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OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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O & M MANUAL

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OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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O & M MANUAL For INCINERATOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY BOILER


PROJECT :
INCINERATOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY BOILER, FOR IOCL, PANIPAT REFINERY.

W.O.Nr. CLIENT

: :

W 818
M/S CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGIES INDIA PVT LTD, PLOT B 40, WAGLE INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, THANE WEST, 400604

ORDER NO.

Cal / Ind / T060590 / 07 Rev1 Date : 01.09.2009

ISSUE NR. :

18.01.2011

THERMAL SYSTEMS (HYDERABAD) PVT. LTD., PLOT NO. 1, APUROOPA TOWNSHIP, JEEDIMETLA, HYDERABAD 500 055, INDIA.

Tel. Nr. Fax Nr. Email

: : :

0091 40 23091801 0091 40 23097433 info@thermalindia.com


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.1.0 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 6.1.5 7.0 7.1 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 8.0 8.1 9.0 9.1 9.2 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.4.1 10.5 10.5.1 10.5.2 INTRODUCTION / BOILER DESCRIPTION BOILER CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS PERSONAL SAFETY HYDROSTATIC TESTING HOT ALKALINE FLUSH INITIAL START UP REFERACTORY DRY OUT PROCEDURE WATER SIDE CLEANING - ALKALI BOIL OUT FILLING THE SYSTEM CHEMICALS USED FOR BOIL OUT BOIL-OUT OPERATION SUPERHEATERS FEED WATER SYSTEM SAMPLE TESTING SAMPLING & TESTING PROCEDURE FOR TAKING SAMPLES HP / LP DOSING & CALCULATIONS BOILER BLOWDOWN NORMAL START-UP NORMAL START-UP BOILER RESTART FROM WARM BOXING UP THE BOILER RE-START PLANNED SHUT DOWN SHORT TERM SHUT DOWN LONG TERM SHUT DOWN PRESERVATION METHOD DRY STORAGE WET STORAGE GENERAL MAINTAINANCE AND INSTRUCTIONS SHUT DOWN INSPECTION & MAINTAINANCE PREPERATION FOR INSPECTION

PAGE NO.
5-10 11-15 16-17 18-20 21-22 23 24-27 28-29 30 31 32-35 36 37 38-39 38-39 40 42-44 44 45 46-49 50 51-52 52 53 54 55 56 56 56-58 59 59 60

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10.5.3 10.5.4 10.5.5 11.0 12.0 a. b. c.

INSPECTION OF INTERNAL SURFACES AND PARTS INSPECTION OF EXTERNAL SURFACES AND PARTS INOPERATION INSPECTION AND MAINTAINANCE TROUBLE SHOOTING LIST OF REFERENCE DRAWINGS P&ID FOR INCINERATOR W H BOILER P & ID FOR SAMPLE COOLER PRESSURE PART ARGT. OF WHB 6698 26 FI PR 2002 / 003 TAG Nr. 26 E 108 d. PRESSURE PART ARGT. OF WHB 6698 26 FI PR 2002 / 003 TAG Nr. 26 E 108

60-63 63-66 67-68 69-71

W818-01-06-001 Rev.2 W818-01-06-002 Rev.1

W818 -01-03-001 Rev.2

W818 -01-03-002 Rev.D

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BOILER DESCRIPTION

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1.0

Introduction / Boiler Description:

The boiler can be best-described system wise. For understanding the boiler, the General arrangement drawings, Pressure part arrangement drawing, Piping & instrumentation drawings shall be referred along with this write up. The Hot Flue Gases from incinerator system enters the waste heat recovery boiler (WHRB) where in the heat is recovered before letting in to the stack. The boiler has single pass configuration in which the gas passes through screen tubes, Super heater and Evaporators and is let in to the stack. The Incinerator WHB Stack system is based on forced draft. Waste heat recovery boiler (WHRB) recovers heat from the exhaust gases of incinerator and produces 21 tons/ hr. of steam at a pressure of 40 kg/cm2 g and super heated Temperature of 390 OC which is used to run the turbine in power plant. Hot gases from incinerator is available at 860 OC & the heat is transferred to the circulating water by the heating surfaces. All the heating surfaces are connected to the steam drum by down comer and riser pipes. The separation of saturated steam takes place in steam drum at a pressure of 42.5 kg/cm2.g. The saturated steam then further heated to a temperature of 390 OC by passing through Super heaters & integral spray nozzle de -superheats to obtain the required temperature of superheated steam as export steam. Boiler feed water is fed into the steam drum through feed water control station at a Temperature of 125 OC & pressure of 47 kg/cm2.g. The boiler feed water is also used as Spray water for controlling the final steam temperature by integral spray nozzle de-super heater. The waste heat boiler is provided with the necessary instruments and controls to ensure safe operation of boiler system. All controls & indications are implemented in the DCS system. All the necessary field instruments as per scope are supplied by TSPL.

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For controlling boiler water quality, TSP solution is injected to boiler drum to correct pH, TDS & conductivity.

The Main boiler (26-E-108)


The boiler is of single pass configuration. The radiant screen shield, made up of six rows of OD 38.1 x 5.6 WT mm tubes, is provided as the first heat-absorbing surface. This protects the downstream super heater from exposure to radiation from the refractory lined duct. The refractory in the gas inlet and outlet channels is a composite layer of 150 mm thick & 75 mm thick ( 50% alumina)castable lining & 60 mm thick lining at the SH bottom .The boiler system mainly consists of the following equipments: a) Waste heat exchanger screen & Evaporators 1 & 2 b) Waste heat exchanger steam drum c) Steam super heater and integral spray nozzle de-super heater. Gases entering at 860 OC are cooled down to approx. 350 OC.

Super Heaters
A single stage Super heater is provided as the next heating surface. The cross parallel flow arrangement of super heater coils provides more consistent tube metal temperatures, and avoids high temperature extremes. This arrangement of Super heater surface, coupled with de-super heater ensures a constant steam outlet temperature. The Super heater tubes are oriented vertically, with the flue gases flowing horizontally over them. The Super heater Inlet and outlet headers are located outside the flue gas path, at the top and supported on the enclosure water wall top headers the super heater enclosure is made up of welded membrane water wall panels, which are integral to the

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steam generation circuit. External buck stays are provided to withstand the flue gas pressure

The Super heater coil assemblies are arranged with a integral spray nozzle type de-super heater in between for main steam temperature control. The super heater tubes are of alloy steel construction. The equipment is totally drainable through drain valves.

Evaporator:
Evaporators 1 & 2 are located in the downstream of the super heater section. This heating surface is made up of OD 38.1x 5.6 WT mm & SA 210-A1 tubes. The evaporative heating surface is housed inside a welded membrane water wall enclosure, also part of the evaporator circuit. The roof of the evaporator section is made up of headers with membranes welded between them. The bottom headers are fed with water from the lower drum by means of feeder tubes. The steam water mixture from each row is collected at the upper drum, which is connected by welding to the water wall enclosure top headers. The steam water mixture from the water wall top headers is connected to the upper drum & to steam drum by means of risers. The equipment is totally drainable through drain valves.

Steam Drum
A Single external ID 1400 x 32 WT x 6000 long (weld-weld) steam drum is provided for the boiler system. It provides water storage, adequate to allow switching over from one feed water pump to the other. The drum is provided with connection for: Feed water Continuous blow down Pressure gauges Level gauges and level transmitters Water column with alarm probes Safety valves Vents
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Drain Chemical Feed Distribution pipes are provided for feed water, continuous blow down and chemical feed.

Boiler valves and fittings


All necessary valves, gauges, pressure, temperature, level and flow elements and transmitters are provided within the battery limits. All the valves shall have either buttweld or socket weld ends, except safety and control valves, which are flanged.

De-super heater
To provide a constant final superheat temperature of 390 C spray type desuperheater is provided. Feed water is used as the cooling medium. If the superheater absorbs more heat than is reqed, spray water shall cool the steam at the exit of the super heater coil, maintaining a constant final steam outlet temperature. Spray water is sprayed into the steam through a spray type desuperheater. The de-super heater is mounted in the steam piping at the super heaters outlet.

