This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) provides both the physical structures for mounted and holding of electronic components as well as the electrical interconnection between components. That means a PCB is a platform upon which electronic components such as integrated circuit chips and chips are mounted. A PCB consist of non conducting substrate upon which a conductive pattern or circuitry is formed. Copper is the most prevalent conductor, although nickel, silver, tin, tin-lead and gold may also be used as top level metal. There are different types of PCBs: single sided, double sided, multi layer. Single sided PCBs have conductive pattern on one side only, double sided have conducting pattern on both sides, multi layer consist of alternating layers of conductor and insulating material bounded together. The conductive layers are connected by plated through holes, which are also used to mount and electrically connect components. PCB may also be rigid, flexible, or a combination of two. The combination of PCB and components is an electronic assembly, also called printed circuit board assembly.
1.2 Functions of PCB:
PCB are dielectric substrates with metallic circuitry formed on that. The are some times referred to as the base line in electronic packaging. It serves as a wide range of functions.
The functions of PCB are:
1. To interconnect the singular electronic components electrically. 2. To give physical strength and placement for all the components. 3. In some cases to replace some passive components themselves. 4. Now it is more and more also used to conduct away the heat generated by the components.
1.3 Classifications of PCBs: Number of layers:
1. 2. Single sided board. Double sided board 1
Multi layer board.
1.4 Different dielectric material:
1. Ceramic. 2. Organic with rigid, flex or rigid-flex combined material.
1.5 Fabrication technique:
1. 2. Subtractive technique starts from copper-clad dielectric material materials and later on the unwanted copper will be etched away. Additive technique as well as semi additives technique starts from un coated dielectric materials and the following process of coating a metal layer 3. involves either chemically plating or vaporizing of copper in a high vacuum
1.6 India’s position in the PCB-World
The PCB industry made a beginning in India almost at par with other Nations in the early 1950’s. Till India opened its economy in the 90’s, the policies of the government has had a hard in such a way, that the industry as such had no need to go in to open competition. Even afterwards, the PCB industry didn’t change very fast towards serious efforts in the direction of improving its technical strength to face serious scenario in electronics. PCB industry was also an organized sector prior to 1985. The annual growth of 7% is expected up to the year 2010.the top 15 countries manufacture 93% of world’s production. In 2000 Japan produced 27%, US 25%, Taiwan 11%, and China produced 9% of the total PCB produced. We like it or not, India is still struggling to be a part of this rapid growing PCB market. It produces only .5% of the global PCB production.
1.7 About the base material:
A large variety of copper clad are available these days. Some of them can be punched at low cost. Some of them are advantageous due to their high tg value (tg value or glass transition temperature is the typical mechanical property of the base material up to which temperature no delaminating take place), excellent mechanical strength or chemical properties. The designer has to select out the right material according to the requirements that means the designer should have the fundamental knowledge of the materials used in end product.
FR-4 Laminates are made of epoxy resin impregnated with woven glass fiber. The selection of particular resin is dependent on electrical. These are useful in applications where tight dimensional stability is not required. Epoxy resins. Resins are used to impregnate the selected reinforcement. which are most commonly used are modified with additives to achieve higher thermal properties or improve chemical resistance. The resins used in the manufacture of base material are thermosetting resins which are highly cross linked polymeric structures and do not melt on heating. The have very good thermal. General Components of the Base-Material in the manufacturing of PCB are comprised of three basic building blocks: Resin. temperature and process parameters. The selection of a particular resin is dependent on electrical. Polyester. mechanical and electrical properties and are mostly extensively used material in the PCB industry.FR-2 Laminates are composed of paper and phenol-resin and are cheap. Epoxy. Polyimide are some of the resins in use. 3 . But the absorb water and should not be used in producing PTH PCBs. temperature and process parameters. Reinforcement& metal cladding. Phenol.
