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DE BELEVUE CANADA
000 gallons. saline.000 gallons suitable for units power and no site long periods in isolated source is needed. and condensation water traps This heats up the face of the sloping potable. will speaking.HOWTO MAKE A SOLAR STILL (PLASTIC COVERED) FOREWORD A solar still is a simple device brackish. a pan of impure water solar energy within evaporation cover. of modern engineering equipnent solar where good drinking materials sizes costs water makes it at relatively worth designs operate of ior possible to distillation in large distillation low cost. consideration. area are needed to produce areas are needed to produce one gallon significant . Its function is enclosed by a transparent the enclosure. primarily unit This a that as leaflet out of causing on the inner is generally unit. INTRODUCTION The availability construct solar and in any sunny area. and will No auxiliary It has the advantage to 1. other levelling is necessary.00 per 1. from l-gallon is certainly given below represents one of many possible of being per day. each square quarters foot pound of area in a solar distilled so that. this inexpensive plastic is not what might be reconunended for covered It installation.)$5. is very cover.S. than means for feeding water into the unit.polluted or other water into saple--basically The latter water permits plastic long-term which can be used to convert drinking water. of water quantities produce upon about daily. Of and three still depcndinq the time of year and amount of cloud 12 sq. more than about W. ft. the user to make a relatively sheets and brick. pure water. The description solar distillation anywhere producing equipment. used for installation. between one half ARRA OF SOLAR STILL locations without attention. -lof solar Hence relatively large cover. transparent This distilled It HOweveX. principles should can certainly be stressed material be adequately possible while temporary the user should use as much flexibility not changing the general and adaptation of local of the operation. water generally still daily. In hot dry areas.
The bed of the salt water pond is simply levelled ground. which locally available in rural arid areas. the six anchor posts (8) for holding the roof cable and the nails (9) for pinning the guttering to the concrete foundation. Other small items from galvanized steel are the two turnbuckles (7) for tightening the roof suspension cable. are needed to give the still a good output and to prevent corrosion.ything from a few feet to several hundred feet. DEPTH OF WATER The depth of water that is evaporated each day is about l/8 inch. The is run down or across the natural slope of long dimension of the still the land. although obviously land sloping gently down towards the equator is best. 1 shows a cross-sectional view through a solar still that incorporates a black plastic water tray and a transparent plastic cbv@r. The width is chosen to suit the width of the transparent plastic cover material. The length can be al. spiggot for drawing off plastic bag lying on the ground. The storage tank could also feed directly into animal drinking troughs with float control.DESCRIJTION OF SOLAR STILL (see. Wood should not Concrete sections may be cheaper for large installations. A be imported into the area. be uL"d because of possible termite attack.ow end carries away the remaining of salts in the unit. COLLECTION OF CONDENSED WATER The condensed water droplets run down the underside of the transparent plastic cover into the side trough and then flow downhill to This tank can be a staled be stored in a suitable tank or reservoir. 3 inches deep and 100 feet long. _' d' -2- . The impure water is introduced in a slow steady stream at the high end and a small overflow at the ?.Fig. wide. salts. Thus there is never any crystallization Small sand mounds beneath the bottom plastic liner create a series of impounding dams down the slope. Orientation of the still is of no great importance.:de. with a suitable the water when needed. MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION Most of the parts of the still are made from materials which are only a small number of parts. 1) c Fig. must These are both cheap and easy to transport. The maximum desirable depth is 1 inch. so nowhere should the water in the tray be less than about t inch deep. but the roof support props (items 16. The side and end walls do not need to be strong and can be made Concrete block or pre-cast from local unburnt sun dried brick (adobe). The foundations are two strips of concrete 9 inches . The beds of the side gutters to collect the fresh water are made from galvanized steel sheets (Item 10).. materials list is given at the back of this leaflet. usually available in rolls 6 ft. 17) may be made frcan wood as they stand in the water. galvanized steel guttering and concrete or brick side and end walls.
