urder hill are ~harpe n cd and relin ed (such ,L~ the ability In rlctl'Ct wlu' n hUrll cowll c r'S rtre awa y) and t.hose .lill~ nllr easily :w:'lilahle IQ t 11(' avc l~ l g:e ch izc lI (such ~~ IIp!:ning a safe), Th e taLleT' arc learn ed in lht' manm', sub rgCSlt'{\ by SUThe rland in his cullUmJ uJu",n~ion approac h , 11 j .. . 1 no rm amoll g profes-iIIIlAl crim i nal ~ That th ~' chie f ,lre<lS for lhe ex.t... n~ of crimin;11 skills arc the Sll'ee l.~ a nd prisons, IJth.,ugh such skills arc not SY\(I'mt,'/mlly laug h I in rillk-r place. m ey a re no nethe lt:<;s commun icate d

elfec Lively (Chamh1i<;s ami Se idm:II1 , M cCaghy. 1980: 180- IY2).

19 71 :487:

rhe le nn ()rguniud critll~ has man) mea nings, as i ~ cvide nt fl O Ill a 1978 govem me nt rel>Ol't that u!;t'S thrc~' 1 );lg('s lO d e fin e T he Le nn . For o ur p urposes, \\'C \\;lI rOIl!'idcr orgar,i::ed crime lO be the ,",ork of a grollp th.IT rcgu l.llcs re-laLions beTween \"arious ("rim in;!l e nte rprises in m ),,I in smugg ling a nd sale of dl'\I ~, p rostitutio n , g' ambling . and 0 1111: 1' :tcli\iLies. O ''K'Uli led c rime . d o mina tes lhe world o f illeg-..t l bllsille'lSjllst .LS large coq)()'~l li o n s d o rnin;lIc th e con \'en ljOlla l b usiness world, It alloc:.tcs tCrfilO r) '. 'iC 1.~ p ti ce~ lo r illegal goo<l.. and service.., and a C L~ as an ;ubi ll~tlor in internal dis pllle'\ ( 1{lake) Cl :rI., 19 78: I07- 109), Org <lIlizcd c rime i ~ :1 secrel. compi r.u u rial ae ti\'ily lhat gen e l',llIy evades law l.'nlurc:erlll'lll. Orga c rime lakes ove r k-gilll11ate businesses. b~ ins infllle n c(' ov('r hlho l' IIninn~ , c C)rI1'pt~ puhli c otTidais. int.imidates witrlc,s('e; in criminal Trh.b. illld even Htaxcs" merchanTS i .. " xchange fut ~ pI'Olec tion ~ ( Nation;.1 AdviloOlV COllllnj,...sillll 0 11 Crimin al JusLicc . 1976 ), Through il.~ "U('l'('!o.~. u rg"llI l.f"o crime has 'iCl, 'cd a:. a means o f m obilil) Im grou ps ut IX'ople slrug gling to escape JXlI'erl) , D.lnicl Be ll ( ) 9!i~: 127-150 ) used Ih l.' T el111 I'lh",r S()((OSroll tu d eM'ribc Ih e Organized Crime

(hgrmiut/ r" /tu' 1/1 lit,. U",ltd .\'/(1/1'1 lilt( Imtilll(J11olly \l'Illf:(/ (11 Il Wfml Of molnfd), fur J"rrflll/!, liflJrof,11' slnl1/Kling \ (() nm/Il' I HJI'rlJ. \lwWII 11n!
C..(I IIIOOtiIlIll

APllffir(IIU III


(11-' bt'ilr'llf:f/ ilf,gtcl od"" II"

iJf' 11I11()/1HYi m

/ 9/
UII/"I'l-.R 7 tIH.\'CE f\ ,W)'iQCIM r;O,\TNfll

procc'~ dllnn~ \\lIl1'h leadcrship uf ol' " I illll', hdd h\ Instl A' IH:,i(:'lns in II Il' (';Id}' pa rI o f IlIl' 1\\t'IIIIc lll lClI lIlI). \\ .LS lI"m,f(' I'fcc! in the 1 920~ ItI .lc\\ I,h AIllC,'ic;IIl', In lh", c.lI l), I 930s. J cwish

trill\(' 1l'.ldl'l!I \\Cll' in llllU rq>I.lccd b) lulian Alllt' ~ I ore H'C('mly. c:t.hnic succl."SSi(II' hal. Ix .... (UIII~' 1II0l'C cumpll.'lt., rdIcc l iu g, llll' tl l\cl~i l) u l llle
!"llIUI", laiC'"
P,d(.i" I~l n i.



~ I c",it-all.

ami Kigcria n illll'lligmtll.'i :u c among Ihuse: who havc 1)(',,'1 111 10 I>I.IV a signi lkam roh: in IIrJf.anilcd uimc acti';lics, ldwin Sudwrland. \\'ho I>or~ u la l i/l'd th e diITerl'lI lial .ts.",ocialioll L hl.,()ry dist us-wc! carlit'r. nOlcd that cenai " ('f imcs an: cornlI1itll.'d h) aHluent. Mrcs pc(,L.lblcM pcoplc in thl.' COlll"'C of lhei r d.lily h usi ncss ;Ic li"i, Su therland (1!:t..j~J, 1983) likcll ed th cSt' cri ll1 c~ to orgall j:f('o lI lI llt: bCC.lIlSC Ihey arc OftCII pe'1>t.II'aled th rough 11 11.' loleN 0 1 O IH"~ occtlp:nio rl (Ha)1Il ,llI d P ark!"'" I !l1:~f.) . I1I t li~ 1939 prc<iidclltia l .. d drl'ss to tile American Soc-iulogil.,11 Sncil,ty, SUlhe rla nd ( 1940) rl.... fc r rcd to '111'11 u n CIlS(:~ as white-colla r crimes, ~ I urc rl'ct'lItl)'. Ill(' le l ln wll,I,-mllflr lIas been bruOIdl' llcd It. illdudc oITt'Il'c's hy businc',-'iCS and cu q J(J I .ll ion, , I ~ \\cll as by indi\'iduak A wirlt: \~II;' et) of l.tlCII\tS arc nuw ('i:I.).'oificd ,lS "hilC"-Collilr cri m l.'li. ~ u c h 'l.~ incume lax e\~.lS i o n , S10ck m an ipll' latiulI , UIIlSIIIIIC I" 1r.1llt1. hri l)(.'l), .1IIt! c,," ll<lction of Mkid.b.1t l.,,~ c'U1bcl.llclI1CIlI, ,lIId lIIi~rCprcsclUalioll in ; l thl' III ~ i nK. A 11t:\\ InK' uf "'hill'-collar cnmc has emerged ~i ll Cl:' S lII ll('rI. m d fi l"t wrole 0 11 t h i' topic: computer cri nl('. r hl.' use: uf 'jtlch "h igh tccllllology" a llows (lilt' 10 , '." TV OHt cmlX:I.7It'IIICIII or cicclTQn lc fralld with utll lC.l\ll lj{ ,I I r1ICC. or to g-J in , I CCCS~ 1 a COIn0 p.:1Il)" iClV('lltOry withoul 1c:,l\'illg onc's ho m e. An :t(kpl progl'::lIl11 ncr cm g:liu a("ce~, to i l !inn's COIIIPUII' I h}' tdt'p hullc and tht' fI copy \'a lllablc' files, It is \hlll.tll) ill1pc~i hl c 10 u'::ll.k suc h people u nit's" the) .11 C I nol l ~ h e lto ugh IU call fro m lhe 5'lIlle p h Ulll' l'ad l Ihnl'. Arcorti illg 10 a 1!JUO estimate, L .... h COSI of l.CJlupu lCr crimes in the U nited Slales has reached S~ ICI S5 hilliun annua ll y (Con ly :m d McEI\t' n , I Yl-JU:2) , h i lhe 1a:,1 2() >CM~, Ihe tunCt'pt or whilc-<:ollitf' crimc hall J I>\cJ been expand ed 10 incl u de Jrf}(/ml~ mlllt'. ur ilny .ICI hya COqlOl"lliull that is pu n ish able hy ,Ill' ,l{merull1c11I , Corpol ,llC crime takes many

,11 IUJ\ " \(agt' III .1I11ilUlllpt.'lItl\l bdl,uiUl , .ub th.u Il'dd l'll\'iIUIIIIlCl1l,tl PUllIIlIOl. , 'h llk Il,mcl ,llld Ill.lllll' lalil ll l. tl lc P l ll( lu(tIUlI u l Ult~.c l l' gut.w., I" ibt-n at currUptlOIl , ,lilt! \<001 kCI ht,.. lth ami ~11('t\ \'iul.luo~ III , I dd ' II~' " , till) 11/,(\ In 1\llIlCIt XlIIlt) IIIII C (or OII,: InVIl lK'h,l\ Itl!")' 111.11 \II)I.II~ llllllCI1.I1 1,1\\ , "ul h d.'l'" fraud (~illlpllUII , 199:S) , An otlc ncit('d l'xa ' ll pll' I II t U I IX lI ,IIl.' { ll l1l l' Ch
ill~tl\ u tiu!I" ,1l1!UII~ il~ ~ II.-lill1' { ;" I pUI ,UhJlh
C('I'I~ ,1~be~II)'\,

I fJrlll~

and I1Idutlt" 1II1 II\1l1u.II"


Althuugh IllI'


ul ovrl ..

wil h


h.1\l' I)(;'ell I.UO\'"


ROI lldl1


White-Collar C rime

;Uld \<ocft' lIdt'lIl1lilJIl\ (/1)1 UIl1l,: l1Ietl d!> .....


\ 1.uwlllc ,lIId Clth('1 UIIIII-';UlIl'l>" I

Hti lht' ,uht,U'

i ll du~tl) 111.1111 1 .1111 Ihal Ihl.' IIS~ \\C.' .c ulIkIH)I"11 1 them ulltil IY/.H , \'t' l , ill.1 Sl'nt'S ull.o\cl"ups dalll back IU th e H.l:ii}s, the in d ll~ lI)' suppressed rl~dfl Ihal d(Xlltn~'ll t l'tlt I H' lil ll..s Iw(wl.'l' rr expusHle IlIl bcslos .U1d Itlllg tl i~c,,!>c!> (l1IdtldillK 1 1I 1I ~ l -.III(t!f

AI J u bl " ~1 ,t1I\'i ll c, ('ump, lI t) phy~ki,, " s were I ~ I ructccl 1I0t Iu infor11l t' lll )l I j)'ce~ allOH I a.~bt:slt
rll~t>layi IIg '),"1 p i \) 111.',


rciatcd health datll{l'rs---t'\l' n \\'ht'lI \\'orkt'r5 '\\t! ur SUl h rl i~east'~, E\,cllwalJ),

1982. wit h IhulI\,uujs uf 1.1",ui l~ jJl' m liug 1)('("-,, of the \..l)' , ,IIIt-Kcd 1\"" I)cJI1~ihtlil' ill .,sbt:~, pobollill~ (.I'l" , j u h .. , :\1.tlwilk tiled tor 1(1 n l p'C~ ref)I)).ani/.:u.ioll , Wlu le lhi ~ 'lCilellw '!:I\'l.'<i 11 ('OIupatl) millions 01 dvllars, \'ictillls or ;l\lx=stos PI sun illg and Ihcil IrlTlli lit"N we re kit. with lit tl e pr lection, l>t'caIL'l(: lhc act of ming for banknlp. voids ,Ill pt'ndiug li ligoil io ll (Urod eur. 19M Mokhibcr. 19~: Siml)soll. 1993), In :l sUf'\e) ul bmll1CSS pl'::lClic:l.'li III the lJnil( S ta[ e~ in the period 1975 1 1Y84, soc i ologi~ 1 Ail (1 lai EtJ.ioni (19I JO) fOil lId tJI;tt 62 PC''CCllt of Furtu"! 51)0 t.lrgcsl inc lu\lrial e()rpor: tl ioll~ \\-cre III\'oiled OUl' or more illcJ,'t:l1 inci d clI\.~, sHch as prict'-lix' O\'creharging. fraud , ,Ind r.ll ~iliea liun of !;IX ree I ndeed, lhe IHP 100 coq x H'atiollS we r l.' guilt} mon. ~ u c h cdlllCs Llum a ll Ihe o lhe l" !inns c bined, Si n lc 1 ',ll.ioni\ study wa s limilcd 1 th 0 whilc-co ll al' (... jlnc~ !l1'/fe/1'I1 hy t h c ~ovc nlm (: II !. fi ndillg~ !llust Ill:' I cg.u dcd al> <In undere<ili mat the pr('\,llcncc of wh ill.---collill c li me in the co rate ",mid (Dt'p<l rllllt'II I o t Justice. 1987; Rein

1984) . In atldidon 10 lhe COSl\ of this fom Cli me. wh ich 11 111 int u billion... of dolla rs per) whilc<ollar cril11(, h;tS distinclil'e social C~~


dudUlg a decline in thc quality o r lire .tnd a weakftlmg of the social order (Conklin . 198 1:50)_ Ir Ibol\C" al the top or the mlliou 's econom ic and soUiI] ~truuu rc red rree 10 viobte the ]a\\ . le,-'1 prhiItvd citiltn5 ca n ccnainly be expectcd to loUow ~t Ralph Nadcr (1985:F'3), di l'cClor or the CorprlIle Accountability Rcsca rch Group. suggests tlut ob) almO!lt .111)' measure. c rime in the suit es \lk-I. fur more mOllc), ami producc~ 1:11 morc {'.l.\UaltiM and d iscas..:s th,lIl crime in the SO'CCiSbiJd as that ~iluation is.~ (.4,,n the economic and )QCia) COSts or ""'hite{OU.U- crime. onc mig llL expect this !>l'Oblt-m to be Qkn quite sr:riously by the c riminal jwaice system ~ the l'oned Stales. Yet ....hite<OUlIr olTendcrs are 1IIoJ1t" Iiltly to rt.'Ccive fines than priwlIl sclllences. In it'dernl courts-where most white-collar cases ,nrronsidercd-probation is granted lO 40 pel'cenl r4 thO!w,.' .... 110 have violated antitru't laws, 61 percent nl thrM convicted of fraud. and 70 pcrcelll or C OlI\'kltd l'mOc7,zlt'I'!t (Ce~ t . 1985). III Eu.iolli s s wdy rl9lG, lWO), he rOllnd that ill 43 percent orthe inudtnb tithcr no pellRhy was imposed or the compant ",-a,s required merf"l)' to ccaSe clllr-Iging ill the ilJrxal practice and to rcturn any runds g-.J.ined !b".~h ilIeg;llmcans (lol' " dilTcI"C1I1 view. sce ~1an 'lUll. l!I:Hfi) . lIotr\Mr, comiction lor stlch illegal aclS doc~ QOI Meller,dl), harm a person 's rc pulation and caTa'f <bp,r.nioll ncarly so muc h as conviction for an IDIIn rrinu: would . Apparently. the bhcl "whitt. (all.lJ c:riminar docs nOl caH)' the scignta 0 1 tl1e "'1 "fdoll convicted of a violent crimt: . ~ In the dnr III conflicl theolislS. such dinerelllial labcling tDd In'alln!;'nt :Lrc not surprbing. rhe cou nict pcr~ti\l" oIrgues that the criluinal ju.stice systcm ~I\ d"rclfAfds the ..... 1Iilt.'-<:01l:1I crimc'!' uf the ;Lf..... ,. ""hill! focusing 011 iudclI! Cl'i ml'S oftl'1I comIIJtIt'tI b)' the poor. Thus. if an offendcr holds a po_on of stlW, and innllcn cl. his 01' her cri me is ImItrU .. ~ lei!lll ~e,;olls and the S;lltctiOIl is Illllch IaO/'t' It.'llil'lII (Maguire. 1 9~8).



NI< RSA,_,,-_

.... ......!:..
III'Cl _ .!


~" .... "'C=_


_'" _ _


... I~t .. ! ' . . !C~, ,!~





,,',,""'2,' .... .J.t..J- i--. '",


... !l~

... IV.

-.-m ..!:......