Ceramic materials are the some of the reinforcement. Fiber glass has gained popularity because of high tensile strength and dimensional stability. 2. The finished copper is very smooth and shiny on the drum side and has a matte and rough side on the other side. Copper foil can be adhered on one side or on both sides of the composite.Chapter 2 2. stainless steel or beryllium copper. nickel. moisture and corrosion. Asbestos sheet. Paper sheet. HTE or Rolled copper is produced by annealing Electro-Deposited copper at a higher temperature. stability and rigidity to the lamination. But the mostly used substrate is copper due to its availability.2 Reinforcement Reinforcement provides mechanical strength. There are two different types of copper foils: Electro-Deposited (ED) copper foils are produced by depositing copper on stainless drum that rotates in a plating tank with anodes of very pure copper.  4 .1 Metal cladding: Metal cladding as conductive layer can be made of copper. The finished copper foil is then removed from the drum and wound on a roll. Cotton fabric. The rough side gives the strong adhesion to the dielectric material. and resistance to temperature variation. cost and functionality. Glass cloth.
2.3 Single-Sided Technology Typical Flow Chart of Single Sided PCB is given below: BLANK CUTTING BRUSHING IMAGE TRANSFER EATCHING DRILLING MASKING LEGEND PRINTING ROUTING BARE BOARD TEST Fig:1 Basic steps of PCB designing 5 .
fine pitch ball grid array and flip flop on board assembly technologies are being implemented. 5. defined by the institute of interconnecting and packaging electronic circuit (IPC). 3. These holes are very small. Achieving these requirements. identified as “microvias”. 4. The term capture land is used to define the start of microvia and target land is used to describe the bottom of microvia. In hand taping. 6. 6. PCB design using hand taping is the process of technical drawing. 2. The real benefit of HDI is in the small holes. fine pitch area array packaging. plasma etching or by filling a conductive ink in to via.4 Technologies for Microvias : New electronics products are required to be smaller. 2.6 CAD System as a substitute: Disadvantages of hand taping: 1. 5. Each layer has to be designed separately. components pads can be prepared by using black pads. lighter and cheaper in order to complete in today’s market. laser ablation. Time consuming. Art work can’t be stored for long period because adhesive power of tapes decreases with time. The small size allows additional room for conductor routing. 2. Each layer has to be prepared separately. faster. In hand taping method lay out should be prepared in 2:1 or 4:1 scale depending on art reduction scale chosen. The rate these packaging technologies can be adopted is largely being dictated by the availability of higher density PCBTechnologies with significant reduction in conductor line width and via size at relative low cost. 3. Difficulty in modification of design. Via are mostly created by photo imaging.5 PCB Design using Hand Tapping: 1. as equal to or less then 150 micrometer (um) in diameter. In hand taping method layout should be prepared on grid paper. Designer can’t design the lay out in 1:1 scale.2. 2. 4. We can’t generate NCD files for CNC drilling. Routing can be done by tapes with different widths. 6 . Microvias normally connect only two layers.
2. 3. 6. Auto placement. 4.2 Advantages of CAD: 1. Besides this.3 Basic design steps in CAD: 1. 2. 3.The first three characters of the code designate the type of material. Mentor. 6. P-CAD. It provides NCD files for Gerber data files for photo plotter 3. 2.5 MATERIAL CODE: Material code designation could be example “l21 1500 C1/C1 A1A”. 5. 3. Entry of schematic diagram. DRC check. Art work generation. 7. Eagle. CAD systems have high speed analysis. the performance requirement of the finished rigid printed board are specified in IPC-6012.1 PCB Design Softwares: 1. “L” indicates the laminate material and “P” stands for prepreg material and the number designates the glass 7 . Net list file creation. TANGO. 6. Routing. 4. PADS. Modification is easy with CAD. 5. Placement of components. 3. 3. Auto routing. 3. OrCAD. 4.4 Standards of Design Rule: IPC 2221 Generic design identifies the generic physical design principles as well as the material selection. 5.Chapter 3 3. REDCAD. We have ECR and DCR.
