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Resistance against the Japanese after the Fall of Bataan and Corregidor April 9, 1942 Fall of Bataan; May

y 6, 1942 Fall of Corregidor It led to the collapse of organized resistance to the Japanese invasion. Walter Cushing headed a guerilla band that killed 500 Japanese Soldiers before he was killed on September 19 121st Infantry Regiment: Walter Cushing, one of three Mexican-American Cushing brothers living in the Philippines, immediately began organizing some local Filipinos into a guerrilla unit in order to help with the war effort if called upon.

Walter Cushing's 121st Infantry was doing quite well against the Japanese until Bataan fell on April 9, 1942. After the surrender, Col. Horan took over from Warner and used the designation "121st Infantry" to cover his larger organization, which still included Cushing's guerrillas. Corregidor fell on May 6, 1942, and Col. Horan surrendered to the Japanese as ordered by Gen. Wainwright. But many of his men, including Walter Cushing, refused. Cushing's guerrillas continued in operation, continuing to designate themselves the "121st Infantry." In September 1942, Walter Cushing was killed in action. The 121st Infantry was one of the more important and more successful guerrilla organizations in the Philippines during the war. It was probably the first resistance group to be formally organized, it was authorized and given its unit designation by General MacArthur, and it operated all the way through the Japanese occupation. In an interesting aside, a third Cushing brother, James, was a guerrilla leader on Cebu island, and at one point in 1944 he captured one of the highest ranking admirals of the Japanese Navy, and with him the Japanese defense plans for the Philippines. Unfortunately, the Japanese retaliated on the local Filipino population until they forced Cushing to give up both the admiral and the plans.

Guerilla movements are composed of 260,000 men and even more supporters Notable Guerilla Leaders:

*Ruperto Kangleon in Leyte - Ruperto Cadava Kangleon was a Filipino military figure and politician. He was a native of Macrohon in what is now the province ofSouthern Leyte. One of the highlights of the ferocious battle against the Japanese Army was the raid on Camp Buga-Buga that was an extremely difficult objective to take. It was a huge network of camps entrenched in large caves that opened into the face of insurmountable cliffs in Southern Leyte. The Black Army was the main force of Kangleon that led in the liberation of Leyte Island during the last phase of the war. *Salipada Pendatun in Mindanao - Senator Datu Salipada K. Pendatun was a lawyer, military officer, legislator and national leader. When the Japanese forces invaded the Philippines, he did not surrender to the Japanese Imperial Army and instead formed a large guerilla army of Muslims and Christians. American soldiers, who refused to surrender to the Japanese Army, also joined

Pendatuns guerilla outfit. He was the only Muslim leader who received the highest war awards from the United States, South Vietnam and the Philippines.

* Wenceslao Vinzon in Bicol Region - He commandeered all the rice warehouses in Camarines Norte, and ordered the confiscation of explosives used in the province's gold mines for use against the Japanese army.[5] Vinzon's troops, armed with poisoned arrows among others, were able to kill around 3,000 Japanese soldiers.[5] As a result, the capture of Vinzons became a prime objective of the Japanese army. With the help of a former guerrilla-turned-informant, Vinzons was seized by the Japanese military together with his father on July 8, 1942. He refused to pledge allegiance to his captors, and was brought to a garrison in Daet. It was there, on July 15, 1942, that Vinzons was bayoneted to death after refusing one final entreaty to cooperate with the Japanese forces.[2] Shortly thereafter, his father, wife, sister and two of his children were also executed by the Japanese * Macario Peralta in Panay Col., After the surrender of the USAFFE troops to the Japanese, Peralta, then a Captain, organized and led the guerrillas in Panay Romblon, Palawan, Marinduque and portions of Masbate and Mindoro. * Roque Ablan in Ilocos Norte - On 10 December 1941, Japanese forces landed in Vigan, Ilocos Sur. The following day, Ablan decided to resist the invasion. He met with other provincial leaders and sought refuge in the town of Solsona, his fathers birthplace. With the help of other government officials and prominent citizens, he was able to organize a guerrilla unit. On March 15, President Quezon issued a statement of support for Ablans guerrilla group. WHe encouraged independent guerrilla groups to accept Ablan's leadership and rally behind him. Ablan established a guerrilla government and divided the province into sectors, with each sector led by a guerrilla leader. The headquarters of this guerrilla government was known as the Malakanyang of the North. *Terry Adevoso and Marcos Agustin in Manila Terry Magtanggol The Hunters ROTC was a Philippine guerrilla unit active during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, and was the main antiJapanese guerrilla group active in the area near the Philippine capital of Manila. It was created upon dissolution of the Philippine Military Academy in the beginning days of the war. Cadet Terry Adivoso, refused to simply go home as cadets were ordered to do, and began recruiting fighters willing to undertake guerrilla action against the Japanese.[ HUKBALAHAP Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon; organized in March 29, 1942; with 30,000 guerilla fighters; headed by Luis Taruc and Casto Alejandrino; KILLED 20, 000 Japanese troops also killed Filipinos who spied for the Japanese; The Hukhbalahap's methods were often portrayed by other guerrilla leaders as terrorist; The most potent of these organizations was the Hukbalahap, which began as a resistance organization against the Japanese but ended as an anti-government resistance movement. During World War II, Taruc led the Hukbalahap in guerrilla operations against the Japanese occupiers of the Philippines, for which the Hukbalahap received little recognition from the United States government. These fighters' weaponry was obtained primarily by stealing it from battlefields and downed planes left behind by the Japanese, Filipinos and Americans. They fought Japanese troops to rid the country of its imperialist occupation, worked to subvert the Japanese tax-collection service, intercepted food and supplies to the Japanese troops, and created a training school where they taught political theory and military tactics based on Marxist ideas. In areas that the group controlled, they set up local governments and instituted land reforms, dividing up the largest estates equally among