Kl 0:: ~.L:"'!'!!:r>-I':'!:.',
11.''':(1 1W1._l

"I"."r __

fir , 'P'!'rl

ilC;IlI .!..'~

r~ ~';. . ;--:~;;==


a Will/led /10.11,.,. for II NI'//) I 'rnl/I'l/m., jr.lliJ.,'fI 101/1/1 JL-d Ih,. Jlall j'l {989 (lfin "'1I1!: ;m/'(/tJ (m rhlJllP'J

.... - .-....
;1 "' " j[~


lAid Iu- hllll du/NI $1 .11 10,11,011 [mm tllnll.l, \\11//, lu( n IIull"-lVllnr
1"1110"11111 nlf SOmllllHI'l /lfT'Ulrd (/lid

I/Illm j rnlld. th, rmifltcl JWnIJfrtl11f' 1It"1't'1111 1kn (ltgl',f Ihat IN mmmnl JlIl/l(, 5)'flmt (If 1nl l 'Hllhl'\w/Ij Im(!:'rlY (/u1l'g(lrilj Ihl 1l'l,ill'-rolulf' mml'l

of Ih,. tif]fllnrl.

YIdiakw CrimCll In wiJit,c -coltal' or index crimes, propIt"~ Ollomic or personal ..... dl-bcing is e ll",red \lgain~t their will (or without their direc t ba'-)rd~c) . By contrast, sociologists tL'iC th e tcnn c,.imes to describe th~ \villing exchange awl~ adult." of ""idc ly desired . but illegal, goods


and se ....icc.. (Sch ur, 1965: 169; 1985). DClIpite the social COSb 10 families and rriends 0 1 those eng<'gcd in such beh;n;or. peuple in llle Uniled StatC!i continue 10 \'iew ~.Jm blin g . proStilution. public dnlllke11l1("lo..~ . md me of mariju:ln;1 .b \ic tilllkss crimes in which there;<; no ~\'i Clilll other Ih,m the olTender. As ;l rt'~ul .. theft- has becn prc'\Sure rrom some groups to dt'criminlllile \~,riuus act;viti('s which fa ll inlo dw cale~orr ofviclim1css crimes. SlIpp01't<:rs of (I!-~l'iminalilatioll arc trouhled by thl' attempt tn leKi ~ l :ue iI moral code or bclla\ior for adlrlLi. III their view. it is impossihle to prevent proslitution . );ambling. and o tllcr \ictimless c rimes. The alread)' o\'erburdened cri minal juslice S\.'itcm should instead de\'ote it.'i resource'!' lo ~nreet crinle.. and other olTcnses which 11.1\'(' ob\ious \ittims. 110\\'l...('r. o pponcnts of decrimin.lli/_ :ltion inR

IJItY/'1-.n 7 /It'\/'\.\Q A\1J VH.J.II ('1)V rt/(!/

sbt lh;lt such o ffe nses d o indeed bring harm 10 in noccllt victi ms. FOI' example. a person with 3 drillldng proble m can become: llbusivc tu a SI)OUSC or child ren; a compulsive gambler ardrug lIser may steal in o rder 10 pursue thi~ ob~'iSion. Thererore. according 10 crilics or d ccnminalization . society must no t gi\~ t;,cit approval to conduct which has such hannrul con<;equenct=S (National Advisory C.ommission o n ,rinlinal JUSl.icc, 1976:2 16-2<18: Sc.hur, 1968, 1985). The contro\'cl"'iY over decrirnlnali:mtion reminds liS of the importallt insighlll orlabeling and conflict theoriClli prescllIcd earlier. Undcrlying this debate are t\\o'O imcrc."ing questions: Who has the power 10 defi ne gambling, pro.nitlltjon. a nd public drunke nness as c rimcs"? And who h;:ts the power to label suc h beha\~ors as 8victillllcss8? It is gener.lIly lhe stale I cgisla lUre~ and. in some cases, the pol iet': and the courts, Again , we can sec that cl'i minal law is nOt simply a univeDaJ sUlndard or l>chavior agreed upo n by all lllell1bel'S or .society. Ihuher. it rcflt."CLS lhe struggle among compe ting indi viduals and gro ups to gain go\'c l'llln c ntal support rur tllci l' parlkui:II' mom\ ;md social values, Fot example . "lIch o t'g'dnizations as Mo thers Against Dlull k Driving (MADD) and Students "brainsl Drunk Dri\~ng (SADD) have had success in rt:cent yea rs in shining public 1I11itudes to",~ .iI'd drunkenness. Rather 111;111 being vie""cd as a Mvictimless c rime." drunke nness is increlL';.ingly be iug associated ""ith lh e pOlenti,,1 dangcrs of driving while uuder the influence or alcohol , As a rt.-sult. lhe maM Int':dia ;ut: giving greater .attention 10 people guilty or dl'llllk drivi ng, while many stalcs have insLiW led morc severe lin es andjail te n 1l5 iora ""ide v.J.rielY of alcoholrcl:nctl O rrellS(.~ ,

Crime sl:t tis ti c~ lire nOL us accurate as sociill scie n lisl5 would like. "Iowevel . since they deal wilh an is-sue of grave concern 10 the people or the United StaleS, they a rc frequ e ntly d ted as ir they arc com pletcJ)' reliable. Such da!.. do se rve as an indicator or police aclivil)', <IS well as an .. pproximaLC indica Lion or the leve l or certain Climes, Yel it would be a mi~ takc lO interprct these data as an exaCl re~ resentation or the incid e nce or crime.

Inlernational Crime Rates Ch'ClI the difficulties of developing reliable crime data in the United St.;tlcs. it is still mo rc diffic ult lO make useful cr~ national cO ll1p;arison~. NC'\'{! nhdcSll, \\oith somr ca rc. \\'e can o fTcr preliminary concl lLSio ns about how c rime r.ues diffe r :u'o und the world. Dul'ing the 1980s, \iole l1l crimes ""ere nU'more common in the United SCl.tCS than in ""cslem Eu. rope. Murders, mpes. ;md robberies were reported to police at I':Ile'l rour 10 nine time. higher in the Unhed Stales, Rmes for other violent crimes werr :tlso higher in this counu,)' than in western Europr; bill the difference in 1':I1c..'I or properly crimes WiIS not so great. For exalllple. in 198'I, lhe mOSl recent )'e;lr ror \\'hich cOlllpar.u i\(: da ta are available. burglar)' r.He in the UlIit,ed Stales was aboul20 pe'" cent highe r th;an Ihat orWCStCrn Euro pe, whi le rales or auto lhcft and la rccll Ywen: twice as high. RaIC~ o f violcnt CI'iillC ill lhe United SWIC'S v.'C'1? also highe l' than in Canada. Australia , and NC1r Zealand , while rates of burglar}' and automobilr theft were comparable in tJ\(:se 1'0111- counu'ies, A 1990 report by the Nation:ll Genlel' for Health St.. tistics compared homicide rates for )'oulIg males in tJIC United S1<ltcs ....~ tJl mu:~ in 2 1 o lher countrin TIle homicide rolle fur )()I lIIg males in lhe Un i~ State., "'~lS rOllr li mes higher than that orallY uther nalj O Il st udied :Ind \\':.IS at I ca.~ t 20 timl'S as high as the homicidc ratc for >oung males in such di\'tJlt nation) as F" lIIce. Po la nd , ,lIIdJapa ll (O ine , 1989: Fingerhut anel K1cinm an , 19'10), In Box 72, we ex' amine the re<lllOllS ror Jap.III 's low crime rate, Why .Ire mt<'5 or \;olent crillle K much higbt't in the L:nitcd St.:tll'$? While there is no si mple art S\\'er lO tJli., (Iuestion. sociologist Elliot Cume ( 1985) has sllggested tJla l our society placcs greaerr t':mph asis o n indi\~dual t!oonomic adlic\'clUclIt than do other 5Odc tics, At the same time, many t SCf'\'CJ'lli h ave no tcd that lhe culture of the United States has IOllg to le l'ated. if 1101 condo lled, rnam' fornlS or viole nce. Whe n (ouplcd \"ilh sharp rus. parities be twec' n poor and amucnt citizens, signifi. ca lli ull e mployme nt , allll substantial alcohol and dnlg abuse, these r-aCtors combine to produce a \It mate conducivl' lfI cri me, Filmlly. th e comparati\'el!' e~)' a\~Jilabilit y of fin'arms in the United SUtlCt llIal es crime I'c \:advcly morc IClhal than in ot.htt CO lllll riCS (Fingerhllt and K1cinma n . 19I.JO) .


nil} '

UHC..v.l1.J,\ '(i }f)('J<\1


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _B;;,,;;,,;.;.-;..' .,; ROUND THE WO R1. D _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ; .O X ' A ..;,;_ _


midnight in " 0 10:)'0. Dow.. WIIn ,tn!CtlI ar(' (ilk-d \',;Ih ~<lcs lfI:lrlS, w-ollers abound in the park. btkn si! unchained 011 the SUCCt, " 1Q.\1l1 front doors [Ire unlocked. al1d
rhlldrtn under 8 YC;l1'lI old are (.'\~n )ttt) odingalo nc 011 the su bway. A:5


OIuc:h /)fa culture shock as Ihis m :l}' lit to a visitor from Ihe United 'italo, an ~dditional surprise comes the lie)!;' monling when vi nually no nllll~ repo rted.
"ASI woman, I

feci S,;UC5\

hert': in

the \\'01'11: repons Wakako Hi 1l%lb. who li\'cd in the UniH,:d 'lLlln and F'nlllcc befo re being
t'~ltd:n ho!.~

a member of lhe upper of Japan". parliamem ( I.

\lIlIbf1\), 1991 :25) . Inch.-ed, Tok)'o h;J., Ihe \oY.'eS1 ratc.., of mu rder. 11~. robbery, and Iheft of a ny rnaI',r (il)' in the world. In comparison lo'uhJapan.lhc murder nlte of lilt'
t.:UllrdState5 iSjC\'en time! g reater. lh~ nut' of rape 30 timcs greatcr, "Id till' mll' of robbery 200 ti mes Itrt::II1'r. Vet Japan h;18 fewcr police IIfrlCfl"i per capita: I for e ach 557 rNlitnl5. compared with I for each 15; midents il'l the Unitc d 5t.;1I($. Why 15 there so link crime ill .\11.Ul? The answcr !lecms to center QI1 the lIlMlu tc tlllSt that people MC in the police. O u tsid e obotn'tl"i belie'o~ thall)Cople's faith ill !bt fllJhct n:ruIl!i in gocxI part fTOm Iht,r txuaordinary 99.83 pen:elll IUlII1Ctiull rdte. It is also sugg('Sled ttwl pt'Ople's confidence in l>olice is Aruhur.!.I1lItifact d;uing back 10 the IOI~ period lx:fo~ the beginmng "I tht nation's modentizalion

in 1868. In IhOlI em ofJap.1IlCSC history, samu rai had (he shogun's l Ulthori ty 10 e nforce jlt~ lkt: inslantly lIg-..unM t. iminal$ by cUlling (lIT their .. hands or e\'CI' beheading IIIem. Hut an eX;llIlination of police communil), inlernctio ns in J apan olTers quite a dincrelll ex planation for the powe r of the police a lld the low rale of cti mc. Once or twice a )car. the police knock o n C\'(:ry door in Jap<1II 10 sp(:ak wi th re~i dents or busilless ()\\TIel'5 aboul conditiollS in the bllilding and neighborhoorl ..lapallcse people do 1I0t rega rd this as hara.ssm(.'Il I, b ul r-.Ilh cr as a n exam ple of the police taking pcNOllal interest in Iheir welfare. Small police boxt.'S, known a.~ kol){m~. arc locate d ill 1111 urba n ndghbo r'hoods and arc st;llTed by twO officcl'!i al alllime$. These 1250 /WballS n:porl 10 Tokyo's 99 police: stations, wh ich in tu rn rCJ>orl 109 district headqu:lflcrs. The kobmr of ficia ls arc the fi rst line o f police reSpOllse to:t cri me or c risis, )'c llhcy mon: often fun ction as infOnlllltion brokers, prO\;<ling information aboul 100:' li0ll5 and addtC5M."S in d Tokyo'5 con rusing malC of houses lInd b usinc!lSes. When a PCr'lIOll 5eeks police: :bSisl:m ce, he o r she Iypicall)' g()(.'S 10 a kolxm . Consequentl)" the Japanese lend 1 look 0 favornbly all the !rOOmr ~)lltc m , l~Lth er I.ha n rearing its social control functions . Other faCIOl1ll, as well, conuiblllc 10 the low rate or crim!' in Japan. The cuitu r-d.1 \':llucs of the Japanese

hclp 10 promotc I;n,o..abiding behavior a nd coopel':llio n ,.11l! police o ffi cers. lllCre is per.;.islcll l comm u n ity disapproval ufwrongdoi ng, and .'lOCi"lly deviant behavior is not eJ(cused . Consc<llIe nlly. as parI of the ir earl y sociaii/.atio n , c hild reil arc encouraged 10 respecl authority figures and place great value on sd fdi!ICipline. I II schools, young people are taught 1 ilccept code" 0 o f rc.spo n~ ible behavior associated "; Ih citilcnship. It is nOt s urpri~i ng, thercrore. that Japanese adult! oftcn belong to orguppon c rime prel'Cfl lion pI'Og'-:I1I1S. In recen t >eal'5 the pOI,'cr of japan's pOlice hall cOllle under fire. hllel'mltional human righ15 groups cdtidl.e the police for such practices as conducli ng illl'cstig;lIions wi thoUt allowing 5USPl'Cts aCCl'llS to a lawyer and jailing snspccl!i ror lip to 23 days withoUl filillg criminal dl:trges. Yel there are no broad puhlic dcmand$ fo r c urtailing the powcr of the 1>olice. Indeed , evcn ill death penalty cases, the Japanese seem 10 comple lely !nISI the l)(llice. When com;c(cd criminals arc executed, the 1 >oIice make 110 announcement .111(1 lhe media ofrer 11 0 coverage. These executions come 1 ligh t o nl)' at the cnd of 0 each year whcn the policc re lease cri lIle d:lta.


Rnlthw' "e, 1989: Shdlcy, I~ ; It ... TIIQI'!I\Qn and I'.lwJu. 1990; I ....,lIiam.. 1991:

aiM) Mivazaw... 1\192

C/ IAI'TEH 1 - I)J, VIANCE. AND SOCIAl (;O......rI(OI.

T .\81 .t: 7-1 CRIME INDEX OfFENSES IN 1992




SINCE 1988

SINCE 19&3

Violent crime
Murder Forci ble rope Robbe<y Aggravoted anaull Tolol

23,760 109,060 672,.60 1, 126,970 1,932,270 2,979,900 7,915,200 1,610,800 12,505,900 14,A38,2oo

9 43 264 442 756 1, I6B 3, 103 632 4,902 5,660

+ 11 + 14 + 19 + 19 + 19

+ 12 +27 +22 +58 +41 - 13 +8 +47 +6 +9

Properly crime Burglary

larceny.theft Motor vehicle theft Talal

Total index crime

'm'~ ,\rY.. , ",,' .1oig,u.~1
... 0(

- 11 -I -8 -3 - 0 .1

all ;,,<;1.,.. ,,r~~ 1""K"''';''K;n 1979: ,b u "" ~ ..... '" ~tl' 01.111 19')'2 """'-,.... "r ..... uod,,'K. '''' U<' .,fT..""" I",to! 'n~\ .1111 add h) lo, ~I .. .. It ur 1 ,,:111,,"'''' 01' I"'"C", I!I'I!L'>II ....

Till' ('171111' i"dl'x,!mblishrd l/IUHIfI/l]k tl" foIJI , i\ /111' major Jl)lI r ", 0/

i'I/O"",1/101I 011

mm,. in IIu! Uniltd


Stall'l (altllO/wlt IIICIIIIIIUIf'OIl

mr..mJlIIgl)' btillg /I.!I'd}.

