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A mantra is a sound, syllable, word, or group of words that is considered capable of "creating transformation" (cf. spiritual transformation).[1] Its use and type varies according to the school and philosophy associated with the mantra.[2] Mantras (Devangar ) originated in the Vedic tradition of India, becoming an essential part of the Hindu tradition and a customary practice within Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism. In the context of the Vedas, the term mantra refers to the entire portion which contains the texts called Rig, Yajur or Sama, that is, the metrical part as opposed to the prose Brahmana commentary. With the transition from ritualistic Vedic traditions to mystical and egalitarian Hindu schools of Yoga, Vedanta, Tantra and Bhakti, the orthodox attitude of the elite nature of mantra knowledge gave way to spiritual interpretations of mantras as a translation of the human will or desire into a form of action. For the authors of the Hindu scriptures of the Upanishads, the syllable Om, itself constituting a mantra, represents Brahman, the godhead, as well as the whole of creation. Kkai suggests that all sounds are the voice of the Dharmakaya Buddha i.e. as in Hindu Upanishadic and Yogic thought, these sounds are manifestations of ultimate reality, in the sense of sound symbolism postulating that the vocal sounds of the mantra have inherent meaning independent of the understanding of the person uttering them. Nevertheless, such understanding of what a mantra may symbolize or how it may function differs throughout the various traditions and also depends on the context in which it is written or sounded. In some instances there are multiple layers of symbolism associated with each sound, many of which are specific to particular schools of thought. For an example of such see the syllable: Om which is central to both Hindu and Buddhist traditions. While Hindu tantra eventually came to see the letters as well as the sounds as representatives of the divine, the shift toward writing occurred when Buddhism traveled to China. Although China lacked a The Om syllable (Believed to be the "Sound of unifying, ecclesiastic language like Sanskrit, China achieved its the Universe") is considered a mantra in its own cultural unity through a written language with characters that were right in Vedanta mysticism. flexible in pronunciation but more precise in meaning. The Chinese prized written language much more highly than did the Indian Buddhist missionaries, and the writing of mantras became a spiritual practice in its own right. So that whereas Brahmins had been very strict on correct pronunciation, the Chinese, and indeed other Far-Eastern Buddhists were less concerned with this than correctly writing something down. The practice of writing mantras, and copying texts as a spiritual practice, became very refined in Japan, and the writing in the Siddham script in which the Sanskrit of many Buddhist Sutras were written is only really seen in

In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of meditation.

Mantras written on a rock near Namche Bazaar Nepal

Mantra Japan nowadays. However, written mantra-repetition in Hindu practices, with Sanskrit in any number of scripts, is well-known to many sects in India as well. Khanna (2003: p.21) links mantras and yantras to thoughtforms: Mantras, the Sanskrit syllables inscribed on yantras, are essentially 'thought forms' representing divinities or cosmic powers, which exert their influence by means of sound-vibrations.[3]

The Sanskrit word mantra- (m.; also n. mantram) consists of the root man- "to think" (also in manas "mind") and the suffix -tra, designating tools or instruments, hence a literal translation would be "instrument of thought".[4][5] An Indo-Iranian *mantra is also preserved in Avestan manthra, effectively meaning "word" but with far-reaching implications: Manthras are inherently "true" (aa), and the proper recitation of them brings about (realizes) what is inherently true in them. It may then be said that manthras are both an expression of being and "right working" and the recitation of them is crucial to the maintenance of order and being. (See also: Avestan aa- and Vedic t-). Indo-Iranian *styas mantras (Yasna 31.6: haim mathrem) thus "does not simply mean 'true Word' but formulated thought which is in conformity with the reality' or 'poetic (religious) formula with inherent fulfillment (realization).'"[6] Latin word Mentor (also in its usage in English and other languages) is a cognate (cf. Mens sana in corpore sano = Healthy mind in a healthy body), as is the root preserved in most Slavonic languages as Mdr-/Mudr-, for wisdom and Sage, cf. Russian Mudrec.[7] The Chinese translation is zhenyan , , literally "true words", the Japanese on'yomi reading of the Chinese being shingon (which is also used as the proper name for the prominent esoteric Shingon sect).

Mantra in Hinduism
Mantras were originally conceived in the Vedas. Most mantras follow the written pattern of two line "shlokas" although they are often found in single line or even single word form. The most basic mantra is Om, which in Hinduism is known as the "pranava mantra," the source of all mantras. The Hindu philosophy behind this is the idea of nama-rupa (mind-body), which supposes that all things, ideas or entities in existence, within the phenomenological cosmos, have name and form of some sort. The most basic name and form is the primordial vibration of Om, as it is the first manifested nama-rupa of Brahman, the unmanifest reality/unreality. Essentially, before existence and beyond existence is only One reality, Brahma, and the first manifestation of Brahma in existence is Om. For this reason, Om is considered to be the most fundamental and powerful mantra, and thus is prefixed and suffixed to all Hindu prayers. While some mantras may invoke individual Gods or principles, the most fundamental mantras, like 'Om,' the 'Shanti Mantra,' the 'Gayatri Mantra' and others all ultimately focus on the One reality. In the Hindu tantra the universe is sound. The supreme (para) brings forth existence through the Word (Shabda). Creation consists of vibrations at various frequencies and amplitudes giving rise to the phenomena of the world. The purest vibrations are the, the imperishable letters which are revealed to us, imperfectly as the audible sounds and visible forms. Var.nas are the atoms of sound. A complex symbolic association was built up between letters and the elements, gods, signs of the zodiac, parts of the body letters became rich in these associations. For example in the Aitrareya-aranya-Upanishad we find: The mute consonants represent the earth, the sibilants the sky, the vowels heaven. The mute consonants represent fire, the sibilants air, the vowels the sun? The mute consonants represent the eye, the sibilants the ear, the vowels the mind.

Mantra In effect each letter became a mantra and the language of the Vedas, Sanskrit, corresponds profoundly to the nature of things. Thus the Vedas come to represent reality itself. The seed syllable Om represents the underlying unity of reality, which is Brahman. There are several forms of mantras: Bhajan, spiritual songs Kirtan, repetition of God's name in songs Healing mantra Guru mantra, the first initiation (Diksha) given by the master to the disciple Bija mantra, represents the essence of a mantra (e.g. "Om")

Mantra japa
Mantra japa was a concept of the Vedic sages that incorporates mantras as one of the main forms of puja, or worship, whose ultimate end is seen as moksha/liberation. Essentially, mantra japa means repetition of mantra,[8] and it has become an established practice of all Hindu streams, from the various Yoga to Tantra. It involves repetition of a mantra over and over again, usually in cycles of auspicious numbers (in multiples of three), the most popular being 108. For this reason, Hindu malas (bead necklaces) developed, containing 108 beads and a head bead (sometimes referred to as the 'meru', or 'guru' bead). The devotee performing japa using his/her fingers counts each bead as he/she repeats the chosen mantra. Having reached 108 repetitions, if he/she wishes to continue another cycle of mantras, the devotee must turn the mala around without crossing the head bead and repeat. To attain single-pointedness of mind, repetition of mantra's can be done in the following ways:[9] Mantra Yoga (chanting) Japa Yoga: Vaikhari Japa (speaking) Upamsu Japa (whispering or humming) Manasika Japa (mental repetition) Likhita Japa (writing)

