IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 8, No.

1, March 1993


S. Singer* University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO 80933

I. Appelbaum** National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44135

Abstract - Direct current motors are used in photovoltaic systems. Important characteristics of electric motors are the starting to rated current and the torque ratios. These ratios are dictated by the size of the solar cell array and are different for the various dc motor types. The paper deals with the calculation of the starting to rated current ratio and starting to rated torque ratio of the permanent magnet, separately, series and shunt excited motors when powered by solar cells for the two cases: where (1) the system includes a maximum-powerpoint-tracker (MPPT) and (2) without an MPPT. Comparing these two cases, one gets a torque magnification of about 3 for the permanent magnet motor and about 7 for other motor types at rated design insolation. The calculation of the torques may assist the PV system designer to determine the advantage of including an MPPT in the system as far as the starting characteristics of the dc motors are concerned. Key-words: dc motors, starting current and torque, solar cells. INTRODUCTION

usually a desirable characteristic, a high motor starting current is undesirable. It is to the advantageous to obtain a high magnification of the motor starting torque accompanied by an allowable magnification of the motor starting current in a system which includes an MPPT. The calculation of the motor starting currents and torques of the various motor types was made with some assumptions and approximations. Nevertheless, they are not too far off from real values and, therefore, can be used for comparison between the different motors in systems both with and without M P m s . A major assumption is the linear dependence of the magnetic flux on the field current. Another assumption is related to the field and armature reactances. MOTOR EQUATIONS The circuit diagram of permanent magnet, series, shunt and separately excited motors are shown in Fig. I(a) to (d), respectively. The motor voltage and torque equations are: Vm = E

+ IaR

Direct current (dc) motors are used in photovoltaic (PV) drive systems, [I] to [6], for example, in cooling application where the motors drive reciprocating vapor compressors, and in water-pumping systems for irrigation or water supply where the motors drive positive displacement or centrifugal pumps. In a direct coupled (with no battery storage) PV system, the solar cell array is directly connected to the motor-load couple. These systems are relatively simple and inexpensive to operate. A direct coupled system may include a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to improve its performance (at starting and at steady state operation) whenever it is needed [7-111. In PV drive systems, such as in water pumping systems, the static head may be relatively high causing the motor-load to stay in standstill position until sufficient torque is developed at relatively high insolation. By including an MPPT in the system, the starting torque may increase significantly at lower insolation levels resulting in desired system performance. The starting to rated current ratio and the starting to rated torque ratio are two important characteristics of a dc motor. For various dc motor types these ratios are different, Since these motors may be used in different applications in PV systems, the starting current and torque ratios are characteristics for the PV system designer to calculate. The paper deals with the calculation of these ratios for the permanent magnec separately, series and shunt excited dc motor for two cases: (1) when an MPPT is not included in the system and (2) when an MPPT is included in the system. Current and torque magnification factors are then defined by comparing these two cases for the various types of the dc motors. The motor torque is related to the motor current. While a high motor starting torque is
92 WM 009-1 EC A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Energy Development and Power Generation Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation at the IEEE/PES 1992 Winter Meeting, New York, New York, January 26 - 30, 1992. Manuscript submitted July 26, 1990; made available for printing January 16, 1992.

where Vm E I, R the the the the the the the the motor applied voltage, V motor-electro-motive force, e.m.f., V motor armature current, A motor armature circuit resistance, f l motor flux, Wb motor shaft speed, r.p.m. motor electromagnetic torque, N.m motor voltage and torque constants, respectively

T Ke ,kT

For a linear dependence of the magnetic flux on the field current (a linear motor model) one can write the following relations:
(a) for the permanent magnetic motor; $=Cl and T=C21a




(d )


Fig. 1

Circuit diagrams of different types of dc motors.


On sabbatical leave from Tel Aviv University.


This work was done while the author held a National Research Council (NASA Lewis Research Center) Research Associateship, on sabbatical leave from Tel Aviv University.