Use and Meaning of Crime Statistics T)'J)iC.llly, tilt clime dOli:! ul>cd in Ihe United Stales arc bascdon the index cl'imcs dcsclibed ea rlier in the chapler The c rime index, published :t1IUtlaJly by Ihe FBI ;L" part of Ihe Uniform Critlll' /(l'jJorf!i, inc:ludcs stali~ L on nUII'der, rapc. robbery. ass..llIlt, burglar}'. Iar ics celly.thefl, mOlOr \'chide then, a nd :arson (5tt Table 7- <1) . O bviollsly lIla ll}' ser iolls un'c nscs. such :t." lhose rcfeo 'cd 10 as wltil~rofl(jr ml/us, arc nO! in. eluded in Ihis index (ahho ugh lhcy an= reconkd elsewhere), In addilion, lhe c rime index is disprnportionatcl)' de\'Oled to property cri me s, wheft"l\ most citizens arc more w0I1'icd about violent crimeagainst people , TIws, a signilicant decrease in lilt

'17//: ( OIll/lllrtlliI'tiy

IVO) (/I'I Ii/Il/Jlbl)'


jil'1V1I1/1l ill Iltl' VIIi/lit Slllt~ IIIl1hn

"'(1/",,1 ),






number of mpes alld robhcri c~ cou ld be o\'el'shaclI*t"d b) a slightly larger incrca~ in the number of <tmomobi lcssloIcTl.lhtrcb} IcMli" ~ lO 1.1, (" mis!;,kcn 'mprcs.~ion tha, /II'Tf(ll1fl1 ~afc l y i~ II1U fl' al I'i!>k th:m hcrore, The most SCriUl 'S lill.ilatiull orsud. onid.11 crime \l;tllruCS is that thl'~ indudt' tml) tI)(~ 1.:(;1111.."' .ICIILJII) rtfJortni to I.,w l'nlOrCl'IIIl'lIt .I~e ndcs, A:-, b clear in figure 7-1. man)' cri me, : \I'{' IlOt n~ pon ed, ulI:luding about h,,1I 0 1 ;111 a...s;,luIL~ :lI1d robbe ries, In these insl'llllCS, \ictilll~ t}'picall), Iceilhal lite exprrience hao; been tuO permll,,1 10 I(~\'ca l lO police ufficen alld oLlu~ r SI1":lllgCrs f)r t hat the Cri'llc io; "nOI IInponal1l enough .. L 01 onid:tl pulice s lali ~ t, ics clearly present.~ 'sc I1IJJor methodulogical prublt'ms tur sociologisls .llId other J'('scarchel"5 ill undcrsl.mdillg crime, PanJy because nfthc ddkiencil's oi l)l;)\ice data . Ihe Sal.ot/(/I Griml' SIItV" \\~I~ inlrotillcl'ri in 1!)72 ,II! a mt:an.~ of learni ng how lIIud. crinH' aCHIaIl), take'! place in the Unilt~cI Sla tes. T he Uureau or Ju ~t1ce Slatislics. in compiling Ihis report , ~(:eks inlol'llliltilJn from taw cnfOlcellleill agencie~ but abo inter1l~'S members c)f 100,000 hl)ll'4.'l,olds an nually :! nd .&iKs if they h;l\'e bcen \'krim ... 01 a ~pccilic 01 [rimes during the preceding }e;u', In genera l. "ittimi:a t;o ,. surveys qIlC.!IUUII ordinary lX!ople. not police officer, to le;1I n how much ailllt'

n CURE 71 P"n:.."t of Criml'l RII"urlt'd

10 Ihr Poliu, 1'191

Penonol crimes


,,11. ..:..




The, FBI has noted Ihal rOf'cibll' I'llpt! is Out: of tht' lIatiOIl'~ most IIndcrrcpol'lecl crillle~. owi llg pdmarily to Ihe victims' feelings of fe:lr. clllb.~mlS.v TM:nt.. or both, L:sing \'1climi/auon llU ......'<1'5. " 'f' c m OOltr assess the lIIulerreponing of ,dpe in L1\(' l titled States, A" "'c noted earlier, the femin ist It\Il\'cment has spokeTl OUl slt'ongl), regardi ng the w.tvin which the frequl'n c)'of rape rc n en'ilhl' high Ind of misogylly (\\'Ul\lan hating) in ou r SOciC IY, nit' media 11;1\'(' paid incrcao:.illg :lUc nuoll to Ihis n/fl'nse-.I\'ilil a rece nt foctls on dale and ;Icq ua inWIre r:11>C (.\ce C hapt er 13)-and law enforcclIll'nt ~cncic!l h ;l\'e sen"i the ir ollict' r~ t,O the p light or \lC1ims. hnlyas a result , \ojclimi7... lioll lllll...C)'S sh ul\cd ;:In NI.fe<t.'oC in lhe I'l'l)Orting of rapes frOIll 41 percent 1111980 to 59 perce nt in 1991 (a lthough the figure Iwd reached as high as 6 1 !>('rcellt in 1985). nll/S, 11ItiOlI1...tiun clal.1 document the lact that while IWI) r.lf>l"S 'I re ~Iill not f'epon{'d, tlu~ proponion ""rapes thal (In'rt'pol'lcd is MIIIlC\dml higher than

t\'",wlnl '''11/ 11 Ill,.,,'" PN/IfJr/",1t IJj . :rtlQU.\ m"'e!> K" IUlfIjN'Ud, I,,) IhOlI 6U /J"Ct'nl of ul/ m/Jn allft robbmn {wd II'\I IIIul/ Iwlf of alllJS.Jllldb afr '1f'O"t'tIIQ Ill, pol,,,,

il was in the past, MOI'cO\'Cr, \iclimil.uion ditla 1'(,"\'eal th:1I \'inually 110 "'PC \iClilll rails to report lhi... crime h(.'Ctusc she feels she docs nOI ha\'c c \'ide nce, T he mosl common reason, oITered hy 25 percent or those who fail to re port. rapes, is tha t L1le as!o<lult is f't'g::,rded a~;:1 "prh"lle or personal matter: !-I O\\<' ever. :U\o Lher 11 pc rcelll of mpe victims remain silelll bec:IUSC they fe;lr runher n:plisoll front tilt' uITender (DCP:U'lfII Cllt or Justice. 1992: 11 0- 111 ), Utlfol'llln;Hely, lih' o ll, ef' aimc data. \'icl illli/.;t tio n slIl....e)'5 have.' particular limitations. They IC(Iuire fit"t that ViClilll~ understand whit! h:L~ h:lp1 Jt'1l(''(! to lhem a nd also that victim ... disclose such inrOlmaLiun to inl e l""it'\\'ers, Fraud, income lax evasion , and bl;lc kJn:til arc examples of cri mes that arc un likely 10 be I'cpol'ted in vlClimi/.aUOI1 sludicll. Ne\'enhelcllS, virtually all housdmlds han: been willing to coopemle "iLh ill\'estigalo~ for the N(II;ol/(l1 Cnml' Sun..., (Blumstein Cl al.. 1991 ).

(JIU'fJH 7 IJH1A ....UANI) ';(XJA,I C:O,\-n.-fl/


are the main approachcs open to policy. m;,kcrs \\'ho ravar SOllll: form of gun cOIllrol legislation? In "hat way h;L~ SO("ial science research oncrcd sollle support for gun control ad\'ocatcs? Ilow do conflict theorists \'icw the po\\cr of lhe National Rifle M'IOCi:lliul1 ,md other strong lobhying grollp~?
Wh~ 1

E rearms have achic\'ed an almost inevitable place in the United SI:JtCS. ' nit: liglu 10 hear anns stems in pan from the l1 a ti on'~ gUI1-I'irldcll frontier hcrilagc. In addition , ,J,c Second AIIH': lIdrnCI1I lO
IIU' Constitution b'1 I ;LI~IIIlCeS that the ~rig hl 0 1 the people to keep and bear amlS shall not be infringed." CurrclIlly. the IXl puJaljon of the United Slales has an CSLim:llcd al-.;eIl~1 of 60 to iO million .lUtOIll:II,ic \'I'capons and "':0.'0 1\,(1'5 (Mackenzie. I9'JI :25). Clearly. " ....'lIing:1 gun is not ,m act of devi:lI1ce in our !tociety, Il1fOl'lnal gUll clubs of bOlh " primar}'- lInd sccon<l:II)'.group IlOlIure exisl across lhe cou ntry...... hil(. a~ wc shall scc, formal org;mit.."I.uons pl'ol1lOljng gUll o ..... nership exist UII a Ilalion:tI basis, Many index crimes in Ihe t.:nited SWtC'l in\'ol\'e lhe llse of:t firc::u'm . According to th e FH!. in Ihe year 1992.24 pcrccn t o f all l'cponcd agg'(l.\'alcd asS<"I.ults, 40 perccn t of reported robbclies. and 66 pcrccm of reported IIHlrdcr.s invol\ed a firelll1l1. M ore than 15,000 pt.'Ople died in 1992 lill'ollgh hmuicides committed with a firearlll . Gunshot w()unds h3\'(' become the sccond!c:.ading cause or dc.::lth a l1long high sch ool-agt. yollth~, while 60 perccnt or deaths among teenage Afrie;"!1l Amcric'lIllllak!f result Irom a firearm iqjury. Sill c(' 1963, thcrc have.! beel! m o re Ih,HI 400.000 g unrclah:d d eaths in lh e United Stales-a figure which exceeds th e number of lhc Ilmjon's IroopS \V'ho died in World W;lr 11 ( Dep<lnment ofJustice, 1993: Fingcrhtll. 1993: I tillS. 19'-,)2). TI1CSC dcaths-along \\ilh Ihe :I"5<ts:;illauons of ~uch pllblie ligurcs .1:1 (' r(sidt.'11I .Iohll F. Kcnnedy, Senator Robcrt Kcnllecly. Dr. Marlin Llll her King.

J r., a nd singer J ohn l .c n non-havc forced Icg1sUlors 1 considc l' gun contro l mcasun.S. AJt.h~ 0 ' handgun owners rrcquc'lIt1y imist that Ihe)' need 0 ....'11 fircal'lns in order to protect Ihcmseh't:5 anti their 10\'00 ones Irom \iolcnt crimi na ls. sludio tt.l\1' ShO\\11 lhat gun owners kill Ihem."oClvcs and membcrs of their r."I.mili(~ 1:1 limes ilS oftt.'f) as lht.')' shOOl a criminal who halo clHl'red Ihe hOI11t.' . According 10 ,I SILLdy rc1e:tscd ill 1:1It.' 199:J, kccpi llg:1 handgun in il homt.' ,llmost uiplc'i thl' likelihood Ih:ll someotK' wi ll be kilk-d lIICI'C. 1-IO".O\l'r, in a wcic ly .... here do' IIll'stic \lolcncc i~ alltOc) common ('lCC Chapter 111 use oflirc,II11lS in clOlllt'stie qu:tn-cls is 12limt.'!l morr likely lO result in dt:alh than use or m he!" wcaponl (I lilts, 19U2; Kellcnn:mll c l :.1.. 19Y~) . AI; liNed c:u'licl ill the c ha plel', sociclfs ];1\\'Sarr !lOI a SIalic lXld)' flf nllc~ bUl rcOl'CI c hall gi ng SI3J} dards (If right and wmlll{. Then:- lire fOllr main:JP' pm:'lche'l npen 10 policymakers who f:,,'or SOIn' 10l'ln nf gt ll ' cOll lrolltJ,.hlalioll :
I?l'fjllllillK ''I'b''~lml/lJ1I of IW/ldJ,"'" I . This option it alre.ldy ill lIS(' ill ... I:nes :tCl'Os.o; the nation , Ilm\t!\'tI. cxpensagrce Ihat rcgislr:.tliOlI ur lmmlg lll1!o hasonlt a lilllitt.'tI impact ill rcducing l'I'illlc. 2 IVill/iring n mm/Hlg /Jmoo INJo", n ~m (on (hruf' a IjIUI. As of 1991 . 1<1 litalcll had ......... iling pm. . ods ranging from '18 hl)ur'i to 15 d ..)~ ( Po lic~ Fou. dalio n , 1992). 3 tll10wlIIg IIII"~/Ijr/I'{I ,,!VI/m/lll) oJ fimmnJ. 6Iu IlJlIgh~IIIIIK (TJtIIltI(lI IWII"II,o filr illtglllluf' uf1f"'1$. TIllS appro.lch is fa\'llrecl by IlppOllentS ofolhcrgttllcOIIlrol meaSllrt,'S, 'Iueh ;lS Ihe National Rine Assoc l.ion (NRA) . 4 IkmllillK I/fUIl/glIlII ft/Jew/II,.,.. This could includt prohibitillg Iht.' 1Il:tllllfltClllre. sale. :lIld posscs.1ioo ofsllch we;tpom y. YCt, eWIl ifCQ ll gl'es~ were to pa. suc h <I lalV'. the e llo nnOllS n aliollwitle rt."SeI"l't' uE guns wou ld mean Ihlll many Ii I'ca nllS would Slill be: ,n"ilablc illcgally. ,JIld lh<.'SC could , ul roll~, (Oftuibllle to man)' violent ('rimes.

Social science r('''Couch oITers 'KI1lll' slll>pon r"r gun comro l mh'tK:t IC'. According 1 a study com0




5Et.lM<:':, AA~ YM
I'OSITlot.' 0" 6Vl1 Ca.nROL C"~&D ?

.... HAT MkllJT "'filE 10,000 ProfIlE KILI.eo EAUl

'reM. W Iltt
HMlD(jON$ ?



/ NO, 1 6H




on'OSlI<'6 If


111/991, lI'h"" thu carlO/m wosfiflt



I().{)()(J //I'Ofill'



UIII/I'd Sl(ltl'~ IIJf'T'I' dyIng n."') )f'UI' Ilmwgh hl)lmflt/f'.f ('(Jflomllct! "'1111 IJ lir."",II . I(~ 1992, Ilwl /fJp,rf /Imf
11) "'/Ofi' tllIlII

".(j{J() Idll",/!"



lullld~'l"rj I'(Ifh )'f'f/r.

gun (omml measlII'l'S may red uce

PJri ng crime r.u eI ill St'attJe a nd Vancouver. ('.:mada, iI cnnlllllllli ey's homicidt, raIl'. A U'<UIl of rco;,c;:II'f'hcr.s ~llld icd crime

187 1, Ul{' NRA has 3 mi l1ioll llll'llI bc l.... : illlldditioll. <I lO 5 million member; of stillC rifle a...sociations slIPl>orl many of Ihe ' RA 's goal... Thl'M' figur~ compart= with 0111) 350.000 l1le lll bl' l~ 0 1 I landgu n Conl rol, a kc) nrg;.lIl i/.. u io n ill the Kun control lobbv. W h c re;l.~ the NRA hasa fo rmidablc W:II c hl."St, H a lld ~'l ln Conll o l has less lh .) n Si m illiun pe r year (Mackt=IIIIC . 199 1: Md.can . 1992) . Despitt' opposition from the NRA .lIld i L~ allies.
some rornmUllitiC5 h u\'1' bF'lIll comrol measures. !\Iorlon G l'mc, a Chicago suburb of 24,000

data in the two cities over the IlCliod 1980 to 1986. rhese pori ci lit.'S a rc o nly 140 m iles ~1 p; II I . a nd rNOi,tt11ts were IOlllld IQ have comp;u":\blc levels 0 1 !'ChooJ:. 'ill". m(:d iall illlllua! inclllllt"s, ,met rates of' uncI}}p!uynlcnt. Owing ..h e pt:riod 1I11dcI ~ l l ldy. Sca uJea nd \ 'ancoU\-er had imila r m lc.."S ofhllrgl:uy a nd rubbcl) , ",tlile Scaltle'~ ratc ofassauh W.ll; only ~lighth higher
than lh al of Vall(OU\'CI', Yet the ris k. of beinl( killed \\tlh" ftrcan u ....'itS nearl y th ree limc'l d,.i high in St:atWo as in Vancom cr-whic h halo mo re resoicu\'c rcgul.J.Uon of handgun\ (Sloan Cl a l., 1988) . While tIll' peop lc of the Unilcd S e~ have con\I\I~ nLly favorcd g lln cont rol Icgisl.ltil1 t1 i n !'t'cc n t deC'oldf's. th e na tion 's 111 rtio r anti-g un Ltltltrol lob~ i nK

group, tlt e

~ ati O ltaJ

Rin c Associa tio n (N RA),

wielded impr'cssi\'c in blocki ng or d il uting such 11lt";tSlI res. Conn icl IhcnrisL'I con tend tha t powerful groups like lh e l'\ RA c m dumin;uc the defl.Jon-m:tking process because of thcirabil ity lO 1110-