one still costs about $1.. .0945 inches diameter. _-- . . The salt water inlet and fresh water outlet pipes (Item 5) should be one half inch diameter heavy duty polyethylene hosepipe which is generally available and costs about $0. . This is made by a number of different manufacturers in several countries. the cover every season. Plastic sheet is not normally wettable so.. The first is the transparent cover material._j . e. Hence this unit will is of the order of $0. 1 . ‘<. Italy.l~i T)~-‘ . materials list) which are suitable and relatively inexpensive are: (1) ultra-violet resistant polyethylene sheet such as that developed for the greenhouse industry and fabricated by the principal chemical companies.010 inch thick. They supply plastic covered galvanized steel wire. breaking strength) may be used for cheapness but will have a short life due to corrosion.$ .. It would of course.. $23. A better alternative is plastic covered galvanized steel wire which is used to make gabions for control of sea beach erosion. Thie is made by the and is marketed in many countries Maccaferri Organization.. It is important to check the lifetime plastic under the severe conditions of exposure that prevail in this application. breaking strength) which Costs about $2 .. Polyethylene sheet is by no means the best liner material but it is inexpensive and in this regard it can be used for temporary installations of this nature.)for the 120 feet length needed for the still. be suitable to cover installations that are only used seasonally. unless the underside is pretreated.. whenever necessary. Canada. the condensing water will tend to fall back into the brine rather than run down the film into the fresh water troughs at the edges. (I.. 15 metric gauge.. of Granby. Bologna. for each still. (154 lbs. The best material is the stainless wire used by fishermen (1000 lb. (See Item 1. Union Carbide.OO (U.3. ““‘.4 is under U. It would be necessary to replace say 3 to 6 months of the year. etc. in The 120 feet length of wire needed for rolls weighing 70 kg.). (.010 inch thick black polyethylene film.that this sheet will prcbably not last The cost more than 6 months to 1 year in a very sunny region.02 per square foot. Goodrich Co. 0._ ~. “-~-y-F?- 1 -. Steel wire (1000 lb.v/-- mr7 --__ _ .0. be preferable for more permanent installations to use butyl rUbber sheet such as that manufactured by the Miner Rubber Co. Please bear in mind. Canadian Industries Ltdi. The plastic Galvanized sheet roof is held up by a stretched steel wire (Item 6).. Engliind. The plastic sheet will not last indefinitely. The made from should be Two types items which may have to be specially brought into the area are plastic.“.3.15 (U.S.. The total cost of Items 2. by River and Sea Gabions (London) Ltd.. . THE TRANSPARENTCOVER I Select the transparent sheet compatible with the installation you have of the in mind.) per foot.F. . (2) ultra-violet resistant transparent polyvinyl as that made by B. which of plastic sheeting..g.50 (U._ 1. ~~ .4) should be made of 0.. -3- .This will chloride shttt such probably last 2 to 4 Y@WS- : 0 The plastic water tray and side liners (Items 2.S.S. Qu&tc. but the still design is such as to permit its replacement with relative ease.) and one roll is enough for about 45 stills.S.7. as outlined earlier.
