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Current growth continues to exceed most past projections. quality and compatibility with other systems. The challenges to Cellular Mobile Communication are meeting wider policy goals in relation to electronic commerce and local infrastructure competition. Introduction 2. In order to overcome these problems modern cellular telephony is introduced which is a digital cellular communication named as GSM. International roaming. Cellular system  Cells  Clusters  Frequency reuse  Handover  Cell splitting 3. the equipment was limited to operate.net CELLULAR & MOBILE COMMUNICATION CONTENTS 1.com www. In past there were 293 million subscribers that is around one mobile phone for every four inhabitants. GSM. good subjective voice. Global System Mobile (GSM)  Architecture  Network areas  Radio Interface 7. Increase in demand of existing service led Cellular Mobile Service providers to research ways to improve the quality of service and to support more users in their system. The aim of GSM system is to describe the functionality and the interface for each component of the system and guide the design of the system. Cellular System components 4.jntuworld. Even if the mobile is powered off the message can be stored www. But in Cellular and Mobile Systems.jntuworld. Conclusion Cellular & Mobile Communications Abstract Cellular Mobile Communications is one of the tremendous success stories of the telecommunication industry.www. Mobile Telephone system using Cellular concept 6. Mobile Communication Principles 5.com .jwjobs. GSM provides tele-services like Short Message Service (SMS) in which maximum of 160 alphanumeric characteristics can be sent to or from any mobile station. Global System for mobile communication lightens spectrum efficiency.

Cells can be added to accommodate growth. thanks to this service as the subscriber can receive FAX message at any FAX machine. The number of cells in a cluster must be determined so that the cluster can be repeated continuously within the covering area of an operator. the frequencies can not be reused for hundred of kilometers as they are limited to the covering area of the transmitter. if the transmitters used are very powerful.com . creating new cells in un-served areas or overlaying cells in existing areas. their conversations are "handed off" between cells in order to maintain seamless service.jwjobs. The www.net and with the SMS cell broadcast a message of maximum 93 characters can be sent in a certain geographical area.jntuworld. Voice mail corresponds to answering machine when the subscriber is unable to attend the call. FAX mail.com www. A cell corresponds to the covering area of one transmitter or a small collection of transmitters. Cluster: The cells are grouped into clusters. the true shape of cells is not a perfect hexagon. Introduction: A Cellular mobile communications system uses a large number of low-power wireless transmitters to create cells—the basic geographic service area of a wireless communications system. Because of constraints impose by natural terrain and man-made structures. Each cell size varies depending on the landscape. The reasons for this are    Capacity of the system Compatibility with other systems such as ISDN Aspects of quality Cellular systems In a cellular system. The size of a cell is determined by the transmitter's power. Channels (frequencies) used in one cell can be reused in another cell some distance away. The concept of cellular systems is the use of low power transmitters in order to enable the efficient reuse of the frequencies.jntuworld. Variable power levels allow cells to be sized according to the subscriber density and demand within a particular region. Unlike the existing cellular systems which were developed using an analog technology the GSM system was developed using a digital technology. the covering area of an operator is divided into cells. The reviews and benchmarks of emerging services such as Short Message Services are the harbingers of third generation. The term Cellular comes from the honeycomb shape of the areas into which a coverage region is divided. The benefits brought by Cellular Mobile Communications are increasing evidently in terms of both social and economical development. Cells are base stations transmitting over small geographic areas that are represented as hexagons. Cells: A cell is the basic geographic unit of cellular system. Successful growth and diffusion of Cellular Mobile Communication Services is focusing greater attention on how this relates to the Internet and Electronic commerce. In fact.www. As mobile users travel from cell to cell.