Iriule resources ;lIId exert inflllellC~\'C n in oppm.iliol1 10 the wi ll of tJ1C majorit). Founded in

people, II",de tire TlIere pos.~es..~io n or a h'lIldgtrn ;r clime Il<:gin ning in 1982. ViolatOl'" ,Ire subject tQ up 10 ;;;x munths in jai l :Ind.1$500 lint'. T hisstalllle. tht: na tion's lllos' ''lringelll g u n comrollaw. has had liul e pr:tctical impact, since to ..... n police h;we not la llnc hed :I n en rOIcement. drive. Nc'\'crtllclcss. th e Mo n o ll Grnvc law hm. symbo lic \" ,lltLc . a~ ....~ I.~ recognized by the NRA. wh ich u n~ lI ccessfll ll y allem ptt:"d to ha\'4.' tilt:" statu te ruled IUlCtlllSll l111.ional. Spur rl--d in part by the Morl un Gro\'{' IlIC;l!Ul'e , the ci ly of Ch icago pa!oloCd a law prohibiti ng lht' registration 01 any new lrandgulIs, Ytt, while four subLlrb~ followed ~lIil, such Icgisl:u.ion h.tS nOI been

UllI'/HI 7 /JI;.....H .\CE "XTl

<ilx;.u r


tllC Un ited Stalt'5 Timt:, 1982) . The crucial problem in asse~ing the enh:ti\'cness of a ny slate or local gun law is that weapons can tx: imported rrom localiti es in which laws are morc hLX . Consequently. advocalt.'S or handgun cOlllrol insi~1 thal Stringt'fll federal gun control IChrislalion is essential. in recent years, congressional debate 011 this isslLe centered o n the so-called Br;:ldy bill. Thi~ bill was mUlled aftcr onc or its chief :H\vocates. fOl'mer White House press secretary James Brady, who was shot and paralY/ed in 198 1 by John Hind:ley during Hinckley's anem pt to assassi nate rresidelll RonaId Rengan. The l3T1\dy bill proposed a compulsar,), seven-day wailing period on all handgun purchases to allow for background chccks or those who wish lO buy gons and to penuit impulse purchasers to ~cool 01T.~ While lhe NRA predicwbly o pposed the Brad), bill-noting that it would 110t h aVl~ deterred Hind.Icy. who obt:lincd his fireann six months before Ihe assassination :lllempl-:I 1993 national survey re vcaled th:u85 pcrcelll o f respondentS f;1\'orcd such 3 seven-day \","diting peliod. In latc 1993. Congress p:l.Sst:d and Pn:sident Climo rl siglr ltl into law a modified version of the Brady bill which requires the buyer ofa handgllll to wait five days be fore t:lking pos.'!ession o f it . Gun c:ol1lrol ;t(kocau::s n l ~ WQI1 m:tior vicl, ries in New Jersey and Virginia in o 1993. Ncw.lcrsey upheld its ban on the purchase of assa ult weapons. while Virginia restricted hand g Ull purchases to one per munth a nd fluuuwc:d gun possession by minors (Ec kholm , 1993: N~w!il.I!t'k. \993). In Ihe aftennalh or the Los Angeles IiOlS or

passed by any other city in

(~lc Roberts and Kuo.k<l, 1992:

1992-wl1ich cruplt:"d afle r the ;\cqu iual of four White po lice otTicers c ha rged with the (videvtaped) bealing of suspect i{odllC"Y King---f.;,rtlll COlt11'01 ad\'oc,ltes ;-Ind oppuncnts found stit! another way of debating: this COlHl'oversial isslIl!. C.1lifonlll 3Y has a 15-<1 wa iting period for gun purchase\, whic h helped reduce impulse buying during the nots. However, after the dismrbances, in the first 11 days of May 1992, gUll sales in the St..1tC \,>,cre 511 pe rce nt higher tha.n in the same period in 1991. Supponcnl or b"'" cOlllrol a rgue lhat. h;ld such iUl-pulse pun:lmscs or gun ... occurred 011 a large scalr (/ Unllg the riots, many more peoplc ,,",ould hall' died. :-.JRA oflicials counter that ..... hil e fior, n stolr e thousands or weapons duling the r;oI.S. law-abidill~ c.itizens .....elc not able to buy guns 1.0 protect them selves (Ec kholm, 1992) . l1lts deb"te recaJls a control'ersy that crupted UI 1991. when the Chicagu Housing AlI c.Jtori ly began 1.0 enforce a 20year-old ruk forbidding tenants tu keep guns 011 lhe premises. T his action was lllken primarily bCGHL"C in 1990 ~llon(', 72 nlurders had occurred in the city's public housi ug projecb. While lhe l-I olL~ing Authoril),'s tenants. many'" them Africa n Amel;can. mpponed thi ... ban 00 g uns, thl' Natiunal Rilk Association did not. The NRA insisted that the Ilousing Amhol;ty was infrin ging on rhe Icnams' conSliltltionalligh t to bear anns and tha t this action would havc dispropor tiomHe and unfai r impact on the righlS of Blach livin g in public h o u s in ~ , CIitics urthe NRA Charged that the NRA's suddel1 COllcem ror' the right.s 111 Afl;c:m Americans wa.'; ratJlcr transpare nt and added that the ban on gUlls would disproportionately SIWf flit I;INS of Blacks (Prud'hollll'llC. 1991),

Collrorm!l) ,md deviance :IfC twO ways ill which people rcsl.IOnd to 1'1':1 1 rrcssures or 10 Imagined pressure~ from

others. I II this d13ptcr, wc c"uluine the rc\atiou~llirs br'-Iwcen confonllilY d~iancc . ilnd [llcchanisms of social . lonuol.
A .sociclY liSt'S social co/aru/to brinK abo\ll acceprance of ba~ic norms. 2 Sw.ulcy Milgr.un defined uHI/arm;ty itS goin)ol alrlllR with one's ].ICCJ"S, Wllt:r~L~ obedi f!nfl' is defined ,1.\ cum

pliancC' wilh higher aUlhoritie~ in a hierarchical stf'U( mrc. 3 Ex;\m p lc~ of iliforlnal SQcia l control include mikot, laughter. l'ai!ing of an eyebrow. :md ridic\Lle. "' Somc 'nomlS are considered so irnpurt.;11lI that Ill"" are fOf/nali/.cd 11110 la WI controlling peuple,. bcha\;1l1' 5 Sociali/.. 1tion is the prllllal) 1;(J1ITCC for dlCcling coofomli ng and obedicn1 bch:l\'ior, iuciuding obedience' ~1
law. 6 For fWlI.. ti(lllalist t.Ilcnrists. deviance helps to ueliur



III proper beha\ior.


7 TIlt' thl'OfY of dif/rre,,';ol assoc;ol;oll

that iJt.

/'.-1.11'1' 711"0 - (J/l(',ANI7 ,\'v .<;Qr" ItL un; J J

\'IoIn(~ rcsulb from cXpoiure 10 lIIU1udCll f;lI'omblc 10 (nlUlna] ;tCtA. I An imporunt a~pt:cl of 'a b~IiNg th r:ofJ i~ thl' n~nlf.: '"'M)" thal JOUle people an:: t"r:uoM as dC'li.1I1l \'Ihih: Ult.rl\ cngag('(1 in Ihc salllC bcha\10r arc nOl_ I 111e conflicl pcrllpecli\'c views 1 ;t\'l'1l :Ull! pun i~llIncnl.\ .. rrOtclmg Iht" intc l~u of ' he 1)('J\'!'erful lhe Uh:gOry of itldt'x crim f!s include" lII u1"(ler .-ape, w.tuh. and olher lU~riOUS uffc nSo.'s dm l peopll.' Ihi n k of 1Ihen Ihl') c)( p rcss cOlleen! abo u t ( rime. n W1IilH olla r crim fll h:we S4:.'l'iuus econ omic :m d tIONI ((bill 101 1nl' United SI~Ie5. I1 ilK: power of IlIe Nalional Riflc A.uocialion (1\'RA) 1w. bttn J major faclOr in prn-enLillg tilt. 1 ' J.1Sllagc of tlIl.II'~ gun control leg~ation


Cu ltu ral Ir al1smjuiol1 A o;chool of crimiTllllul(r which al)C\ll'S Ihat cl'imimll hch;wior i~ learned through SO<.'irll inlt'racLiom,. (184) Devia l1 Cf! Ikh:l\;or Ihal violalo. the u;tmli\rd, of conduct or ('1CI>CCI;l1iulIs of a group or society, ( 179) Diffl!rl!l1 lial auocia lio /l A UWOfVnf dl.,\ianc(' proposed b) Ed\\in SlItherl.lllt! "hich holds tha l l'iol.ation of nlll.'1 r('sult5 fwm t'XJl'fI'\UC to attit\l d e~ I;numble 10 Crlm iI mj :lCIS.

(HIoI )

1 WhJI 1Ut.'Ch,lIl isms form,, 1:lIId inforllla l ~ocial (011Uulllll' "idem in )ollr college ci:lSS('S aud ill rl.l~'-to-d:l) ,ooal intl'taClioll" al )'Qur 'Choolr 1 \\ll1ch .tpproach 10 de\;allce <in rou lind 111051 pertUaU\'C' lb;U fUl1cl iuna list.S, conflict t IW(lI;~t... , il1l(!r.u:....... or labeling Ihl'()risl~r \\,h) is Ih~ approolC h lIIor(' ('OIIMuting tI~1I Ihe OIhf'r thrC'l."? What an~ the main ~ ul each approac h ? J .\lI1J dilcussed in t.he ('hapler, I':llcS ofviolt'l1l nilllt.' Mmlkh higher in 11ll' United SI.U~ thall in \fc<;tl"m t:1I. ' (Mln,ula, Auslnl lia, Nc\\ Zealand, 01' j:11" 1II , O l'a \\ 0 11 _mny or th(' tilc :orie.\ discllss('(1 in Ihe d mpll'r .IS 1'05... I1I C'Xpliin why th~ Un ilc d Slalc~ i~ ( lIch .. COl11p,lr-.rh. "',km "'Xiety.




,...". TERMS ............ ___ ........................ _. __ .... _ J!!:.!... . _. ___


Illlrlht'lm 's (('fin fo r Ihe loss d il'l'ctioll fe lt ... ""urt\ ",hto sodal conlrol ur indwidu,11 he h ,l\illl ... t... .tmr IIIcrre\"th~, (paKC 11'12) "'Hry of d f'v itlll ce 1 tl U '01"\ d el'doped hr \ M"I'toll which l'x plains de\' iancc us :m ad,lpta. . ",hc'r (If lIOCially pft.~ribC'cI g<)als nr Ihe norm.~



(:Cillg along with OIlC ' ~ peeN, IIjrli\"1l l ual~ p"nfJn'. OWn M;III1S, wh.. 1l:I\C no ' 1loCcial right 10 rh~1 pt'non'~ bcha\ior, ( 176) C"rilllinal I.IW for wlllrh fonllal " \tnbtion . . . ., ..,," appliC'd by .ome go\'crllllll.'llt.1 ;uHhority. 1

:;::;~ their :&1I;linmcuL (182:)


Jo'ormfll social rQlltrol Social coml"ol c:ll'licd jJ111 b)' authoril.Cd agl! lIlS, such liS police oni(l:rs.judge., school ad min i~ lratUl"li. all t.! em p1o\l!r5, ( 178) IlI dl!x crim es 'n lc l'ig hl typt:~ 01 rri Ull' reponcd alllllla ll) b\ Ihe FBI in Ihe U"IIilM en"", &poru. n. csc itre murder, rape. robberv. assau lt, burgl:ll"}. lheh. mOlor Hhide theft , :lI\d :m'Oil . (190) biformal socia l cO lll rol Social con tru l Gm;t-U alii br peo p le GUlu;llIy I.hrough such U1c;m, .IS l;m81 11cr. ~nu1es, :md ridicule, (178) Labe/illg Ih tlory' An approach to clcvi:lI1 rc I>opu ta,.ucd by l-Io"";l1 d S. Bcckcr which allcl1lpLS to explai n why ceruin pcuple are VII'UItd as de\ianu while othen ellgaging in UIC llOInle behaYior are not. ( 187) La w In a poliLical SCII.\!:", Ihe body of rules made b)' go''c.nllncnt for 'Iodel\. intCrp1'('ICII b)' the coons, and backed h) Ihe powt'r of the statc. ( 1i9) Obr:di l!Nce C"'.ompllallcc \\;lh lughcr :l lI l horit.i~ ill :I hic",!"c h ical Slnl( lme, ( 176) Orgol1 i:r:d cri mt' T he ,,"'ark ofa grollp that regulal~ rC'lalions bclWI.'COII \'ariOIlS crimhl.ll en ll.'lvri~ imoln :d ill smuggling 1 Sille o f d rugs, pl"oslilUI IO n , h"Ullbliu g, l1ld :md o thl'1 activili e~ , ( 10 I) Praf euia flal crimill(JI A pcrson \\ ho p Ul'$III'" crime .. ~ a da)-lo-tl,w lloCcul);lIIo n , dC"\"CIoping skil1('(l t hniqu :111<1 c njtl) Hlg a cenain (Iegree of S(alU~ a mOllg Olh('r criminals. ( 190) Sal1tti"As I)cnahjel; and r(,wards fur conducl ..:nncemmM .. sod,l] norm. (I i6) Soc ial CUIl/rol '1U' lC1:h n iquc5 and su'lI ('git-~ fll r rcgu.. I;Hln~ human beh.l\;ur ill any 'oOCic!)" ( 176) Soci da/-r('(J ct itm ap proa ch Another 1].1111(' for labt-Iwg throry. (11'17 ) T echlliqllrs of 'lfw t r(lli~alit}1I JUSliFic~ljOIl.~ IClr del'la lH bch,l\'iur. (1 H6) Yi r: li1N itat iol1 su rveys Qucslionn"ir('~ 01 IIHe1"\'U'W!> lI~cd 10 determine wheulcr lK:ople h.lI"c hecl! l;cLims (lfcrinl(!, (197l Yi r ti lfl leu cr ilflu A t(!ml lI~l by . "ociol~ists IQ d ..... $Clilx- thl' willing I' xdlallgc .. mong adlllt.~ lIf " 'i<ld) tll"~i ....d , Inll illeg:l!. K'Klfls :!IId 5C1"\'icc-., (i1J:i) .' While-collar crim rr Crime.!! cOl1lmiucd hy ,1ml1CIIl in-


divid ua ls or corporntioll, In lhc course of lheir dai ly busim."SI; acth;ties. ( 192)

ADDITIONAL READINGS ................................................................. _ .................................... .

Barnk, Cregg (ed.). r.n_", Ill' Gnplfllm Sink: All ilil1'()dual/m 10 .SlIII, Cnmlllu"", Alb:Uly. Stale Unin~rsit} of New York l)reM, 1991. An examination of how gm'cmmellls imtlate or racilitate Cnlll1l:5, co\'cring such topia as dem l15 or Alxlligi lle5 in Au~ tntlia n prisons. re~pon.5C'5 to prbon riots, and indifference 10 CJ..llada's 5('"ual auault laWl!. Ca),lord, Mark S . and John F. Calliher. Till' Cnmmology of EsiWHI SulMrulIId. Rutgers. NJ .: TrduQction , 1987, An in tellcc\llal biogmph y or Sutherl:lIld wh ich placc5 the dC\'Clopmelll of differential ,"sodation Iheory into ia social context. I lirschi . Trn\i~ . :tIld Michael Coufrtclo\OI1 leds. ). TlI#! ~II ' tmltry tif0ro;allfl. RLIIgcrs, NJ.: Tl"'a n~ction , 1994. Thi! an th ulogy ad\'3nccs the al'p:ulIlclI t lhal rill forms of de-" jam and crimi!!al I>l'ha\;or shan' ill commOI1 the purSUil of IITIlncdiatc hl'lIcliu without conct'm for longtcnn COSts. Mi),;u:!wa, Setsuo. I'oI/nng 11/ }a(1(///' A Smdy IIn Cli1l1(. AJb<IIIY: Stale Uui\,cr.dIY(If New York PI'e5M. 1992. A profC'MOr oflaw iu ja]>.,u reo.ieloS the nation', legal ('II\'iroumelll :lI1d crimilla! justice s)'lItcm in a work 1.r.1Iulated hu o English, I'au:mosler, Raymonrl. Capillll P!4"IJhllKflt mnua. Nt:v.' " ork: UXillgtOIl . 199 1. A criminologist c:xam il\c..~ the ~i:d irnplic;ltiolu of replaring the death penalty Ioith life scl1lences wil holU parole and lIumdalofJ financial reslitution .