there are certain wetting agents One that are reputed to cause filmwise condensation on plastic sheets. Ideally. preferably along the side of an existing fence that is on ground sloping gently towards the equator. better still. This treatment creates a network of very fine scratches on the surface. be better. being transferred to a second roll in the process. the two concrete foundat ims.010 inch thick film so that it can withstand stress. Srnd in one direction only . (3) Cast the concrete foundation (mix 8 : ?1 : 1 stone: sand:cement). The top of the concrete must not be levelled into steps. course. and is best carried out before construction of the still commences. then there is no harm in using a thinner film such as 0. to 1600 hrs. if necessary. (6) Lay the first row of bricks on the footwall. One of the most difficult facets of this entire process is producing the wettable surface on the plastic film.004 to 0. should be perfectly parallel with each other. Setauket. The wet sanding need not be carried to the extreme outer edges of the plastic. These bricks should rest partly on top of the -4- . trenches for the two end walls. Hence it is recommended to use 0. a 4 inch to 6 inch strip on each edge should be left tnsanded. Allow 6 ft. cast directly into the footing. The This is best done on the day after the concrete footwall is laid. The film should be wet sanded while being removed from its original roll. as is usual when building walls. It must be remembered that sanding will weaken the film. clearance to the fence. (4) Remove all grass and 4 inches of soil from between the concrete footwalls. pinning to the concrete with short nails. but must slope generally the same as the terrain and must be free of humps and dips. It would guttering along the two footwalls should be exactly 4 ft.. but it would not deteriorate which is unfortunately the case with the galvanized strip. Dig similar The trenches should be 4 ft. On the other hand. If a wetting agent is used successfully.This treatment is not very complex. This. bedding firmly in mortar (mix 6 : 1). of these is called Sun Clear and is manufactured by Solar Sunstill Inc. also smooth any gross irregularities. It involves merely roughening the underside by carefully scratching with a very fine grit of wettable sandpaper. New York 11733. (5) Lay the 6 ft. Replace with an equal volume of sand.along the width of the plastic film. Spray with a powerful grass killer and insecticide to prevent subsequent root growth under the still and insect damage to the plastic. U. apart. (2) Dig two trenches for the foundation about 3 inches deep and 9 inches wide. lengths of galvanized steel guttering on the concrete footwall. Pieces of asbestos stripping could be used and attached onto the short vertical wall of the concrete foundation or.A. apart.006 inches thick. would be far more difficult and costly to attach to the concrete footings. Remove all bushes and large stones. one along each side. STEPS IN CONSTRUCTION STILL OF (1) Choose a suitable site. of if available to utilize asbestos cement stripping. FOr plastic Current prices see materials list given at the back of this leaflet.S. The site should not be shaded from 0800 hrs.
carefully folding it up and over the g-uttering on top of the first liner. Fit plastic elbows and nipples with suitable nuts and washers to form Attach polyethylene w"etertight distillate and drain exits*. (10) Starting at the low end of the still lay the 8 ft. nipples etc. (9) Lay the 18 in. It would be wise to attach the wire to the top of the A-frame prop. slope towards the inside to facilitate drainage. but with one low spot to create an overflow weir about )s Level the sand inch below the level of the top edge of the guttering. leave a 3 inch square opening opposite each of the two gutters. the overflow water can be guided through these openings. apart. . (14)In order to ensure that the condensed water droplets on the inside of the plastic sheet tent cover fall directly into the guttering. tubing to carry distilled water to a storage reservoir. the outer edge being about t inch higher .I '- PI . This would at least extend their life somewhat. to ensure that the entire width of the still is covered with water and that the earth mounds are adequate to impound the water. il both directions between the footw.v The top of the bricks should and should be 4 ft. guttering. roughly every 8 to 10 feet so as to prevent any severe sagging of the gabion wire. being particularly careful These supports should be placed not to puncture the plastic liner. so as to make a series of dams to impound the water? The mo*nds should be built almost up to the level of the top edge of the guttering. In the end wall at the high end of the still. I I . Water should be led into each dam as the liner is laid.than the inner edge. at the low end of the still. This pipe should be about 6 inches above the foundation. (12) Place the stainless steel ridge-wire threaded through the polyethylene tubing (Item No. This should keep the liners in placd. build into the wall a short length of 4 inch polyethylene hose-pipe. when the polyethylene liners are eventually laid.: . One suitable way of building these A-frames has been to make them of wood. and then cover them with The pad plastic sheets. This pad should be encased in black polyethylene sheet so as to prevent its deterioration by the distillate water. This could be fixed in place with some plastic sheeting. 4 in.llls and the earth mounds.* (See Fig. The A-frame should be built as solidly as possible as this will be the basis of the support of the transparent cover.. treat them against rot in humid atmospheres. (11) Cut sections of 4 inch rigid polyethylene tubing llr inches long. In the end wall. 2. wide black polyethylene liner. 18) in place with firm anchors at each end as shown in Fig. for the salt water feed. (13) Place the support props in position. tucking it down into the guttering so as to form a waterproof liner to carry the distilled water down to the bottom drain holes. The angle of the A-frame with the horizontal should be between 15 and 20 degrees. resting in the distillate gutter should be firmly wedged against the brick wall. and another near the middle. ** Fit plastic elbows. This liner must be loosely laid. (7) Build a series of earth mounds across the space between the guttering. split the piece lengthwise on one side and clamp over the plastic liners covering the guttering strip. (8) Build the end walls. 1). only after completing step 10. wide black polyethylene plastic along each side wall.5 - . with the ridge point being about 16 inches above the footwall. These openings should be immediately above the concrete foundation so that. *Build earth mounds every lo to 12 feet.