It is said that through japa the devotee attains unity, or extreme focus with the chosen deity or principal idea of the mantra. The vibrations and sounds of the mantra are considered extremely important, and thus reverberations of the sound are supposed to awaken the Kundalini[10] or spiritual life force and even stimulate chakras according to many Hindu schools of thought.[11] Any shloka from holy Hindu texts like the Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, Yoga Sutra, even the Mahabharata, Ramayana, Durga saptashati or Chandi are considered powerful enough to be repeated to great effect, and have therefore the status of mantra. Some very common mantras, called Nama japa, are formed by taking a deity's name and saluting it thus: "Om Namah (name of deity)" (meaning "I honor/salute...") or "Om Jai (name of deity)" (meaning "Hail..."). There are several other such permutations, including: Om Namah Shivaya or Om Namo Bhagavate Rudraya Namah (Om and salutations to Lord Shiva) Om Namo Narayanaya or Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevya (Om and salutations to God Vishnu) Om Shri Ganeshaya Namah (Om and salutations to Shri Ganesha) Om Shri Mahalakshmiyei Namah (Om and salutations to Shri Lakshmi, the Great One) Om Kalikayai Namah (Om and salutations to Kali)

Om Sri Maha Kalikayai Namah (the basic Kali mantra above is strengthened with the words Sri [an expression of great respect] and Maha [great]. It has been said that this mantra is rarely given to anyone because it is so intense.)[12] Om Hrim Chandikyai Namah (Om and salutations to Chandika)

Mantra Om Radha Krishnaya Namaha (a mantra to Radha, said to promote love in a relationship)[13] Om Namo Venkateshaya (Om and salutations to Lord Venkateswara) Repeating an entire mantric text, such as the Durga Saptashati, in its entirety is called patha. The use of Mantras is described in various texts which constitute Mantra Shastra (shastra, sastra: law-book, rule or treatise).[14] Some of the major books which are used as reference for Mantra Shastra are Parasurama Kalpa Sutra Sharada Tilakam Lakshmi Tantra Prapanchasara

Some Hindu and Jain mantras

Gayatri The Gayatri mantra is considered one of the most universal of all Hindu mantras, invoking the universal Brahman as the principle of knowledge and the illumination of the primordial Sun. : | | | : Om Bhr Bhuva Svaha (Om) Tat Savitur Varenyam Bhargo Devasya Dhmahi Dhiyo Yo Nahah Prachodayt, (Om)[15] Lead me from ignorance to truth asato m sad gamaya Tamaso m jyotir gamaya mtyor m amta gamaya O nti nti nti (Bhadrayaka Upaniad 1.3.28) From ignorance, lead me to truth; From darkness, lead me to light; From death, lead me to immortality Om peace, peace, peace

Mantra Navkar The Navkar Mantra or Namokar Mantra is the supreme Jain mantra and the fundamental prayer in Jainism which can be recited at any time of the day. While praying by reciting this mantra, the devotee bows with respect to Arihantas, Siddhas(liberated souls), spiritual leaders (Acharyas), teachers (Upadhyayas) and all the monks. This worships the virtues of all the supreme spiritual people instead of just worshipping one particular person. It is important to note that the Navkar/Namokar Mantra does not mention the names of even Tirthankaras and Siddhas. At the time of recitation, a Jain devotee remembers their virtues and tries to emulate them. In this mantra Jains bow down to these supreme spiritual personalities, and therefore, it is also called Namokar Mantra. The Digamber Jain believe the starting 5 lines is the original Mantra whereas, Shewtambars believe the Nine Line... The Rest Four lines as per Digambers are the advantages or the description of the Mantra. This Mantra is called the King of Mantras. According to Jain Text, all Mantra in the world came from this Mantra hence, this is also called Mahamantra. The Jains in this mantra bows to the Five Teachers, hence it is also called Panch- Parmesthi mantra. It is said that if someone recites this mantra, no celestial, and any mantra, tantra can affect him i.e., it saves and wins over all other Mantra, hence it is also called Aparajit Mantra. It is also mentioned in the books that Namokar Mantra has no beginning and no end, no one creates it and no one in the world can destroy it hence this is also called Anadhi-Nidhan Mantra. Why Namokar Mantra is called king of all other mantra is because "OM" came from Namokar mantra. If we break OM, it is Arihant(A), Ashariri Siddh(A), Aacharya(AA), Upadhyay(U), Muni(M) i.e., A+A+AA+U+M= AUM =OM. Every Mantra other than Namokar uses OM like in Hindu, Sikh, Buddha mantra which is originally came from Namokar Mantra hence it is called the King of all Mantra. It can recited anywhere, any how, in any sense, when you are in danger or in home, or sleeping, or resting, or sitting, or standing, or while listening, while you are eating, bathing or anything, just you need to have clean heart, i.e., your thoughts must be clean and you must have faith in it. It has the power to save from any diseases, any suffering, anything, anywhere, any how.
Namo Arihantnam Namo Siddhnam Namo yariynam Namo Uvajjhyanam Namo Loe Savva Sahnam I bow to the Arihants (Prophets). I bow to the Siddhs (Liberated Souls). I bow to the chryas (Preceptors or Spiritual Leaders). I bow to the Upadhyya (Teachers). I bow to all the Sadhs (Saints).

Eso Panch Namokkaro, This fivefold bow (mantra) destroys all sins and obstacles Savva Pvappansano, and of all auspicious mantras, is the first and foremost one. Mangalanam Cha Savvesim, Padhamam Havai Mangalam.

Shanti mantra O Sahan vavatu sahanau bhunaktu Sahavryam karavvahai Tejasvi nvadhtamastu M vidvivahai O Shnti, Shnti, Shnti. Om! Let the Studies that we together undertake be effulgent; Let there be no Animosity amongst us; OM. Peace, Peace, Peace. (Recited before the commencement of one's education)

Mantra Blackkrishna Yajurveda Taittiriya Upanishad 2.2.2 Universal Prayer Sarvem Svastir Bhavatu Sarvem Sntir Bhavatu Sarvem Prnam Bhavatu Sarvem Mangalam Bhavatu May good befall all, May there be peace for all May all be fit for perfection, May all experience that which is auspicious. Sarve bhavantu sukhina Sarve santu nirmay Sarve bhadri payantu M kacit dukha bhgbhavet Om, May all be happy. May all be healthy. May we all experience what is good and let no one suffer. Additional Hindu mantras Om Namo Narayanaya Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya Dvadasakshari mantra Om Sri Ram Jai Ram Jai Jai Ram Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare, Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. Also chanted as Hare Rama Hare Rama, Rama Rama Hare Hare, Hare Krishna Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna Hare Hare. Om Namah Shivaya Panchakshara mantra Srya namaskra So'ham (I am He or I am That)[16] Ram Nam Rama Mantra Aham Brahma Asmi (I Am Brahman)[16] Sri Vidya Mantras Dakshinamoorthy Mantra


Neo-Hindu new religious movements

The Transcendental Meditation technique, also known as 'TM', uses mantras that are assigned to the practitioner to be used as sound only, without connection to any meaning or idea.[17] The spiritual exercises of Surat Shabda Yoga include simran (repetition, particularly silent repetition of a mantra given at initiation), dhyan (concentration, viewing, or contemplation, particularly on the Inner Master), and bhajan (listening to the inner sounds of the Shabda or the Shabda Master). Repetition of a "mantram" (e.g., mantra) or holy mane is Point 2 in the eight-point Passage Meditation program taught by Eknath Easwaran, who recommended using a mantram drawn from a faith tradition, east or west. The mantram is to be used frequently throughout the day, at opportune moments.[18] This method of mantram repetition, and the larger program, was developed for use in any major faith tradition, or outside all traditions.[19] Easwaran's method of mantram repetition has been the subject of scientific research at the San Diego Veterans Administration, which has suggested health benefits that include managing stress and reducing symptoms of PTSD.[20][21]

Agnicayana yajna ritual

The Atiratra Agnicayana "the building up of the fireplace performed over-night") or Athirathram; the piling of the altar of Agni is a twelve day rauta yajna ritual of the Vedic religion, the predecessor of modern day Hinduism which is considered to be the greatest ritual as per the Vedic ritual hierarchy.[22] It is also the world's oldest surviving ritual.[23] Its mantras and theological explanations in the Brahmana texts are first attested in the Yajurveda Samhitas (Taittiriya, Kathaka; Vajasaneyi). The practice of this ritual was generally discontinued Replica of the altar and utensils used during Athirathram among Brahmins by the late Vedic period, during the rise of Jainism and Buddhism in India. Nevertheless, a continuous, unbroken 3,000 year tradition has been found to exist among a few Nambudiri Brahmin families in Kerala, South India.