088~-8969/93$03.00 1992 IEEE 0

ing an MF'F'T is IM(s). A good system design corresponds to rated motor operations Vn.e.2. the rated armature current according to Eq. where Tst and Tn are the starting and rated torques. respectively. (7) k and the rated motor torque according to Eq. was assumed for the analysis. The system's operating point e.2 for s=sn Series Excited Motor The motor starting current ratio is: For s=sn the starting current ratio (Eq. at rated operation I M ( s ~ ) V M ( S ~ ) .2. (1 1)) is 1. where Im If Rs Rsh C1 -c6 the motor terminal current the shunt and separately excited motor field current the series motor field resistance the shunt and separately excited motor field resistance constants MOTOR STARTING CURRENT AND TORQUE RATIOS WITHOUT AN MPPT IN THE SYSTEM Permanent Magnet Motor The motor starting current is: For the permanent magnet and series motors we write: 1 =1 . The motor starting torque ratio is given by Eqs. = Ia + If and If = 5 Rsh (d) for the separately excited motor. By direct coupling the motor to the solar cells we have: Vm = V and I . i. with a slope of tan-' 1/R passing through the origin as shown in Fig. Based of on design experience of photovoltaic systems. I. therefore E = 0 and the motor characteristic is thus represented by a straight line For s=sn this ratio (Eq.. where V and I are the array voltage and current. starting of system rotation and starting of the water flow which usually take place at different times [5] . and since the resistance of the armature circuit is low. and R = R a +Rs 'st(S) "= Isc(s) and the motor terminal voltage at starting is: (12) (c) for the shunt motor. .and [6].. T = C 4 1 a . The starting curren Ist and starting torque Tst are motor values at the instant when voltage is applied to motor terminals and the system is at standstill (n=O). "at rated design insolation". as shown in Fig. At the maximum power point. of the array. . This ratio is 1. (11)-(14) are approximate.48 (b) for the series motor. (6) is: Fig. The motor current starting torque ratio is given by Eqs. In a water pumping system. to the maximum power-current IM of typical solar cells is about 1. 1 . (5) and is determined by the intersection of the I-V characteristics of the (17): solar cell array with the I-V characteristics of the motor (Eq. 2. I M ( s ~ ) the solar cell array.. (4) and (IS). (11)) is 1. the operating point for a system includShunt Excited Motor We shall first calculate the rated armature current and torque.8 Sun. (1 1)) is 1. At the instant of motor starting n = 0. which is defined here as the rated design insolation. This ratio. For the purpose of comparing the different motor types. 2 System operating point. for example. the armature voltage drop percentage of IO%. In close to the maximum power point V M ( S ~ ) .e. it is assumed that the rated armature voltage drop (including the voltage drop on the brushes) for all motor types is 10 percent of the rated motor terminal voltage.44. i. VM(S).g. an insolation level of 0. respectively. at insolation s and at the design insolation sn. (I)). we may distinguish between starting current. and the motor rated operation are used in the analysis for all motor types. the slope B is large. At any insolation level s. =I For s=sn this ratio (Eq. The ratio of the short circuit current Is. The expressions in the following sections using eqs. 2 4=C31a .e.2. The motor starting current Ist is approximately the short circuit current Is. sn. 2. The slope of the motor characteristic is 0 = tan-' 1/R.