Main steam line


The superheated steam is drawn from the super heater and is carried to consumer side through the main steam line. Before the main steam stop outlet the startup vent valve, pressure gauge, pressure transmitters, safety valve are arranged. A steam flow orifice meter along with transmitter is provided in the steam line for measurement of steam flow and for three-element drum level control.

Blow down system:


The dissolved solids from feed water keep concentrating in the boiler evaporative circuit, as the steam leaving the drum is pure. Hence the boiler water TDS is monitored and the continuous blow down valve is set at some opening to ensure that boiler water TDS does not increase beyond recommended boiler water specifications. The boiler water blow down rate may be based on alkalinity or TDS or silica depending on the feed water nature
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at the plant location. The HP dosing facilitates sludge formation of residual solids, which is easily blown down through the continuous blow down valve. The continuous blow down water from steam drum is sent to blow down tank. (Customers scope)

The blow down tank has an arrangement to stock some quantity of cold water. This cold water is displaced to the drain by the amount of water blown through CBD & IBD valve. IBD is provided from the lower drum which is connected with the down comers from the Steam drum. A self-actuated temperature controller should be provided for controlling the drain water temperature. The flash steam provided at the blow down tank is let out to atmosphere through the vent pipe provided at the top of the blow down tank. Four no. of sample points have been provided for collecting samples from the Following Lines: 1. Feed water line 2. Boiler water line 3. Saturated steam line 4. Super heated steam line

Sample cooler system


Sample coolers are provided for sampling the feed water, boiler water, saturated steam, and superheated steam. The samples are to be taken at prescribed intervals, preferably once in every shift and the recommended feed water and boiler water quality shall be maintained by addition of chemicals and blow down. Cooling water for sample cooler is supplied by client through their cooling water circuit.

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BOILER CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS

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2.0

BOILER CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS

Design Data Steam Generation rate Normal Operating Pressure (at MSSV) Boiler Design Pressure Drum Safety valve 1 set Pr Drum Safety valve 2 set Pr Main Steam Line Safety set Pr : : : : : : 21229 Kg/Hr 40 kg/cm2 g 47.3kg/cm2 g 47.3kg/cm2 g 46.3 kg/cm2 g 43.5 kg/cm2 g

Heating Surface Area Water wall Casing Screens Super Heater Evaporator Total Heating Surface Area : : : : : 89 M2 29 80 M2 M2

2100 M2 2298 M2

Water Holding Capacity (Gross)

21900 Lts.

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MOC AND DESIGN & LIMIT OF METAL TEMPERATURE


DESIGN / LIMIT PART NAME SIZE MATERIAL SPECIFICATION OF METAL TEMPERATURE,
O

F
O

282 C / 454 C

SCREEN

TUBES

OD 38.1 x 5.6 WT

SA 210 A1

TUBES -HEATINGS

OD 38.1 x 4.88 WT OD 219.1 x 12.7 WT --

SA 213 T11 SA 106 Gr.B & SA 335 P11 SA 234- WP11, CL.-2 SA 234WP11,CL-2 SA 387 11,CL-2

462 C / 648 C 282 C / 451 C / 648


O O O

SUPER HEATERS

I/L & O/L HEADERS

HEADER CAP

451

C / 648 C

BUTT FITTINGS

--

451

C / 648 C

WEAR PLATES

-OD 38.1 x 5.6 WT OD 38.1 x 5.6 WT 12.7 H X 1.2 WT,158 FPM

NA

TUBES HEATING EVAPORAT ORS

SA 210 Gr. A1

282 C / 454 C

TUBES- CASING

SA 210 Gr. A1

282 C / 454 C

FINS

IS 513 gr.EDD

282 C / 454 C

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MOC AND DESIGN & LIMIT OF METAL TEMPERATURE


DESIGN & LIMIT PART NAME SIZE MATERIAL SPECIFICATION OF METAL TEMPERATURE,
O

SHELL, DISHED END, FABRICATED NOZZLES, WEAR PLATES, PAD PLATES. MH COVER FORGED FLANGES, SW FITTINGS,STUBS NOZZL NNOZZLE NOZZLES & PIPES FOR SPARGES BW FITTINGS STEAM DRUM BOLTS / STUDS & NUTS INTERNAL BOLTS / STUDS & NUTS EXTERNAL DEMISTER PAD CLOSING FOR DEMISTER PAD , SUPPORTS FOR INTERNALS, SADDLES, TEST COVERS
IS 2062 gr.A/B SA 105 SA 106 gr. B HFS 282 C / 454 C
O O

SA 516 gr. 60

282 C / 454 C

282 C / 454 C

SA 234 gr. WPB

282 C / 454 C

SS 304 SA 193-B7 / SA 194 2H SS 304

GASKETS PIPES FOR DOWNCOM RISERS DOWNCOMERS ERS & RISERS

OD 168.3 X 7.1 WT OD 168.3 X 7.1 WT

SS 316, SPWD, SA 106 gr.B 282 C / 454 C


O

SA 106 gr.B

282 C / 454 C

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BW FITTINGS SW FITTINGS

SA 234 gr.WPB

282 C / 454 C

SA 105

282 C / 454 C

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PERSONNEL SAFETY

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3.0

Personnel Safety

Operating instructions usually deal primarily with the protection of equipment. Rules and devices for personnel protection are also essential. The dos and donts listed here are based on actual operating experience, and point out some personnel safety problems. A) When viewing flames or furnace conditions, always wear tinted goggles or a tinted shield to protect the eyes from harmful light rays. B) Do not stand directly in front of open ports or doors, especially when they are being opened. Furnace pulsations caused by firing conditions, or tube failure can blow hot furnace gases out of open doors. C) Do not use open-ended pipes for rodding observation ports on furnace walls. Hot gases can be discharged through the open-ended pipe directly onto its handler. The pipe can also become excessively hot . D) Never enter a vessel, especially a boiler drum, until all steam and water valves, including drum and blow down valves, have been closed and locked/tagged. It is possible for steam and hot water to back up through drain and blow down piping, especially when more than one boiler or vessel is connected to the same drain or blow down tank. E) Do not enter a confined space until it has cooled, purged of combustible and dangerous gases, and properly ventilated with precautions taken to keep the entrance open. Station a man at the entrance, notify a responsible person, or run an extension cord through the entrance. F) Use low-voltage extension cords, or cords with properly connected grounds. Bulbs on extension cords and flashlights should be explosion-proof. G) Never open or enter rotating equipment until it has come to a complete stop and its circuit breaker is locked open. Some types of rotating equipment can be set into motion with very little force. This type should be locked with brake or other suitable device to prevent rotation. H) For handling Boiler chemicals, the person should use personal protective equipments like Hand gloves, safety goggles or face shields, aprons gum boots etc.

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HYDROSTATIC TESTING

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4.0

Hydrostatic Testing Procedure:

Upon completing the field erection of the boiler, the unit must be hydrostatically tested to one-and-one half times (1.5 times) the design pressure (47.3 kg/cm2.g), to ensure the water and steam tightness and integrity of all components, including shop and field wields, that makes up the unit. Test pressure for this unit is 71 kg/cm2.g at ambient temp. The water to be used in the test must be of the Dematerialized Water. However, if only non-boiler quality water is available, then it must be treated with oxygen scavengers prior to testing. The water should also be heated to approximately 25 o C (77oF). Introducing cold water to the unit can form condensation on the outside of the tubes, making it very difficult to identify leaks. On new units drum and super heater safety valves should be removed and the connections are closed with blind flanges. In any subsequent hydrostatic tests, the safety valves can be gagged in place. When first introducing water to the unit, all drum, super heater, evaporator and vents should be left open until water issues from the vent, to ensure the pressure parts are being purged of air. After water appears at the various vents, they should be closed, after which the hydrostatic test pump is connected, and the unit pressurized to 1.5 times the design pressure. This pressure should be held for 30 minutes and a complete inspection of the unit be made. The pressure should then be dropped to normal design pressure and a complete inspection of the unit made , If any leaks appear, the unit must be depressurized, drained and repairs made. Once the repair is made, the unit must once again be hydrostatically tested to verify adequacy of repair. Once the unit has been proven sound, the water should be drained and a fresh fill prepared. At this time the blind flanges should be removed and the safety valves to be mounted. Depending on the time frame between the hydrostatic test and boil-out, the unit may have to be stored in either wet or dry storage.