Mantra in Buddhism
Mantra in non-esoteric Buddhism
In Buddhism in China and Vietnam, ten small mantras[24][25][26][27][28][29][30] were finalized by the monk Yulin ( ), a teacher of the Shunzhi Emperor for monks, nuns, and laity to chant in the morning. Along with the ten mantras, the Great Compassion Mantra, the Shurangama Mantra of the Shurangama, Heart Sutra and various forms of nianfo are also chanted.[31][32] The Shurangama Mantra may be the longest mantra. There are Thai buddhist amulet katha.[33]


Mantra in Shingon Buddhism

Kkai (774-835), a noted Buddhist monk, advanced a general theory of language based on his analysis of two forms of Buddhist ritual language: dharani (dhra.n) and mantra. Mantra is restricted to esoteric Buddhist practice whereas dharani is found in both esoteric and exoteric ritual. Dharanis for instance are found in the Heart Sutra. The term "shingon" (lit. true word) is the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese term for mantra, chen yen. The word dharani derives from a Sanskrit root dh.r which means to hold or maintain. Ryuichi Abe suggests that it is generally understood as a mnemonic device which encapsulates the meaning of a section or chapter of a sutra. Dharanis are also considered to protect the one who chants them from malign influences and calamities. The term mantra is traditionally said to be derived from two roots: man, to think; and the action-oriented suffix -tra. Thus a mantra can be considered to be a linguistic device for deepening ones thought, or in the Buddhist context for developing the enlightened mind. However, it is also true that mantras have been used as magic spells for very mundane purposes such as attaining wealth and long life, and eliminating enemies. In daily living, many thought the pronunciation of the mantra was not important to take its effect and the expected effect may not happen because of fixed karma ( ), or because there appears a better way to solve the situation. The distinction between dharani and mantra is difficult to make. We can say that all mantras are dharanis but that not all dharanis are mantras. Mantras do tend to be shorter. Both tend to contain a number of unintelligible phonic fragments such as Om, or Hu.m, which is perhaps why some people consider them to be essentially meaningless. Kkai made mantra a special class of dharani which showed that every syllable of a dharani was a manifestation of the true nature of reality in Buddhist terms that all sound is a manifestation of shunyata or emptiness of self-nature. Thus rather than being devoid of meaning, Kkai suggests that dharanis are in fact saturated with meaning every syllable is symbolic on multiple levels. One of Kkai's distinctive contributions was to take this symbolic association even further by saying that there is no essential difference between the syllables of mantras and sacred texts, and those of ordinary language. If one understood the workings of mantra, then any sounds could be a representative of ultimate reality. This emphasis on sounds was one of the drivers for Kkai's championing of the phonetic writing system, the kana, which was adopted in Japan around the time of Kkai. He is generally credited with the invention of the kana, but there is apparently some doubt about this story amongst scholars. This mantra-based theory of language had a powerful effect on Japanese thought and society which up until Kkai's time had been dominated by imported Chinese culture of thought, particularly in the form of the Classical Chinese language which was used in the court and amongst the literati, and Confucianism which was the dominant political ideology. In particular Kkai was able to use this new theory of language to create links between indigenous Japanese culture and Buddhism. For instance, he made a link between the Buddha Mahavairocana and the Shinto sun Goddess Amaterasu. Since the emperors were thought to be descended form Amaterasu, Kkai had found a powerful connection here that linked the emperors with the Buddha, and also in finding a way to integrate Shinto with Buddhism, something that had not happened with Confucianism. Buddhism then became essentially an indigenous religion in a way that Confucianism had not. And it was through language, and mantra that this connection was made. Kkai helped to elucidate what mantra is in a way that had not been done before: he addresses the fundamental questions of what a text is, how signs function, and above all, what language is. In this he covers some of the same ground as modern day Structuralists and others scholars of language, although he comes to very different conclusions. In this system of thought all sounds are said to originate from "a" which is the short a sound in father. For esoteric Buddhism "a" has a special function because it is associated with Shunyata or the idea that no thing exists in its own right, but is contingent upon causes and conditions. (See Dependent origination) In Sanskrit "a" is a prefix which changes the meaning of a word into its opposite, so "vidya" is understanding, and "avidya" is ignorance (the same arrangement is also found in many Greek words, like e.g. "atheism" vs. "theism" and "apathy" vs. "pathos"). The letter a is both visualised in the Siddham script, and pronounced in rituals and meditation practices. In the

Mantra Mahavairocana Sutra which is central to Shingon Buddhism it says: Thanks to the original vows of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, a miraculous force resides in the mantras, so that by pronouncing them one acquires merit without limits". [in Conze, p.183]

Mantra in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism

Mantrayana (Sanskrit), that may be rendered as "way of mantra", was the original self-identifying name of those that have come to be determined 'Nyingmapa'. The Nyingmapa which may be rendered as "those of the ancient way", a name constructed due to the genesis of the Sarma "fresh", "new" traditions. Mantrayana has developed into a synonym of Vajrayana. Noted translator of Buddhist texts Edward Conze (19041979) distinguishes three periods in the Buddhist use of mantra. Initially, according to Conze, like their fellow Indians, Buddhists used mantra as protective spells to ward off malign influences. Despite a Vinaya rule which forbids monks engaging in the Brahminical practice of chanting mantras for material gain, there are a number of protective for a group of ascetic monks. However, even at this early stage, there is perhaps something more than animistic magic at work. Particularly in the case of the Ratana Sutta the efficacy of the verses seems to be related to the concept of "truth". Each verse of the sutta ends with "by the virtue of this truth may there be happiness". Conze notes that later mantras were used more to guard the spiritual life of the chanter, and sections on mantras began to be included in some Mahayana sutras such as the White Lotus Sutra, and the Lankavatara Sutra. The scope of protection also changed in this time. In the Sutra of Golden Light the Four Great Kings promise to exercise sovereignty over the different classes of demigods, to protect the whole of Jambudvipa (the India sub continent), to protect monks who proclaim the sutra, and to protect kings who patronise the monks who proclaim the sutra. The apotheosis of this type of approach is the Nichiren school of Buddhism that was founded in 13th century Japan, and which distilled many previously complex Buddhist practices down to the veneration of the Lotus Sutra through recitation of the daimoku: "Nam myoho renge kyo" which translates as "Homage to the Lotus Sutra". The third period began, according to Conze, in about the 7th century, to take centre stage and become a vehicle for salvation in their own right. Tantra started to gain momentum in the 6th and 7th century, with specifically Buddhist forms appearing as early as 300CE. Mantrayana was an early name for the what is now more commonly known as Vajrayana, which gives us a hint as to the place of mantra in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism. The aim of Vajrayana practice is to give the practitioner a direct experience of reality, of things as they really are. Mantras function as symbols of that reality, and different mantras are different aspects of that reality for example wisdom or compassion. Mantras are often associated with a particular deity, one famous exception being the Prajnaparamita mantra associated with the Heart Sutra. One of the key Vajrayana strategies for bringing about a direct experience of reality is to engage the entire psycho-physical organism in the practices. In one Buddhist analysis the person consists of 'body, speech and mind' (refer: Three Vajra). So a typical sadhana or meditation practice might include mudras, or symbolic hand gestures; the recitations of mantras; as well as the visualisation of celestial beings and visualising the letters of the mantra which is being recited. Clearly here mantra is associated with speech. The meditator may visualise the letters in front of themselves, or within their body. They may be pronounced out loud, or internally in the mind only.