(18) The still area should be fenced to keep animals out. they are likely to cut the plastic sheet unless lined. the excess Salts can be flushed away by providing a slow steady feed of the salt water all day and night. 3). low windbreaks. starting from the lower end. If sea water is being used. This is best done by leaving a spacing of a few inches between each adjacent block at the lower end of the still. is advisable overheating to of . A second layer of weighting bricks might have to be placed on top of the first layer. allowing the excess to drain away from the lower end of the still. There should be at least 1 inch clearance between the base of the lip and the top of the guttering strip. While the plastic sheet is being installed. and should iast only about one hour. This is done by stretching the plastic sideways and pinning into the mortar between the bricks of the lower brick layer. when the plastic sheet is correctly positioned it can be firmly fixed along both edges by two work crews working opposite each ather. The feed rate should be adjusted so that the overflow from the bottom end will just cease in the middle of the afternoon when evaporation is greatest. it keep the still filled with water in order to prevent the inner liner. Open the entire length of plastic sheet using bricks temporarily placed on the side walls to keep it in position. ':e sure that the roughened surface of the plastic sheet is on the underside. A steady glow of 2 to 3 gallons per hour would -6- . The top weighting bricks should be placed in position before the pinning nails are driven in. (17) Storm water should be kept away from the still because moisture in the soil beneath the tray will greatly increase the loss of -5 heat through the bottom. OPERATION OF THR STILL Other than to ensure a regular supply of water to the tray. The flushing operation is best started at dawn. If the weighting bricks are very rough. (16) Rain water should be allowed to drain off the tent at intervals along the length of the unit. Finally the plastic sheet tent should be stretched and fixed to the outer edge of the footwalls with aluminum strips secured by screws. so as to prevent salt deposition in the tray. (See Fig. (15) Unroll the plastic sheet tent cover pinning it to the lower end wall with suitable straps. using large-head 1 inch galvanized nails. It is sufficient to add twice as much makeup waLer each day. cement mix) on the underside of the retaining bricks. to be sure that the wind will not cause the flapping plastic sheet tent to work loose. the still requires no attention. as is produced as fresh water. so as not to cause the plastic to sag in heavy rain storms. Since excess wind can reduce the output of water. if the still is to operate without daily attention for flushing. Alternatively.cast a lt inch semi-circular cement lip (2 to 1 sand. The 15 inch wide roll of black polyethylene plastic must be used for lining the top bricks. it is important that the concentrated brine be flushed out daily. such as uncut grass one or two feet high around‘the still should be encouraged.