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If the boil-out follows immediately, the unit should be filled such that 25mm of water is visible in the steam drum level gauge glass, and boil-out chemicals added. In the event that the time between hydrostatic test and boil-out is two weeks to a month, the unit should be stored in wet storage. This means again treating the water with oxygen scavengers, filling the whole boiler with DM water, and maintaining the hydrazine level at200 ppm. If the time frame is longer than a month, the unit should be stored in dry storage. In this case, all water must be drained from remaining moisture.

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HOT ALKALINE FLUSH

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5.0

Hot Alkaline Flush:

After the hydrostatic test but prior to the boil-out, the feed water / condensate system should be subjected to a hot alkaline flush to prevent contaminants from fouling the boiler surfaces. Corrosion products from the condensate / feed water systems can be carried to the boiler where they deposit on the heating surfaces. The insulating effect of a corrosion deposit can lead to tube overheating and failure. Removal of contaminants has advantages other than minimizing failures. Cleaning may also reveal stress areas and cracks resulting from fatigue, embrittlement or corrosion. Pre-Operational contaminants include mill scale; weld scale, corrosion products, oil, grease, dust and dirt, protective coatings, and other contaminants remaining after fabrication and construction. With the use of high-pressure hoses, a closed loop should be made of the feed water / condensate system. Items such as the feed water pumps, recirculating pumps, deaerator and condenser should be bypassed. In conjunction with the flush, such equipment as the condenser, hot well, and deaerator storage tank should be hand cleaned.

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INITIAL START UP

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6.1.0

REFRACTORY DRY OUT PROCEDURE

Scope:
The refractory dry out is part of the commissioning activities if the boiler is lined with refractory. After completion of the refractory work it must be properly cured and subjected to gradual dry out process. In the absence of proper drying out process, cracks occur on the refractory surface.

Proper attention should be given during initial heating up of castables, as they have considerably lower permeability when compared to brick. It is more difficult for the water to pass through the castables and escape as the refractory is heated more rapidly. due to this, high-pressure steam is developed inside and this ruptures the lining. Rapid heating also causes the hot face to dry and heat up while the rest of castables are still comparatively cool. This will lead to expansion of hot face and hence develops a crack on cold face. So

Curing:
All refractory & insulating castables are hydraulic setting type and need the presence of moisture for setting process, so it is necessary to ensure that the castables do not dry out to exposure to ambient conditions or due to heat produced within the mass. It should not be allowed to dry during first 24 hours after it has been placed.

Preparation for refractory dry out:


Before programming for the refractory dry out procedure, the following have to be ensured.

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3.1

Boiler erection should have been completed with all assemblies, valves, fittings and necessary instrumentation.

3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Boiler auxiliaries such as fans, Pumps should have been trial taken. The water level gauge at steam drum should be made ready for regular operation. Supply of adequate fuel and de-mineralised water prior to starting the operation. It is preferable to mass flush the major pipelines before commencing the operation. Refractory & Insulation work should be completed. All scaffolding, temporary supports, debris arising out of refractory work (such as bricks, slag wool, stubs, wire mesh) should be cleared off.

3.7

Provision should be made for permanent lighting facilities at all operating floor levels.

3.8

Availability of adequate trained personnel shall be ensured. Since the drum level will be on manual control adequate lighting shall be provided at steam drum. Personnel shall be planned for manning the drum level manually.

3.9

Suitable fire fighting equipment (such as CO2 or foam type fire extinguishers, sand buckets etc) shall be made available at suitable convenient locations and persons working in the area shall be conversant with their usage.

3.10

The drum internal shall be dismantled if wire mesh or corrugated plates have been fitted and which are likely to accumulate deposits.

3.11

All spring supports shall be loaded and temporary locking arrangements if any, are to be removed.

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3.12 3.13

Boiler expansion guides shall be in place. Boiler expansion movement pointers should have been erected.

Refractory dry out procedure:


4.1 The boiler shall be filled with treated water. The drum air vent / main steam line air vent / Main Steam line drain shall be kept open. During the course of slow firing, the steam pressure in the boiler steam drum will increase. When the drum pressure reaches 2-kg/cm 2 g, the drum vent shall be closed. 4.2 At first stage, the firing is done very slowly. The refractory is heated to 100 - 105 deg C only. At this temperature the refractory is to be soaked for 48 hrs. This permits the gradual release of water from the castable refractory. Basically the longer duration is recommended here as the castable refractory done at various places attain the temperature very gradually. 4.3 Further, the rate of rise of temperature should not exceed 50C/hr up to a temperature level of 500C, soak the castable for 6 - 8 hours and later, rate of rise in temperature may be increased at a rate of 100C/hr, till temperature is reached to min. design temperature i.e., + 970 oC. The heating from 500 deg C onwards can be done when the burner is put into operation. 4.4 After soaking the refractory at this temperature for min. 4 hours, cooling to be started at the rate of 50 deg.C per hour by gradual reduction of fuel till we achieve 250 deg.C, & then switch off the burner and allow it for natural cooling. Once refractory is cooled, it should be inspected for any cracks etc. NOTE: The above procedure is to be used when no additional information from the refractory manufacturer is available. If the refractory manufacturer has different dry-out procedures that of listed above, then the refractory manufacturers dry-out procedure is to be followed.

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Refractory dry out would take 72 hours approximately. The boiler water shall be drained once the boiler is cooled below 50 deg C. The boiler shall be put in to dry or wet preservation as per the preservation procedure if further delay is there for Boiler start up The boil-out procedure can be combined with the process of drying out of the refractory lining, The heat input (flue gas flow rate) should be operated for two (2) to three (3) days at an extremely low rate, to warm the setting gradually- raising the pressure to about onefifth of normal operating pressure or 2.0 kg/cm 2 whichever is lesser. The rate of heat input (flue gas flow rate) must be regulated such that the steam temperature leaving the superheater does not exceed the normal superheat temperature.

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6.1.1 Water side cleaning - Alkali Boil-Out:

General
The basic reason for an alkali boil-out of a boiler is to remove water and alkali-soluble compounds from the waterside surfaces of the unit. These compounds may include lubricants used in the erection of the boiler and in some instances protective coatings applied to prevent atmospheric rusting following shop fabrication. Lubricants normally used in fabrication are water-soluble and are easily removed by the boil out. Sand, loose mill scale and corrosion products, which can form in the unit after the hydrostatic test, are removed in the blow down performed throughout the duration of the boil-out. All manufacturers instrumentation manual should be checked for compatibility with the boil-out procedure.

The steam drum manhole covers should be removed, and the drum internals checked for tightness and inspected to determine that the boiler is in satisfactory condition for boil-out.

No part or section should be closed until the man responsible for the inspection i s certain that all passages are free and clear of all foreign material, except that which can be removed only by boil-out. All parts should be closed immediately after this approval is obtained. The gaskets used for this closure should be the same as those intended for subsequent regular service.

The furnace and gas passages should be clean and free of all combustible matter.

Operation of auxiliary apparatus pertaining to the firing or feeding of the boiler should be checked as fully as possible, to make certain that they are in proper working
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condition. This procedure should include all fans, valves, actuators, pumps, drives, and the setting and trail of all interlocks.

If an automatic combustion control system is used, the various regulators should be set for manual control and checked to determine that all are capable of functioning as intended.

After the boiler accesses are closed, the following items should be examined for proper operation and CLOSED. Main feed water level control valve Main feed water isolation valves Feed water by-pass valve Steam drum drains Steam drum continuous blow down valve Steam/water sample valves Steam stop/ non-return valves Water column drains Gauge glass drains Economizer drains ttemperator water isolation valve Evaporator drains Gauge glass shut-off valves Steam drum blow down block valves
All instrumentation isolation valves to instruments not required during boil-out.

After the boiler accesses are closed, the following items should be examined for proper operation and OPENED. All process vents Super heater drains Remote level element All instrumentation isolation valves to instruments intended for use during boilout.