Sandt'l'lI. Clinton R. etUIWII:;"/{ 1111' Jhxly: 7'h, Art find Cui l/mofTlltlOOlllg. Philad dphi:t: Temple Un h'ersity Pr$. 1989. S:lndel'!l oITers a brief histmy or the practice 01 1:luooing and discusses his participan l observ,Hion 0( th~ who work as la llOOISIS. Schur, Edwiu M. Lnlxllllg Wo".,." iHlnan': C.mdw. SI/g-. ul/d Sona/ Conlrol. I' hil:ulclphia: Temple Unh'Cm'Y Press. 198;,. ;\ 11 u:ullillatiol1 of the criminal jll5tice ~ tt:m in iu broade!lt contcxt <15 it :lpplie1i to wtlllu:n. In cludt'S cO\'Crnge of .sexual haragmc.nt. 1"31)1:. ramily \1o lcllce, and lIIelllal iIInellS. Vachss, Alice. Sa Criml'.J. New York..: Kandom 1 1011$('. 1993A fQmu'r New York Cily prosecutor a..~ the 1001)' in which 5('X crilllcs-and C'sl)(:'cially rape-a rc handltd

by the

crilllinalju~licc !>~tem .

Weishllld, D:wid . SloInton Wheeler, [ Iin Waling. and Nancy Bodc. Cnmf;J oftll#! Midllk CIt/w.s: Whill"CoIlarOf [trUIf:fl/'lll!e l'N ltraICtmru. New H:I\'c n , Conn.:Y"lc Un" \'ersity I're~s, 199 1. An an:,lpis of t he II:uldling of ClISe'!I ur securi l it!~ fmud. antitrust "iolation. dud lax fraud. Wilroll. J alllc5 Q., and Richard .l He lIIstcin. Cri"li an4 /lu"'(ln N(lturt, New York: SimOIl ;1 Schustt'r, 1986. 11<1 A chal1enbting, con IJ'O\crsial.lp p Hl;lCh It) clim-= thato; amin('~ ole rdatiorls h ip law'3bicling belul\;ur lO int('l1igelltC', pl':'1 'lIOlIaltty. lmd ('\'CII body type.


Journals ... _................................................................................................Among the jouruals which focus Oil issue! or de~ia.J1ce crime, and 50Cial cOlltrol are Cri"., and Dtln~ (founded ill 1955) , C""'IIIQ/ogy (196 1). and J..awall4 Soom IVvirw {I 9(6).


PART nro

ORCA,VW,\ r. 'tOClA/ un"



... .... ..............



.. ... .J.N.~.QY!.\~J.I.Y... ...

of dC\-iance,
lJtljnquenCJ Loll! and

. ... . . . . . . . ................ . . . ........ .



. . . . . ~N.~.QY.Ab.~I.Y... . . ..
Part Three focuses on the structure ami processes of social inequalily. Chapter 8 examines che important sociological

concepts oJ stratification and Jociallllobilil)~ (u well as inequality based on social class, with special emphasis 011 llle United Slates. In Chapter 9, we consider stratification and mObility abroad and
give particulaT allrolion lo the iruqualit)' euidl!11l in the world's deuelcping 1i.alio1u. QUlpler 10 deals with inequality based 071 racial and tthnic background and focuses on prejudice and discrimination against minority groups. Chapter J J discusses iruqualily based on gender and fhe position DJ TAIOmen as an

oppressed majority. In Chapter 12, Jociologir.ol analysis of Ihe

aging /m>ctss is presented, and iluqualit)' based on age is examined.


'd Il, l, ,

;r ( (: 'JLL
!"It 1,~ S.s

.................... r;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;::;

=====::1.................... .


UNDERSTAN DING STRATtnCATION Systems of Slraliricatioll

C llSlt.'S

Povcn y 'I'll,. UlUlrrr/rtJS SIIIdyi1lg "(Jll/7ty

t:m::mpIO) IllCI I '

" ~mll$ :

SlI'lllific-,nion and Ufc

C h a nC(. ~

Soci.. J Classes
o n Str.lliriC-dlif)1I Karl Mao: 's View o f Class Differentiation M:u: Weber's View of Slr.uili<::uioll Is Stnuifi c;ui o ll Unil'c rs:lI?
FUIlCl iona li5l View

O ,>e n "CI1I US Closed Class S)'Slcrns T)1lCS of SOd.ll Mo bilit)'

BOXES 8- 1 Around the World: Slavery in the 199(b 8-2 SIx:aking Qut: Blaming the Victim

Col1 llin View

STRATIF ICATION BY SOCIAL CLASS Meas uring Social ClaM C'.ollscrlucllces o f Social Class in th e
Uni ted 51.11('5 Wealth :lIld Income


All anim.als are equaL

BIll some animals are more eqltal than others.
"""" Orox/J AnilMI Form. 194'

How arc societics organi1cd lO deny privileges to some membe rs while extending them tu others? How did K..lrI Mao: and Max Weber contribute 10 our understanding of social class? Can life be organized WitJlOUI stnlcltlred inequalil)'? How clo sociologists measu re social class? How is the ideology of ~ blaming the victill1~ uscd 10 minimize the problem... of povert), in the Un ited StaICS? How likely arc people in the United Stales either la move inlO or 10 rise OUl of poveny? Should there be major CUIS in welfare progr.tms in the Un ited Statcs?
1990, the Unitcd Nations began issuing a IhIT/an DmJf{o/lmenl '?Ff)ort as a mcans of assessing the quality o f life of peoplcs around the world . The 1993 report painted a blcak picture for Illllch of the world's population, including significmu segments of the population of the United Slales, In an especially sLJiking finding. macks and Hispanics in lhis counll}' appear to have a quality o f life comparable to I.he residen ts of many dt"\'cJoping countries in the Third World (Bcals. 1993). To assess the quality of life in a gi\'en COlllll!-y. the Numan DrtH!/.ofJmenl Report relics o n an index thal combines iudicators of real purchasing l}Owe r. ed-


ucalion , and health. In 1993, the United Slates ranked sixth-highest among the 173, nations studied. yel Whiles in the Uniled Stales enjoyed a quality of life higher than the people of top-ranked J apan. By CQntrolSl, the quality of lile fo r African Americans WtlS comparable to that inlhc Caribbean nations of Trinidad and Tobago. which ranked thirty-finn. while Hispanics' quality of life W.\S cornpamble to that in Estonia (which unlil reccl1l }'can was part of the Soviet Union). which milked thirt)~ fourth. The quality of life fO I' Blacks and Hispania \ slightly higher ll1an in Russia and Costa Rica blll was slightly lower than in Hungary and Uruguay. All around the world, the re are subSl3ntilll dir /crenccs in peoplc' s qUlIlity of life. By contrasting the extremcs .....c sec thilt residellts of the lowest mnked ",!lion o f Guinea. a foml er French colon) in Mrica milked 173, have" life expectancy at binh of 44 years. compared with nearly 79 years in 101). ranked Japan . In Guinea, only 24 percent of adults are literate, compared with 99 percent in Japan, and Guinea 's annual level of production per capita is one-tentJl that of Japan (United Nations Da't~ o pmcl1l Programme, 1993). Ever since people bcgall to speculate abOUl the nature of human socielY, their allention has been drawn to the differences that can be readily observed between in di\~duals and groups within am' society. The tenn social ;" equality describes a con dition ill which members of a society have differ e nt amounts of wealth, prestige, or power. All sod-

I'ANT 711HJJ-; SOCJM 1,\ 'EQ!.1AUI1'

cucs arc charactc l;zt:d by sume deg H!l' o f sodal 1IIl'qualit), Whl'f\ a S),stCIII of soc ial ineq ua lity is based on is hlCrMthy of groups, sociologbts refer 10 il :l.5.f /ru/ .(lra/ion::1 tW'ed I<l.Ilking of e nure groups of ]X'lIple thal perpetuates unequal economic re\...a rds ~l1d po\\'cr in :t socie ty, These unequal 1'(.'\\~ oU'(1s arc Miurnt 1101 only in the distribution of wealth and iUtfllnc, but also in the disl.ressi ng lift: ex peclancy d,tt,1 ill Cu in ea and o th er developing countries. IilfJlificalioll im'Olvcs the waY" in which '1oci:-. 1 inNlualitics are JXls.;cd on frOIll onc gen crmio n 10 the IkxI, lhereby producinggroups of people arl":'Ulged 10 r.lul.. order from low 10 h igh . '\If'Jlilicatio n i ~ o nc of the mosl impol"la lll and I..mpl~x sllbjcclli of sociological imcsligouion bc'<llIW 01 iL'I pcn'ilsivc influence 0 11 human interaclIQlI\ :md iUSli tutiOlls. Social inerl'mlity is an innit,I!)I..: result of stralilica ti on in tlt:'11 ce n.a ill gl'Oups of 1>I.'IIplc sland hig ht'r in sodal ranki ngs, contro l \C."3tl'l' resoun;cs, wield powt: r, a nd receive special tfl'Jlment. All wc will sce in lhis dmpll"r, t.he CO I1Sl't\Ut' IICCS of stralification a,'e evidclH in lhe IITlrqUJ.1 clisuibution o f wealth a nd income whhin indU\lnal socieucs. 11le term; IICQlllf! refers to sala ries lnn wages. By COnU<lSl, wf!ulth is a n incl u.Ioi\'(' term I'nfllmpassing all or ,I person '5 m ~ t e ri a l a'iSCIS, in flOOmg land and other Ilopes or pro perly. 01 course, each of us \\'aIllS a -f.. ir s hal'c~ o f sorll'i\'~ rewards. :md we o lle n com(' inl o conflicl ove r hU\\'lhc!!C rewards sh o llld be di\'iclccl . Fam ily rncmhl'I"\ ~1rgl.IC over who should be give n money to huy Ik"1I clmhing o r 1.1kc a \'acatio n; nations go 10 \\'":1 1' u\rr preciolls reSOlUCCS suc h as oil or minerals. As .. I'C!ouh, mologisls ha\"e dirccted their :llIcndon ltllhe Implications of Slr.u..ific3tio n in ra nking me m-


Il. l'h U

/1,1' qlW/IIJ olllf,.

/If Q


1-1 1I111:m J)c"d opuu:1l1 Rcpon - i" lulf'll fIIlmwfl)' by

(OIU/II)', Ih~


Uuitl'd N"fwm - r,III'.1 0 11 fill iml,:c "1111 rnmhi" PI ",t/mlfOll of rl'lll ImrrhrtSillg IlfIlt"". Illum/lo", ,11111 /lmllh . III 1993, Ilu' l'nlv-JI-ml,Af:f1

hr/l 01 a M>CiCl).
chapter will foclls on the unequal dislrihll\lUt! of socially v:tlucd rewa rd~ within human <i:od t'11t"\.1t begins with an examinatio n Or ro w ge ne ral <'.'ll'lI\~ ofslr.ttificatioll. Particu lar altcnliOl1 \\~ll be h'1\t'1l to Kad Mal")"s the ories or c1a1>s and 1 "'!:I.x 0 Wd"ICr',anaiysis Of lllc co mpOilc n l~ or sI l'alificalion. III .uldilioll, fu nctio nalist and co nOic l th eo rists ' cxplm.lIiolls for the ex islC~ n ce of slr.ttifiC;lIjon will he um'>iden:c:i a nd contl-a." led . 111t> second part of the chapter will explain huw uxiolugi'u mcasu re !locial chw. The COlISc(l" e n ces

"alii)/! III IPnt/J ol/Jl'OlJ/, j (1'lOllt, IJf lif, Cllinm, (I formn f 'rnu h rub"', ill

AJrim. IlLsuWlu rJj GIIIIIM hJ'f' (/ "11ff/("'CJ al birth of ,wry 44 lalll".


of str<llifi cati o n in terms of we:llth :tn d illcflme , 1 1eal,II, e dllca L ional npport llnil..ics, lInd Olllcr aspects o f life " 'ill be discussed . In lhe I.h ird pan of t.he chaple r , tlt e 1l10VCm e nl of illdi\'idual ~ up and dmm Ihe social lt ierarc hics of th e UllilCcI Sta tes \\111 be C)(;;lInillcd . Fiually. in the social poli(.."}, sec lion , wc will adrlrcs.~ Ihe contro\'CI"S"I' I)\'er the welfare system or lilt' Uniled Stales.

Of Wlt.1I 11 s rR.I IIFHX/"If),'" ,,"\'1) v )(,J.II \/(fflll rn

~.~.!.~.~~...~~ ..~.~~.~ .~~~.~~........... ...... ......................

Th is sec tion \.,.ill e xamine fou r gt::nc ral s)'St,e ms of SIl'aliJicalion-SYSlems of slavery. castes, eslales. and social clas.<;es. These should be viewed as ideallypcs lIscful for pu rposes of a nalysis. Any stratification system may include clements of more than one type. For exam ple. the southern stales of the United States had social classes dividing Whites as well as institutionalized e nslaveme nt of Blacks. Slavery The most CJ(trem e form of legali zed social inequality for individuals or groups is slavery. The distinguishing c haracteristic of this oppl'essivc system of stratificatio n h; that em;la\'cd inclivithmls a re owned by other people. l1'ese huma n bein gs are treated as property, just as if they w~rc equivaICIll to household peL~ or appliances. Slave l)' has varied ill the way it has been pr.:ICticed. In ancie nt Greece. the main source of sla\'es consisted of caplives of war and piracy. Although slavc status cOllld be inherited by sl1cceeding generations, it was not neces,<;a rity penmlnen t~ A person's su.uus might change depending 011 whic h c i ly~ Sla te happened 1.0 triumph in .1 military connict. In effect , all citize ns had the potc ntial or becomin g slaves or o r being granted rreedom. de pe nding on OI C circumsta nces or histOl),. By COrLlI,ISt, in the Uni ted Suites and L.llin Ame rica. racia.l and legal barriers were cstablishe r! to pre\'(~ nt the freeing o f slaves. As we will sce in Bas 8- 1, milli ons o f people around Ihe world conlinlU! to Ihx: as slaves_ Wh e never and wherever it has ex isted. slave ry has \'equircd extensive coercion in order to maintai n the p\ivi teges and re ....'ards o f slave O\,'ncrs. Fo r example. it is estimated th .u <IS many a.~ 9000 Blacks were invo lved in an 1822 slavc revolt in Charlcstoll . Sou th Carolina, led by a carpenter a nd former slave na med Denmark Vesey. Imagine the resources Llli11 must have been needed to cnlsh suc h a ma.ssive rt,'~ bellio n. TIlis is but onc rellenion of 1he commi tment. to social control required lO keep people u'3pped in Ii\'es of involuntary se lv itude (F I~J. t1.kli ll and Moss, 1988; Schaefer, 1993). Castes Cas tes arc he reditary systems of rank , usually relibriously dictated , that lelld 1 he rlXed and 0

immobile. The caste system is generally associated with Hin duism in Indi a and other cOllntries. In In dia there arc l'our major castes. cal led II(m/l'lS. A fi fth ca t.egory of Olllca<;tes, referred to as ul!toudltl. b{~, is consid ~red to be so lowly and unclean as to h,\\'e no place wiLll in lhis system of stra tification . There arc also many minor castes. Caste membership is established at bir th , since child ren alltomalicall)' assume U1C same positio n as Lll eir parenl.S. Each caste is < Iuite shaq)ly defined. and members arc expected lO marr), wi Lllin that caste. G..'lste me mbership gellcl'3l1y dt"tcrmin cs one '~ occupatio n 01' social roles. An exampl e o f a lower caste is th e Dons, whose main work is the undesi r able job o f cre mating bodies. The c.-.ste system pro. motes a re markable degree of differentiation. Thus. the single caste o f ch:llI m~urs has been spl it illlo twO se parate subcasles: drivers of luxu ry cars ha\'e a higher srarus LImB drivers of economy cars. In recent decades, industrialization a nd urban iza tion have w.ken their toll on India's rigid caste syste m. Many villagers have mo\'ed 10 urban a re~ where their 1 ...caslc Si.'1tlIS is unk.nown . Schools, 00 hospitals, factories, and public transportation fadl itate con i.'lCIS be t....cclI dirre re nt caSles that lI'en: previously a\'oided a t aJl COSl.S. In addition, there have been governme ntal e,rrorlS to refonn LIlt caSte syste m. [lI dia's constitution, adopted in 1950, inchides 11 provision a bolishingdisclim inatiOll lllltollc.ha bles, who had traditio nally been excluded from te mples, schools, and most fomlS of employme nt. Today, unto uchables consti tute about 15 per cent or Ind ia's population and arc eligible ror' cer lain reser\'ed governmental jobs. This situation has created resentment among people jusl above th( IIntouchables in the ca.~t C syste m and therefore deemed ineligible fo r these special j obs ( Economist,