Therefore. (11) is 0. the field current k Since Rsh>>Ra. A solar cell array is usually composed of a number of strings connected in parallel. The motor terminal current at insolation s is 1 = I&).e.2. i. therefore. controlled by a signal circuit unit which drives the power processing circuit such that the solar cell array operates at its maximum power point. (26) and (28) becomes Equation (24) can be approximated by IM > > If and Rsh > > Ra resulting in: Dividing Eq. and '' would be the number of strings for the field-array. The starting torque using Eqs. this ratio (Eq. Separately Excited Motor A shunt excited motor may be wired as a separate excited motor by connecting the field and the armature circuits of two separate sources. we have.e. . Also IM>>If for any s.. Buck/Boost. In this arrangement. this ratio (Eq. eq. (20). 'a-b' would be the number of strings for the armature-array.e. The MPPT consists of a power processing circuit. and is the same as for the permanent magnet motor. The power processing circuit of the MPPT can be modeled by a controlled time-variableSOCAR CELL _---__MPPT SOLAR CELL ARRAY %h SOLAR CELL ARMTURE ARRAY SOLAR CELL F I E L D ARRAY 9 Fig. (13). (20) and (23) is: For s=sn. 3. The b rated field current and voltage correspond to the maximum power point of the field array. the starting to rated torque ratio of the shunt motor is considerably increased. (7) the array splitting ratio is: For s=sn. For load lines operating only in the current range of the I-V characteristics of the solar cells (Fig. two separate resistive loads: the field resistive load. (11)) is about 1. 2). Since the original unsplit array o p h t e d at its maximum power point. The field current at starting is: The armature current at starting is: The shunt motor starting torque according to Eq. according to Eq. RaIIRsh. The higher output power results also in higher starting torque as is shown in the following analysis. The array can then be split into a larger array For s=sn. i.49 At starting (E = 0). i.2. the motor operation can be improved. IfM(Sn) and V M ( S ~ ) respectively. splitting the solar cell array into an armature and field arrays. . or Boost circuit [13].. as shown in Fig. this ratio (Eq. Fig..e. This low value is attributed to the low field current at starting caused by the low voltage at the motor terminals. and a smaller array for the field circuit according to the power requirement of each circuit. i.2. the armature current at starting is: for the armature circuit. 3 Array split into armature and field arrays. as Buck.144. (27) and Ia>>If we get the starting torque ratio of the separate excited motor: For s=sn. at starting.&) Isc(s). using Eq. (S). and connecting separately the armature and the field circuits to the above arrays. (6) and (21) becomes Since Ia>>If. 4 A solar cell system with an MPPT. we obtain RaIIRsh Ra and Ia. the starting torque ratio of the shunt motor is very low and is usually not sufficient to overcome the starting torque of the mechanism. If 'a' is the number of strings of the whole array for the shunt motor. (11) is 1. one may write ratio becomes "= Is&) and the starting current and the motor starting torque ratio (Eqs. this ratio. IM(s) and VM(S). (29) by Eq. and the armature resistive load which are connected to two separate solar cell sources. MOTOR STARTING CURRENT AND TORQUE RATIOS WITH AN MPPT IN THE SYSTEM By matching the solar cell array to the motor by means of a "maximum power point tracker" (MPPT). . it has been shown [I21 that the total output power of loads connected to separate sources is higher than the total output power of the same loads when connected to a common source. the motor is represented by two resistors connected in parallel: the armature Ra and field &h resistors.. (11)) is 1. the starting current ratio becomes - - or with Eq.

64. respectively: Ist(s) with MPPT Tst(s) with MPPT (38) For s=sn and Eq. We define current and torque magnification factors mI and mT by the ratio of the starting current and torque with an MPPT to the starting current and torque without an MPPT.64.m. The motor voltage V . motor starting current is given by Eq.e. motor.. The desired matching is achieved by controlling k such that the array operates at its maximum power-voltage and current. the TVT is assumed to be loss free. therefore all of the array power is delivered to the motor load. the same as for the series r . (]I). (43). The motor torque is proportional to the armature and field currents. the torque magnification factor is: m1 = Ist(s) without MPPT ’ mT = Tst(s) without MPPT Permanent Magnet Motor The motor starting current without and with an MPPT is given by Eqs. the current magnification is mI = 2.50 transformer (M)[I41 i which the transformation ratio k is n changed continuously. The input/output equations of the TVT are: (39) For s=sn and using Eq.. (]I). (17) and (37) is: [Y] = [:4[ I: where k is the transformation ratio. the torque magnification is 6.e. Since the motor torque is directly proportional to the armature current. i. Series Excited Motor The starting current magnification (Eqs. the array by: and current I. (21) and (43) and Ra < < Rsh ) is: In the previous section we have calculated the starting current and torque ratios of the different dc motors when an MPPT was not included in the system. Shunt Excited Motor At starting. i.f. an MPPT and a dc motor is shown in Fig. the motor starting current is: (44) The starting current magnification (Eqs. (22). are related to VM and IM of The The armature current at starting is: At motor starting E = 0 and Eq. the current magnification is 2. and using (21). (37).64. (I]). (35) and (36) for an insolation level s. The starting current and torque are increased when an MPPT is included in the system. The increase or the magnification of the starting current and torque will now be calculated. Since for a series motor the torque is proportional to the square of the armature current we have: Using Eqs. (31) to (33) and solving for k we get For s=sn and Eq. (14) and (37). m~=6. E and the armature circuit resistance R. m1=2.94 i. 4. ( I I ) .64. A system consisting of a solar cell array. For s=sn and Eq. and (44).. the torque magnification is also mT = 2.94. respectively. (]I).e. the amount of increase depending on the motor type. (34) reduces to: and the field current at starting is: Using Eqs. The motor is represented by the e. [-I:[ The motor voltage equation is: Vm = E 2 1 + ImR (33) For s=sn and Eq. corresponding to variation in the load operating point. the equivalent motor resistance is RaIIRsh.