o Macrocells: The macrocells are large cells for remote and sparsely populated areas. To overcome this difficulty different types of cells are used. The smaller the number of cells per cluster is. When the speed of the mobile is too high. The mobile will they stay longer in the same cell. Public switched telephone network (PSTN): www.jntuworld. o Microcells: These cells are used for densely populated areas.com . o Selective cells: Cells with a particular shape and coverage are called selective cells. As adjacent areas do not use the same radio channels.jntuworld. Frequency reuse was implemented by restructuring the mobile telephone system architecture into the cellular concept. The coverage area of cells are called the footprint. It has the capacity to serve tens of thousands of subscribers in a major metropolitan area. Frequency Reuse: Because only a small number of radio channel frequencies were available for mobile systems.net typical clusters contain 4. Cellular System Components: The cellular system offers mobile and portable telephone stations the same service provided fixed stations over conventional wired loops. o Umbrella Cells: An Umbrella cell covers several microcells.jwjobs. hand off occurs. By splitting the existing areas into smaller cells. engineers had to find a way to reuse radio channels in order to carry more than one conversation at a time. the number of channels available is increased as well as the capacity of the cells.www. In order to solve this problem umbrella cells are used. The concept of frequency reuse is based on assigning to each cell a group of radio channels used within a small geographic area. it is hand off to the umbrella cell. The cellular communications system consists of the following four major components that work together to provide mobile service to subscribers:  Public switched telephone network (PSTN)  Mobile telephone switching office (MTSO)  Cell site with antenna system  Mobile subscriber unit (MSU) 1. The solution the industry adopted was called frequency planning or frequency reuse. Handover: The final obstacle in the development of the Cellular network involved the problem created when a mobile subscriber traveled form one cell to another during a call. Cell splitting: Economic considerations made the concept of creating full systems with many small areas in practical. the bigger the number of channels per cell. 12 or 21 cells.com www. 7. This footprint is limited by a boundary so that the small group of channels can be used in different cells that are far enough away from each other so that their frequencies do not interfere. Cells are assigned a group of channels that is completely different from neighboring cells.

the reserve link. Three types of MSUs are available:    The mobile telephone (typical transmit power is 4.net The PSTN is made up of local networks.com . so mobiles must stay near the base station to maintain communications. It houses the mobile switching center (MSC). The use of portable and transportable telephone is limited to the charge life of the internal battery. Early Mobile Telephone System: Traditional mobile service was structured similar to television and broadcasting: One very powerful transmitter located at the highest spot in an area would broadcast in a radius of up to fifty kilometers. field monitoring and relay stations for switching calls from cell sites to wireline central offices (PSTN). for transmitting from the cell site. In analog cellular networks.0 watts) The portable (typical transmit power is 0.com www. The cell site talks to many mobiles at once. using one channel per mobile. radio frequency transmitters and receivers. 2. and one frequency.jntuworld.jwjobs. tracks billing information. Radio energy dissipates over distance. for the cell site to receive calls from the users. 4. mobile telephone service allows interconnection to the telephone network. Mobile telephone switching office (MTSO): The MTSO is the central office for mobile switching. interface equipment. temporary radio channel to talk to the cell site.jntuworld.6 watts) The transportable (typical transmit power is 1. and the handset is installed in a convenient location to the driver. the exchange area networks and the long-haul network that interconnect telephones and other communications devices on a worldwide basis. The basic structure of mobile network includes telephone systems and radio services. the MSC controls the system operation. 3. Mobile Communications Principles: Each mobile uses a separate.www. The MSC controls calls. Where mobile radio service operates in a closed network and has no access to the telephone system. The cellular concept www. Cell site with antenna system: The term cell site is used to refer to the physical location of radio equipment that provides coverage within a cell. the forward link. and locates cellular subscribers. Mobile subscriber unit (MSU): The mobile subscriber unit consists of a control unit and a transceiver that transmits and receives radio transmissions to and from a cell site. A list of hardware located at a cell site includes power sources. Channels use a pair of frequencies for communication one frequency.6 watts) The mobile telephone is installed in the trunk of a car. and antenna systems. Portable and transportable telephones are hand-held and can be used anywhere.