other items may be improvised using suitable substitutes of locally This still has therefore potential application available materials. plastic covered still would be best for temporary. has the great advantage that at least three quarters of its cost is composed of local labour and materials. It is recommended that persons intending to build these units make use It is essential that they adhere to of this brochure as a guide only.S. about 6 should prevent all possibility of scale formation. however. Of the total cost. $450. gallon per day output.--- ” It may be necessary to add be suitable for this 100 ft. which is competitive with other small distillation plants. foot. but will probably be of the same order as the materials cost.10 per square about U. The completed still of 400 square feet active area will therefore cost that is at a rate of U. DISTILLED WATERFOR CAR RATTERlES usually costs about 10 U. due to the very nature of the materials involved which occasionally need renewing. TOTAL COST OF THE STILL Representative figures for the cost of the materials for the still The total cost of are given in the last column of the Materials List. semi-permanent installations. whereas mechanical distillation plants have to be imported from abroad.S. $100. contact this Institute and order the following publications: (see following page) -7- . If indeed a permanent installation is required In this case please then a glass-covered still would be recommended. Many of the to pay for Items 1 to 6. $228. Even on a strict economic basis the still should pay for itself within a period of five years. the principle of the operation involved. keeping the pH of the still scale within the basin. they must show as much flexibility as possible in actually effecting any installations as to the The application of this adaptation and use of locally available materials. one tenth of this cost. Distilled water for car batteries Since solar stills produce distilled water for about cents per gallon. The solar still. $1.$ll. The cost of the labour to construct the still will vary widely with location.S. However. The capital cost is about U-S . small quantities of acid to the still to prevent the formation of In this case. small solar stills should find wide use on farms and at service stations Igarages). may require foreign exchange. per imperial in many countries. only one quarter part.S.S. materials is the local currency equivalent of about U. that is the U. equivalent. long still.
025 (10 mill Ultra-violet polyethylene Ultra-violet polyvinyl resistant. Still.March 1970. Price .00 by Lawand Some Notes on the Construction Cost of Auxiliaries for the by R.$0-50 PRICE RANGE OF DIFFERENT Approximate Prices Film THICKNESSES OF PLASTIC FILM $U. Installation of a Solar Distillation Plant on 110 de la Gonave.A.75 Plans for a Glass and Concrete Solar and R..50 Haiti Solar Still. per square foot ' Thickness 0.58 I.$0.045 0. 6 p. Price .A.S. December 1968.. Price T.. May 1970. by T.004g@(4 mil) of Film 0. 10 p. Alward.. . -8- . Alward. 9 p.020 0.010" 0.67 Simple Solar Still for the Production of Distilled Water.$3.070 0.115 ’ . by R. Alward.17 T.T. Haiti. September 1967. resistant. chloride transparent transparent 0.006" (6 mil) 0.$0.015 0. Lawand. Price .66 I.
100 ft.010 in.75 7. 15 in. yds. nuts and washers 120 ft.010 in. 100 ft. thick.010 in.50 21.30 16. (clouts) 1 in. 100 ft. 94 lb. x 4 in. x 3 in. 3 in. dia. FT. 18 in.’ MATERIALS LIST FOR 400 SQ. 10 ft. 1000 lb.60 3. x x x x one piece one PRICE 66. breaking strength or gabion wire galvanized steel steel one piece 2. yds. stainless steel clips.00 fence posts steel steel blocks galvanized galvanized concrete foundations foundations sand graded local 26 gauge.00 0. Wall bricks Cement Sand Stone and basin stone -9- . thick.00 . bags x 16 in. long. clips and fittings + in.00 3. 2 cu. 4 ft. 6 ft.00 pond liner (lower) (upper) water polyethylene polyethylene polyethylene piece two pieces two pieces nineteen pieces side wall inlet and fresh pipes polyethylene hosepipe.00 9. 4. x 8 in. long 6 Roof suspension wire stainless steel wire. 0.20 18.00 7. STILL ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 DESCRIPTION Transparent Plastic Plastic liner Plastic liner Brine outlet salt trough plastic roof MATERIAL ultra-violet polyvinyl black black black resistant chloride film film film film DIMENSIONS 0. 6ft. x 14 ft. thick. head long long.010 in. 0. thick. large flat two pieces six pieces 500 pieces 40 pieces 150 pieces 6 bags 6 cu. plastic elbows. 0.00 15. long 4 in. 100 ft.00 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Cable turnbuckles Anchor posts Nails Steel to pin guttering guttering t in. right angle.