the energy gain in using an MPPT in a positive displacement-pump-system is higher than for a centrifugal-pump-system [15].51 Separately Excited Motor (53) The shunt motor can operate as a separately excited motor by connecting the armature and field circuits to separate voltages as shown in Fig. since RaIIRsh z Ra. For the case where the solar cell array is not split. In this paper we addressed the starting current and torque of dc motors in systems. It is worthwhile mentioning that in all cases the current and torque magnification factors are a function of the motor parameters Vn.96. Comparing the magnifications to a system without an MPPT where the array can be split. 5 CONTROL Separately excited motor connected to a solar cell array with an MPPT. cost and efficiencies of MPPT's. . The starting and steady state characteristics of dc motor-pumping systems. the starting current magnification is given by Eq. 5. the benefit in using an MPPT is larger. (51). [lo]. (I]). For a less effective system design.94. temperature variation. m~=6. For insolation lower than for the rated design. therefore. Including an MPPT in such a system would result in a higher gain in performance. It should be noted that the starting torque magnification in this case is very high since the starting torque of the shunt motor without an MPPT is very low. Maximum-Power-Point-Trackers are commercially available devices for photovoltaic system. and the armature is powered through the MPPT. (28). and the solar cell array parameters IM and Is. DISCUSSION Since Ia > > If. A yearly gain in energy may. not including MPPT's. The torque magnification factor is obtained by Eqs. In. and (49): and the armature starting current according to Eq. justify the incusion of an MPPT in the system. For a first approximation and for the comparison between the different motor types. R. In this case. (37) is: The starting current and torque magnification of the separately excited motor can be calculated for two cases depending whether or not the solar cell array can be split into two arrays: one for the armature circuit and the other for the field circuit. The trade-offs for including or not including MPPT's in PV systems depends on several factors: price of solar cells. In this case the motor torque would result in a somewhat lower value than for the linear case. Test and calculated results show a gain of about 20 percent in systems including MPPT's [7]. The field current is: (47) The power delivered to the armature circuit is: For s=sn and Eq. The dependence of the magnetic flux on the field current of the dc motor is expressed by the magnetization curve which is linear in a large range. system friction. Therefore. For higher current values. with and without Since > > if - " 'f I Fig. A constant current load is the worst type of load for solar cells. (47). load type and the effectiveness of the system design.0OO-lO. insolation variation. It should be noted that it is not always worthwhile (or possible) to split the array. [11] and [15]. the separately excited motor operates as a shunt excited motor in the system without an MPPT. where the field current is directly connected to the array that operates at VM and IM. (49h For s=sn and Eq. (11) we obtain m~=21. the assumption of the linear relationship between the magnetic flux and field current is justified. the starting current magnification (Eqs.OOO/kW and MPPT's can be produced at the cost of about $150-200/kW with efficiencies of higher than 90 percent [9]. For areas where the seasonal temperature varies in a wide range. A centrifugal pump-load matches better to solar cells than a positive displacement pump. [IO]. the motor will mostly operate in the linear range of the magnetic flux. The starting of a motor-load system is a transient process involving the resistances and reactances of the motor field and armature circuits. the curve gradually saturates and a nonlinear dependence between the magnetic flux and field current takes place. were analyzed in [5]. (22). (21). and load characteristic. The same applies for a wider diurnal variation in insolation.. an MPPT may be advantageous. The price of solar cells is about $5.

