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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 19, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2004

**Dynamical Variable Structure Controller for Power Regulation of Wind Energy Conversion Systems
**

Hernán De Battista and Ricardo J. Mantz

Abstract—The paper addresses the problem of output power regulation of ﬁxed-pitch variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Operation is constrained by practical reasons to the lowspeed side of the turbine power—speed curve. Unfortunately, this region is characterized by a nonminimum phase dynamics which is an obstacle to perform the regulation task. A dynamical variable structure controller is developed that accomplishes the control objective despite this limitation. The proposed control strategy presents attractive features such as robustness to parametric uncertainties of the turbine and generator as well as to electric grid disturbances. Index Terms—Power generation control, variable structure systems, wind energy.

I. INTRODUCTION

T

HE RAPID consumption of fuel resources in past decades and the growing interest in environment protection have been encouraging research and development of alternative methods for electricity generation. Wind energy is, for many reasons, one of the most promising renewable energy resources. In order to have control of the captured power, ﬁxed-pitch wind turbines should operate at variable speed. Variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VS-WECS) frequently employ induction machines as generating units [1]–[3]. In some schemes, the wind turbine drives a squirrel cage generator (SCIG) connected to grid through a static converter [4], [5]. In other cases, the turbine is coupled to a double output induction generator (DOIG) with slip power recovery [6], [7]. The advantages and disadvantages of these schemes are summarized in [2] and [7]. Commonly, the prime control objective of VS-WECS is power efﬁciency maximization. To achieve this goal the turbine tip-speed-ratio should be maintained at its optimum value despite wind variations. Nevertheless, control is not always aimed at capturing as much energy as possible. In fact, in above rated wind speed, the captured power needs to be limited. Although there are both mechanical and electrical constraints, the more severe ones are commonly on the electric machine and the electronic converter. Hence, regulation of the power managed by the generator (i.e., the output power) is usually intended [4]. In addition, output power regulation may also

Manuscript received August 13, 2003. This work was supported in part by CONICET, in part by CICpBA, in part by UNLP, and by ANPCyT. H. De Battista is with the Laboratorio de Electrónica Industrial, Control e Instrumentación, UNLP C.C.91 (1900), La Plata, Argentina and also with the National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET) (e-mail: deba@ing.unlp.edu.ar). R. J. Mantz is with the Laboratorio de Electrónica Industrial, Control e Instrumentación, UNLP C.C.91 (1900), La Plata, Argentina. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TEC.2004.827705

be desired even below rated wind speed. For instance, when a power demand has to be tracked such as in some autonomous systems [8] or when the supplied power is restricted by power quality problems of weak grids [9]. A required power below the available in the wind can be captured at two different tip-speed-ratios. Accordingly, there are two possible regions of turbine operation, namely the high- and low-speed regions. High-speed operation is frequently bounded by the speed limit of the machine. Conversely, regulation in the low-speed region is usually not restricted by speed constraints. However, the system has nonlinear nonminimum phase dynamics in this region. This adverse behavior is an obstacle to perform the regulation task. One of the ﬁrst approaches to power regulation is found in [8] where a dead beat control of output power was proposed. The knowledge of wind velocity is needed for controller implementation. So, it is estimated from the power—speed characteristic of the turbine. Unfortunately, there are some inherent difﬁculties with this approach. On one hand, a precise knowledge of the turbine aerodynamics is needed for estimation purposes. On the other hand, the turbine aerodynamics is not uniquely related with wind velocity, i.e., the wind cannot be uniquely determined from speed and power measurement. There are other control attempts concerning indirect regulation of the output power. They are based on controlling the aerodynamic torque to track a given constant power curve, but aerodynamic torque or shaft acceleration estimators are required. In addition, the aerodynamic power may differ substantially from output power during transients because of large turbine inertia. In [10], a variable structure controller (VSC) for output power regulation in the high-speed region is proposed. The controller is robust to electrical parameter uncertainties as well as to wind disturbances. However, if the same controller was used in the low-speed region to broaden the operation range, the same robustness properties could not be maintained. In fact, speed feedback would be necessary to avoid instability because of nonminimum phase dynamics. Moreover, wind estimation would be needed as well. In this paper, the use of variable structure systems (VSS) theory for wind power regulation is further investigated. A novel dynamical controller is proposed for low-speed output power regulation which overcomes the practical limitations of previous control solutions. An attractive feature of the proposed control strategy is the capability of zeroing in ﬁnite time a prescribed signal, which is designed to meet the control speciﬁcations, through a discontinuous control policy. Moreover, this signal is maintained at zero despite wind variations, grid disturbances, parameter uncertainties, and estimation errors.