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6.1.2 Preparation for Alkali Boil out: (Check list)

The following have to be ensured prior to start up of Alkali Boil out. 1.1 Boiler erection completed with all assemblies, valves, Fittings and necessary instrumentation. 1.2 1.3 1.4 Trial runs completed for Boiler auxiliaries such as fans, Feed pumps etc. Boiler instrumentation and control panel are made ready for regular operation. Availability of heat source and Deaerator water at least at 135 o C Mass flushing of pipelines. Refractory & Insulation works are completed. All scaffolding, temporary supports, Debris arising out of refractory work (such as bricks, Slag wool, stubs, and wire mesh) is cleared off. 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 Permanent lighting facilities at all operating floor levels are available. Availability of adequate trained personnel. The HP Dosing system is ready for operation. The drum internals i.e. Demister pads are dismantled. It shall be fitted back after completion of Alkali boil out, cleaning and Inspection of Drum. Safety valves on steam drum may be blinded to avoid any chemical ingress to valve springs.

1.5 1.6 1.7

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1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15

Drains from Equipment & piping are connected to the Blow down & BD Tank is ready in all respect. All spring supports are loaded and temporary locking arrangements if any are removed. Boiler expansion guides are in place. Boiler expansion movement pointers are erected.

6.1.3 Chemicals used for Boil-Out:


The chemicals used for boil-out can vary in composition and are usually some combination of following chemicals is typically used for the boil-out; soda ash, tri sodium phosphate. Organic detergents are also used to increase the effectiveness of the alkali boil-out. However, care must be taken when using them. Indiscriminate use of such detergents can lead to foaming with resultant carry over of chemicals to the super heater.

Preparation of Chemical solution:


Commercial Tri-sodium phosphate has PO4 content of 20%. 0.5 kg of Na3PO4 has to be added to each cubic meter of water hold up. The Incinerator waste Heat Recovery Boiler system has water volume of approx. 21.9 m 3 excluding Super heater Hence 11.0 kgs of tri-sodium phosphate Na3PO4 shall be dissolved in DM water having pH value above 8.5. Plastic container, which is clear from oil traces and any other foreign matter, shall be used for preparation of chemical solution. Potable water or DM water with pH value above 8.5 shall be added into the container. Then, add the chemicals according to the container capacity. Mix thoroughly by using wooden stick free from any foreign matters. Clean plastic buckets shall be used for transferring water / chemicals into the container.

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The person working with chemicals shall wear Rubber gloves & face shield.

Filling the system:


Ensure the feed water pump is ON and feed water header and connecting pipes up to control valve have water. Keep the vent valves on Steam Drum open prior to feed the water to drum. Close the vent valves when the entrapped air is removed and water spills from them. The vent valve on the steam drum shall remain opened. Open the motorized bypass valve on the feed water control station. Feed the water to the drum slowly, by adjusting the valve opening. Fill the water up to normal water level. Flush the level gauges by opening the drain valves at the bottom. Also operate the CBD & IBD valves to bring the drum level to LLWL. Keep the drain valves open of the SH for removal of condensate if any.

Injection of chemical into Drum:


Ensure the water level in steam drum at LLWL and visible in level gauge. The solution prepared in a container shall be taken in buckets and poured into the HP Dosing Tank. After start-up of Boiler & reaching Drum pressure of 1 - 2 kg/cm 2 (g), the HP Dosing pumps shall be started with maximum flow rate, to pump the chemicals into the Steam Drum. 6.1.4 BOIL OUT OPERATION :

Light up the boiler with low rate of firing with heat source. Once the Hot gas is admitted through the boiler, the water level in the steam drum would increase due to expansion of water by warm up.

Therefore the drum level must be watched carefully.

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If the high-high level is reached, the blow down valve to be operated to bring down the drum level to NWL. If not doing so, the boiling out liquid will get into the super heater coils, which may lead to Stress Corrosion Cracking. In case water level in the Steam Drum drops to low water level, feed water shall be fed in by opening & adjusting the motorized bypass valve of feed water control station. Admit the water slowly by adjusting the valve opening. Close the valve once the water level reached NWL A person must be posted at the Steam Drum level for physical verification of water levels and provide signals / instructions to the person operate the valve on feed lines. Once the steam drum pressure reaches 2 kg/cm 2 (g) close the vent valve on steam drum. Increase the drum pressure at a rate of 1 kg/cm 2 (g) per 10 minutes by adjusting the opening of start up vent valve. Once the chemicals are injected, the time shall be noted for start-up of Boil out. The Boil out shall be completed in 48 60 hours & based on sample results. Once the drum pressure reaches 20 25 kg/cm 2 (g) or 50 % of the normal operating pressure which ever is lower, stay at this condition & complete Alkali boil out. Operating parameters and thermal expansion readings shall be noted in log sheet & shall be evaluated time to time. Boiler operation log sheet shall be filled and all events shall be recorded.

Note:
De-super heaters shall not be operated i.e., no injection water shall be admitted throughout Alkali Boil out Operate the Boiler at 20 -25 kg/cm2 (g) or 50% of the operating pressure, which ever is lower. Ensure water levels are maintained as explained above.

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The first blow down shall be carried out while pressure rising period at 10 kg/cm2 (g). This is done by operating the IBD for 10 to 15 seconds and operating the Drain valves on bottom headers for 30 to 40 seconds. While doing blow down check the water level in the Drum and ensure water level does not drop below LLWL. Subsequent blow downs shall be carried out at 20 - 25 kg/cm 2 (g) pressure for every 4 hours once and samples shall be taken. Collected samples shall be tested in laboratories for iron, oil and grease content, and also to find out whether the PO4 content is further reduced or remains constant. If due to the required blow down, the chemical concentrations have decreased to less than one-half of the original valve, and then additional chemicals should be added to reestablish the original value. This can be done by preparing the chemical solution in HP Dosing Tank and pumping to Steam Drum The quantity of oil or grease found in the boiler water sample determines the length of the boil out. This can be between 48 60 hrs. When the Boiler water sample reaches the point where iron and oil or grease content is less than < 5 ppm & PO4 content remains constant for 4 hours, then it is concluded Alkali Boil out is completed. Terminate the Gas flow rate to the Boiler by operating the water-cooled damper at the Gas inlet duct or shut off the heat source.

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Draining & Flushing:


Once the unit is de-pressurized and cooled down to 100o C or less the system shall be drained. To drain the boiler open all the drain valves on bottom headers and blow down valves on Steam Drum To flush the unit open the bypass valve on the control station and fill the unit with de mineralized water up to HHWL in Steam Drum and open all the drain valves fully at once. Repeat this procedure for 5 - 6 times. Only Dematerialized water having pH value above 8.5 shall be used.

Inspection:
Open all the vents & drains. Once the flushing is completed, open the Man Hole on Steam Drum. Cut & remove the Inspection nozzles on bottom headers (if applicable) Inspect the Drum internal surfaces, scrap & collect any sludges at the bottom surface if any. Inspect the header through inspection nozzle & remove the sludges if any by water jet through the drain nozzle. Fix the Steam Drum internals i.e., Demister pads. Re-weld the Inspection nozzle covers. Install & weld the flow orifices / nozzles. & Boiler to be made ready for operation.

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6.1.5

Super Heaters:
Before input of heat, the superheater drains and vents should be opened wide. During the boil-out procedure, super heaters should not be flooded; in fact, the object is to keep them clear of water at all the times during the various phases of the start-up procedure, so that the superheater tube metal will be cooled by some flow of steam through the tubes.Throughout the startup period, including dry-out, boil-out and bringing the unit online, the heat input should be regulated to keep the temperatures of the superheater tubes within safe limits for the tube metal, and to avoid high stresses from abnormal temperature differences between one part and another. The tube metal temperatures are normally kept below the maximum levels by bleeding steam through the super heater outlet header drains and vent, and by regulating the time required to raise the boiler pressure to line pressure.

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FEED WATER SYSTEM


(CUSTOMERS SCOPE) Customer has to supply boiler feed water at 105 C when boiler is in operation however water & steam quality to be maintained as given in the next page.