199 1,22-23). Sociologis ts have also used the tenn mst#' to describe st.rJ.tificatiol1 s>>stems tha t e mph asize racial distinctions. l1te type or d ifferential lreatment given to White, ~Col ored ," Asian , and Black. IX'Ople in the Republic of SoULll Arrica. a nd to a lesser exle nt to rilcial groups in the United St.'lte! (sce Chal:" ler 10). bnn hrs to lIlind aspects of India'., c"st,e syStelll.
Eslates A third type of stra tification system, called es/n/es, was associated wit h feudal societies d uring


' -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _..;,;;.;..... '.....;;;OUND THE WORLD BO X . . AII


COrdillg w the 1948 Universal
or Human Rights.


legi~la tion

setting punish


which usul>pccdly binding Oil all


ment for sla\'!,: owners and 1IC\'cr inrormed 1ll0~1 of its l>opuiaLion that
slaver'}' had be(:om c il k1f.l.I. ConsequentJy, more than IOO.OOOofMau ritania's reside n ts of African descent are still beliewd 10 be Ihing as sla\'es. D;tda Ould Mbarek. a 25ye,u'-old Illan who li\'('5 on a date p lantation, declares: ~ I :U11 a 5Ia\'e, m y who le family arc sla\'es." When asked about tJte emancipation of Mauritania's sla\'('5, he !lays: "I nC'\l!r heard of it. And what's more, I dQlI't bcliC!\e it, Slaves [ree? Ne\'er here ~ (Maland, 1992:!l2) . The United States considers any person 3 sl;l\'e who is unable to withdr~lw his \)1' her lal>o r \,olunt;lfily from an clllplo)'er, Yet, in man y paris of tJn: ...'orld, wbond ed laborers~ <lfe imprisoned in virtual lifetime employment as they sLmgg1c to re l);l), smal l debts. As of 1991, India a lone had an estimated 5 mil lion bonded laborers working in road-building ganb'S, in quarries and brick""orks, on p lant.ations. and ill swealShops. III man y cases. bonded laborcrs endure beatings and lorture while rcpayingdcblS in curred by Iheir parenlS or o tlle t ancestors. Indeed, the Bonded Labor l.ilJt;ration Front has fou nd worke rs payi ng ofT debts that are eight ccnlut;cs o ld. Exploitation of children i~ often a n a!lpect of sla\'ery in tJlt' 1990:1, M in die case of the Indian rug wea\'crs desc ri bed earlier. O n th e Indian. Bangladesh; border, girls arc commonl)' sold at a n e((change ra tc of six cow~; these g irls may later

nll,'mbcn or the Uni ted Na tions: Ollt shall be held in slavery or ocn'itud~; &];i\l,: ry and the sla\"(" lrad~~h:all ~ prohibiu.. in a ll their "'d I()rm~" (Masial1d, 1992:30,32). Yel Rriwln's Anl.i-Sla\'cry l 111crnaUnnal. lhc world's o ldesl human nght; organi~.lItjon. CMimalCS that IOOI'f' than 100 million people .!fouod the world art' still enslaved.
It \J estimated that al leas! 31_1.000 (and perhaps J million)
~IiOtlren w1)rk a.~ nlg wea\'er~ in nnnhl!rn India . They \o\-ork 12 to 16

hc ...." " day. 7 d3ysa weck. 52 weeks

J \1'aI,

creating carpeLS sold in the Stal~ and other cOllnLrics. \I.tI11 orth~ children come rrom Rihar, India's mos t impove,;shed lU/t:, ,and are sold by their parcnl'i IUOll{ellti forthe loom owners at the Io(Ulng rAte of $50 to $66 for an ~evo()ld boy. A IO-)'car-old who ntapcod with three friends after 18 lIU'luthJ working in and confined to ~ red;ulobe hm recalls: ~No money ~ 1).1111 to nil,: . All day wc had l() "UI'/;, t'1~1I up unti l rni{lnighL We ""-'ff' nOI allOIl'Cd to rest during the (UI' If wc became slow, . , , wc were br;uC'n with stid~.~~ (Cargan, 1U't'b:A8). rh.. 1~lamic Republic of Mauriuntil. an Arnbic St;ltc in nortlmest Alna. is another country in which W\cl)' is all 100 c~lrnrnon. Although 'dauritania outlawed .sla ..... m upon achieving independence ifll960 and passed a similar mea 1lI~ tll 1!l80. the gm'Crnrne n t ne\'Cr

su rface a.~ child prostitutes in CaI cUlla or Bomrnly. In some pam of Asia, young femalc$ are abducted and Ihen sold at auctions rcmi n isC('nl of the southern Uni ted St;lICS dW'ing lhe pJanCllion em. While COlllcmpor.ny slaveI)' may be mosl obvious in lllird World co untries, ;t is a lso present in the indu.'llrialized naLions of tile \001:SL TIlI'Ollghoul Eurol>C, guesl workers and maids are employed by ~ma ten~ .... ho hold their passports, subjecl th em to dcgrddillg working: conditions. and th re;uen Ihl!1lI with deportaLion if they protest. Similar tactic.~ are IIsed to essential ly ;m plison you ng wome n from eastern Eurol>t who have: been brought (through deceptive promises) to work in lhe .-.ex industrics of Bel gium. r l'lmce, C".cnnany, CI'eecc:, the NClhe rhmds. and Swit.zerland . \Vi lhin the U nited States, ille immigranL~ a rc forced 10 tabor for yea ., under lerrible conditions 10 payoff dcblS as high as S~.OOO to the ~mugg: l en; who brought them imo Ihe counLl)'. In 1992, for ex ample, 300 MexiC'oln.s were found living in enslavcd co ndi tio ns o n a California rAnch; in mid I993. a decrepit freighter carrying nearly 300 iIlcg'.t1 immigranl.~ from China ran aground in New York City'S harbor. Eight of the imm igrants died , pri. marily from drowning.


Ero!oooou'. t9'.lO;a:



M.,I;,nd. 19'n ; s. Myen. 1991:/0.',." , .... To..,.,

1 (l!j2~ :

/'r;ngl", 199.' : Simo",. IW~: C. Tyl tr.


CJIM'n:.H It S1HA1'lI'ICdTlON "MU.Oc/M MaNum'

the Middle Ages. The estate system, or feudalism, req uired pcasanls 10 work land Icased 10 them by nobles in exchange for miliulry protection and olhc,:r sen:iccs. The basis for the system was Ihe nobles' ownership of land , which was critical 10 their supelior and privileged SlalU.S. As in systems based o n 513\'ety a nd caste, inhelitance of o nc's po.~ iti on largely defined the estate syste m. The nol)lcs inhe rited their til les and propeny, whereas the pca.~ ant!; we re bo rn into a ),llbscrviem position with in an agrarian society. As the system developed, it became more diOcrenliatcd. Nobles began to achieve varying d" ..... g rees of amhodty. By the t:wcJft.h celllury, a priesthood emerged in most. of Europe. as did classes of me tchant.s and artisans. For tJlf~ first lime, there were gro ups of people whose '\'calth did tlot depend on land ownership or agriculture. This economic change had profound saci:ll conseque nces as the eState system ended ami a class systcm ofSlrat~ ilicaliol"l came into ex istence. Social Classes A class sys tem is a soci;:ll ranking based primal;l}' on economic position in ,\rh ich achieved characteristics can influence mobility. In cont.rast to slavery. Glste, and eSUtle system s, the boundaries hctween classes arc less precisely de fined, and there is much greater movement from OtiC stratum, or level, orsociety to another. Yet clas~ systems maintain stahle str:.luJica r .ion hierarchies and paHCnlS of class divisions. Conseqltc nuy, like Lhc Ot her systems of stratification described thus rar, class systems arc marked by unequal distribution or I\'eahh a nd power. Income inequa lity is also a basic cha racterislic of a clas.o; S>'SlCtU . In 199\. the me dia.n fa mil y income in the Uni ted States was $35,939. In othe r words, haIr or all fa m ilies had higher incomes in tl1at year and half had lower incomes. Yet this fact mar not full), convey the income dispatitics in our society. In 199 1, about 6 1,000 tax retul"lls reported incomes in exces,., of5 \ million. At the same timc, some 4.6 million household5 reported incomes undcr $5000 (Burcau or the Censlls, 1993<1:340,459). Tablc 8- 1 a lTers a picture of t.he relat.ive number of people in the United States earning varioLts le\'cJs or income. Sociologist Daniel Rossides ( 1990:404-4 16) has co nceptualized Un: class system of the United States

T ,\KI.E K- l

r-or_ ......

31 .9 19.5 15.6 16.0 7.2 6. 1 3.6


$50,000 and over $35,000 to $49,999 $25,000 to $34,999 $15,000 to $24,999 $10,000 10 $1.:1,999 $ 5,000 10 $ 9,999 Under $5,000
"A MO:: B"' ...'" of !I'e

(,te""". t!l!l3.~:16.
fn 199 /, ha{{o/1I11fillllilir) ill /Ill' Uni/M SIf/fl!j romed 111.0,... Ilum $J5,9JY ill i/lramt'; IwlJ o[ (dl /lIlIIilie.f ta "IJI'l1 It'ss Ihrm Ihallft/lmwl.

using a fivt.'<lass model. While the lines separating sodal c1a!ises in h is model are not so sharp as lhe dil'isions bet~"ecn castes, he shov.'s tbm members of the live c1a!lSCS diner signifiCiUltJy in ways other than the ir leve ls of income, Abolt\ I to 3 percen1 of the people of lhe United S tales are categorized by Rossides as lIppcr-class." group lim ited LO the very wealthy. These peopk f0l111 intimate associations with o ne another in ell.elusive clubs and social cirdes. By contrast, !,he lowe r elass, consisting of approximately 20 pctcem of the populatio n. dis pro po nionatc1y consists or Blacks. I-iispanics, single mothers with depcndcnr children , and people who can not find regular\\'ork. This class lack.., both wealtl1 and income and is tOO weak politically to exercise Si&'llificam power. Bo th or these classes, a l opposite ends of lilt nation's sodal hierarchy, n: llect the itllpon.'lncc: of ascribed status, wh ic h is a social position "ass ign ed~ to a person without regard for tlli"'.. per son's unique c hal'actelistics or talents. (By contraSt ach ieved statll s is a socia l position attained by 3 person largely through his or hero\'m effort.) While privilege a nd deprivation arc no t b'1 mr.lt1teed in tht' United St.ates, lhose born imo exueme wealth (1t po\'cny will often remain in lbc same class position tlley inhe rited frOIll their parents. The nation's most amuent families generallyin hed t wealth and s1atus, while mllny mcmbet-s or racial and ethnic minurities inherit disadvantaged statllS. Age and gende r. as well . an: ascrihed SlatuS(!) that influence a person's wealth and social position.

I'AII" 1111111:. i;(JGJAI /SQUdIn

......dologi~t RkhardJcnki ns ( 199!) has researched bfl\\ the ascribed sta tlls of being disabled ma rgin Ah/("; a per501l in the 1"I>or nmrkcl of lhc United SutM. People with rli.s... bilities arc pa rticularly vulnt:'f3ble to unemployment. a re oflen poorly pa id . ,IIu1 in many cases arc on Ihe lower cnd or (}Cellp.lliunal Jaddcl'$. Reg-.mllcss of tjleir ac!Ual perfar1IlJ1l((' on the job. the disabled arc stigmaliled as nm -eami ng the ir kcc p .~ Such are th e clTecl.'; of
,~\(ribed sta llJ5,

lktweeu lhe uPf)cr a nd 10wI' classes in Rossidcs' Intwicl arc Ihe u pper middle class. the lower midtHe rlass. and the wOl'king class, The uPI)(: I' middle rI;t,,~. numberi ng about 10 percent or the popu laUIlIl, is composed of pl'Ofessionals sllch as doctors. IJI'.,cn, and arch i leCL~, T hey participate cX lcnsh'ely 111 pulilksand cxerd$C leadership roles in the types '11 mluntaty a.ssoci:tl ions descri bed ill Chapter 6. rhc lower middle cl:L'>S .....hiclt <lccoun L'i lor apprnximately 30 pcrcctll of the populat io n. includes k~, .l1nuenl proreo;sionals (such as e lcl1lt: llta ry 1'hool teachers and IlUrsCS). owners of small busiIll~. a.nd a Si1"1ble n umber of clerical workers. W 110l all mem bers of this \'1 tt'icd c1as.~ hold colhile Iq(t degreb. they !ihare the goal of sending their dllldrcn to imli tut io ns o f higher education. R~idC!i describes the working class-about '10 ~m' n t of the popula tion-as people holding reguur m,mUlll or blul.,<ollar jobs. Ccn... in members "I 111" class. ~lIch as clecuicians. may havc highrr iurnmc5 1 han I>copie in the lower midd le class. Yel . nt'n if the)' h;l\'e achic\'ed some degree of ceonnmic steurit),. they tClld 10 identify with nmlllml ",)rkt'1'lI and their lo ng hi5101 o r involvement ill ), tht labor moveme nt of the United Sl<Itcs, Of the rl\l' clJSSe$ idcnlified in Rossides' model. IJle workmKda.s.~ i~ 1I0tkeably declining in sile, In the eeonum)' ()f the Un ited St:ucs, sen'ice and tcchf lical jobs .111" rcp\a(ing positions il1\,oh'ed in the aClUal manIII~rluring or U'ansporllltion of goods. C'llS.S is seen by socio l ogis l.~ as <I kcy determ ina nt urpt<JI)lc's values, a ltitudes. a nd beha\'1or. Fo r ex JIIl jll~. studies have fou nd lha l working-class young prvple arc li kely to engage in ~xllal intercourse hrfnrt UIC age of 17. whereas mi dd le-class you ng jI{'Ople typicallywaillLl1til 19 <lnd become intimate "Ith ft'\\'er partners before marriage. TIleol'1sts slIgKi'~' lha t Ihe less slIccessful, Ics.'i satisfyi ng nlltltJ'C of lifr in tJ,e lower el<ls.'icl> e ncourages people to !'ieek

Achie\'W Sl::tlliS i.J 0 MJOoi /'Olrlio"


b)' /I JImiOlI largely throug" his her (mm iff0l1, TIu> 5wnlom 'rmdwd

", a poflu/ar llllma;"".. Sllrh lIS 'firltl T/jOlt'!'. is 0" f'Xompu of rl(:hi~1

e motional flllll llmCl1 1 th rough sex ual relatio nshi ps,

A I l he sam e ljme, lhe val ues of midd le- and upperclass fami lies discourage early sexual beha\'ior

(B. \ i illcr and Moore. 1990: 1030; Weinberg and Wi lliams. 19BO). Social class is onc o f the independent or explanatory variablcs mosl frcquen uy used by social scic\llisL~. T he chap ters to follow will <In:llrl.e the relations hips l)C l\"Ce n social cla...s and d ivorce palterns (Chapter 13), religious bchavior (Chapler 14), formal schooling (Chapter 16). and rcsidcltc~ and hOllsing (Cha pl e r 1R), as well as ot he r relationships in which social class i!'i a varia ble.

f'JIAI'11:.11 H ' \IRA I1~H::ATION A ,V SOIJM MOfIllJI1

.~~~p.~~~.!~~...?~..~.~~.~~~~.?~ . ........... _ . ..........