Mantra Om mani padme hum Probably the most famous mantra of Buddhism is Om mani padme hum, the six syllable mantra of the Bodhisattva of compassion Avalokitevara (Tibetan: Chenrezig, Chinese: Guanyin). This mantra is particularly associated with the four-armed Shadakshari form of Avalokitevara. The Dalai Lama is said to be an incarnation of Avalokiteshvara, and so the mantra is especially revered by his devotees. The book Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism by Lama Anagarika Govinda, gives a classic example of how such a mantra can contain many levels of symbolic meaning. Donald Lopez gives a good discussion of this mantra and its various interpretations in his book Prisoners of Shangri-LA: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Lopez is an authoritative writer and challenges the stereotypical analysis of the mantra as meaning "The Jewel in the Lotus", an interpretation that is not supported by either a linguistic analysis, nor by Tibetan tradition, and is symptomatic of the Western Orientalist approach to the 'exotic' East. He suggests that Manipadma is actually the name of a bodhisattva, a form of Avalokiteshvara who has many other names in any case including Padmapani or lotus flower in hand. The Brahminical insistence on absolutely correct pronunciation of Sanskrit broke down as Buddhism was exported to other countries where the inhabitants found it impossible to reproduce the sounds. So in Tibet, for instance, where this mantra is on the lips of many Tibetans all their waking hours, the mantra is pronounced Om mani peme hum. Some other mantras in Tibetan Buddhism The following list of mantras is from Kailash - Journal of Himalayan Studies, Volume 1, Number 2, 1973. (pp.168169) (augmented by other contributors). It also includes renderings of Om mani padme hum. Please note that the word swaha is sometimes shown as svaha, and is usually pronounced as 'so-ha' by Tibetans. Spellings tend to vary in the transliterations to English, for example, hum and hung are generally the same word. The mantras used in Tibetan Buddhist practice are in Sanskrit, to preserve the original mantras. Visualizations and other practices are usually done in the Tibetan language. Om vagishvara hum This is the mantra of the Mahabodhisattva Manjusri, Tibetan: Jampelyang (Wylie "'jam dpal dbyangs")... The Buddha in his wisdom aspect. Om mani padme hum The mantra of Avalokitesvara, Mahabodhisattva, the Buddha in his compassion aspect. Om vajrapani hum The mantra of the Buddha as Protector of the Secret Teachings. i.e.: as the Mahabodhisattva Channa Dorje (Vajrapani). Om vajrasattva hum The short mantra for White Vajrasattva, there is also a full 100-syllable mantra for Vajrasattva. Om ah hum vajra guru padma siddhi hum The mantra of the Vajraguru Guru Padma Sambhava who established Mahayana Buddhism and Tantra in Tibet. Om tare tuttare ture mama ayurjnana punye pushting svaha The mantra of Dlkar or White Tara, the emanation of Arya Tara [Chittamani Tara]. Variants: Om tare tuttare ture mama ayurjnana punye pushting kuru swaha (Drikung Kagyu), Om tare tuttare ture mama ayu punye jnana puktrim kuru soha (Karma Kagyu). Om tare tuttare ture svaha, mantra of Green Arya Tara - Jetsun Dolma or Tara, the Mother of the Buddhas: om represents Tara's sacred body, speech, and mind. Tare means liberating from all discontent. Tutare means liberating from the eight fears, the external dangers, but mainly from the internal dangers, the delusions. Ture means liberating from duality; it shows the "true" cessation of confusion. Soha means "may the meaning of the mantra take root in my mind." According to Tibetan Buddhism, this mantra (Om tare tutare ture soha) can not only eliminate disease, troubles, disasters, and karma, but will also bring believers blessings, longer life, and even the wisdom to transcend one's circle of reincarnation. Tara representing long life and health. o amarai jvantaye svh (Tibetan version: o ma ra i dzi wan te ye sv h) The mantra of the Buddha of limitless life: the Buddha Amitayus (Tibetan Tspagmed) in celestial form.


Mantra Om dhrung svaha The purification mantra of the mother Namgyalma. Om ami dhewa hri The mantra of the Buddha Amitabha (Hopagmed) of the Western Pureland, his skin the colour of the setting sun. Om ami dewa hri The mantra of Amitabha (Ompagme in Tibetan). Om ah ra pa ca na dhih The mantra of the "sweet-voiced one", Jampelyang (Wylie "'jam dpal dbyangs") or Manjusri, the Bodhisattva of wisdom. Om muni muni maha muniye sakyamuni swaha The mantra of Buddha Sakyamuni, the historical Buddha Om gate gate paragate parasamgate bodhi svaha The mantra of the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra (Heart Sutra) Namo bhagavate Bhaishajya-guru vaidurya-praba-rajaya tathagataya arhate samyak-sambuddhaya tadyata *Tadyata OM bhaishajye bhaishajye maha bhaishajya raja-samudgate svaha The mantra of the 'Medicine Buddha', from Chinese translations of the Master of Healing Sutra. There are mantras in Bn and some Chinese sects.[34][35][36]


Mantras in other sects and religions

Nam Myh Renge Ky The mantra of the Nichiren Buddhism. N M Bn Sh D Z Zai Wng F ( )[37] The mantra of the Buddhayana sect ( ). Nm Tinyun Tibo mtuf ( ) The mantra of the Way of Former Heaven and the T'ung-shan She.[38][39] Gun Sh Yn P S ( ) The mantra of the Li-ism[40][41] Zhnkngjixing, wshngfm ( ) The mantra of the Luo Sect ( )[42] GomtrazanGwaarlaRarunkaSohuanSatnum The mantra of Ching Hai.[43] Zhngshlinmngd, zhngyxnrngng, bxiorncjio, jijinzhnlh ( ) The mantra of the Tiender and the Lord of Universe Church[44] Qngjng gungmng dl zhhu wshng zhzhn mn gungf ( ) The mantra of the Manichaeism in China[45]

The mantra in Chinese Buddhist Canon are collected by Qianlong Emperor into a book. Kuang-Ming Lin ( ) amended it.[46][47]

Mantra in Sikhism
In the Sikh religion, a mantar or mantra is a Shabad (Word or hymn) from the Adi Granth to concentrate the mind on God and the message of the ten Sikh Gurus. Mantras in Sikhism are fundamentally different from the secret mantras used in other religions.[48] Unlike in other religions, Sikh mantras are open for anyone to use. They are used openly and are not taught in secret sessions but are used in front of assemblies of Sikhs.[48] The Mool Mantar, the first composition of Guru Nanak, is the most widely known Sikh mantra.