0885-8969/04$20.00 © 2004 IEEE

In Section II. SCIG and DOIG are commonly employed. the maximum power efﬁis plotted as a ciency locus dashed line. coefﬁcient is closely related with system stability. the wind turbine should operate at one of two possible or . 3. being the turbine tip-speed-ratio at speed. conversely. 1. This line is the boundary between high. the stator is directly connected to the grid whereas an electronic converter recovers the slip power. Section V outlines the conclusions. 1(a)]. Finally. The power coefﬁcient describes the turbine aerodynamics. In schemes using DOIG. Fig. II. Besides. Variable speed operation is through achieved by controlling the synchronous speed the frequency of the converter. the power available in the wind is . Thus. Note that in the low-speed region. In schemes using SCIG [Fig. Generator Units In VS-WECS. Aerodynamics The power captured by the wind turbine is (1) where is the air density. is a nonlinear function of the [Fig. Another distinctive where the turbine stalls. Fig.De BATTISTA AND MANTZ: DYNAMICAL VSC FOR POWER REGULATION OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS 757 Fig. Turbine coefﬁcients (a) C and (b) . Power—speed characteristic of the turbine. B. sired. extracting an amount of power below the available in the wind was de. the gearbox is omitted for simplicity sake (all the variables in the paper are referred to the low-speed side . is illustrated. the wind turbine. and at . the control system should track despite wind speed variations. Hence. In this case. The paper is organized as follows. Consequently. As will turbine operating point is be seen in Section III. A static Kramer drive is usually employed as recovery drive. The dynamical VSC controller is developed in Section III and its features are validated through simulation results in Section IV. generator and mechanical models are described. If. [10] In Fig. 1(b). This coefﬁcient reaches its maximum . variable speed opof the eration is accomplished by adjusting the ﬁring angle thyristors. is the length of the blades.and lowspeed regions. the coefﬁcient (2) in the high-speed region. and is the wind velocity. the high-speed regions. 2 shows the power—speed curve of a wind turbine with wind velocity as parameter. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION A. In Fig. when energy capture maximization is the main goal. 3(a)]. the power coefﬁcient should be lower Thus. there are two regions of opertip-speed-ratios and low-speed ation. 2. the machine is coupled to the grid through a static converter.

the controller requires neither wind nor aerodynamic torque estimation. DECEMBER 2004 grid as electric power ﬂuctuations and a rigid model of the system is adequate for the purposes of this paper [4]. is a nonminimum phase output of the system in this region. a novel stabilizing controller for output power regulation in the low-speed region is proposed which overcomes the practical limitations of previous approaches. well as in the turbine aerodynamics (i. in the .e. NO. On the other hand. the control signal becomes unbounded. of the gearbox). In fact. Fig. That is. speed feedback introduces new inconveniences. ence power. There is. the connection of the generator to the grid will be ﬂexible due to the nature of the control objective. In this paper.758 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. In fact. Suitable for the schemes in Fig. WECS schemes using (a) squirrel-cage and (b) double-output induction generators. the wind velocity is estimated from power and shaft speed measures. the zero-dynamics is unstable in the low-speed region due to the positive intrinsic speed feedback of the turbine. 4. however. the zero-dynamics. Hence.. C. In the particular case of output power regulation of WECS operating in the low-speed region. This restriction is particularly severe in WECS using DOIG. The input signal is or (more precisely ) depending on the WECS conﬁguration. but this measure may differ from the “effective” wind passing through the rotor. being the referThe output is the normalized power error. So. One possibility is to measure the wind with a single or an array of anemometers located near the turbine. this algorithm presents some drawbacks too: it requires a precise knowledge of and the solution is not unique: the turbine characteristic in fact. 19. As it was aforementioned. regulation at rated power is in general only feasible in the low-speed region. In fact. Dynamics It is known that when the speed of the WECS is ﬁxed. i. respectively. thus presenting robustness to uncertainties in wind velocity as curve). the steady-state models of the induction machines are adequate for torque calculation. [8].. it provides two solutions at and . a signiﬁcant reason to develop stabilizing controllers for power regulation in the low-speed region: the speed limits of the machine do not restrict WECS operation to a narrow wind speed range as they do (independently of the control methodology) in the high-speed region. That is. speed feedback can be included in the control law to stabilize the closed-loop dynamics [8]. 4. On one hand. respectively. 4 for both schemes parameterized and the cosine of the ﬁring angle by the synchronous speed . the aerodynamic loads will not be transmitted to the III. power regulation is comparatively more difﬁcult and the same robustness properties cannot be achieved. however. DYNAMICAL VARIABLE STRUCTURE CONTROL In this section. Under the reasonable assumption that the mechanical dynamics is dominant. where Fig.e. VOL. Typical characteristics are depicted in Fig. 3. the dynamics of the system with the output forced to zero [15]. Torque—speed characteristic of (a) SCIG with static converter and (b) DOIG with static Kramer drive. This property is exploited in [10] where a VSC is proposed to force the output to be zero despite wind variations. However. However. when a feedback control system is designed to keep constant a nonminimum phase output. is stable in the high-speed region. the aerodynamic loads may be ampliﬁed and transmitted to the grid by underdamped oscillation modes of the drive-train. A more realistic option is the use of the turbine itself as anemometer [8]. These modes should therefore be considered in the model [12] [13]. The dynamic behavior of the system is completely different in both regions of turbine operation. computing the reference speed is not a simple task in practice. 3 expressions of the generator torque are available in [11] and [12]. Moreover. nonminimum phase dynamics are a serious obstacle for output regulation. [14] (3) (4) is the inertia of the overall WECS and is the generator power.

