1 Energy Changes in Chemical Reaction | Chemical Reactions | Hydrogen

Thermochemistry

Energy Changes in Chemical Reaction Definition:
Thermochemistry is the study of changes in heat energy which take place during chemical reaction Poem;

EXOTHERMIC

Heat energy, we shall later study Is involved in reactions of thermochemistry, P.K. Heat is being absorbed or
A chemical reaction that GIVES OUT/ RELEASES heat to the surroundings

ENDOTHERMIC A chemical reaction that ABSORBS heat from the surroundings Very important Bond breaking REQUIRES energy Bond formation RELEASES energy
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2 . So that you will be able to draw the Energy Level Diagram.EXOTHERMIC REACTION Energy Profile Diagram Energy Energy Requires < Energy Releases Z Energy requires during bond breaking Energy releases during bond formation Y X Reactants Activation Energy ∆ H = –ve Products Reaction path Study the diagram carefully. What is activation energy? Activation energy is the energy barrier that must be overcome by the colliding particles of the reactants in order for reaction to occur / to become the products ∆ H = The change in the amount of heat in a chemical reaction is called the heat of reaction.

.Then. .So. during the reaction temperature of the mixture inreases.The total energy of product is lower than the total energy of reactant. . Energy Level Diagram for Exothermic Reaction Energy Reactants ∆ H = – (negative) Products ∆ H = Hproducts – Hreactants ∆ H = –ve Simply mean like this. excess heat energy is released to the surroundings.Bond breaking requires less energy than bond formation.What we can say about exothermic reaction? The conclusion is. heat changes] [negative] 3 . Project Complete Loss Saving = = = = rm100 000 rm150 000 rm50 000 less rm50 000 [energy requires] [energy releases] [∆ H. the energy released to form the bond is higher / greater than the energy absorbed to break the bonds. .Thus. .

.So. heat energy is absorbed from the surroundings. .Thus. What we can say about endothermic reaction? The conclusion is . the energy released to form the bond is lower / less than the energy absorbed to break the bonds.Bond breaking requires more energy than bond formation. during the reaction temperature of the mixture decreases.ENDOTHERMIC REACTION Energy Profile Diagram Energy Energy Required > Energy Released Energy releases during bond formation R Energy requires during bond breaking Reactants Q P Products ∆ H = +ve Activation Energy Reaction path Study the diagram carefully. .The total energy of product is higher than the total energy of reactant. 4 . .Then.

acid and metal [Tip: better to memorize endothermic reaction. Project Complete Profit Saving = = = = rm100 000 [energy requires] rm50 000 [energy releases] rm50 000 [energy heat changes] up to rm50 000 [positive] Example of exothermic reaction Most of the chemical reaction is exothermic such as .combustion .neutralization . because not many reaction is endothermic] 5 .Energy Level Diagram for Endothermic Reaction Energy Products ∆ H = + (positive) Reactants ∆ H = Hproduct – Hreactants ∆ H = +ve Simply mean like this.

6 . Thermal decomposition ZnCO3 (s) → ZnO (s) + CO2 (g) 2Mg(NO3)2 (s) → 2MgO (s) + 4NO2 (g) + O2 (g) 4. Salt dissociation NH4Cl (s) <==> CaCO3 (s) <==> NH4+ (aq) + Cl. Salt crystallization CuSO4.(aq) CaO (s) + CO2 (g) 5. HCl(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) HCl(aq) + KHCO3(aq) → KCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) 6. photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 7. Salt dissolves in water NH4Cl (s) → NH4+ (aq) + Cl.(aq) KNO3 (s) → K+ (aq) + NO3.(aq) 2. evaporation and boiling.5H2O (s) → Cu2+ (aq) + SO42. Reaction between acid with sodium hydrogen carbonate and potassium hydrogen carbonate. process of melting.Example of endothermic reaction 1.(aq) + 5H2O (l) 3.

construct and explain energy level diagram for the reaction. Exercises Based from the following equations. 467 kJ of heat is released/produced.467 kJ MgSO4 + H2 Explanation: The reaction is an exothermic reaction Temperature of mixture is increases Total energy of 1 mole Mg and 1 mole H2SO4 is higher than 1 mole of MgSO4 and 1 mole H2 by 467 kJ When 1 mole Mg reacts with 1 mole H2SO4 to form 1 mole of MgSO4 and 1 mole H2 . (1) CaCO3  CaO + CO2 ∆ H = + 178 kJ (2) 2H2 + O2  2H2O ∆ H = – 572 kJ (3) Zn + CuSO4  ZnSO4 + Cu ∆ H = – 190 kJ (4) H2 + I2  2HI ∆ H = + 53 kJ 7 .Example 1: Mg + H2SO4  Energy level diagram Energy MgSO4 + H2 ∆ H = –467 kJ Mg + H2SO4 ∆ H = .

1.Effective Practice pg 148 no. 2. Energy 2Hg + O2 ∆ H = + 182 2HgO Explanation: The reaction is an endothermic reaction Temperature of mixture is decreases Total energy of 2 mole HgO is lower than 2 mole of Hg and 1 mole O2 by 182 kJ When 2 mole HgO decompose to form 2 mole of Hg and 1 mole O2. 182 kJ of heat is absorbed Kamal Ariffin Bin Saaim SMKDBL http://www.kemhawk.com/ 8 . 3 & 4 Example 2: 2HgO  2Hg + O2 ∆ H = +182 kJ Energy level diagram.webs.

A (Y – X) kJ mol-1 B X kJ mol-1 C (X – Y) kJ mol-1 D Y kJ mol-1 25 The reaction between nitrogen and oxygen can be represented by the following equation: N2 (g) + O2(g) → 2NO(g) ∆H = +181 kJ Which of the following energy level diagrams represent the above reaction? A Energy N2 (g) + O2(g) ∆H = +181 kJ B Energy ∆H = +181 kJ 2NO(g) 2NO(g) N2 (g) + O2(g) C Energy 2NO(g) ∆H = +181 kJ D Energy N2 (g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) ∆H = +181 kJ N2 (g) + O2(g) 9 . Energy Y kJ mol-1 Reactants X kJ mol-1 Products Based on the above energy profile diagram.example The diagram shows an energy profile diagram.. the amount of activation energy is.

0 gcm-3.. Initial temperature of hydrochloric acid Initial temperature of sodium hydroxide solution Highest temperature of the mixture of product = 28oC = 28oC = 41oC a) Why was a polystyrene cup used in this experiment? ………………………………………………………………………………….0 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid DIAGRAM 6 The following data was obtained. [1 mark] (b) Given that the specific heat capacity of the solution is 4. (i) Calculate the change of heat in the experiment.0 mol dm-3 Sodium hydroxide solution Polystyrene cup 100 cm3of 2.6 A pupil carried out an experiment to determine the value of heat of neutralization. Thermometer 100 cm3of 2. Diagram 6 shows the set up of the apparatus used in the experiment. (ii) Calculate the heat of displacement in the experiment.2 Jg-1oC-1 and the density of the solution is 1. [3 marks] 10 .

... [1 mark] (e) The pupil repeats the experiment by replacing hydrochloric acid with ethanoic acid...................... [2 marks] (d) Based on the experiment....... [1 mark] (ii) Explain why? ………………………………………………………………………............ (i) Predict the value of the heat of neutralisation? …………………………………………………………………….. ..........................(c) Draw the energy level diagram for the reaction................... ………………………………………………………………………....... what is meant by the heat of neutralisation? …………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………..... ........... [2 marks] 11 .......... All the other conditions remain unchanged................................

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