As the population grows. service providers could increase the number of potential customers in an area fourfold. www. Speculation led to the conclusion that by reducing the radius of areas to a few hundred meters. which allows cells to be sized according to the subscriber density and demand of a given area. the base station communicates with mobiles via a channel. Even though this affected the efficiency of the original concept. Systems based on areas with a one kilometer radius would have one hundred times more channels than systems with areas ten kilometers in radius. Like the early mobile radio system. but to the ratio of the distance between areas to the transmitter power (radius) of the areas.com .jntuworld. Conversations can be handed off from cell to cell to maintain constant phone service as the user moves between cells. Instead of using one powerful transmitter. many low-power transmitters were placed throughout a coverage area. by dividing a metropolitan region into one hundred different area (cells) with low-power transmitters using twelve conversations (channels) each.jwjobs.net "structured the mobile telephone network in a different way. the system capacity theoretically could be increased from twelve conversations or voice channels using one powerful transmitter to twelve hundred conversations (Channels) using one hundred low-power transmitters. millions of calls could be served.jntuworld. Engineers discovered that the interference effects were not due to the distance between areas. The cellular concept employs variable low-power levels. frequency reuse was still a viable solution to the problems of mobile telephone systems. Areas had to be skipped before the same channel could be reused.com www. The channel is made of two frequencies. so the mobiles must be within the operating range of the base station. cells can be added to accommodate that growth. Frequencies used in one cell cluster can be reused in other cells. By reducing the radius of an area by fifty percent. one for transmitting to the base station and one to receive information from the base station. Mobile Telephone System using the cellular Concept: Interference problems caused by mobile units using the same channel in adjacent areas proved that all channels could not be reused in every cell.www. For example. The cellular radio equipment (base station) can communicate with mobiles as long as they are within range. Radio energy dissipates over distance.

The handhels terminals have experienced the biggest success thanks to their weight and volume. Their maximum allowed output power is 8W.net GLOBAL SYSTEM NETWORK Architecture: Mobile Station: A Mobile station consists of two main elements. The `fixed' terminals are the ones installed in cars.jwjobs. The evolution of technologies allows to decrease the maximum allowed power to 0. the terminal is not operational. The Base Transceiver Station: The BTS corresponds to the transceivers and antennas used in each cell of the network. the user can have access to all the subscribed services.jntuworld. Its transmitting power www. Terminal: There are different types of terminals distinguished principally by their power and application. The subscriber Identity Module (SIM). In order to identify the subscriber to the system. In fact. Another advantage of the SIM card is the mobility of the users. which are continuously decreasing. The Base Station Controller (BSC).8 W. These terminals can emit up to 2 W. Therefore. The GSM portable terminals can also be installed in vehicles. It is in charge of the transmission and reception. Their maximum allowed output power is 20 W. The SIM card is protected by a four-digit Personal Identification Number (PIN). The mobile equipment or terminal. The Base Station Subsystem: The BSS connects the Mobile Station and the NSS.jntuworld. SIM: The SIM is a smart card that identifies the terminal.com . the user can have access to its subscribed services in any terminal using its SIM card.com www. the SIM card contains some parameters of the user such as its International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). the only element that personalizes a terminal is the SIM card. A BTS is usually placed in the center of a cell.www. The BSS can be divided into two parts: The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) or Base Station. Without the SIM card. By inserting the SIM card into the terminal.