As sociologists have examined th e subject o f stratification a nd attempted to describe a nd e xplain social inequality, tlley have e ngaged in ht.-ated de bates a nd reached n lrying conclusio ns. No theorist stressed the signifi cance of class for socie ty- and for social change- mo l'c stmngly than ){ad Mane Marx viewed class diffe re ntia tion as til e c rucial detenllinant o f social. econo mic. and political ine quality_ Bycontr::lM, Ma..... We ber questio ned Ma ne's e mphasis o n the overriding impol1:mce of the econo mi c sector and argued tha t slr::lti lk alio n should be vie wed as a nHlltidimc lIsional pheno menon.
Karl Marx's View of Class Differentiation Sociologist leonard Bceghley ( 1978:1) aptly noted that M lfl Ma rx was both a rcvolutio nary and a social K,. scie ntisl." Marx was concerned with stratification in alllyp es of IHumm socie ti es. begi nn ing with primitive agri cultural trihes and continuing illl0 fe udalism. But his main focus was on th e e ficc L~ of class o n all aspt!cts of ninc tce nth-ccnulI), Eu rope. Mane foclL'i cd on the plight of the wo rking class a nd felt it imperduv(' to strive for c b 01 nges in tile class structurt'" of society. In Ma rx 's view. social rel auons du ri ng an y pe riod of hislor), depe nd 011 who controls the pl'illl,HY

mode of economic production . Hi.s analysis celltered o n how the relationships between \"arious groups were shaped by dilTe re nLial access to scarce resources. Thus, under IJ1e estate syste m, mo~t production was agricultural . and the land was owned by lhe nobili ty. Peasants had little c hoice but to wo rk accordin g to te rms dictated b}' th ose who own ed land . Using lhis type o f anal)osis. Man.: examined social rela tions "'i\J1in capilalis"t-an econo mic system in which the means o fp roducLion a re largely in privat e hands and th e main incentive fo r economic activity is the aCCU111ulatiOll of profits (D. RoseniJerg, 1991 ). Ma rx focused o n the two cia,sses that began to e me rge as tile cst:.IlC syste m declined- th e bourgeoisie and the pl"olclal;011. The b(wrgeoisie. or capitalist class. o\\'n~ the means of produc tio n , such as Iilcto ries and machinery. I",hile tht: proletariat is Ihe \"orking class. In capitalist socie ties. lhe bourgeois maximize profit ill competition with other tirms. In t.h e proceSs. th ey exploit workers. whu must e xchan ge th eir labo r for s ubs i ~ te l1 cc wages. In M"rx's vie ...... me l1lbe ~ of each class sh are a distinc tivc culture. He ""<L 1II0S1 interested in the culturt' 'I of Ihc proletariat. bu t 011.'10 examillcd lhe idealogt of the bourgeoisie, through which it j ustifies ilS cio minance ove r workers. According lO M.. rx, exploitation of th t: prol!'-

h, hi\


(Jf (lip/la/ism. Karl MIIn

(lll("l,(!i} tlw l I/~ OOll l)..'WJISit OWn.! I~

I/Il'11n.llJfJmxfIIC/W" . mrh 11J1afit1w1

and mll(hmery: (HId Ihlll whik alll:mpling to nmnmrJ! fm'fi', lilt

bolltKtou~ up/~u

U'orv I"I, u."'o ..IJI

r;I:(h m ,p;r! Ihrir u/bot- fqr ~lIbJiJ"/cI


I'MO' TI/RfJ, . '\()(;IAI 1...f.QUAI.JTY

lanat will int:vi!;lbl}' le ad to tlIe destruction uf the' capitalist systcm. But. fo r this la occUJ., lhe working rli1S:'i must firs t develop clu.fS co".~ci ousness--a subjective awareness held by me mbers of a ela.<;s regarding !.heir commo n vested interests a nd the need for collecti\'e political aCLio n to bl;ng abollt qw:j:d change. Workers Jllust orten overcome wha t \oox termed fals e consciou s n ess. or .Hl allitude held by mem bers ofa clao;s tha t does nOt accurat e ly rellect its ol:!jectivc positio n. A worker with conscio lJsness may ree l that h e o r she is be ing treatcd fa irly by the bo urgeoisie or ntay a dopt a lt inrii\idualistic viewpoint IQ\\-ard capitalist exploiration (. f <Int Ix: ing exploited by IlIy boss"). By CO I1 U':l~t, lhe cbl."S-Conscious worker realizes that all Ioor].:crs are being exploi ted by the bo urgeoi.~ i c and 1t.1vea cornmon stake in revo lutio n (VantLc man a nd (".1000 11 . 1987). For Karl Marx , dIe developmen t (JI' class con'IOuwsness is part ofa collective process whercby lhc prolC'lariat comes to ide mify the bourgeoisie as the \lllIftt of its o ppressio n. Through tht: gllidallce of n'1'Qlution:uy leaders, Lhe working c h~s will becom e flHlllllitted to class struggle. Ultimately. rh e proleIJti<1t will overUlrow the rule ofl be bo llrgc o i~ i c and Ih(' gO\cmrnclll (\"hich Marx saw i.\S re prese nting lh<- ir1tercsl~ of capitalisls) and will clirnin"tc prlIJIl" /)\\'llcrshi p of Ule mea ns o f productio n. In his Illllcr utopia n view, classes and oppression will (ca.~t: to exisl in tbe poslrcvolutionary worker.. '

lio lls, the Marxist apprOl.lch to the stud}' of class is useful ill stressin g the impal'tanc:c of l! U~tlifi cat i o n as a determinant o f social bchavior and the fundame nta'! separation in many societies between two distinct groups, the rich and the poor.
Max Weber's View or Stratlfication Unlike Karl Marx, Max Weber illsisted that liD $inglc eharae ledstic (such as class) tmally defines a person's posilio l1 \:ithin Lh e stmlificaliOll syste m . Inslead , writing in 1916, he identified th ree ,m;llytkally d istinct components or stratificatio n: elMS, sla nts. a nd power (Cenh and i\'lills, 1958). Weber used the te rnl c/assto refer to people who have a simi lar Icvel of wcalth and income. For ex ample. certain workers in the Ulliu:d Slates pro\'ide lhe sole financial support fo r their I:uni lies tllrollgh j ob~ which P;IY the I' minimum wage. According to We be r's ddinitioll, these wage earne rs constitute a das~ , because lhey have the samc econo mic positio n ,md fa te. In this conceplio n , Weber :l gn~c d with Marx regardin g lhe importance of th e cconomic dim e nsion o l' slrat ilication . Yel Webe r argued that the actions or individuals and groups could nOt be understood solei), in economic tcnns. ' Veber tlsed the l('rlll sta tlls group t.O refe r lO pea-. plc who 1 1<II'e the same prestige or lifestyle. independent o f I.hdr class positions. In his analysis, SUI tus is a cultura l dimension that im o h'es the nm king of groups in terms of U1C degn:c of prestige they possess. An ind ividual gai ns S I~t tllS through me mbersh ip in a desirable g roup, ~ lI ch as the medical pro fessio n . Webe r furuter suggestcd lhat status is subjectively determined by people's lifestyles and the re fore C;1ll di\'erge from econom ic class standing. In o ur culture, a slIcct.'ssful pickpocket ma), he ;n the same income class as a college professor. Yel the Ihie f is widely n:garded as a mcmber of a lowstatus group. whilc the prOfesso r holds high SLaIllS. For Weber, the third Ill,!jor compone nt of stratifi cation, power, renccls a political dime nsion. Po wer is the abili ty 10 exercise onc's "rill over othe rs. In the United St."ltes, power stems from me lllbership in pankularl), innuenual gt'Oups, such as c0'lmra t.e boards of direclors, governll1cm bodies. and intereSl groups. As I.,.e will c:xplol'c more fully in Chapter 15. canO ict th coris L~ gC l1cra llyagree tJlal two major sources of powe r- big business altd go\'e rnm ent-are closely interrelated.

Many of Man's predic uons regardin g t.he flllure ot C'.tpitaiism have nol been home O lll. Marx r."lilcd l4l ,mticipale the emergence or labo r un ions, whose ~)\\.'tr in collcclive barg<lining I\'eakc ns Ule slm llglrhl)ld that c<lpitalisLS tn;]in Lain over worke rs. Mllrt!OVCr, as contemporary conni cltileorisl!; note, hr did 110t foresee the exte nt to which the politica l h~rti ~ present in western dernocrade~ and lite rtl;JtiVI! prospe rity ac hie ved by the working and IIIld<,lle cla~ses could contribute to what hc called /tJ1", t'f)lw:ioll.$rll!Ss. Many people ha\'c comc to view ihrm'iCh cs as individua ls striving fo r improvemcll t WIthin ~ rrcc " ~ocic ll es with slIhstan Lia'! mo bili tytiullt'r Ihan as mc mbers o f social classes r.1cing a (011 ...,61'e linc. Finally, Marx did not prcdict U1<'I.1 {4mmunist pan}' mic lI'ould be established and Itrr 1)\'cnhl'Own ill the fann er Sovict Union and lhroughoul easte rn Europc. Despi te these lim it:.!-

(" llolYlr:1I S - IIO/AT/T'lOI1'lON ,IN()s()(JIoI. M OH/Un J

1/1 /\lax Wel.ll'rl' al/a/ysi.l, st.:ltus if 11 nlllll rnl d",m/JIOrl that Hrllt!lvn r(wklllg grrmPJ 1/1 '""t~ of Ih,. tltgm t/ prutlgt: tll9 /XI!i.~. The lII('mbm fI{ Pmidf'lll/liII Clilllo,,'J cam /II'I. IhlJUlH MI'I'. art !l1UfIl~I/O'r(lbfJ I1 higlH/(lIW grollp 1/1 ollr MJr/f'tJ'

In Weber's dew, then . each ofw; has 11 01 onc rank in sociclY bu t th ree. A person's position in (I 'ilral' ification s}'litem n; neclS some combinat i(m orhis or her class. Statlls, and fX"wer. Each ractor innllencc~ the ot.her IWO, and in fact the rankings on lhc~e three dim e nsions tend 10 coi ncide. T hus, John F. Ke nncd) ca me rro m an extrcme lY wea lthy famil }'. :'l Ilcnded exclusivt" preparatory schools. graduated irorn Harvard Univt'rsity, and we nt on t.o bt!comc presidt> of the United Stales. Like Ke nnc dy, man)' llI people rrom alnucllI b<lckgnmncls :lchicI'c imprc.... sivc Sla l.\lS a nd powe r. At tJ1C same time , lhese dime nsions o r slratifica lion ma)' operate sorncwhal independe ntly in de lennining <I person's position. A ll'idcly published l)O('t mayachiC\'e high s talU!. while.> earning :t rela Ih'el)' modest income. Successful professional ath ICICS havc little power. bill e njoy:t rela livcly high position ill terms of class and SWIllS. In o rder to lIll' ders lhe workings or a cuhure 11100'C flllly. so.. cio l ogi s L~ m ust carerully cvalmHC Ule wa)'S in which it disu;bmcs iL~ most valued rc\\o-ards. incllldin g wea lth and in come. SI<llUS, and power (Dubtnnan. 1976::-\5-40: Cenh and Mills. 1958: 180- 195).

.~.~ ..~9:.~.~n~.~.~~.~~...V~.y.~~~J? ....................................... .

Is il necessary Illal some mem\)('11j ofsocic t)' recei\'C: greale r reWArds th.m o thers? C'lll social life be Qr ganizcd without HOIclllred in equality? Do people

need to led soci<llly and economi cally supe rior!() olhers? Th ese queslions havc been dcbated by SI)cia} theorists (and h)' the ":t\'cragcr woman and man) rO I' ce nllu;cs. Suc h issues of stratification have also been of dee p conce rn 10 po litical activists. Utopian mcialis/.'i, rc:ligiolls min o ritics, and members of recen t counterculturcs have <Ill <lllempted to es mbli ~ h communities which. ID some extent Of Olher. wou ld aho lish inequality in social relationships. Social scientific research has reveale d th<ll inequal ity exists in all societies-even thc silllplesl or culturcs. Fo r exarnplt:. when ;trltilrofX"logisl Gunnar LandLman ( I !)fiR. original e dition 1938) studied m e Kiwai P apU<lI'I'I of New Guinea. he initiall) noticed lil,-Ie din'e re nti<llio n :among them. Eloe...} man in the villagc IlClfo nned the same II'ork and lived ill similar ho using. Huwever, 1I1 )Q1l closer inspection . L..'llldUlHlIl ohscl"I'cd lh<ll certain PapuanSo--the me n who were \"'3rriors, hal'j>oonctl. and SOl'ccreI'S-\I'CI'C described as "a link mor!,' highWthan others. l\y contrdSt, vill<lgers who were ft!malc. unemployed . o r unmarried wen' consid e red "down a little bi t ~ and were oon-ed rrom owning I<lnd. Stratific<l lioll is universal in that all societit"l mailll"in some form of difTc rellli<llion among membcl"S. Depending 0 11 itS loalues. a society mal assign people to diSlinc Live ranks based o n thei r rtligious knowledge. skill in h un ting, bcaul), lradin~

l'INTnIHEE o 'j()CJM 1...~_ QI'''lJn

txpertic, or abilit), to pro\"idc hcalth care. BUI wh), h,,-~ ~L1ch ineqlmlit), dC\'c loped ill hUlllan sociClit.'s? How much diffCI'Cllliation among people. it' an)'. is artll:allyessential? FUl1ctionali~t ilnd connic t sociologists offc r conUibting explanations for the existe nce and ncccuf social slJ"'dtifiattion. Functiona lists l1Iail1l;til1 ,hit! 1\ differc ntial system of re ..... trds and punishmctus i.~ necessary for the efficient ope ration of sorirly. Conflict theorists mgue that com peti tion 1 1' 0 >C;lrre resources res ults in signiricil lll political. ccooomk, and social inequalit),.


Funelionalisl View Wou ld peo ple go t,o school for tnanyycars to become physicians ifthcy could mala : .1\ much money and gain as much respcct .....orking ~Slrcet cleaners? FUllctionali. !! Ie pl)' in the neWtu mc, which is panl)' wh)' they bclic'c that :1 Slrollifi('(l K>Cicty is In the \iew of Kinb"Nlcy Davis and Wilbert Moore t1915), society must distribute ils members among ~ ,.triCty of social positions. It lIIust not only make 'Ufl.' tlmlthesc positions ;\re fille d but also scc lhat IlIt'\ are staffed b) pcople with the appmpda tc taltl1lll and abilities. Thus, rewards, including mo ne)' and prcstige, arc based on U1C imporl:lIlcc of a po~llion and the reiaL1\'e scarcity of q ualified pCrlion111'1. YC I this assessment often dC\'3lues work pe rlumll,!d by ccrmin segments of society, such as

women's work .ts home makers o r in occupations lrolditionaJl)' lilled by women. D:.wis and Moolc arg ue umt st.r;.ltificalioll is uni\'crsal :md that social inequality is neccssary so tlml people will be motivated to fil l fun ctionally im portatH positio ns. Onc c ritique or\his runctionalist explanation of stratilica tio n holds that unequal rewards :Ire not the on ly me ans of e nco uraging people to fill critic:11 posi tions :md occu pations. Persona l pleas ure. illtrinsic salisf<-lc tion. a nd value orie ntalions motivate people to enter particular careers. Functionalists 'a gree but 1I01e that society nltlSt use Jome typ(' of rC\\'<lnls to moti"tlc people to enter t 0 1 dange ro us jobs. as we ll a~ job~ that require:t long trainin g pe riod. I-Io ..... c\er. this response does notjllslify slr.ltification syste ms such as 5111'e o r caste societies ill which stOllllS is IlIrgely inhcdted . Simi lady, it is difficult to explain the high salades our .~oci cl}' orre l~ to pl'Ofessional athletes o r entertainers o n the basis of importa nce of th ese jobs to the surviv-dl o f society (R. Collins. 1975: Ke rbo. 199 1: 129- 134; Tumin , 1953, 1985: 16-17). E\'t~ 1I ir st.ratiricOl tion is ine,itable. the functiona list exp lanlltion fo r diflcrclllial rewards does nOI exp lain the wide displlrity between the rich and the poor. Cdtics o r the functionalist apploach point Ollt that the richest 10 pe rcent of ho useholds account for 21 percent of the natio n 's income in S'.'edcn,

FUllrliOlw{iJls mpu /filii rf!loorti,.. ,',u/,uJj,jg man..,' IIl1d p".stigr, (I"




fI'Ial"" scomty 01 qualifil'd pmontuf. / 11 l/IIe 1111" 1 l,jn/!. ltigM, Jltilfuf 11;$ r.mpl"JW 111 tl" 011 wdll.nry (S Urll fir

impo"allCf! olll /lWiliOIl Ilfld 1nl'

IhfJt woritm Jhow n /lu lling oul 1lI'l fi rer in Kllwait) gnlf'rnlf)' I'ff'.il~ gmmlUJ
rom~IU11tilm .