independently of the selection of the controller gains and . The amplitude of the discontinuous action and the gains and are parameters to be designed. B. the captured power equals its reference value at two different shaft speeds (low-speed operation) and (high-speed operation). The control algorithm is based on the VSS theory. Then.e. constraining the system state to a manifold in the state space. an advantage of dynamical SM over conventional SM is does not affect directly the that the discontinuous action control signal . 5. but its derivative . It is immediate to show from (17)–(18) that a sufﬁcient condition for local stability around the lowis speed equilibrium point (20) . A. there are two equilibrium points and . It is robust to parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. and power ripple on the other hand. Fortunately. the sliding dynamics is governed by the designer-chosen sliding surface. linearizing the SM dynamics (11)–(12) around any of the equilibrium points is straightforward (17) (18) (19) where and . The controller dynamics are described by the following equations: (5) (6) (7) (8) where is the controller output (i. the discontinuous term can also be seen as the control effort that compensates for parameter uncertainties. and it is easy to implement [16]–[19]. This controller law has been designed to obtain the following ideal reaching dynamics [17]: (9) such that the surface coordinate function is zeroed in the ﬁnite . a compromise arises between speed of convergence and robustin the design of ness on one hand. named sliding surface. some guidelines on the design of feedback gains and are given. Speed feedback is included in (8) to avoid instability owing to the nonminimum phase WECS dynamics. In particular. Thereafter. A VSS comprises a set of continuous subsystems with a switching logic that is a function of the system state. ideally inﬁnite. a sliding regime is established time on the surface deﬁned by (10) The function is designed for the system to meet the control speciﬁcations on its associated sliding surface (10). Besides. In principle. for schemes using for schemes using DOIG with Kramer SCIG and is an internal state of the controller. Then. the dynamic expanis included to eliminate steady state power errors. tion of the system state. The controller output is obtained by integrating (6). So.. In fact. Expanding (1) in its Taylor series yields (14) where (15) (16) represents the higher order terms of the series expanand sion. external disturbances and estimation errors. electric parameter uncertainties. In sion following sections.De BATTISTA AND MANTZ: DYNAMICAL VSC FOR POWER REGULATION OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS 759 Fig. A particular operation is achieved when switching occurs at very high frequency. switching occurs at very high frequency and a sliding regime is established on it. and is a funcdrive). Discontinuous Controller Dynamics The basic idea of VSC is to switch among two possible control signals in order to steer the state trajectory toward a prescribed sliding surface in the state space. maintaining the state trajectory on the sliding surface (10). Proposed control system. 5. Hence. the strong invariance property with respect to these perturbations. voltage and frequency generator redisturbances. the switching action in (6) provides the inherent robustness properties of SM control. linear approximation of the sponse and errors in the acceleration estimation are all perturbations satisfying the matching condition [16]. Once this surface is reached. A schematic diagram of the dynamical SM controller proposed in this paper is shown in Fig. the chattering is signiﬁcantly reduced in this application. Besides assuring convergence toward the sliding surface. all sliding regimes on (10) will exhibit. This kind of operation is called sliding mode (SM) and has many attractive features. Stability Analysis The SM dynamics of the controlled system is obtained by evaluating (3) and (5) at (11) (12) (13) Given a constant wind velocity such that the reference power is below the available in the wind.