10 Voltage and Ground Distribution: 1. Conductor forming sharp angles should be avoided other wise it will give problem in etching. Components should be placed in arrow or column to get good over view.2mm. 2. The analog and digital circuits on a PCB should strictly have independent ground network to avoid power loss.7 Conductor Routing Rules: 1. The thirteenth character denotes the pits and dents allowed in copper foil. 4. 3. 3. Larger components should be placed first and the space is filled with smaller ones. The components having more connections are placed first. 6. Conductor length should be shortest possible. The next four numbers designates the normal dielectric thickness in um. 2. 3. While connecting voltage and ground priority should be given to the components with the highest power consumption. 3. it is normal practice to draw the tracks on component side in the direction of y-axis & tracks on soldier side in the direction of xaxis. In a highly sensitive circuit. Minimum spacing is provided where it can’t be avoided. The components should be placed in a grid of 2. 3.9 Solder Pad Dia Rule: As a rule. solder pad diameter is approximately 3 times the component lead diameter.5mm. 5. 3.6 Component Placement Rule: 1.transition temperature. 8 . 4. In less critical circuit components are arranged in order of signal flow. Spacing between voltage and ground should be as large as possible. the critical components are placed first in a manner to require minimum length for conductors. 3. 2. C stands for copper clad. In double sided PCB.8 Hole Diameter Rule: Hole diameter = effective led diameter + hole location tolerance + 0. 3. Voltage and ground signal conductors have to be provided with sufficient width to keep resistance and inductance low to carry required current. 4.
5. 2. 5. All I/O voltage and ground conductors should have minimum conductor length to achieve more efficiency of the circuit. 8. 9.11 Design factors: 1.886* r * A/b A = Total overlapping area b = thickness of dielectric r = dielectric constant 3. Supply and ground thicknes 3.13 Resistance: Specific resistance is given by the relation: R = > *I/A I = conductor length A = conductor cross section. 4.12 Capacitance: Capacitance between two signal conductors is given by the relation: C = . 7. 6. Type of circuit Board size Number of layers Pad stack sizes Hole sizes Layer thickness Board thickness External connections Mounting holes 10. 3. 9 . 3.
it contains the light sensitive silver halides stabilized in a suspension. Board mounting hole should be provided. Proper hole dia should be provided. 2. 3. The thickness of base layer should not be typically less then 150um in order to provide dimensional stability. Under unexposed conditions. Heavy components should be adequately placed. 4.3. equipment and processing.2 Artwork Generation: The film positive which is finally used for the direct exposure of photo resist coated PCB or alight sensitive screen is called artwork.Chapter 4 4.1 Mechanical design consideration: 1.3 Film Prossing: 4. it would be the best preparation. The best recommended temperature is 2022 degree for best result. While developing put sufficient developer in the tray so that the film can get completely converted with it. the developer used has to be a type recommended by the film manufacturer for that particular film. film base material. easy processing and handling convenience.2 Developing: For developing of the film. Film should be held from the corners only. The generation of PCB artwork has to be considered as an important step for the PCB fabrication process. The developer tray should be of stainless steel in order to avoid scratches created by plastic-trays. the film must reach the dimensional equilibrium. The emulsion has an approximate thickness of 3-6um and counts mainly for photographic characteristic of the film. the emulsion and the base. To maintain a reliable fabrication of PCBs on a high quality standard one should be familiar with film emulsion. To start the 10 .3. 4. 4.1 Exposing: Before the actual exposure. Board size should be compatible with PCB manufacturing process. If the material is kept in the dark room for past 12 hours. 4. Any photographic material consists basically of two layers. Polyester offers a good compromise between dimensional stability.
Start immediately to lift the tray rotationally on each side by about 2cm. However the temperature of fix bathing is less critical then developer bath. 4. the unexposed emulsion will be dissolved in the solution.3. the film is still wet with some chemicals and dissolved silver compounds of the fixed bath. For good results. drying should be take place at room temperature. 4. causing stained and fade film. Avoid forced drying which may effect the dimensional stability of film.3. the film should be dried slowly at room temperature.3. 4. This lifting should continue for the whole developing period.4 Fixing bath: In this bath. dive the exposed film sheet with the emulsion up through the solution so as to wet the emulsion. 4.6 Drying: After washing.3. Fig 2:Architecture of PCB designing 11 .development procedure.5 Film washing: After all the silver halide has been removed. the film should be lifted above the developing tray for about 2 seconds which enables excess developer to drop in tray. If they are not removed the will attack the image. Afterwards the film is immersed in to the stopper-bath keeping emulsion side upwards to avoid mechanical damage on the soft emulsion.3 Stopper bathing: After the development is over.