Mantra in Taoism
There are mantras in Taoism such as the words in Dafan yinyu wuliang yin ( ) and the Tibetan Buddhism mantra om ().[49][50][51][52] There are mantras in Cheondoism, Daesun Jinrihoe, Jeung San Do and Onmyd.[53][54][55][56][57]

[1] Feuerstein, G. The Deeper Dimension of Yoga. Shambala Publications, Boston, MA. 2003. [2] "What is a Mantra?" (http:/ / www. meditationden. com/ questions/ what-is-a-mantra/ ). . [3] Khanna, Madhu (2003). Yantra: The Tantric Symbol of Cosmic Unity. Inner Traditions. ISBN 0-89281-132-3 & ISBN 978-0-89281-132-8. p.21 [4] Macdonell, Arthur A., A Sanskrit Grammar for Students 182.1.b, p. 162(Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 1927). [5] Whitney, W.D., Sanskrit Grammar 1185.c, p. 449(New York, 2003, ISBN 0-486-43136-3). [6] Schlerath, Bernfried (1987). ""Aa: Avestan Aa"". Encyclopaedia Iranica. 2:694-696. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul p. 695. [7] <---!PLEASE ALSO EXPLAIN RELEVANCE OF THIS CITATION, WHICH SHOULD BE IN A FOOTNOTE, WHERE I HAVE MOVED IT, RATHER THAN WITHIN TEXT: ---> See also Russian Wikipedia page for Sage: ru: [8] A Dictionary of Hinduism, Margaret and James Stutley (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers) 2002, p.126 [9] Radha, Swami Sivananda. Mantras: Words of Power (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=BFfxHiQb3HAC). Timeless Books, Canada. ISBN 1-932018-10-7. Page 54. [10] A Dictionary of Hinduism, p.156 [11] A Dictionary of Hinduism, pp.57,58 [12] Meditation and Mantras, Swami Vishnu-Devananda (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers) 1981, p.66 [13] Shakti Mantras, Thomas Ashley-Farrand (Ballantine Books) 2003, p.182 [14] A Dictionary of Hinduism, p.271 [15] Meditation and Mantras, p.75 [16] Meditation and Mantras, p.80 [17] Shear,Jonathon,Editor.The Experience of Meditation:Experts Introduce the Major Traditions,pg.28.Paragon House. St Paul, MN.,2006. [18] In Hinduism, frequent repetition at opportune moments is a common type of japa. [19] Eknath Easwaran (2008). Mantram Handbook (see article) (5th ed.). Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press. ISBN 1-58638-028-1 (originally published 1977). [20] Jill E. Bormann, Steven Thorp, Julie L. Wetherell, & Shahrokh Golshan (2008). A Spiritually Based Group Intervention for Combat Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1177/ 0898010107311276). Journal of Holistic Nursing v26 n2, pp 109-116. PMID 18356284, doi:10.1177/0898010107311276. [21] Jill E. Bormann & Doug Oman (2007). Mantram or holy name repetition: Health benefits from a portable spiritual practice. In Thomas G. Plante, & Carl E. Thoresen (Eds.), Spirit, science and health: How the spiritual mind fuels physical wellness (pp. 94-112) ( table of contents (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ catdir/ toc/ ecip0716/ 2007016344. html)), Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-99506-5 [22] Tull, Herman (1989). The Vedic origins of karma: cosmos as man in ancient Indian myth and ritual (http:/ / books. google. co. in/ books?id=auqGWz2l9pYC& pg=PA108). SUNY Press. p.108. ISBN978-0-7914-0094-4. . [23] Staal, Frits (1975-76) The Agnicayana Ritual in India, 1975-1976 (supplied) 76.2.1 1975-1976 (http:/ / siris-archives. si. edu/ ipac20/ ipac. jsp?uri=full=3100001~!218424!0) [24] "Pinyin of ten mantras" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070324051507/ http:/ / www. amtfamtf. net/ nfgy/ sxz. htm). 2007-03-24. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. amtfamtf. net/ nfgy/ sxz. htm) on 2007-03-24. . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [25] Rulu. "Introduction to Mahayana Buddhist Sutras and Mantras" (http:/ / www. sutrasmantras. info/ intro. html). . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [26] " Ak=obhya " (http:/ / www. siddham-sanskrit. com/ s-sanskrit2/ ChuaBTuan/ Ten-small-mantras. htm). . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [27] Quang Duc. "Quang Duc" (http:/ / www. quangduc. com/ tudien/ tudien-c. html). Quang Duc. . Retrieved 2012-07-18. [28] Thu Vien Hoa Sen (http:/ / www. thuvienhoasen. org/ tudienphathoc-anhviet-thienphuc-T. htm) [29] "Cong Phu Khuya" (http:/ / www. vanphatdanh. com/ vietVPD1/ canbanphatphap/ phathoc/ nghithuc/ congphukhuya/ thapchu. html). Van Phat Danh. . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [30] (http:/ / www. dharmaradio. org/ dharmatalks/ mp3/ B101/ On_Mahayana_Practice. pdf) [31] " " (http:/ / www. bfnn. org/ book/ books3/ 2078. htm). . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [32] "Yuan 1" (http:/ / www. siddham. org/ yuan1/ main_mantra. asp). Siddham. . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [33] "A mini reference archive library of compiled Buddhist Katha/Katta" (http:/ / www. mir. com. my/ leofoo/ Thai-amulets/ Chris_Tam_katha_libary/ index. htm). . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [34] " " (http:/ / www. yzbj. com/ doc/ hcy_01_txt. txt). . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [35] " " (http:/ / www. buddhasun. net/ descript/ utf_8/ infotext1. php). . Retrieved 2012-07-17.

[36] "Mantra - (True Buddha Lotus Place)" (http:/ / lotushouse. weebly. com/ mantra. html). 2010-02-27. . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [37] " " (http:/ / epaper. buddhayana. info/ ?p=170). 2004-05-15. . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [38] (http:/ / www. 1-kuan-tao. org. tw/ zongsu/ culture/ 9902/ 206/ 206p7-9. pdf) [39] # (http:/ / www. fxzhwm. com/ shijian/ tongshanshe. htm) [40] (http:/ / ns2. 1818168. com/ digest/ sk_xs/ zxzj/ 2006/ 03/ 12/ 125190. shtml) [41] "() " (http:/ / www. cass. net. cn/ zhuanti/ y_haixia/ hx_01/ hx_01_16_03. htm). . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [42] " " (http:/ / www2. nutn. edu. tw/ randd/ post/ 40-2/ humanistic/ 2-29-2. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [43] " - " (http:/ / ramsss. com/ ching-hai/ c/ buddhist_cults_2. htm). . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [44] " " (http:/ / tienti. info/ v2/ precepts). . Retrieved 2012-07-17. [45] " " (http:/ / hk. chiculture. net/ 20205/ html/ d18/ 20205d18. html). . Retrieved 2012-07-18. [46] " " (http:/ / www. qingis. com/ books/ zangzu. doc). . Retrieved 2012-07-18. [47] (http:/ / www. mantra. com. tw/ e-new88/ www/ md/ cgi-bin/ detail. cgi?id=MD040819000005) [48] Tlib, Gurbachan Sigh (1992). "ML MANTRA" (http:/ / www. advancedcentrepunjabi. org/ eos/ MUL MANTRA. html). Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Patiala: Punjabi University. . Retrieved 19 September 2010. [49] . " " (http:/ / www. 20tv. cn/ showart. asp?art_id=331& page=1). . Retrieved 2012-07-18. [50] "" (http:/ / www. spacetao. com/ page3_1_1. htm). . Retrieved 2012-07-18. [51] (http:/ / www. taoism. org. hk/ religious-studies/ 9902/ art8. htm) [52] " - - - - - " (http:/ / www. dao7. net/ html/ xiuxing/ fuzhou/ ). . Retrieved 2012-07-18. [53] " " (http:/ / portal. nricp. go. kr/ kr/ data/ mkr/ original/ download. jsp?no=1046& mode=file1). . Retrieved 2012-07-18. [54] " ( )" (http:/ / ijinwon. kr/ cndokyo/ cndogiongjeon/ cdgj006. htm). . Retrieved 2012-07-18. [55] "!!! " (http:/ / www. megapass. co. kr/ ~hanare79/ eng/ mantra_tae02. htm). . Retrieved 2012-07-18. [56] "(5) " (http:/ / www. dsjr. org/ kor/ dje/ dje03-2. php). . Retrieved 2012-07-18. [57] " " (http:/ / www2s. biglobe. ne. jp/ ~Taiju/ 970_kuchizusami. htm). . Retrieved 2012-07-18.