the peasants and often killing the landlords; After the war, the Hukbalahap turned their attention to resisting the government of Manuel Roxas, and along with seven of his colleagues, was elected to the House of Representatives but were not allowed to take their seats in Congress, driving them back to the hills. Ngunit pagkaraan ng digmaan, lumasap ito ng masasamang propaganda mula sa mga kalaban, lalo na nang tambangan nito ang pangkat ni Gng. Aurora Quezon noong 1949. Huks members ambushed and murdered Aurora Quezon, Chairman of the Philippine Red Cross and widow of the Philippines' second president, Manuel L. Quezon, as she was en route to her hometown for the dedication of the Quezon Memorial Hospital. Several others were also killed, including her eldest daughter and son-in-law. This attack brought worldwide condemnation of the Hukbalahaps, who claimed that the attack was done by "renegade" members. The continuing condemnation and new post-war causes of the movement prompted the Huk leaders to adopt a new name, the 'Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan' or the 'People's Liberation Army' in 1950.Sinupil din ng sandatahang militar ng Estados Unidos ang Hukbalahap, pinagdadakip ang mga pinuno at ipinabilanggo. Naghunos na Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan (HMB) ang Hukbalahap, ngunit muling binigo at pinagdadakip ang mga pinuno at kasapi nito noong administrasyon ni Pang. Ramon Magsaysay upang maihinto ang lumalaganap na armadong pag-aaklas. Pinagtibay din noong 21 Oktubre 1960 ang Batas Republika 1700, na nagbabawal sa CPP (Communist Party of the Phil), HMB, at iba pang kahawig na samahan na umiral sa lipunan. Barrio United Defense Corps (BUDC) - organized to provide local government. - tried to keep the harvest from Japanese who controlled only 12 out of 48 provinces Nang sumiklab ang digmaan at sakupin ng Japan ang Filipinas, bumuo ng Barrio United Defense Corps (BUDC) ang CPP upang ipagtanggol ang mga tao laban sa mga mananakop at masasamang loob. Tinulungan ng Hukbalahap ang BUDC sa mga gawain nito.

Commonwealth Government in Exile - pinagbawal/barred sa country

Noong ika-8 ng Disyembre, 1941, bago pa lamang naihalal si Quezon sa kanyang ikalawang termino bilang Pangulo nang inatake ng bansang Hapon ang Pearl Harbor sa Hawaii. Sumunod ang pag-atake sa ibat ibang base militar ng Estados Unidos sa Pilipinas. Nang salakayin ng mga Hapones ang Pilipinas, lumikas si Quezon sa Corregidor, kung saan siya muling nanumpa bilang Pangulo noong ika-30 ng Disyembre, 1941, sa harap ng Malinta Tunnel. Nang sumunod na buwan, napilitan si Quezon na lumikas ng Corregidor papuntang Visayas lulan ng isang submarino, at mula doon ay sa papuntang Mindanao. Alinsunod sa imbitasyon ng gobyerno ng Estados Unidos, inilikas siya papuntang Australia at kalaunan sa Estados Unidos, kung saan niya itinayo ang pamahalaang desterado (government in exile) ng Commonwealth ng Pilipinas, na ang punong-tanggapan ay nasa Washington, D.C. Doon, naglingkod siya bilang miyembro ng Pacific War Council at isinulat niya ang sariling talambuhay, ang The Good Fight o Ang Mabuting Pakikipaglaban, na inilathala noong 1946. Ika-14 ng Hunyo 1942, sa White House sa Washington D.C., nang lagdaan ni Quezon ang United Nations Declaration sa ngalan ng Pilipinas. Ito ang kauna-unahang pagkakataon na ang watawat ng Pilipinas ay