In addition. both equilibrium point equilibrium points may be located within the speed limits of the machine and some sliding regimes may be unstable. then the sliding regime will converge toward . these lines intersect the sliding surface at the equilibrium points and . The parallel white lines denote the points of desired turbine power . VOL. Main sliding surface = 0. DECEMBER 2004 Fig. which are inherent to nonlinear systems. Clearly. which steers all state trajectories toward the domain of on . Fig. 8. to avoid instability. auxiliary switching surfaces can be incorporated to the switching logic. is not a difﬁcult task in VSC. 6 shows the sliding surface . the discontinuous action (7) is replaced by and (23) As a result of this switching logic. all sliding regimes in the vicinity will be stable. 4. In fact. 19. i. For instance. Auxiliary Switching Surface in the state space deFig. Conversely. for gains and satisfying of is unstable. C. the optimum power locus is shown. if (20)–(21) hold. The proposed auxiliary surface is attraction of indeed the optimum power locus of the turbine. is usually beyond the speed limit of the machine and all sliding regimes converge toward the low-speed . if the surface (10) is reached at the left of . Combined sliding surface = 0. Sliding regimes on = 0. (21) That is. the system should be prevented from reaching the sliding surface outside the domain of attraction of .. Avoiding this kind of problems. With this aim. a number of sliding regimes initiated at difare displayed (these trajectoferent points on the surface ries have been obtained by simulation of the system described in Section IV). At (20)–(21). an auxiliary switching surface is Fig.e.760 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. preventing the system from reaching dangerous regions in the state space [12]. added. NO. The line is the boundary of the domain of attraction of on the sliding surface. 8. Obviously. sliding modes occur on the depicted in Fig. Fig. 6. 7. Some of the trajectories converge toward the stable equilibrium point whereas the others are unstable. 6 onto the plane. This surface coincides sliding surface with the main surface in the region where and . 7 is the projection of Fig. [19]. the high-speed equilibrium point high wind velocities. The characterﬁned by the variables istic of the turbine is also depicted for a given wind velocity. That is. In this ﬁgure. the surface deﬁned by (22) Switching is now dependent of both switching functions . at low wind velocities. However.

the design procedure reduces to select the damping coefﬁcient as a compromise between the peak value (which is a decreasing function of ) and the bandwidth that increases with . Finally. though other values of could be chosen to weight other freequals quency components. Sliding regimes on = 0. 8 onto the plane. Assuming that the reference power is lower than the available in the wind. 9. the controller parameters and are readily recovered (33) (34) and the condition (20)–(21). the reaching mode. So. the gain wind velocities. to keep .De BATTISTA AND MANTZ: DYNAMICAL VSC FOR POWER REGULATION OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS 761 with the auxiliary surface where can be described by (22).e. whereas (23) can be rewritten as is no more an equilibrium point of the system. some guidelines for the design of the controller parameters and are provided. the performance of the system on the main surface. Fig. when (31) the peak of takes its minimum value (32) Then. and Note: reach in ﬁnite time the main all sliding trajectories on sliding surface where all trajectories converge toward . is governed In fact. and . the sliding dynamics on by (26) (27) From (27). as . all trajectories converge to . First. Naturally. From (8) and (24) (25) . the transfer funccan be obtained tion (28) where (29) (30) The control objective is for the generator power to track its reference value. To corroborate these assertions. in the vicinity of the equilibrium point. Alsponse (for two different values of ) with Fig. 9. Performance Analysis The aim of the auxiliary surface described above is to steer all trajectories in the state space toward the stable region of the main surface (10) where the system performs satisfactorily. Then. or alternatively and should be designed to minimize power ﬂuctuations caused by wind turbulence. D. which is SM on . Furthermore. is analyzed in more detail.. 10. Fig. the turbine coefﬁcient varies with turbine and and constant. and then the on . . as well as (31). the part of the trajectory from the initial condition to the new switching surface . These new trajectories were obtained for the same initial conditions of Fig. Hence. is obviously satisﬁed. Frequency response of the controlled system with f as parameter (a) = 1=2 and (b) = 2. which is the projection of Fig. 7. Clearly. 10 depicts the frequency reas parameter. In the following paragraphs. Note that all trajectories initiated below the maximum power locus have two phases. both and decrease until the main sliding surface is reached. stability of all the unique equilibrium point on sliding regimes is assured. the parameters and . i. new simulation results are shown in Fig. From the linearized SM dynamics (17)–(19).