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7.1
7.1.1

SAMPLE TESTING:
Sampling & Testing:24 Purpose: To determine the controlling effect of the conditioning process (dosing) and the blow down, a sample of feed water, WHBs water, steam & condensate water to be analysed periodically. The specified value for analysis report is given below: General Notes: The standards specified below have been determined by the German VGB Committee for Wasserchemic in Warmekraftwerken (Water chemistry in thermal power stations) and been approved by the Fachverband Dampfkessel Behalleitungasbau e.V (FDBR) (Committee for Steam Boiler, - Vessel and piping Construction) as well as the Technischen Uberwachungs Vereine eV. (VdTUV) (Technical Survey Authorities). The regulations are based on scientific principles and experience made during operational practice. They guarantee the best possible protection against the corrosion of all parts connected with the water circulation. Parts in contact with water and steam shall remain free from deposits so that the generation of clean steam is possible. Feed Water Analysis: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Total hardness pH value at 25oC Oxygen Iron Copper Silica as SiO2 Oil Conductivity at 25C (max) (max) (max) (max) (max) (max) PPM -PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM : NIL : 9.0 9.4 : 0.02 : < 0.02 : < 0.003 : < 0.02 : Nil

S/Cm : < 0.20*


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Boiler water Analysis: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. pH value Silica as SiO2 Conductivity Residual phospate (max) (max) PPM PPM PPM Total dissolved solids (max) : 9.5 10.2 :<4 : < 150 :<6

S/Cm : < 250*

* Measuring of conductivity downstream of strongly acidic sampling cation exchanger Steam Analysis: SH Steam 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. pH Value Conductivity @25 C Silica as SiO2 Total Iron as Fe Total Copper as Cu Na
0

Saturated Steam 8.5 - 9 < 0.20 < 0.020 < 0.020 < 0.003 < 0.010

8.5 - 9 s/cm PPM PPM PPM PPM < 0.20 < 0.020 < 0.020 < 0.003 < 0.010

Demineralised water Analysis: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Conductivity Silica (SiO2) Total Hardness as (CaCo3) pH value Total Iron content Total Copper content Oil : s / cm : PPM : : PPM : PPM : 0.2 0.02 7 < 0.02 < 0.003 NIL

: (mval / kg) < 0.02

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7.1.2 Procedures for taking samples through sample cooler:

Open the shut off valve on sampling line. Open the cooling water inlet valve gradually and allow the cooling water to flow through the sample cooler. Increase the flow gradually. Stabilize the flow at a value higher (say 10 15 %) than what is required as per the specification sheet. Check whether the cooling water inlet temperature is as specified. Open the sample isolation valve gradually and let the steam / sample flow through the coil. Before increasing sample flow rate, just feel the down stream sample line. Temperature should not exceed 40 45C. Increase the sample flow rate to the specified value gradually, all the while feeling the temperature of the exit line. Allow some time for equilibrium to be established (Say 15 20 minutes) for safe temperature to be obtained. Gradually reduce the cooling water flow rate to the specified value and feel the sample outlet temperature. After sampling, shut off the sample shut off valves and sample isolation valves. Then shut off the cooling water I/L valves. Frequency of Boiler water sampling is once in 8 hours. a) Dosing System: Hydrazine are dosed to scavenge the last traces of dissolved oxygen in feed water and to increase the pH value of feed water. b) Oxygen removal: Hydrazine (N2H4), a neutralizing amine based reagent, after dissolving in the mixing tank, will be injected into De-aerator for Oxygen removal from water in the de-aerator.

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c)

HP Dosing: Direct treatment of boiler water is used 1) to prevent scale formations caused by hardness constituents, and 2) to provide pH control to prevent corrosion. Treatment that is incorrect or inadequate in either respect can lead to tube failures and result in unscheduled shutdowns. In this WHRB, boiler water is treated with Trisodium phosphate dosing (Na3Po4). Use of Trisodium phosphate controls the boiler water pH (9.5 10.2) and precipitates the calcium and magnesium compounds as a flocculent sludge, so that they can be removed in the boiler blow down rather than being deposited on heat transfer surfaces. Periodic boiler water samples (once in 8 hours) are taken and pH, total dissolved solids & free phosphate content is measured. Phosphate content of upto 6 ppm as free PO4 can be maintained in Drum water. The continuous blow down quantity is adjusted such that total dissolved solids do not exceed 150 ppm. Blow down quantity from WHRB will be increased or decreased based on this value.

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7.1.3 HP / LP Dosing calculation:

Steam Generation rate nett TDS in feed water TDS permitted in boiler water Oxygen in feed water Residual phosphate level in boiler water Concentration of phosphate solution Residual Hydrazine in feed water Concentration of hydrazine

= 21000 kgs/hr = 10 ppm = 150 ppm = 0.02 ppm = 15 ppm (max.) = 0.3 gm/ 100 ml = 0.02 ppm = 60%

a) HP Chemical Dosing calculation: Chemical Dosed in HP Dosing system = Trisodium phosphate Maximum steam generation capacity of boiler = 5859 kg/hr TDS in feed water TDS permitted in Boiler water = 10 ppm = 150 ppm 10 Percentage blow down = 100 x ------------- = 7.143% (150 - 10) Actual blow down rate = 21000 x 7.143 / 100 kg/hr = 1500 kg/hr Recommended phosphate ppm in boiler water = 15 ppm (max.) Loss of phosphate in blow down water = 15 x 1500 / 1000 gm/hr = 22.5 gm/hr
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Concentration of phosphate solution = 0.3 gm / 100 ml Rate of dosing = 100 x 22.5 / 0.3 ml/hr = 7500 ml/hr

Trisodium phosphate consumption per day = 22.5 x 24 / 1000 = 0.54 kg / day

b) LP Chemical Dosing (Hydrazine) calculation:

Chemical Dosed : Hydrazine Maximum steam generation capacity of Boiler = 21000 kg/hr Oxygen in feed water = 0.02 ppm Required oxygen level in feed water = 0.007 ppm Oxygen to be removed = 0.02 0.007 = 0.013 ppm Hydrazine required (two times) = 2 x 0.013 ppm = 0.026 ppm Residual Hydrazine to be kept = 0.02 pm Total hydrazine required = 0.026 + 0.02 = 0.046 ppm Total hydrazine required in kg/kg of evaporation = 0.046 x 0.000001 kg/kg = 0.000000046 kg/kg Hydrazine required per hour = 21000 x 0.000000046 kg/hr = 0.000966 kg/hr say 0.001 kg/hr Concentration of Hydrazine solution = 60% Hydrazine to be dosed @60% concentration = 0.001 x 100 / 60 kg/hr = 0.04 kg/day

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c) Consumption of Chemical per day: a. Hydrazine for LP Dosing in Deaerator = 0.04 kg

b. Trisodium phosphate (Na3Po4) for HP Dosing in Drum = 0.54 kg/day

7.1.4 Boiler Blow down


Intermittent Blow down of the Waste Heat Boiler at the period during the day when the steam demand is lowest. When blowing down the Waste heat Boiler, first fully open the isolation / shut off valve wide then open the blow down valve about open and leave it in that position until the water is lowered about in. (13 mm) in the level gauge, then open the blow-down wide until the blowing down is completed. After the blowing down is completed, close the blow down valve and then the isolation / shut off valve. Blow down should be done at least once per shift of 8 hrs. A continuous blow down valve is fixed to the steam Drum to control the concentration of solids within prescribed limits. A safe maximum water concentration can best be maintained by adjusting the continuous blow down frequently on the basis of water analysis.