Abe, R. The weaving of mantra: Kukai and the construction of esoteric Buddhist discourse. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.) Beyer, S. Magic and ritual in Tibet: the cult of Tara. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsisdass, 1996). Conze, E. Buddhism : its essence and development. (London : Faber, c1951). Eknath Easwaran Mantram Handbook (see article) Nilgiri Press (4th ed. ISBN 978-0-915132-98-0) (5th ed. ISBN 978-1-58638-028-1) Gelongma Karma Khechong Palmo. Mantras On The Prayer Flag. Kailash - Journal of Himalayan Studies, Volume 1, Number 2, 1973. (pp.168169). Gombrich, R. F. Theravaada Buddhism: a social history from ancient Benares to modern Colombo. (London, Routledge, 1988) Govinda (Lama Anagarika). Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism. (London : Rider, 1959). Khanna, Madhu. Yantra: The Tantric Symbol of Cosmic Unity. (Inner Traditions, 2003). ISBN 0-89281-132-3 & ISBN 9780-89281-132-8 Lopez, D. Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. (Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1998) Mullin, G.H. The Dalai Lamas on Tantra, (Ithaca : Snow Lion, 2006). The Rider Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and religion. (London : Rider, 1986). Skilton, A. A concise history of Buddhism. (Birmingham : Windhorse Publications, 1994). Sangharakshita. Transforming Self and World: themes from the Sutra of Golden Light. (Birmingham : Windhorse Publications, 1994). Walsh, M. The Long discourses of the Buddha: a translation of the Digha Nikaya. (Boston : Wisdom Publications, 1987)

Mantra Durgananda, Swami. Meditation Revolution. (Agama Press, 1997). ISBN 0-9654096-0-0 Vishnu-Devananda, Swami. Meditation and Mantras. (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1981). ISBN 81-208-1615-3 Ashley-Farrand, Thomas. Shakti Mantras. (Ballantine Books 2003). ISBN 0-345-44304-7 Stutley, Margaret and James. A Dictionary of Hinduism. (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 2002). ISBN 81-215-1074-0


External links
Mantra ( Mantra Marga on Hindupedia (

Buddhist mantra
The benefits of reciting Chenrezig's mantra ( Examples of several Buddhist mantras ( Listen to most common Buddhist mantras (

Hindu mantra
Hinduism Mantras ( (English/Sanskrit) Mantra - The Spiritual Background of "Yoga in Daily Life" ( en/160400/the-spiritual-background/mantra/) Vedic Mantra (

Taoist mantra

Historical Vedic religion


Historical Vedic religion

The religion of the Vedic period (1500 BC to 500 BC[1]) (also known as Vedism, Vedic Brahmanism, ancient Hinduism or, in a context of Indian antiquity, simply Brahmanism[2]) is a historical predecessor of modern Hinduism.[3] Its liturgy is reflected in the mantra portion of the four Vedas,[4] which are compiled in Sanskrit. The religious practices centered on a clergy administering rites. This mode of worship is largely unchanged today within Hinduism; however, only a small fraction of conservative rautins continue the tradition of oral recitation of hymns learned solely through the oral tradition.

Map of northern India in the late Vedic period. The location of Vedic shakhas is labelled in green. Thar desert is in orange

Texts dating to the Vedic period, composed in Vedic Sanskrit, are mainly the four Vedic Samhitas, but the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and some of the older Upanishads (Bhadrayaka, Chndogya, Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana) are also placed in this period. The Vedas record the liturgy connected with the rituals and sacrifices performed by the 16 or 17 rauta priests and the purohitas. According to traditional views, the hymns of the Rigveda and other Vedic hymns were divinely revealed to the rishis, who were considered to be seers or "hearers" (ruti means "what is heard") of the Veda, rather than "authors". In addition the Vedas are said to be "apaurashaya", a Sanskrit word meaning "uncreated by man" and which further reveals their eternal non-changing status. The mode of worship was worship of the elements like fire and rivers, worship of heroic gods like Indra, chanting of hymns and performance of sacrifices. The priests performed the solemn rituals for the noblemen (Kshatriyas) and wealthy Vaishyas. People prayed for abundance of children, rain, cattle (wealth), long life and an afterlife in the heavenly world of the ancestors. This mode of worship has been preserved even today in Hinduism, which involves recitations from the Vedas by a purohita (priest), for prosperity, wealth and general well-being. However, the primacy of Vedic deities has been seconded to the deities of Puranic literature. The Vedic period is held to have ended around 500 BC, Vedic religion gradually metamorphosizing into the various schools of Hinduism, which further evolved into Puranic Hinduism.[5] However aspects of the historical Vedic religion survived in corners of the Indian subcontinent, such as Kerala where the Nambudiri Brahmins continue the ancient rauta rituals, which are considered extinct in all other parts.

Historical Vedic religion


Specific rituals and sacrifices of the Vedic religion include, among others:[6] The Soma rituals, which involved the extraction, utility and consumption of Soma: The Agnistoma or Soma sacrifice Fire rituals involving oblations (havir): The Agnihotra or oblation to Agni, a sun charm, The Agnicayana, the sophisticated ritual of piling the fire altar. The New and Full Moon as well as the Seasonal (Cturmsya) sacrifices The royal consecration (Rajasuya) sacrifice The Ashvamedha or A Yajna dedicated to the glory, wellbeing and prosperity of the Rashtra the nation or empire[7] The Purushamedha or symbolic sacrifice of a man, imitating that of the cosmic Purusha, cf. Purusha Sukta as well as, in its rauta form, the Ashvamedha. The "sacrifice" is symbolic, the text clearly indicating that the participant is to be released. The rituals and charms referred to in the Atharvaveda are concerned with medicine and healing practices.[8] The Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice) has parallels in the 2nd millennium BC Sintashta and Andronovo culture as well as in Rome (the October Horse), medieval Ireland, and beyond in Central and East Asia. Although in the Rigveda, the cow's description as aghnya (that which should not be killed) may refer to poetry,[9] it may be reflective of some of the social practices, as were other practices like rituals and deity worship.[10] The Hindu rites of cremation are seen since the Rigvedic period; while they are attested from early times in the Cemetery H culture, there is a late Rigvedic reference invoking forefathers "both cremated (agnidagdh-) and uncremated (nagnidagdha-)".(RV 10.15.14)[11][12]
A rauta yajna being performed.