NO. In Figs. 13. IV. 9. 4(b). 12 and 13. that is its ability to steer all state trajectories toward the stable region of . Observation. The power reference consists of a Fig. A much simpler option is to design and from . the stability properties of the controller. 13(a) shows the ability of the controller to maintain the despite wind turbulence and system sliding regime on uncertainties.762 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. series of steps illustrated in Fig. the system state leaves the sliding surface when reference steps occur because the system state cannot change instantaneously. 12(a).. the more generic case of a variable reference power is considered in this example. which show the performance of the system during sliding mode operation. Besides. Fig. Fig. accelerator estimation errors. Both the generator power transferred to the grid and the power available in the wind are also depicted in Fig. The feedback gains and are designed so that and at the strongest wind condition.e. the discontinuous action . Simulation results are obtained for a medium-size (90 kW) wind-driven DOIG characteristic of the with static Kramer Drive. uncertainties in electrical parameters and variables. 11 depicts the block diagram of the controlled WECS under consideration. (c) Tip-speed-ratio. The wind velocity proﬁle is drawn in Fig. (a) Surface coordinate. its robustness properties are corroborated. corroborating the satisfying regulation properties of the controller. new the surface simulation results are presented. On the other hand. 4. The piece-wise constant reference signal considered in this example is particularly appropriate to examine the regulation properties during the sliding regimes as well as the reaching features of the VSC. VOL. It is seen that the generator power is maintained around its reference value despite large wind power ﬂuctuations. Note that power regulation in the high-speed region at these wind conditions is impossible because of shaft speed constraints. 12. (a) Wind velocity proﬁle and (b) reference (dashed). In particular. since the controller maintains the ability to enforce the sliding regimes on the prescribed surface. 12(b). The turbine is displayed in Fig. the control signal dynamics is a simpliﬁed version of (6) (35) is the estimated slope of the generator characwhere teristic. 11. Block diagram of the controlled WECS. (20)–(21)] will be still guaranteed at any other operating condition provided the maximum value of coefﬁcient satisﬁes . Stability of (33)–(34) for a given operating point where [i. Although in many applications the reference signal is constant and equal to the rated power of the WECS. In Fig. the characteristic of the generator is depicted in Fig. Nevertheless. The overall inertia of the kgm . On one hand. 19. etc. has to be continuously adjusted according to the operating conditions. 2 where the generator characteristics for the extreme values of the control signal are drawn in dotted line. this simpliﬁes the control implementation. the reference power may be maintained below rated power to satisfy a (variable) demand or a given generation policy. Actually. DECEMBER 2004 Fig. The ‘switching function generator’ block computes the reference power (see (24)–(25)) and comto generate the discontinpares it with the output power uous action . wind and captured powers. Actually. Actually. are corroborated. 12(b). in autonomous systems or in WECS connected to weak grids. (b) Control signal. it puts in evidence the robustness properties of the controller to linearization of the generator torque. WECS is Fig. SIMULATION EXAMPLE The behavior of the SM controller for power regulation of VS-WECS is assessed through an example.