3: Showing OrCAD Capture 12 .Fig.
4: Showing Layout Of OrCAD Capture 13 .Fig.
 14 .
 16 .
An insulating material as well as copper foil bondeor both sides.An itemized list of all components.An unassembled PCB. an organization formed by industry and the US government to develop trade and communication standard. 3: Assembly drawing:. In surface mounting. an epoxy adhesive is used to adhere SMD to the substrate.Metal to metal gaps on the board.GLOSSARY 1: ADHESIVE:. 18 .A via that reaches only one layer beneath the outer layer on one side 9: Bridging:. on PCB.A substance such as glue or cement used to fasten object together.A copper object on the board. hardware. 14: Clearance:.Short circuit of the pads to an adjacent track or pad on a board during soldering.A drawing depicting the location of components. 12: Capture:.A via that does not reach a surface layer on either side of a multilayer board. 6: BGA:.Another name of a printed circuit board. 8: Blind via:.Graphical representation of the circuit. 10: Buried via:. 5: Base material:. 11: Card:.Ball grid array. with their 4: Bare board:. 13: Clad:. 2: ANSI:. 7: Bill of material:.“American National Standard Institute”. wire.
24: NC drill:.Device used to generate artwork photographically by plotting objects(opposed to copying an entire image at once as with a camera) on to the film used in manufacturing PCB. 27: Photoplotter:.A thin layer of copper deposited on PCB without the use of electric current. 19 . 18: Electroless copper:. 22: Land:. 26: Netlist:.A text file which tell NC drill where to drill is holes. 21: Gerber file:.Design rule check.Numerical control drill machine.The uncased and normally leadless form of an electronic component that is either active or passive.Synonym for pad and terminal area.A specific location that serves as a reference 16: Die:. used to bound multi layer boards. 25: NC drill file:. 19: Electrolytic copper:. 20: Footprint:.15: Datum:.A thin layer of copper clad on conductive areas of PCB by means of electric current. 23: Legend:. 28: Prepreg:. 17: DRC:.B-stage sheets of glass cloth pre-impregnated with epoxy resin.List of parts and their connection points.The pattern and space on a board taken up by the component.Pattern printed onto the surface of aboard which defines the position of components to be mounted on board.Data file used to control a photo plotter.
 20 . 32: Track:.29: SMD:.Trace.In is used as reference designators on the printed wiring board.Wire on a printed board also means a route on track. 34: Zero reference line:. 31: Routing:. 33: Wire:.Also called zero datum line.Placing tracks between components.Surface mount devices. 30: Silkscreen:.
21 .CONCLUSION During my Training I learnt a lot. its working and importance. I also learnt how to co-ordinate with the colleagues & also increased my personal skill it will be helpful a lot in my future. The period of 30 days training was really a great experience in industries field. On completion of this 30 days training I am very well aware about substation.. we were PCB designing My training section mainly included knowing about the basics of pcb designing through the use of orcad software. due to the result of hard working of my guides & co-operation of my parents. It has given a lot of my knowledge & is an essential part of technical education programme. It was great pleasure learning and we were given a lot of knowledge & this training was an essential part of technical education programme. It was an interesting experience to know the spirit of. human relationship. punctuality & hard work.
ch no.1. WALTER C BOSSHART. R. 1994. Second Edition. “Soft Logic.10 PCB software library.chapter no. G. McGraw Hill. “PCB design and techenology”.3.11 Carrow.”.9.second edition.9..2. S. Batten.L. 22 .7.chapter:2.5.REFERENCE       Manual provided by the institute. second edition chapter no.”VLSI TECH. A Guide to Using a Printed ckt Board”. McGrawHill.. Applications of Printed Ckt Board. 1997.M.Sze.A.