Though a large number of devatas are named in the Rig Veda only 33 devas are counted, eleven each of earth, space and heaven.[13] The Vedic pantheon knows two classes, Devas and Asuras. The Devas (Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga, Amsa, etc.) are deities of cosmic and social order, from the universe and kingdoms down to the individual. The Rigveda is a collection of hymns to various deities, most notably heroic Indra, Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods, and Soma, the deified sacred drink of the Indo-Iranians.[14] Also prominent is Varuna (often paired with Mitra) and the group of "All-gods", the Vishvadevas.[15]

Historical Vedic religion


Vedic philosophy primarily begins with the later part of Rig Veda, which was compiled before 1100 BCE.[16] Most of philosophy of the Rig Veda is contained in the sections Purusha sukta and Nasadiya Sukta.[17] The Purusha Sukta gives a description of the spiritual unity of the cosmos. It espouses Panentheism by presenting nature of reality as both immanent and transcendent.[18] From this reality the sukta holds that original creative will (identified as Viswakarma, Hiranyagarbha or Prajapati) proceeds, by which this vast universe is projected in space and time.[17] The Purusha Sukta, in the seventh verse, proclaims the organic inseparability of the constituents of society. The Nasadiya sukta is thought to be the earliest account of skepticism in India.[19] It holds the Absolute to be both existence and non-existence[20] and beyond all conception. The atarudrya of Yajurveda shatters the extra-cosmic notion of Absolute (Rudra) and identifies it with both the good and the bad, the beautiful and the ugly, the right and the wrong, the positive and the negative, the high and the low, the conceivable and the inconceivable, the mortal and the immortal, existence and non-existence.[21] Ethics in the Vedas are based on the concepts of Satya and Rta. Satya is the principle of integration rooted in the Absolute.[22] Whereas, ta is the expression of Satya, which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it.[23] Conformity with ta would enable progress whereas its violation would lead to punishment. Concept of Yajna or sacrifice is also enunciated in the Purusha sukta where reaching Absolute itself is considered a transcendent sacrifice when viewed from the point of view of the individual.[18] Vedic people believed in the transmigration of the soul and the peepul tree and cow were sanctified by the time of the Atharva Veda.[24] Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later like Dharma, Karma etc. trace their root to the Vedas.[25] While the term ahimsa is not officially mentioned, one passage in the Rig Veda reads, "Do not harm anything."[26] Major Philosophers of this era were Rishis Narayana, Kanva, Rishaba, Vamadeva, and Angiras.[27] (See also philosophers of Vedic age)

Interpretations of Vedic Mantras

Mimamsa philosophers argue that there was no need to postulate a maker for the world, just as there was no need for an author to compose the Vedas or a god to validate the rituals.[28] Mimamsa argues that the gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. To that regard, the power of the mantras is what is seen as the power of gods.[29] Adi Shankara interpreted Vedas as being non-dualistic or monistic.[30] However, Arya Samaj holds the view that the Vedic mantras tend to monotheism.[31] Even the earlier Mandalas of Rig Veda (books 1 and 9) contains hymns which are thought to have a tendency toward monotheism.[32] Often quoted isolated pada 1.164.46 of the Rig Veda states (trans. Griffith): Indra mitra varuamaghnimhuratho divya sa suparo gharutmn, eka sad vipr bahudh vadantyaghni yama mtarivnamhu "They call him Indra, Mitra, Varua, Agni, and he is heavenly nobly-winged Garutmn. To what is One, sages give many a title they call it Agni, Yama, Mtarivan". Moreover, the verses of 10.129 and 10.130, deal with the one being (kam st). The verse 10.129.7 further confirms this (trans. Griffith): iym vsi yta babhva / ydi v dadh ydi v n / y asya dhyaka param vyman / s ag veda ydi v n vda "He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not, He who surveys it all from his highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps even he does not"

Historical Vedic religion


The Vedic Samhitas contain references to ascetics, and ascetic practices known as (tapas) are referenced in the Brhmaas (900 BCE and 500 BCE), early commentaries on the Vedas.[33] The Rig Veda, earliest of the Hindu scripture mentions the practice.[34] Robert Schneider and Jeremy Fields write, "Yoga asanas were first prescribed by the ancient Vedic texts thousands of years ago and are said to directly enliven the body's inner intelligence."[35] Certainly breath control and curbing the mind was practiced since the Vedic times.[36] It is believed that yoga was fundamental to Vedic ritual, especially to chanting the sacred hymns[37] While the actual term "yoga" first occurs in the Katha Upanishad[38] and later in the Shvetasvatara Upanishad,[39] an early reference to meditation is made in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the earliest Upanishad (c. 900 BCE).[40] Yoga is discussed quite frequently in the Upanishads, many of which predate Patanjali's Sutras.[41] A Rig Vedic cosmogonic myth declares an ascetic with "folded legs, soles turned upwards" as per his name.[42]

Post-Vedic religions
Vedic religion was followed by Upanishads which gradually evolved into Vedanta, which is regarded by some as the primary institution of Hinduism. Vedanta considers itself "the purpose or goal [end] of the Vedas."[43] The philosophy of Vedanta (lit. The end of the Vedas"), transformed the Vedic worldview to monistic one. This led to the development of tantric metaphysics and gave rise to new forms of yoga, such as jnana yoga and bhakti yoga.[44] There are also conservative schools which continue portions of the historical Vedic religion largely unchanged until today (see rauta, Nambudiri).[45] During the formative centuries of Vedanta, traditions that supported it and which opposed the same, emerged. These were the stika and nstika.[46] Hinduism is an umbrella term for astika traditions in India (see History of Hinduism).[46] Puranas, Sanskrit epics[47] the classical schools of Hindu philosophy Shaivism Vaishnavism Bhakti Shaktism rauta traditions, maintaining much of the original form of the Vedic religion.

Vedic Brahmanism of Iron Age India is believed by some to have co-existed, at least in eastern North India, and closely interacted with the non-Vedic (nastika) ramana traditions.[48][49][50][51] These were not direct outgrowths of Vedism, but movements with mutual influences with Brahmanical traditions.[48] Following are the religions that evolved out of the Sramana tradition:[52][53] Jainism, traditionally from the 8th century BCE during Parshva's time. There are Jaina references to 22 pre-historic Tirthankaras. In this view, Jainism peaked at the time of Mahavira (traditionally put in the 6th Century BCE).[54][55] Buddhism, (traditionally put) from c. 500 BC; declined in India over the 5th to 12th centuries in favor of Puranic Hinduism.[56]