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NORMAL START-UP

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8.1

Normal start up
Normal start-up (cold start) assumes that the complete boiler steam generating subsystem is devoid of boiler water. This sub-system comprises of steam drum, evaporators, water wall casings and associated inlet and outlet piping to each component. Before filling the system with feed water, close all drains of each component and simultaneously open all vents as follows: 1) Steam drum vents 2) Open feed water pumps suction and discharge valves 3) Open feed water level control isolating valves. i.e. Before introducing the hot flue gases, the following valves should be in the CLOSED position. Chemical feed stop valve Level transmitter vents Saturated sample valves Continuous blow down isolation valve Continuous blow down valve. Before introducing the hot flue gases, the following valves should be in OPEN position. Steam drum vents Remote level element isolation Level transmitter isolation Super heater vents and drains Startup vents Attemperator water isolation valve

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The boiler system is now ready to commence operation. Initially all the control loops are taken into manual mode at the time of start up. It is to be ensured that all the equipments required for WHRB operation like Incinerator (By client), chemical dosing system, feed pumps are operational. Before taking the flue gases from the incinerator into the boiler, it is to be ensured that the drum level is established and all the tube banks are filled with water. The incomer to the LT MCC panel (from customer end ) is to be switched ON and the respective feeders for the various motorized valves & motors are required to be switched ON. Now the feed water controller is taken into manual mode and filling of the boiler banks and drum up to specified level is achieved .Only after this the hot gases can be admitted into the boiler. At the time of initial startup, start up vent valve is kept in full open position to allow venting of the total air from the system .When it is observed that there is sufficient steaming in the boiler, during this period, the following should be adhered to for safe operation of the boiler. a) As steam generation begins, steam vapor will vent from the drum vent valves. When the steam pressure rises to 2 kg/cm 2 as evidenced on the drum pressure gauge, close the drum vent valves. b) Steam will now flow through the steam drum crossover line into the superheater and will exhaust to atmosphere through the superheater vent and drains. c) When steam escapes from the superheater header vents, close the respective vent valves. d) Steam pressure is raised by a combination of increasing heat input and manipulation of the main steam start-up vent.

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e) Once significant flow of steam is venting through the start-up vent, all super heater drains can be closed. f) It is mandatory that sufficient steam flows through the super heaters so that the outlet steam temperature does not exceed its normal superheat temperature. g) If the superheater outlet temperature cannot be maintained at the normal superheat temperature with the start-up vent wide open, perform desuperheating by placing the attemperator spray on automatic. h) Raise steam pressure by adjusting the start up vents and heat input so that the saturation temperature increases at a rate not exceeding 55 o C/hr. i) The super heater start-up vent should remain in the full open position until the main steam stop valve is opened and normal steam flow is established. At this time, the start-up vent valve can be closed. j) Set the continuous blow down valve to the necessary blow down rate.

As the start up vent valve starts closing manually the system pressure starts building up and steam drum pressure reaches operating point. At this point the main steam stop valve is opened.

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It is to be ensured that the start up vent valve is kept slightly open until the main steam stop valve is fully opened to prevent the lifting of safety valves due to over pressurization. Once the steaming in the boiler started, the attemperator is also taken into service by opening integral spray control multi nozzle de super heater. After normalizing the start up operation and achieving proper / constant load condition, the various loops can be put into auto / cascade mode. The tuning of various control loops is then taken up in the DCS ,based upon load fluctuations and system response . The chemical dosing system can be taken in line after the normal operation of the boiler is achieved.
CAUTION:

During start-up, water level inside the steam drum must never be allowed to become excessively high, in order to prevent water carryover into the superheater. Water level can be lowered at any time by using the intermittent blowdown valve. Never leave the intermittent blowdown valve unattended when in the open position. Until reliable matching is achieved between the levels indicated by the local level gauges, remote level gauges and the level transmitter, the levels shown by the local and remote gauges are to be treated as true indications and must be monitored closely. Total reliance on the level transmitter alone (outside of the transmitter operating range) could lead to damage from erroneous water levels detection.

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BOILER RESTART FROM WARM

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9.1

Boxing Up the Boiler:


There may be occasions when the system is shutdown temporarily for malfunctions or other reasons pertaining to equipment outside the boiler system. Under such circumstances, the boiler system can be temporarily boxed-up to retain the heat in the system, so that the system can be brought on line quickly when the causes for the temporary shutdown have been eliminated. When the system is boxed-up from its normal operating temperature / pressure, or in the event that the steam header cannot accept steam from the system, the procedure will be as follows:

Maintain the normal water level in the boiler drum Close the main steam stop valve Open the superheater startup vents Reduce heat input to the boiler (isolation mechanism to reduce the flue gas flow into the boiler). Reducing the heat input will reduce the steam generation in the system and the fully open superheater vent will begin to reduce the steam pressure in the system. Operate the attemperator spray such that the superheated steam temperature does not exceed the normal superheat temperature. When the system steam pressure drops, close the superheater start-up vent valves. Since steam is still being generated, the system pressure will begin rising again. When the pressure rises, re-open the superheater start-up vent, again dropping the pressure. Repeat this procedure until the pressure does not increase any further with the vents closed. It may be necessary to throttle the vents for some period of time to maintain the pressure. It may also be necessary to regulate the flue gas isolation mechanisms to keep the boiler in the warm boxed-up condition.

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Throughout this showdown procedure, water must be fed to the system to make up the steam escaping through the vents. Normal water level should be maintained in the steam drum. The drum water level may rise due to swell or drop to shrink, caused by pressure changes. Attention must be paid to ensure that the water level does not exceed the high or low levels.

9.2

Re-start:

Restarting the warm, boxed-up boiler is an abbreviated version of the normal start-up. Increase the heat input Raise the steam drum pressure by throttling the superheater vents, at a rate limited by an increase in corresponding saturation temperature of not more than 55 o C/hr. Maintain normal water level. Operate the attemperator such that superheater steam temperature does not exceed the normal superheat temperature. Open the main steam stop valve and close the superheater vents when the boiler has reached header pressure and temperature.

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PLANNED SHUT DOWN

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Shut down
The unit can be taken out of service for many reasons based on the required duration of shutdown, the shutdown is classified into two. Short term shutdown Shutdown for extended period

10.1 Short-term shutdown


If the system requires shutdown for minor repairs / rectification work which can be completed within few hours before Waste Heat Boiler pressure drops to 8-10 bar.g, the following procedure shall be followed. Open the start-up vent valve to ensure steam flow through Superheater. Alternately if possible dump the steam to Auxiliary condenser through PRDS valve. In this case no need to open the start up vent. Stop passing incinerator gas through Waste Heat Boiler. As soon as the pressure commences to drop, shut the main steam stop valve and feed supply. Keep a continuous watch on steam drum level indicator as pressure drops. The water level must not sink below the low water level. The level can be maintained by feeding water by Feed Water Pumps as per normal working procedure. Re-start the gas supply, as soon as the defect / repair work is completed. Open the steam main valve Drain the Superheater by opening header drain valves and then close it.

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10.2 Shutdown for extended period


This practice should be followed with care to ensure that any expansions that have occurred while the Waste Heat Boiler & Steam Drum is in operation should be returned to normal as gradually as possible. The following is suggested method. Open the start-up vent valve to ensure steam flow through Superheater. Shut off gas supply to the Waste Heat Boiler Continue airflow through the system in order to purge the gasses. The purge operation may continue long hours with airflow rate between 35- 50% of normal flow rate. As soon as the pressure commences to drop, shut main stop valve and feed supply. Close all dampers on gas ducts to cut off the heat source. It is recommended that the Steam Drum pressure is allowed to fall as slowly as possible by allowing the Waste Heat Boiler to cool naturally. When the pressure has been reduced to 2.0 bar (g) open the vent valve on the Steam Drum to prevent any possibility of vacuum developing due to steam condensation. When the Waste Heat Boiler pressure is 1.0 bar, the Waste Heat Boiler & Steam Drum can be emptied by means of the blow down valve. Draining at 1.0 bar will help evaporation of any left out water in the Boiler. Corrosion can start as soon as the Waste Heat Boiler & Steam Drum is emptied and the attack will be especially severe if pools of water are left in the Waste Heat Boiler. After completing various jobs on boiler system, it should be restarted as per the procedure for cold start up.