London. pp. 17. He received the B. Saribatir and M.” IEEE Trans. 907–915. degree from the National University of La Plata. Power Electronics and AC Drives.. 1039–1061. B. Switzerland: Presses Polytechniques Romandes. As neither wind velocity nor aerodynamic torque estimation is needed. Power Syst. B. “Modeling and control of wind energy conversion systems. respectively. R. 1986. 4. [6] Z. 728–734. [12] H. 414–421. Jovik.: Springer. Sliding Mode Control in Electromechanical Systems. “A variable speed wind turbine power control. 15. Zinger. vol. He has had a visiting appointment for a trimester at the Polytechnical University of Valencia. Power Syst. Sira-Ramírez.. 1999. .” IEEE Trans. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Simões. he has been with the Laboratory of Industrial Electronics Control and Instrumentation (LEICI) in the Electrical Engineering Department. 5. and C. in 1980. 1993. 181–186. Schmidtbauer. Çardici. Réglage par mode de glissement. vol. 8. London. Christiansen. He is also a Research Member of the Scientiﬁc Research Commission (CICpBA). Ricardo J. U. [14] B. “Fuzzy logic based intelligent control of a variable speed cage machine wind generator system.. Tech. [18] V. Salameh and L. Mag.” IEEE Trans.S. 23. 1995.S. The controller steers the system state toward a given sliding surface in the state space where the control speciﬁcations are satisﬁed. estimation errors and other approximations. a precise knowledge of the turbine characteristic is not required. and C. May 2000. vol. [19] H. Res. pp. 1997. Faculty of Engineering. Lausanne. “Various induction generator schemes for wind-electricity generation. 451–457.” IEEE Control Syst. pp.: Taylor & Francis. Carlin. degree (with highest honors) and the Ph. 28–38. National University of La Plata. 1995. Spain. [16] H. J. and E. no. 87–95. 15. T. degree in electronic engineering from the National University of La Plata in 1994 and 2000. the controller presents very attractive robustness properties. 1359–1390. Manama.” Int. [17] H. [15] A. and I. Energy Conversion. 1988. Sira-Ramírez. 13(a) at times 260 and 410 s). Isidori.” IEEE Trans. Argentina. vol. 1. “On the dynamical sliding mode control of nonlinear systems. Dr. Fig. P. pp. Finally. pp. De Battista was granted the Argentinian Academy of Exact. 1987. 1993. J. 3rd ed.E. 48. Utkin. some design guidelines for the controller gains are given in terms of a single parameter. Nonlinear Control Systems. Ranganathan. Hernán De Battista was born in La Plata. 2002. 12. [13] P. Christiansen. Sept. pp. vol. Y.” National Renewable Energy Lab. 1986. pp. pp. [7] R.” IEEE Trans. De Battista. Linders. vol. [11] B. ENERGEX. Ertan. Muljadi. Sept. Control. no. Rep.K. Englewood Cliffs. CONCLUSION A novel dynamical SM controller is proposed for power regulation of wind driven induction generators. NREL/TP-500-28 607. “Sliding mode control of wind energy systems with doig: Power efﬁciency and torsional dynamics optimization. His research interests include the application of nonlinear control to renewable energy systems.K. Energy Conversion. pp. [5] G. vol. no. 327–343. Golden. [3] P. Mantz received the B. the power transferred to grid is insensible to grid disturbances. De Battista. “Novel control strategies for variable speed doubly fed power generation systems. “Variable speed wind power generation using a doubly fed wound rotor induction machine: A comparison with alternative schemes. Üçtug. Control. and B.” Int. A. “Control by variable rotor speed of ﬁxedpitch wind turbine operating in speed range. vol. vol. I. Dec. 1. Energy Conversion. M. Jan.De BATTISTA AND MANTZ: DYNAMICAL VSC FOR POWER REGULATION OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS 763 forces the state trajectory to reach the sliding surface in a short time (see Fig. Tande. 71–83. where he currently serves as Full Professor of Automatic Control. Energy. “Dynamical sliding mode power control of wind driven induction generators.” IEEE Trans. vol. pp. Since then. “The history and state of the art of variable-speed wind turbine technology. Argentina. Ekelund.” IEEE Trans. Mantz. Therefore.” Elect. V. Control. pp.. 1993. Thiringer and J. “Modeling and control of a variable-speed wind-turbine drive-system dynamics. “Analysis of the steady state performance of the double output induction generator. Bose. Sezer. Puleston. vol. Bühler. Muljadi. Demirekler.. M. 6. 12. Kazda. E. 13(c) depicts the tip-speed-ratio proﬁle showing that the turbine operates in its low-speed region in order to capture just a small percentage of the wind power. [2] M. no. [10] H. Spiegal. Novak.D. June 1997. Miller. “Differential geometric methods in variable structure systems. 520–526. Stability conditions are derived and an auxiliary switching surface is added to avoid unstable dynamics in certain regions of operation. U. and D. Ermis. Mantz. 1998. pp. 13(b). H.” Int. J. Laxson. [4] A. 8. vol.” in Proc. Energy Conversion. La Plata. 3rd ed. 1992. 15. He is currently an Assistant Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department at the National University of La Plata and a Research Member of the National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET). [8] T. The control signal provided by the controller is depicted in Fig. Moreover. REFERENCES [1] R. vol. Power Electron.” Renew. Datta and V. Aug. in 1968. Energy Conversion. CO.E. 2001. “Exploitation of wind energy resources in proximity to weak electric grids. [9] J. Bose. Saribatir. 1986. R. Bhowmik. pp. Sezer. 46. His primary area of interest is automatic control systems. 2000. and R. Moreover. Physical and Natural Sciences Outstanding Young Investigator Award (national-annual award) in 2002. in 2003. Spée and S. 57. 26–32.

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A Novel Methodology of Fuzzy Logic Controller for A Dynamically Interconnected Electric Power System

by International Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)

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