Historical Vedic religion


[1] INITIATION OF RELIGIONS IN INDIA (http:/ / www. ancient. eu. com/ article/ 238/ ) [2] The Encyclopdia Britannica of 2005 uses all of "Vedism", "Vedic Brahmanism" and "Brahmanism", but reserves "Vedism" for the earliest stage, predating the Brahmana period, and defines "Brahmanism" as "religion of ancient India that evolved out of Vedism. It takes its name both from the predominant position of its priestly class, the Brahmans, and from the increasing speculation about, and importance given to, Brahman, the supreme power." [3] Stephanie W. Jamison and Michael Witzel in Arvind Sharma, editor, The Study of Hinduism. University of South Carolina Press, 2003, page 65: "... to call this period Vedic Hinduism is a contradiction in terms since Vedic religion is very different from what we generally call Hindu religion - at least as much as Old Hebrew religion is from medieval and modern Christian religion. However, Vedic religion is treatable as a predecessor of Hinduism." [4] "The Four Vedas" (http:/ / hinduism. about. com/ cs/ vedasvedanta/ a/ aa120103a_2. htm). About dot Com. . Retrieved 7 November 2012. [5] Krishnananda. Swami. A Short History of Religious and Philosophic Thought in India, Divine Life Society. p. 42 [6] Prasoon, (Prof.) Shrikant. Indian Scriptures. Pustak Mahal (August 11, 2010). Ch.2, Vedang, Kalp. ISBN 978-81-223-1007-8. [7] Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith, The Texts of the White Yajurveda. Translated with a Popular Commentary (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HAHqvUGHO6cC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage& q=& f=false) (1899), 1987 reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi, ISBN 81-215-0047-8. [8] Bloomfield Maurice. Hymns of the Atharva Veda. Kessinger Publishing (June 1, 2004). P. 1-8. ISBN 1419125087. [9] J. Narten, Acta Orientalia Neerlandica, Leiden 1971, 120-134 [10] Karel Werner, ed., Curzon Press, 1989, page 34. "Rahurkar speaks of them as belonging to two distinct 'cultural strands' ... Wayman also found evidence for two distinct approaches to the spiritual dimension in ancient India and calls them the traditions of 'truth and silence.' He traces them particularly in the older Upanishads, in early Buddhism, and in some later literature." [11] Dudi, Amar Singh. Ancient India History. Neha Publishers and Distributors (January 10, 2012). Ch. 9. Vedic Religion, Rituals. ISBN 978-93-80318-16-5. [12] Sabir, N. Heaven Hell OR??. Publisher: Xlibris (October 7, 2010). P. 155. ISBN 1453550119. [13] Singhal, K. C; Gupta, Roshan. The Ancient History of India, Vedic Period: A New Interpretation. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. ISBN 8126902868. P. 150. [14] "Botany of Haoma" (http:/ / www. iranicaonline. org/ articles/ haoma-i), from Encyclopdia Iranica. Accessed June 15, 2012 [15] Renou, Louis. L'Inde Classique, vol. 1, p. 328, Librairie d'Ameriqe et d'Orient. Paris 1947, reprinted 1985. ISBN 2-7200-1035-9. [16] Oberlies (1998:155) gives an estimate of 1100 BC for the youngest hymns in book 10. Estimates for a terminus post quem of the earliest hymns are more uncertain. Oberlies (p. 158) based on 'cumulative evidence' sets wide range of 17001100 [17] Krishnananda. Swami. A Short History of Religious and Philosophic Thought in India, Divine Life Society. p. 18-19. [18] The Purusha Sukta in Daily Invocations (http:/ / www. swami-krishnananda. org/ invoc/ in_pura. html) by Swami Krishnananda [19] Patri, Umesh and Prativa Devi. " Progress of Atheism in India: A Historical Perspective (http:/ / www. positiveatheism. org/ india/ s1990a22. htm)". Atheist Centre 1940-1990 Golden Jubilee. Vijayawada, February 1990. Retrieved 2007-04-02. [20] Nasadiya Sukta (http:/ / www. apamnapat. com/ articles/ Suktas003. html) translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith. [21] The significance of Satarudriya in Daily Invocations (http:/ / www. swami-krishnananda. org/ invoc/ in_sat. html) by Swami Krishnananda [22] Krishnananda. Swami. A Short History of Religious and Philosophic Thought in India, Divine Life Society. p. 21 [23] Holdrege (2004:215). Panikkar (2001:350-351) remarks: "ta is the ultimate foundation of everything; it is "the supreme", although this is not to be understood in a static sense. [...] It is the expression of the primordial dynamism that is inherent in everything...." [24] Singhal, K. C; Gupta, Roshan. The Ancient History of India, Vedic Period: A New Interpretation. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. ISBN 8126902868. P. 150-151. [25] *Day, Terence P. (1982). The Conception of Punishment in Early Indian Literature. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. P. 42-45. ISBN 0-919812-15-5. [26] The Hindu history By Akshoy Kumar Mazumdar [27] P. 285 Indian sociology through Ghurye, a dictionary By S. Devadas Pillai [28] Neville, Robert. Religious ruth (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ThLR13JpCWsC). p.51. . [29] Coward, Harold. The perfectibility of human nature in eastern and western thought (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=LkE_8uch5P0C). p.114. . [30] Sharma, Chandradhar (1962). "Chronological Summary of History of Indian Philosophy". Indian Philosophy: A Critical Survey. New York: Barnes & Noble. [31] Light of Truth (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20091028114133/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/ Athens/ Ithaca/ 3440/ chapterseven. html) by Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Chapter 7 [32] Macdonell, Arthur Anthony. Vedic Mythology. Forgotten Books (May 23, 2012). P. 17. ISBN 1440094365. [33] Flood, p. 94. [34] P. 51 The Complete Idiot's Guide to Yoga By Joan Budilovsky, Eve Adamson [35] P. 170 Total Heart Health By Robert H. Schneider, Jeremy Z. Fields [36] P. 531 The Yoga Tradition By Georg Feuerstein [37] P. 538 The Yoga Tradition By Georg Feuerstein

Historical Vedic religion

[38] Flood, p. 95. [39] P. 99 The Wisdom of the Vedas By Jagadish Chandra Chatterji [40] "...which states that, having become calm and concentrated, one perceives the self (atman), within oneself." Flood, pp. 94-95. [41] P. 132 A Student's Guide to A2 Religious Studies for the OCR Specification By Michael Wilcockson [42] P. 164 The Doctrine of the Upaniads and the Early Buddhism By Hermann Oldenberg, Shridhar B. Shrotri [43] Robert E. Hume, Professor Emeritus of History of Religions at the Union Theological Seminary, wrote in Random House's The American College Dictionary (1966): "It [Vednta] is concerned with the end of the Vedas, both chronologically and teleologically." [44] "Patanjalis Yoga Darsana The Hatha Yoga Tradition," (http:/ / www. inforefuge. com/ patanjali-yoga-darsana-hatha-yoga) InfoRefuge. [45] Kelkar, Siddharth. UNESCOs leg-up for city Veda research (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ latest-news/ unescos-legup-for-city-veda-research/ 280908/ ). Express India. Retrieved 16 June 2012. [46] * Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.82, 22449, ISBN81-7596-028-0 [47] Encyclopdia Britannica s.v. Hindu philosophy: "The great epic Mahabharata represents the attempt of Vedic Brahmanism to adjust itself to the new circumstances reflected in the process of the aryanization (integration of Aryan beliefs, practices, and institutions) of the various non-Aryan communities." [48] S. Cromwell Crawford, review of L. M. Joshi, Brahmanism, Buddhism and Hinduism, Philosophy East and West (1972): "Alongside Brahmanism was the non-Aryan shramanic culture with its roots going back to prehistoric times." [49] Y. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi, ISBN 81-208-0815-0 Page 18. "There is no evidence to show that Jainism and Buddhism ever subscribed to vedic sacrifices, vedic deities or caste. They are parallel or native religions of India and have contributed to much to the growth of even classical Hinduism of the present times." [50] Dr. Kalghatgi, T. G. 1988 In: Study of Jainism, Prakrit Bharti Academy, Jaipur [51] P.S. Jaini, (1979), The Jaina Path to Purification, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, p. 169 "Jainas themselves have no memory of a time when they fell within the Vedic fold. Any theory that attempts to link the two traditions, moreover fails to appreciate rather distinctive and very non-vedic character of Jaina cosmology, soul theory, karmic doctrine and atheism" [52] Jain, Arun. 2008. Faith & philosophy of Jainism. p. 210. [53] Svarghese, Alexander P. 2008. India : History, Religion, Vision And Contribution To The World. p. 259-60. [54] Helmuth von Glasenapp,Shridhar B. Shrotri. 1999. Jainism: an Indian religion of salvation. P.24. "Thus not only nothing, from the philosophical and the historical point of view, comes in the way of the supposition that Jainism was established by Parsva around 800 BCE, but it is rather confirmed in everything that we know of the spiritual life of that period." [55] Dundas, Paul. 2002. The Jains. P.17. "Jainism, then, was in origin merely one component of a north Indian ascetic culture that flourished in the Ganges basin from around the eighth or seventh centuries BCE." [56] "Buddhism". (2009). In Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved November 26, 2009, from Encyclopdia Britannica Online Library Edition.


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