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10.3 Preservation Method:

During the idle period, the Waste Heat Boiler & Steam Drum may be preserved as follows

10.4 Dry Storage:


This procedure may be preferable for steam generating unit out of service for extended periods of time or in locations where freezing temperatures may be expected during stand-by. The unit should be thoroughly dried, since any moisture left on the metal surface would cause corrosion to occur on long standing. After drying, precautions should be taken to preclude entry of moisture in any form steam lines, feed lines or air. For this purpose, moisture absorbing material,such as quicklime at the rate of 2 lb per 30 cu.ft. (1.1 kg/m 3) or Silica Gel at the rate of 5 lb per 30 cu.ft (2.7 kg/m 3) of volume, may be placed on trays inside the Waste Heat Boiler + Steam Drum to absorb moisture from the air. The manholes should then be closed and all connections on the unit should be tightly blanked. The effectiveness of the materials for such purposes and need for their renewal may be determined through regular internal inspections.

10.4.1 Wet Storage:


The method is not generally employed for unit, which may be subjected to freezing temperatures. For a short period, condensate or feed water containing approximately 200 ppm of Hydrazine may be used.

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Procedure Complete Waste Heat Boiler from feed control station outlet to main steam line stop valve will be filled up with Demineralised water with 200 ppm hydrazine concentration. 1) Boiler will be emptied to remove any residual water / condensate. 2) All Air vents will be kept open, Drains will be kept closed. 3) Demineralised water will be filled up in Deaerator feed tank 4) 200 ppm of Hydrazine will be pumped through LP Dosing system. 5) Feed pump will be run for 20 to 30 minutes on recirculation mode to ensure thorough mixing of Hydrazine. 6) Slowly this water will be pumped to WHRB through feed control station. 7) All the air vents will be closed one by one after removal of air. 8) Boiler feed pump will continue to run till the whole WHRB pressure comes to 5 bar (g). 9) Boiler feed pump will be stopped and system will be left as it is at this 5 bar (g) pressure. 10) Whenever the system pressure falls below 2 bar (g) feed pump will be started and pressure will be brought to 5 bar (g). 11) Take out boiler water sample once in 3 days and measure hydrazine ppm.

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12) Whenever the Hydrazine level falls below 50 ppm, concentration will be brought upto 200 ppm. 13) Whenever WHRB is required to be restarted bring down the system pressure and drain whole boiler. 14) No further cleaning is required. Boiler can be filled upto normal water level and normal start up procedure can be followed.

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10.5 General Maintenance Instructions 10.5.1 Shutdown inspection and maintenance


The Waste Heat Boiler should be given an internal and external inspection at intervals as are mutually considered necessary by the responsible engineer and the Authorized Inspector and subject to approval, where necessary, of the governmental authority having jurisdiction. inspections. The plant inspector should make available for the benefit of the Authorized Inspector all pertinent data on the steam-generating unit as to design, dimensions, age, particulars as to defects previously noted, and modifications or repairs affected. A record of each inspection should be kept in uniform manner so that any change of conditions can be definitely noted and compared, especially with reference to the thickness of scale, corrosion, erosion, cracks, and other unusual conditions both internally and externally. These inspection intervals are usually at least once each year. It is advisable to have the plant inspector accompany the Authorized Inspector for these

10.5.2 Preparation for Inspection


i) ii) Gas supply to the Waste Heat Boiler shall be shut off. The Waste Heat Boiler & Steam Drum and setting must be cooled sufficiently to It is

prevent the baking of deposits that may be present on the heating surface. recommended that the Waste Heat Boiler & Steam Drum be drained while there is

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still sufficient heat present to dry out the interior of the unit when ventilated by opening manhole and hand hole covers. iii) The water surfaces of Waste Heat Boiler, Steam Drum and tubes should preferably be not cleaned, unless otherwise agreed, until after the Authorized Inspector has had a chance to observe the condition. iv) The inspector should enter the Steam Drum & Waste Heat Boiler to make a personal examination of conditions, but before entering they should first make sure that the Vessels have been properly ventilated & purged. v) The external inspection will not require any particular preparation other than giving the inspector convenient access to the generating unit and its connections. vi) An external inspection by the Authorized Inspector should comprise the examination of the unit, its appurtenances, and connections while the unit is in service. It is a form of examination made primarily to observe operation and maintenance practices.

10.5. 3

Inspection of Internal surfaces and parts:


i) The internal inspection of Waste Heat Boiler and Steam Drum by the Authorized Inspector should include the examination of the physical structure with a view to determining its adequacy in service. The inspection shall cover the condition of the entire steam generating unit, which includes all interconnecting pressurized units with their fittings, as well as steam, blow off, and water connections with their fittings, and valves. The inspection shall particularly include a re-examination of defects and repairs made previously and as evidenced by previous inspection reports.

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OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Sheet 61 of 71

ii)

After Waste Heat Boiler and Steam Drum , tubes and other pressure parts have been examined for deposits and scale, all these surfaces should be thoroughly cleaned internally, if required, either by washing, by mechanical means, or by chemical methods, to provide a clean metal surface for inspection by the Authorized Inspector. Where chemical cleaning is used the pressure parts should be thoroughly flushed to remove all residual chemicals. During chemical cleaning of boiler internals, venting must be provided for the system and necessary safety precautions taken.

iii)

It is not necessary to remove insulation material, masonry, or fixed parts of the unit unless defects or deterioration are suspected. Where there is moisture or vapour showing through the covering, the covering should be removed at once and a complete investigation made.

iv)

Scale, Oil etc.: The inspector should examine all surfaces of the exposed metal inside to observe any action caused by treatment, scale solvents, oil or other substances which may have entered the Waste Heat Boiler & Steam Drum. Any evidence of oil should be noted carefully as a small amount is dangerous and immediate steps should be taken to prevent the entrance of any more oil into the Waste Heat Boiler & Steam Drum. Oil or scale on plates subject to furnace heat will result in bulging or rupture of tubes.

v)

Corrosion, Grooving: Corrosion along or immediately adjacent to a seam is more serious than a similar amount of corrosion in the solid plate away from the seams. Grooving and cracks along longitudinal seams are especially significant as they are likely to occur when the material is highly stressed.

vi)

Careful examination of the interior of the unit should be made for cracks, pitting, corrosion, erosion, scale and thin places in the drums. The upper half of Steam Drum in the steam space should be examined particularly for signs of grease, oil or similar deposits.

W818 / CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGIES / I O C L - PANIPAT

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Sheet 62 of 71

vii)

Manholes and other openings: The manholes nozzles and other openings should be examined internally as well as externally to see that they are not cracked or deformed. Wherever possible,observation as to the integrity of the joint. All openings to external attachments, such as connections to a low water cutoff and openings to safety relief valves, should be examined to see if they are free from obstructions.

viii)

Fire surfaces Bulging, Blistering, Leaks: Particular attention should be given to the plate or tube surfaces exposed to fire. The inspector should observe whether any part of Waste Heat Boiler has become deformed during operation by bulging or blistering. If bulges or blisters are of such size as would seriously weaken the plate or tube, and especially when water is leaking from such a defect, the unit should be discontinued from service until the defective part or parts have received proper repairs. Careful observation should be made to detect leakage from any part of the Waste Heat Boiler structure, particularly in the vicinity of seams and tube ends.

ix)

The blow down connections should be examined carefully for corrosion and weakness where they are connected to the Waste Heat Boiler. Blow Down piping should be supported externally, if necessary, in such a manner that it will drain properly and will not impose excessive stress on the Waste Heat Boiler connection while either cold or hot and blowing.

x)

Examination should be made of the steam, feed, and blowoff connections to see that they are clear and in good working condition. xi) Careful examination should be made of the safety valve or valves, their connections to the Waste Heat Boiler, outlet piping, drains and supports. All openings should be free and clear. The valves should be tested in accordance with the instructions given for the particular plant.

W818 / CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGIES / I O C L - PANIPAT

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Sheet 63 of 71

xii)

The interior of the tubes should be examined for scale and deposits and also the space between the tubes made visible by lowering a small light between them for the purpose of making sure that there is no restriction of the circulation.

xiii)

Tube Defects: Tubes may deteriorate at the ends toward the fire, and they should be carefully tapped with a light hammer on their outer surface to ascertain if there has been a serious reduction in thickness. They should be reached as far as possible either through the hand holes, or inspected at the ends. The surface of tubes should be examined to detect bulges or cracks or evidence of defective welds. A leak from a tube may cause serious corrosive action on a number of tubes in its immediate vicinity.

