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Sustainable Communities to

preserve biological diversity

Concept Document
Prepared by Francisco Chapela/Estudios Rurales y Asesoría Campesina
February, 2009
Background / Mexico
biological diversity
Mexico is considered a megadiverse country
10% of world species are in Mexico:
1rst place on reptiles diversity
2nd in mammals diversity
4rth in amphibian diversity
4rth in vascular plants diversity
10th in birds diversity.
a long record of human influence on Mexico biological diversity
landscape (cont...)
68 recognized linguistic groupings
a population density 70% higher than U.S.
more than twice Brazil population density
17 times higher than Canada
Much less functional protected areas than
Brazil or Costa Rica
Mexico biological diversity
Priority points
NPAs are not enough
The need for a Mexican policy

Mexico needs to define a biological diversity policy suitable for

its own cultural, social, economical and natural reality.
Steps towards a "conservation Mexican model"

1980s: exploratory projects, with support from foundations (Ford, Mc.

Arthur) and later from bilateral organizations (IAF, USAID, GTZ, DfID).
1990s: "Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs)" in
coordination with federal gobierno and GEF, PNUD and The World Bank.
2000s: ICDPs Institutionalization
Integrated Conservation and Development
Projects (ICDPs)

CONAFOR Forest Conservation and Management Project

CONAFOR Communities and Indigenous Biodiversity Conservation project
for Guerrero, Michoacán and Oaxaca
CONABIO Mesoamerican Biological Corridor-Mexico
CONANP Three Regions Integrated Ecosystems Management project
25 years after: Lessons learned

It is possible to set-up an effective conservation scheme in most of priority areas

within the country, IF:
local communities are allowed to capture the most part of benefits derived
from biological diversity conservation and sustainable use;
the model for protected areas (IUCN categories I to V) is based on local
governance forms, and
sustainable production forms are promoted within communal territories
(IUCN category VI ).
limitations to overcome
lack of regional projects with capacity to include ina profitable way
production chains and to have market penetration;
lack of business models, based both on biological resources and
communities cultural substrate;
poor development of communities cooperation networks;
need of business plans, to attract capitals and production investment to
local communities and organizations.
A two-tiers strategy

regional natural resources management systems and

a communal protected areas subsytem, linked to the

National Protected Areas System.
Goal A: regional management systems

promote wild communal protected areas (ACPs) economic sustainability

in South Mexico, through developing business models based on extractive
and non-extractive uses of biological resorces, to produce biological
diversity incentives to communities, organizations and local institutions.
Goal B: a wild communal protected areas sub-

foster a techincal leadership for natural resources management whithin

local communities, organizations and institutions in South Mexico, promoting
biological diversity conservation within agriculture and forestry landscapes,
developing business chains to generate incentives for bilogical diversity
Components: ACPs

Incubation of regional leaders and projects.

setting-up/operation of nodes into socio-environmental high priority areas in

South Mexico

Monitoring and evaluation

Components: Regional management

a self-regulation network

a communal environmental services network

a communal eco- businesses network

Monitoring and evaluation

Intervention Mechanism

incubation of regional leaders and projects, through setting-up and

operating regional nodes into socio-environmental high priority areas in
South Mexico

development of a communal cooperation network to improve regional

governance and to mainstream biological diversity conservation within
Initial phase: 8 Nodes
Presupuesto estimado 3 años
Sustainable Communities to
preserve biological diversity

Concept Document
Prepared by Francisco Chapela/Estudios Rurales y Asesoría Campesina
February, 2009