1985.94 1. 1988. NO. R. 2485-2489. on Circuits and Systems. L s a Vegas.64 1. Singer. Braunstein. M. The starting to rated torque value of the permanent magnet motor is in the allowable range. E. 13-18.J. The starting torque magnification is lower. Anis. 27-30. "Coupling of a Volumetric Pump to a Photovoltaic Array. "Starting and Steady-State Characteristics of D. Y. "Analysis and Design Optimization of Photovoltaic Water/Pumping Systems. the starting torque magnification i about the same. on Energy Conversion. 1033-1037. S . 4.R. 27-42. pp. 1980. on Energy Conversion. pp. J." IEEE Trans.17 2.E. The results are summarized in Table 1 for rated design insolation. pp. R. 1989. the Isc is reached with a short delay in time as compared to a pure resistive circuit." IEE Proc. 1987.99 6. pp. 16th IEEE PVCS.97 6. Advances in Solar Energy Technology. A. Table 1 also shows that whereas the starting current magnification of all motor types is about the same. vol. vol. CAS-33. No. pp. pp. pp. 14. Pivot. Appelbaum." IEEE Trans.94 1. the system starts to rotate before Isc is reached. Middlebrook. Vol. "Small-Scale-Powered Pumping System: The Technology." IEEE Trans. 32. 6. sepatately. S . Appelbaum. and the magnification of these values when MPPT's are included in the system. Landsman. shunt. "Maximum Power Trackers for Photovoltaic Array". 26-30.14 . "Direct Coupling of Photovoltaic Power Source to Water Pumping System. 134. the reactances were not considered without loosing accuracy. The torque magnifications were obtained for linear modeling of the motors and for loss-free MPF'T's. for the other possible connection of the separately excited motor. vol. 4. Vittorio Arcidiacono. 1982. however. 1984. 76. depending on the time constant of the circuit. Sept. NO.for the first instant only when the voltage is applied to the motors. for the permanent magnet motor. pp. Sarma.64 1. pp. Taking into account the motor reactances. REFERENCES [I] Sir William Halcrow and Partners. et al. 1987. Sept. Pulfrey.64 (depending on the approximation). pp.P.35 21.2 3. W. These assumptions provide limits for the torque magnification and a good basis for the comparison of the different motors. "A PhotovoltaicPowered System for Medium Head Pumping. "Optimization of the P.June 5-8. Dunford. and shunt excited dc motors powered by solar cell arrays were calculated for systems with and without a maximumpower-point-tracker. 13th IEEE PVSC." 20th IEEE PVSC.64 1. J. 1989. No. Las Vagas.2 3. 281-287. 1978. Van Overstraeten. Test result supporting the present study are given in [7] for the permanent magnet motor. For this instant of time only the resistance and reactance of the motor govern the starting current and hence the starting torque. 635-642.V. No. and very high.64 1. 1988. for the series. pp. 4.R. pp. Vol.44 9. 351-357. J.94. For high insolation levels.C. Meters. In these cases the MPPT may be controlled to operate off the maximum power point to meet the desired torque. San Diego. Oct. on Energy Conversion. "Small Signal Modelling of Pulse Width Modulated Switched Mode Power Converters.L. "The Maximum Power Transfer from a Nonlinear Energy Source to an Arbitrary Load. June 1983. Schach. Appelbaum. "Maximum Power Tracker for Photovoltaic Power Plants". W. 343-354. The starting torque of the shunt motor remains low even when an MPPT is included in the system. Blevins. 507-512. 3. 4. Sept." Proc. 21-25. 1637-1642.94 0. pp. and one of possible s connection of the separately excited motors. "The Operation of Loads Powered by Separate Sources or by a Common Source of Solar Cells. 1986. Cannes. P. 1986. "Canoical Approach to Energy Processing Network Synthesis. IEEE Trans. NO." UNDP Project CL0/80/003. 1.G. CONCLUSIONS The starting current and torque ratios of the permanent magnet. Executed by the World Bank. In the present paper. If nonlinearity is considered.S.D. 3rd EC Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.2 26.A. Ward." 18th IEEE PVSC.17 2. 21.17 2. 'The Operation of Permanent Magnet DC Motors Powered by Common Source of Solar Cells". Vo.R. the starting current reaches its peak value 1. 2. pp. 27-30 Oct. IEEE. J.17 2.96.17 2. The analysis presented in this paper may assist the PV system designer to determine the starting currents and torques for the different motor types.2 8. the starting torque ratio of the series and separately excited motor may be too high for the drive system at high insolation levels.2 3. R.2 3." Solar Energy. 489-498. vol. R. vol. Hanitsch. EC-1. of the solar cell away before rotation of the system starts. Washington DC. Its Economic and Advancement.2 3. B. 4. 1182-1187.33 6. D." Solar Cells.B.P. For low insolation levels. NO.64 1. 17-25. "Improved Solar Pump System due to an Additional Power Electronic Subsystem".2 3. R. 996-1000. series. Starting current mI and starting torque mT magnification factors were defined by the ratio of the starting current and starting torque of the motor with an MPPT to the corresponding values without an MPPT. Hsiao.64.96 W i t h o u t MPPT W i t h MPPT Magnification m I 1. Array-Load Energy Transfer by Means of an Electronic Adaptor". Singer. Dunlop. 767-774. The salient result of the study is the high magnification of the starting torque of the dc motors in systems including MPFT's.17 2. 2. 4. J. Hamburg. [2] Permanent magnet Series Shunt Separately excited (split) Separately excited (unsplit) W i t h o u t MPPT With MPPT M a g n i f i c a t i o n mT 1. 1985. In both cases the starting motor current is the Isc value. 8. the above values would somewhat to be lower. Motors Powered by Solar Cell Generators.64 . Proceedings of the Biennial Congress of the International Solar Energy Society.52 MPWs. et al.