It also provides connection to other networks. The different components of the NSS are described below. The EIR allows then to forbid calls from stolen or unauthorized terminals The GSM Interworking Unit (GIWU): The GIWU corresponds to an interface to various networks for data communications. These parameters help to verify the user's identity. the transmission of speech and data can be alternated. The VLR will then have enough information in order to assure the subscribed services without needing to ask the HLR each time a communication is established.com . It also includes data bases needed in order to store information about the subscribers and to manage their mobility. It is in charge of routing calls from the fixed network towards a GSM user.jntuworld. A BSC is principally in charge of handovers.jwjobs.net defines the size of a cell. A terminal is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). the VLR will request information about the new subscriber to its corresponding HLR. ISDN users. During these communications.www. frequency hopping. It provides the parameters needed for authentication and encryption functions. The Authentication Center (AuC): The AuC register is used for security purposes. www.jntuworld. Each BTS has between one and sixteen transceivers depending on the density of users in the cell. in order to control and monitor the GSM system. exchange functions and control of the radio frequency power levels of the BTSs. Visitor Location Register (VLR): The VLR contains information from a subscriber's HLR necessary in order to provide the subscribed services to visiting users.com www. The MSC performs the switching functions of the network. The GMSC is often implemented in the same machines as the MSC. The Equipment Identity Register (EIR): The EIR is also used for security purposes. Home Location Register (HLR): The HLR stores information of the subscribers belonging to the covering area of a MSC. etc. The Mobile services Switching Center (MSC): It is the central component of the NSS. When a subscriber enters the covering area of a new MSC. The Network and Switching Subsystem: Its main role is to manage the communications between the mobile users and other users. fixed telephony users. The Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS): The OSS is connected to the different components of the NSS and to the BSC. It contains a list of all valid terminals. The GMSC is the interface between the mobile cellular network and the PSTN. such as mobile users. It is a register containing information about the mobile equipments. It also stores the current location of these subscribers and the services to which they have access. The Gateway Mobile services Switching Center (GMSC): A gateway is a node inter-connecting two networks. It is also in charge of controlling the traffic load of the BSS. The Base Station Controller: The BSC controls a group of BTS and manages their radio resources.

The spectrum efficiency depends on the radio interface and the transmission. One of the main objectives of GSM is roaming. This is due principally to military reasons and to the existence of previous analog systems using part of the two 25 Mhz frequency bands. of 25 Mhz each one.jntuworld. corresponds to the radio coverage of a base transceiver station. the radio interface must be completely defined. The GSM radio interface The radio interface is the interface between the mobile stations and the fixed infrastructure. share the GSM radio spectrum. between different mobile stations situated in different cells. A mix of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). the increasing number of base stations.net However. The band 935-960 Mhz has been allocated for the downlink direction (transmitting from the base station to the mobile station). identified by its Location Area Identity (LAI) number. www. A Location Area (LA). combined with frequency hopping. have been allocated for the GSM system: The band 890-915 Mhz has been allocated for the uplink direction (transmitting from the mobile station to the base station). But not all the countries can use the whole GSM frequency bands. It is one of the most important interfaces of the GSM system. This transfer decreases considerably the costs of the maintenance of the system.www. has been adopted as the multiple access scheme for GSM. is a group of cells served by a single MSC/VLR. Frequency allocation: Two frequency bands. Network Areas As it has already been explained a cell. A group of location areas under the control of the same MSC/VLR defines the MSC/VLR area.com www. A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is the area served by one network operator. in order to obtain a complete compatibility between mobile stations and networks of different manufacturers and operators. The specification of the radio interface has then an important influence on the spectrum efficiency. has provoked that some of the maintenance tasks are transferred to the BTS. Therefore. more particularly in aspects such as the capacity of the system and the techniques used in order to decrease the interference and to improve the frequency reuse scheme. Multiple access scheme: The multiple access scheme defines how different simultaneous communications. identified by its Cell Global Identity number (CGI).jwjobs. due to the development of cellular radio networks.jntuworld.com .