10.5.4
i)

Inspection of external surfaces and parts:


The inspectors should examine the Waste Heat Boiler for alignment, noting whether or not there has been any settling, loss of level or plumb, or abnormal movement as evidenced by displacement of steam drum or other pressure parts. They should see that provision is made for expansion and contraction of Waste Heat Boiler and setting, that external clearances for Waste Heat Boiler expansion are unobstructed, and that all supports are in proper conditon to carry loads imposed on them. Permanent reference marks or indicators on Steam Drum and headers are recommended to enable rechecking their position (both hot and cold). The palnt inspector should verify that the proper expansion movement occurs as the unit is returned to service after an outage. ii) Examination should be made for evidence of corrosion of the exterior of Waste Heat Boiler and Steam Drum and a check made for leaks from stacks, valves or pipes.

W818 / CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGIES / I O C L - PANIPAT

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Sheet 64 of 71

iii)

An examination of the condition of the main steam header and its connections to the Steam Drum should be made to ascertain that it is properly supported, that due allowance is made for expansion and contraction without exerting excessive stress of strain or the pressure parts of the unit, and that the non return and stop valves are in good working condition

iv)

Connections and Fittings: All piping should be examined for leaks; if any are found, it should be determined whether they are the result of excess strains due to expansion or contraction or other causes. The general arrangement of the piping in regard to the provisions for expansion and drainage, as well as adequate support at the proper points, should be carefully noted.

v)

Safety Valves : As the safety valve is the most important safety device on the unit, it should be inspected with the utmost care. There should be no accumulation of rust, scale or other foreign substances in the body of the valve which will interfere with its free operation. The valve should not leak under operating conditions. The opening pressure and freedom of operation of the valve should be tested preferably by opening with the try-lever in accordance with procedure. The inspector also to check the drain in safety valve discharge pipe is free from any obstruction. If the inspector deems it is necessary, the discharge connection should be removed in order to determine the freedom of discharge form a safety relief valve.

vi)

Appliances : Appliances, such as gauge glasses, gauge cocks, water columns, water-level controls, high and low-water alarms or cutoffs, blowoffs, and feed valves, and on-return valves should be examined and tested at regular intervals such as during external inspection or as required by Authorized Inspectors or government codes. Steam Drum pressure gauges and master gauges should be compared with a properly calibrated test gauge.

W818 / CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGIES / I O C L - PANIPAT

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Sheet 65 of 71

Replace all gaskets of flanged connections that have been broken, with new gaskets. Pressure Gauge: Test the Steam Drum pressure gauge with a calibrated test gauge. Test the gauge and blowout connections for obstructions causing choking of the gauge connections. Keep the gauge well lighted and the dials and glass covers clean, and maintained tight and unbroken. Level Gauges: Inspect and clean the connections between the Steam Drum and Level Gauges. Level Gauges should be well lighted and clean. Replace with clean glass when fouled, scored, or broken following the gauge manufacturers instructions for replacement. Feed Water Regulator: The feed water regulator must be maintained in good working condition. Follow the manufacturers recommendations for servicing. Safety valves: Safety valves should be tested by raising the Steam Drum pressure to that of the respective values. In general, the testing should be done at the time the unit is being shut down for inspection. This can be accomplished while operating at a low output and throttling the stop valve until the lowest-set the valve relieves. Normal pressure should then be restored by slowly opening the stop valve. The valve, which is relieved, may then be gagged and the procedure repeated until the other valve has been checked. A hydraulic device may be used to assist in testing safety valves. This device eliminates the need for raising Steam Drum pressure above normal and prevents valve seat damage during testing periods.

W818 / CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGIES / I O C L - PANIPAT

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Sheet 66 of 71

Blow down valves: Examine the blow down valves when the Waste Heat Boiler and Steam Drum is washed out and at times of internal inspection. Maintain the pipe, fittings, and insulation between the blow down valve and the Waste Heat Boiler & Steam Drum in good condition. If the discharge end of the blow down line is visible, watch it for the purpose of detecting leaky blow off valves. A hot blow down line downstream of the valves will sometimes indicate leakage. Examine piping to determine if adequate clearance exists for movement due to boiler and pipe expansion. If blow down valves and pipe are exposed to freezing temperatures, protect with electric heating cable or small steam pipe buried in insulation. Instruments and Controls: Indicating and recording devices and instruments, such as steam or feed water flow transmitters, thermometers and draft or pressure gauges should be wherever possible be given preliminary checks before each start-up. Protective controls / interlocks such as burner trip due to low water level should be tested frequently and overhauled regularly so that they will be maintained in good operating condition. Steam Drum Internals: Check the primary steam baffles and mesh box at the weld attachment to the shell to see that all weld joints are sound and that there are no signs of leaking or steam bypass. See that the mesh pads are properly installed in the mesh box. The edge of the pads should be compressed against the mesh box and each other, with no gaps to allow for steam bypass. Check the pads to see they are not plugged with deposits. Over a period of several yeas replacement may be necessary.

W818 / CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGIES / I O C L - PANIPAT

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Sheet 67 of 71

10.5.5

In-operation inspection and maintenance:


An external inspection by the Authorized Inspector should comprise the examination of the unit, its appurtenances, and connections while the Waste Heat Boiler is in service. It is a form of examination made primarily to observe operation and maintenance practices.

All appliances should be examined and tested at regular intervals. Check boiler steam pressure gauges frequently with other gauges in the same system and test when there is any question of accuracy. Water Level and Gauge: Test by blowing down the water level gauge noting the promptness of the waters return. Safety valve: If it is desired to hand-lift to test the safety valve operation or to blow out deposits, raise the lift lever to the full-open position, then release to allow the valve to snap closed as it would have if opened automatically. Do not open the safety valve with the hand-lifting gear when the steam pressure is less than 75% of the normal popping pressure. When a safety valve fails to operate at the set popping pressure, do not attempt to free it by striking the body or other parts of the valve. The valve may be opened with the lifting lever and allowed to close, after which the pressure of the Steam Drum should be raised to the set pressure for which the valve is set to pop. If the valve does not then pop, the set pressure to be adjusted and again safety valve tested.

W818 / CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGIES / I O C L - PANIPAT

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Sheet 68 of 71

Care should be exercised to prevent the accumulation of scale, dirt, or other foreign matter between the coils of the safety valve springs. The springs should be inspected and a cleaning program established to be sure accumulation does not impede operation of the valves.

Keep the drains in the safety valve body and discharge pipes open. Blow down valve: If the discharge end of the blow down line is visible, watch it for the purpose of detecting leaky blow down valves. A hot blow down line downstream of the valves will sometimes indicate leakage.

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OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Sheet 69 of 71

TROUBLE SHOOTING

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OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Sheet 70 of 71

11.0 Trouble Shooting:

Operation Failure Steam Drum level falls rapidly 1 .

Reasons Blockage in the feed system 1 .

Solutions Bypass the control valve on FW line by opening by pass valve and closing isolation

2 .

Leakage through some tubes

valve on control valve and check for level raise Check proper

Steam Drum water level is too high

1 .

Malfunctioning of level transmitter

1 .

functioning of level transmitter and feed control valve

Rapid, lasting reduction in steam drum pressure

1 .

Sudden increase in steam demand

1 .

Reduce steam output

Adjust gas-by-pass 2 . Imbalance between heat input and output 2 . damper to attain balance between heat input and output. Increase the steam Sharp increase in steam drum pressure 1 . Sudden decrease in steam demand 1 . demand. Dump steam through PRDS to Auxiliary condenser Adjust gas-by-pass 2 . Imbalance between heat input and output 2 . damper to attain balance between heat input and output.

W818 / CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGIES / I O C L - PANIPAT

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Sheet 71 of 71

Steam temperature is too high

1 .

Malfunctioning of attemperator control valve Malfunctioning of attemperator control valve Water carryover in steam

1 .

Check the functioning of attemperator control valve Check the functioning

Steam temperature is too low

1 .

1 .

of attemperator, Regulate / close the control valve.

2 .

2 .

Check the saturated steam quality

W818 / CALLIDUS TECHNOLOGIES / I O C L - PANIPAT