25 percent ill the Uni ted Stales. and :l2 percenl ill S\\~tl.crl'Hld. In their view, the level of income in~ eq uaJity fo und in con te m porary indusu;,I! societies can no! be defended-even tho ugh these socie ties have :t legiti mate need 1.0 rill cerlain key occllpa~ tio ns (World Bank, 1992:277). Co nniel View As was noted in ChapLCr 1, lhe intellectual tntdilion al the heart of con fl ict thear)' begins ptindpally wi th the wriljngs o f 1(.....1 Man{' Marx viewed history as a continuo us struggle between the oppressors and the oppressed which would ultimately c ulminate in an egalitatian, classless wdety. In tenns ofsLratification, he argued that the dominant class under alpimlism-lhe bo ll r~ gcoisie--ma nipul:ued the economic and political systems in order la maintain comrol o\'er the exploi tcd prolc lariltt. Mao: did no t believe that stratificmlon was, but he did set! inequality and oppression as inherent in capi ut listll (E. Wright Cl al.. 1982). conllict theori s L~ bclic\'c that human bcillb'S arc prone to conflict ovcr slIch scltrce resourc(,s as wcalth, sta tus, :lI1d po\\cr. J-I owevcr, whcre Mar" focused primarily on clas." conflicl, more rc..'Ccnt theorists have exte nded this anillysis to include COllniCts based on gcnder. race, age, and other dimensions. Sociologist R.,lfDahrcndorf. fo rmerly presiden t of the respected LOlldon Schoo l of E',CQIlOm;C5 i1nd nQw al Oxford LTnivlrs;IY. is one

of the most influential contributors to tlle conflict appmach. Dahrendorf ( 1959) has <l1b'lJcd tJ1:I1 while Marx'! analysis of capitalist socie ty was basically correct, it must be modified iJ it is to be a pplit.-d to mbdmt capitalist socie ties. Fo r Da hrc ndorf. social classes arc groups of people who sha re common interests resulting fro m alHi10rity relationships. In identifying the 1II0st powerful groups in soc ;e t)', he includes not on ly th e bourgeoisie- th e owners of the means of production-but also ule managers of indusuy, Icgiskllors. t.he judiciary. heads of the government bureaucracy. and others. In onc respecl. DaJlI'endorf has merged Marx 's e mph asis 0 11 class conflict with Weber's recognition tha t power is an impor tant ele ment of stratification (CulT and Payn!', 1979,8 1-84). Con fli ct tJleorislS. including Dah re ndorf, con tend that the powerful of today, lik.e the bourgeois of Marx's time. wanl socie ty to run smoothly so that they can e njoy their privil eged pos itions. The sla lUS 'lIlO is ~atisf;l cto l)' to !.hose with wealth, StatUS, and puwer. thus, they have a dcltr inte rest in PI'(' vcnt ing, minimizing. o r controlling socic ta l conflict. One means th rough which the powerful mainlain the quo is delinillg and disscmjnauDR the socic ty's dominant ideology. In Chapter 3, wc noted lhat the lenn domilwtlt ideology is used to descl'ibc II set of cu ltural beliefs lIlI(l practices that help 10 mailHain po\\'crful social, eco nom ic, and

CoJJjlirt IhtQmtJ contend lhal t~ f1ou-'"ful of loday. lifv IM bollrgruis,.

t\far.c$ li""" wallt

sldJ 10 nm

S1rUJOlhly $0 that th" am DIJfTJ tM, fniviltgM positions.

l'A.Rl111RJol' SQCIA.I I.WQ.UMfl'l

IKllitical iIllCreM.1>. In Kill' ] Marx 's vit-w, " capiwli.'t \(lCiety has a dom inant ideoloK) which ~c,,cs the HllcrcsLS of the ntling r 1.L<;S. From :1 conllict per,pt"Clht':. the ~x:ial sign ificance of th e dominanl idttllogy is lI\ilt a sociel) 's most powclful b'1'o llps .md institutions nQt o n Iv ("omro l \\cahh a nd p ro~ ,. ,eve . ' 11 ort:tnt., the ' COl1trol\ll': IlI Cil fl~ '0011 " ' Hefs abollt n':.lit thrall 1 re 1 '0 11 , t llcauo the medi.t (Abe rc ro mbie et :11.. , 1990; R. Robert.,on, ). The powe d itl, such as leaders of go\'ellll1lcrH , "l<'() use tim;tL'd social "c fo rms 1(1 buy olT lhe op.. prn'ICd and reducc Ihe danger of c hallenges to Ihdrdomin;mcc. For example. min imum \\-dgC laws ;and ul1employ,nent com lX! nsatiol1 Itnq ucslio nably 11'\'(' some vrll llable assist;U1 cL' 10 need y men :1nd \'oU1Uen . Yel these !'e[orllls may p~ cify Iho.'W whu 1"'l(ht otherwise become disgnllll lcd a nd rebel11'1Il~ Of course. in the view o f conniCl theorists, , ud l rnaneuvcrs can n('vcr c limi mnc crmlli cl, since Milkers will cOl11inue lO dC lIliln d cq uality and the fIO\\'C:rful will nOI give up Iheir control of sucielY, Conflict IhCOrislS 'iCe 51ratification ~ s a 1Il;U0I' ,!!lUrec of socictalten~inn :llld co nllict. They do 11 0t JftTN' with Davis and Muore Ihat stratific:ttion i ~ Innctional far a society or Ihat it selVes as a source (01 ~tJ bilit)'. it<uher, conflict 'iOC.ialogisLS argue Iha t matilicauan will incvitably lead to instability and 1.0 M.lrial change (R. Col\ins, 1975:62: L. Cospr.

.........................9 ................................................................................... .

Measurilllr Social Class

\\t now relllrn 10 lhe qllc~ tjo n pOs<:d ea rlier-" is

11r:llificalion 1II1ivcrsa l ?~- and co nside l- the socioIt,)(u response. Some lorm of d HfI~re ntjau{)n is ::a.1 Inund in every culturc. including Ihe advanced indu"rial sncicucs of OU t' time, Sociologist Cerhard I J n~k i,Jr. ( 1966; Lcnski ttul., 199 1) Imssuggested Ih:u as a society advances in te.nns of tec ilno loh,),. it t.-comes capable of producing a conside rable SUt'pill' of goods-more Ihan e nough lu attrac l mCIIIkl" to \'alu(:d occupa tio ns. The allocation of thesl' 11Irplus goods and scrvicc!>--co nl l"Oll cd by rh use ~Hjl wealth, SWi llS, and powcr- rCiJ1forces Iht: sunil] inequality which .tccompanies Slrm n sys-Itnt... While I.his reward syste m llIay o nce h:1ve III'I)"('d Lhe overall purposes of sneil'IY, ;'IS function .. ~t., (Ontend, the samc cannot lx.' said for prese nt dl'PMities sepamling the ~ h an~s" of current soci .. I1tt"t from the ;,have-naL',"

In c\"cl)'day life. people in the Uniled Sl;tt(.'S Me continually j udgi ng relativc a mOl tllls o f wealth ,tnd in come by :1ss(ssing the cars pcopk drive. ,ll(' nc ighburho4xls in which th('y live. tJ,e clothing they 'Iy wcar, a nd sa forlh . Yet it is not "'l e:L 10 localt' :tn individua l \\'ilhin o ur social hiernrchics as it would bc ill c;,stc or estate !o1's te lllll of slnllilicatioll . whcrL' plflc('ment is determined by religious dogma Ill' It'gal docume nts. In OI'dcl' to d ClC nnine someonc's class position, snciologisLS gcnerally rely on lIw ohiect.ive method. The objective method of' measlIring soc ial das~ d~ws class largely as a st."l ti ~tica l (." .tlcgor)'. Il1dividua l'! a re assigned 10 saci.,1 c\;:ISseS o n the hasis of (fiteri.. ~ tlch a ~ occupatio n, e duca tio n, in come. and rl'side llce. Th e key lO the o~jeCl i\"c method is that Ule rt""'(lrr/IfT, mtller than the pe rson being c1:L\sifi ed , make'! a cle le rmin:1lio n aboul an individual's clas!i posilion . T he first SLCP in using Ihis method is to decide what indicators 01" G!.lIsa l faClo rs \\'il1 be Illeasured objecl ively. whelher WC(lllh. income, cducation , or nccupation , The pre'Rige mnking or occupatio ns h;L~ proved t.o be a use ful indicalor in dClenniuing a pcrsons positi on. T he le I'm prestige rerl' r~ IU Ihe res pecl and admiration with wh ich an occu .. pation is regarded by soCielY. "M y d(lughl c r, II ll' M physicisl has a very diffcrcnt con nat<lIion front hmy daug hter, l.h e waitress." Pre stige is indepe nden l of" Ihe paruclJlar in d ividual who occupies ajoh, a char:ICleristic whie-h djstingu ishcs it fro m estee m, Estum refers 10 the reput..;ltio n that a specific per.. ~o n has within an occupation, The rcfore, o ne C;ln say liulI the posi tion of presid e nt o f the Unit ed 510llCS has high presdge. eve n though it has been occu pied by people wi th varyi ng dcg,e(.'S of eSleelll. Table 8-2 on page 220 illustralc~ Ih e results 0 1 a n clTon to a~sign prestige to a number of well-known occupa6ons. in a seriL'S of national StHYc}"s from 1972 lO 1991, sociolob";sLS d mwing o n earlier sun'ey responses a,<;signed preslige ranking'! ID about occupalions. ""'Ig ing from physician tojanilor. The highest pos.sible prcstigt score "~..IS 100. the lowc:o.t was O. As the data indicate. physid;tn and college p rofessor were " lI1o ng I.hf' most hig h I)' l"Cbrardecl oc



...... of


Physician College professor Oe1'!lht

86 78 74

Poinler and :IC1,Ilptor

Electrician Funeral director

49 49 49

Airline pilot Clergy
High school teacher Athlete



70 69

Polic. officer
Insurance agent



Pfekindergorten teacher Registered nUfM


65 64 6' 61

Book tellflf

Auto mechanic

43 40 40

Elementary school teocher

Accountant Ubtorion

"')l'l<U: Naka<> and T r" .... I!l'JoOa, l!l9Ob:

58 57 54 53 53
"l... , NO ItC.

80kM 8IJs driver Soles clerk

Hunter and

29 23

Waiter and woilren Garbagll collector Janitor

{" 11


17 16

/l aliO/ml M l nlry (Otuliutl!l./

cupatio ns. Sociologists have used such d ata to assign prestige rankings to vinua lly aJljobs :md have fo und a srability in rankings fro m 1925 1 199 1. Sim0 ila r studies in othe r cQunuies have a lso dc\'eJo(>ed usdul prestige ran kings or occupations (H odge and Rossi. 1964; Lin and Xie, 1988; NORC. 1993: T rciman , 1977). Socio logislS havc become inc re asingly a W-MC that studies o f social class te nd to neglect the occupatio ns and incomes of women as determinants of socia l ra nk. In an e xhaustive s tudy of 589 occupations, sociologists Powers and J oan Holmberg ( 1978) examined the imp'let o f wo me n's participation in the paid labor fo rce o n occupatio nal SlaLUS. Since wo m e n le nd 10 do mina te the relatively lowpaying occupatio ns, such as bookkeepers and secrct31 'ics, their participatio n ill the wo rk force leads to a ge ne ral upgra ding o f th e St:lIllS of m ost maledo minated occupations. The o bjective meth od o f measurin g social class h ,L~ traditio nally focused o n the occupation and educa tio n of th e husband in measuring the class positio n of t\\'o-income famili es. With mo re than half of all married wo me n 11 0\~ wo rking o utside the ho me (sce Chapte r 11 ), this re presents a serious o missio n. Furthenno re, h o\~ is class o r sta LUs 10 be judged ill dual-career fa milies-by the occllJxttio n

{989, Qffll/}{III()/U 'U1f"f/' nll/knl ;1I1Mo of Im'.sligr., Th, IIIgllI'.l1 /}()jsibil! scorr
lL'fU lOO, IJ,~

ImlJOt 0. SQ/I/(' of till


results m' prl!$"lud

reg"dI"dcd as having greate r p restige. the .werage, or some o the r combinatio n of the two occupations? Research in the area of wo me n and social cb$.\ is jll ~ t beginning, because until recen tly few socio~ ogists had ra ised sllch methodological q uc stioll~ O nc study ro und lha t ove r ul e last 20 yea rs married me n havc typi cally used iJH! il' own occupations Ut ddine the ir class positions-whe the r 01' not thell WiV(!ll wo rked o Ulsidc the ho me , By comrast, theft has been a noticeable c ha nge in how married wome n deline the ir class positio ns. Whereas in lhf 1970s married wome n tended 1,0 a ttach mOR' weig ht to the ir husbands' occu pnlio ns tha n lO their OWII in definin g the ir class pos itio ns. by th e 198(lJ th ey began to a ttach equill weig ht to thei r own occu pati ons and th ose of th eir husbands (N. O:\\U: and Robinson , 1988). Sociologists-and, in particular, fe min ist sociolobri.s L~ in Creal Briwn-arc d .-awing 0 11 ne'" a~ proac hes in asscssingwomc n's socia l class standing O nc approach is to focus o n the individual (ralhcr tha n the family or ho useho ld ) ;:tS the bas is of C'd tf. gorizing a wom an 's class positio n , T hus, a womaD

PANT TlIRF~- SOClAJ. /j\'t""QUMfn

\ItOuld be classificd based 0 11 her own occupational \bIUli r.uhc r tha n that of he r spouse. Still ;ano thc r ;approach i! to use ajoj", classificatio n o f a cOllplc's d:us standing. drawing on bOlh pannef'li' occupa UQIU (rathe r tha n tha t o f the "head of the ho usehold, often the ma n). T hese a p p ro ac hes have been helpful in examin ing ule arca o r wome n and KlCial cb..u. but a! yet the re is not wide agreeme nt among ~ch en about which approach 10 use (O Do n nrU, I992:124-126). Afh'allces in statistical methods a nd compute r Ift:hnology have also muhiplied the factors used 10 dtfine class under the ol~ ec th'c method . No longer art MlCiologisUl limited to ,ulIlual income and edu unoo in evaluating a pcl~ n 's cla..,,-'i positio n. T " da\ , studies are published which use as cri lt~ ri a the 1 11ur of homes. sources of income, l.LS.'iCIS, )'ca rs in ~ot occupat ions, ndgh borhoods, a nd cons id tt'.,ions regal'c1ing dual ca reers. While th e addition of the~ v.u'iOlbles wil1 not necesslIrily lead to <l difrerem picture of class di fl'crclHialion in Lhe United SWC'\, it does allow sociologists to measure class in ;a mor~ complex and m ul tidime nsional way, \\'I.1I.C\'er the techn ique uS(.'<i 10 measure class, Ibt KICIologlsl is ime reslcd in real and o ft e n d l7lmtic dilTerences in po.....el', privi lege, .. nd opponu

nily in a socie ty. The ~ tu d cati on is a study of inequality, NO\,'he re is this more e\'ide m tha n in the distributio n o f wealth and income,

Consequences of Social Class in the United States

WeaJ th and Income By all measu res. incolllC' in th e Uni u..'tl StalC5 is distributed ' 1IlC\'e ll ~r, Nohel pri7.e-win ni ng ono mist Pa ul S,," mebon h ,LS described the situation in the followin g ....OIds: M wc made lr an income pyr,u n id out of a ch ild 's blocks, with each layer po rtrd),ing 500 o