which double the capacity of the system. In GSM. This idle frame allows the mobile station to perform other functions. such as measuring the signal strength of neighboring cells.com www. It has the same length as the normal burst but a different structure. a 25 Mhz frequency band is divided. Associated control channels. are then assigned to a single user. Dedicated control channels. Each of the users. using a FDMA scheme. with a width of 200 khz.www.net FDMA and TDMA: TDMA allows several users to share the same channel. into 124 carrier frequencies spaced one from each other by a 200 khz frequency band. The last frame is unused. The 26-Multiframe lasts consequently 120 ms. 4. It has the same length as the normal burst but a different structure. the mobiles will not need to transmit and receive at the same time which simplifies considerably the electronics of the system. The control channels used for network management messages and some channel maintenance tasks. consequently.  The synchronization burst is used on the SCH.615 ms. Half-rate traffic channels (TCH/H). the traffic channels for the downlink and uplink are separated by 3 bursts. Channel structure: A channel corresponds to the recurrence of one burst every frame.jwjobs. four different classes of control channels are defined: 1) 2) 3) 4) Broadcast channels. and it lasts approximately 0.jntuworld.577 ms.jntuworld. It is defined by its frequency and the position of its corresponding burst within a TDMA frame. Common control channels. Each carrier frequency is then divided in time using a TDMA scheme. Control channels: According to their functions. Burst structure: The burst is the unit in time of a TDMA system. A burst is the unit of time in a TDMA system. A TDMA frame is formed with 8 bursts and lasts. are assigned their own burst within a group of bursts called a frame. In GSM there are two types of channels: The traffic channels used to transport speech and data information. are also grouped in a 26Multiframe but the internal structure is different. The frames that form the 26-Multiframe structure have different functions: 24 frames are reserved to traffic. sharing the common channel. This scheme splits the radio channel. that form a TDMA frame.  The random access burst is used on the RACH and is shorter than the normal burst. Usually TDMA is used with a FDMA structure. Four different types of bursts can be distinguished in GSM:  The frequency-correction burst is used on the FCCH. Each of the eight bursts. Normally a 25 Mhz frequency band can provide 125 carrier frequencies but the first carrier frequency is used as a guard band between GSM and other services working on lower frequencies. In this 26-Multiframe structure.com . into 8 bursts. As a consequence. One frame is used for the Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH). Traffic channels (TCH): Full-rate traffic channels (TCH/F) are defined using a group of 26 TDMA frames called a 26-Multiframe. www.

of 57 bits each. whether the information carried by a burst corresponds to traffic or signaling data. Structure of the 26-Multiframe. The slow frequency hopping changes the frequency with every TDMA frame. The guard period (GP). They are used to cover the periods of ramping up and down of the mobile's power. with a length of 8.com www. Its structure is presented in figure 3. It is used to synchronize the receiver with the incoming information. the slow frequency hopping is introduced. The training sequence has a length of 26 bits.jwjobs.www.25 bits. containing signaling or user data. A fast frequency hopping changes the frequency many times per frame but it is not used in GSM. Frequency hopping: In order to avoid important differences in the quality of the channels.com .25 bits. avoiding then the negative effects produced by a multipath propagation. From Source Information to Radio waves www. the TDMA frame and the normal burst The tail bits (T) are a group of three bits set to zero and placed at the beginning and the end of a burst.jntuworld.net  The normal burst is used to carry speech or data information.jntuworld.577 ms and has a length of 156. The stealing flags (S) indicate. The frequency hopping also reduces the effects of co-channel interference. It lasts approximately 0. is used to avoid a possible overlap of two mobiles during the ramping time. to the receiver. The coded data bits corresponds to two groups.

GSM comes close to fulfilling the requirements for a personal communication system: close enough that it is being used as a basis for the development of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS).jwjobs. Having a multitude of incompatible systems throughout the world moves us farther away from this ideal. by a single identity number and a pocketable communication terminal.8 GHz (called DCS 1800) and 1.com . regardless of national boundaries.net Conclusion: Telecommunications are evolving towards personal communication networks.jntuworld. and its sibling systems operating at 1. fax. The GSM system. to anyone.www. anywhere. short message service. www.com www. and supplementary services. not to mention the convenience to people of carrying just one communication terminal anywhere they go. The economies of scale created by a unified system are enough to justify its implementation. and support for a variety of services such as telephony. whose objective can be stated as the availability of all communication services anytime. Together with internal roaming. are a first approach at a true personal mobility in addition to terminal mobility. and operating in North America). data transfer.jntuworld.9 GHz (called GSM 1900 or PCS 1900.

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