itinaas kasama ang watawat ng ibang bansa, at bagamat isa lamang Commonwealth, kinilala na ng ibang bansa sa pag-asang makakamtan din nito ang ganap na kasarinlan President Manuel L Quezon went to Australia and then to America, establishing his exiled cabinet in Washington. Quezon was able to convince President Roosevelt to help the Filipino drive the Japanese invaders from the Philippines and establish its complete independence Manuel L Quezon continued to function as President of Commonwealth until his death at Saranac Lake Sanitarium on August 1, 1944. Namatay si Quezon sa sakit na tuberculosis noong ika-1 ng Agosto 1944 sa Saranac Lake, New York. Una siyang inilibing sa Maine Memorial sa Arlington National Cemetery sa Washington D.C., pagkatapos ay hinukay muli ang kanyang mga labi at isinakay sa USS Princeton[5], at muling inilibing sa Manila North Cemetery noong ika-1 ng Agosto 1946. Kalaunan, inilipat ito sa Manuel Quezon Memorial Shrine, sa loob ng bantayog sa Quezon Memorial Circle sa Lungsod Quezon, noong ika-19 ng Agosto 1979. When Quezon died (Aug., 1944), Vice President Sergio Osmea became president. Osmea returned to the Philippines with the first liberation forces, which surprised the Japanese by landing (Oct. 20, 1944) at Leyte, in the heart of the islands, after months of U.S. air strikes against Mindanao. The Philippine government was established at Tacloban, Leyte, on Oct. 23.

THE BATTLE OF THE PHILIPPINE SEA June 19, 1944 Planes from US carriers attacked Manila on September 21 Americans landed on the beaches of Leyte on October 20 MacArthur's Allied forces landed on Leyte on October 20, 1944. Landings in other parts of the country followed, and the Associates pushed toward Manila. The landing was followed (Oct. 23 26) by the greatest naval engagement in history, called variously the battle of Leyte Gulf and the second battle of the Philippine Sea. A great U.S. victory, it effectively destroyed the Japanese navy and opened the way for the recovery of all the islands. Luzon was invaded (Jan., 1945), and Manila was taken in February. On July 5, 1945, MacArthur announced All the Philippines are now liberated. The Japanese had suffered over 425,000 dead in the Philippines *MacArthur formally proclaimed the restoration of the Commonwealth Govt at Tacloban on October 23

The Battle of the Philippine Sea (June 1920, 1944) was a decisive naval battle of World War II which effectively eliminated the Imperial Japanese Navy's ability to conduct large-scale carrier actions. It took place during the United States' amphibious invasion of the Mariana Islands during the Pacific War. The battle was the fifth of five major "carrier-versus-carrier" engagements between American and Japanese naval forces, and involved elements of theUnited States Navy's Fleet as well as ships and landbased aircraft from the Imperial Japanese Navy's Combined Fleetand nearby island garrisons. The battle was nicknamed the 'Great Marianas Turkey Shoot'[2] in American accounts, for the severely disproportional loss ratio inflicted upon Japanese aircraft by American pilots and anti-aircraft gunners. Ultimately, the Imperial Japanese Navy lost three aircraft carriers, between 550 and 645 aircraft, and hundreds of pilots.[1]

* The Battle of Leyte gulf has been called the greatest naval battle in history and was fought October 2326, 1944. * The American planes sank 80% of the Japanese convoys *Lt. Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita (Tiger of Malaya) managed to triple his forces on Leyte to 65, 000 men by December. Yamashita was ageneral of the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II. He was most famous for conquering the British colonies ofMalaya and Singapore, earning the nickname "The Tiger of Malaya". The Battle of Leyte Gulf, also called the "Battles for Leyte Gulf", and formerly known as the "Second Battle of the Philippine Sea", is generally considered to be the largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, possibly the largest naval battle in history.[2] On 20 October, United States troops invaded the island of Leyte as part of a strategy aimed at isolating Japan from the countries it had occupied in South East Asia, and in particular depriving its forces and industry of vital oil supplies. Nais ng mga Hapones na matalo ang mga sundalo ng Magkaka-alyadong Bansa sa Leyte matapos makuha ito sa mga Hapones sa Labanan sa Leyte. Ngunit, natalo ng mga sundalong Amerikano at iba pang mga kakampi nito ang hukbo ng Imperyal na Hukbong Pandagat ng mga Hapones. Ito ang pinakahuling pangunahing labanan sa karagatan ng Ikalawang Digmaang Pandaigdig. Dito rin unang ginamit ang eroplanong kamikazee. Isang kamikazee ang tumama sa bapor-de-gerang HMAS Australia noong Oktubre 21. *The Americans had nearly 4000 killed and 15,000 wounded on Leyte. *Yamashita lost about 60,000 troops *January 9, 1945, American took the Lingayen Gulf by Surprise *Kamikaze pilots dove their planes into US ships in the Lingayen Gulf, destroying 24 ships and damaging 70. Kamikaze literally: "God wind";were suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy as many warships as possible. * read photocopy *Rear Admiral Sanji Iwabuchi sent 20, 000 sailors into Manila with automatic weapons *US Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) arrested Taruc and other HUKBALAHAP members on February 22 in San Francisco Pampanga. *Fighting continued until Japan's formal surrender on September 2, 1945. The Philippines suffered great loss of life and monstrous physical destruction by the time the war was over. An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed, and Manila was extensively damaged.