M. and on photovoltaic systems. degrees in electrical engineering from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology. During 1978-1980. and D. IEEE PES. From 1969 until 1972. timevariable coupling networks. Dr.Sc. inverters. Israel. and photovoltaic solar energy systems. 1963. In 1978 he joined the staff of the Faculty of Engineering.Sc. Tel. he became the Chairman of the Department of Electronic Communications. Boulder.Sc. he joined the Faculty of Engineering at Tel-Aviv University. Israel.Sc. (USA) as a Development Project Engineer. Currently he is on sabbatical at UCCS. the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. . he was a visiting Assistant Professor at the University of Oklahoma.Sc.Aviv University. degrees from the Technion. He is a member of IEEE Electric Machines Committee. Israel. Haifa. photovoltaic systems.53 S. switch networks. and reviewer of several IEEE Transactions. respectively.%. and Computer Systems. His fields of interest are electrical machines and drives. In 1972. s. During 1981-1983 he was a visiting Professor at the University of Colorado. Singer D.. (M'66-SM78) received the B. Currently he is with NASA Lewis Research Center as a National Research Council Associate on sabbatical leave from Tel-Aviv University. energy conversion. Israel in 1967 and 1973.. and 1%7 respectively. Chapter Chairman. he was a Lecturer at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and. optimization of electromagnetic devices. In 1%7. power processing. Tel-Aviv. modelh g and simulation of circuits operated at IOW losses conditions. Haifa. Singer received the B. and D. Control. in 1%8. on sabbatical leave from Tel-Aviv University. His fields of research are: power electronics.Sc. in 1%1. he worked for General Electric Co. Norman. Joseph Appelbaum D. Appelbaum has published numerous articles in leading journals on optimization of electrical machines.

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