0.$228. 5/16 in. 180-C-W 661~ long x 9 in. x 24 in.Table ITEM 15 16 continued DESCRIPTION aas wfite paint prop to hold up (brace) MATERIAL DIMENSIONS QUANTITY lpint PRICE 1.00 2. 1 1 6.70 A-frame wire A-frame A-frame wood or other material suitable 1s in. l/16 in. Basically however. lf in.010 in. plastic plywood hose clips aluminum dia. + in. x 1% in. x 9 in. .f in.00 2.D.00 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 plastic sheet needed for covering for A-frames Tubing for wire ft. 11 pieces 22 pieces 20 sq.00 aluminium strips No. 0. long .00 8. . these prices should not differ substantially elsewhere.10 -. 8.45 It must be appreciated that this price list has been prepared using locally West Indies. 1. 7 . x 3/4 in.. O-D. x 28zi. . 4 ft. sufficient applications 11 in. 100 ft.30 Weedkiller Sandpaper Transparent attachment Screws Guttering End doors attachments roof for multiple wide x 6 ft.1 in.00 TOTAL U. 1. It should therefore only be used as a guide..n. 14 sheets 36 pieces 1 gross 60 pieces 3 pieces NO. thick.S. 22 pieces foot pad polyethylene polyethylene Gramevin-Fenac Type lf x lt x 16 in.80 16. thick I. rigid plastic hose Ja in.30 3/16 in. available costs in the from those encountered .
'LASTIC ELBOW DRAIN AND DISTILLATE CONNECTIONS TRANSPARENTCOVERSUPPORTED BY A.FRAME PROP --- -.o D FIG No 1 .CROSS SECTION OF THE SOLAR STILL .
2 GENEiCAL~ VIZd OF SOLAR STILL .FIG.
GALVANIZED SECTION FOR DISTILLATE TROUGH CONCRETE POSSIBLE ASBESTOS CplENT STRIP GUTTER SUPPORT FOR DISTILLATE TROUGH LDISTILLATE TROUGH FIG No.-SALINE WHITE PAINI? WATER . CONCRETELIP fUPPER LINER TRANSPARENT PLASTIC COVERSCREW ALUMINUM OR . ‘* .a . A-FRAME PROP FOR COVER TRANSPARENT ._* _ . _ _. 3 - CROSS SECTION OF SIDE WALL OF SOLAR STILL .LOWER LINER BLACK PLASTIC UNER -~ --~ zc LmER ~_ ____ ~ _ _ __ & 7 -4 II . 0 c).).PLASTIC SHEET . ..
equipment developed by this Institute utilizes as many local In general.25 to your cheque for bank handling charges.25 $1. ste.How to Heat yo'x Swimming Pool using Solar Energy L4 . * Also available in French.25 x. energy or material. so that the technology can be easily adapted to the local environment.How to Construct a Cheap Wind Machine for Pumping Water L5F. H9X 3M1.French version of L5 L6 . . animal and agricultural use use The adaptation of simple greenhouses combined with solar desalination systems for the production of food and water in arid areas is also being developed.25 $1. Arabic and Spanish.How to Make a Solar Cabinet Dryer for Agricultural Produce L7 . Macdonald College of McGill University. In addition.25 $0. Canada Other leaflets available: Price $1.75 $1.25 $1.75 $1.How to Make a Solar Steam Cooker L3 .25 ::1.Simple Solar Still for the Production of Distilled Water* Please remit payment with money order or ad< $0. Greenhouses are also being adapted for colder regions.How to Make a Solar Still (plastic covered) L2 . whether human. desalination specifically concentrating on the problems that face isolated rural populations in developing arid areas. As a result. simple Llindmills for the production of electricity and the pump ing of water have been developed.Background Information on the Brace Research Institute Brace Research Institute of McGill University was founded in 1959 to develop equipment and techniques for making dry lands available and economically useful for agricultural purposes.Spanish Translation of L6 L9 . Instructional the manuals are available describing the use of solar energy for (1) (4 (3) (4) heating of water for domestic and commercial cooking of food drying of agriculEura1 produce desalination of water for human. resources as possible. The Institute has concentrated on the problems affecting individuals or small communities in rural areas and is one of the few organizations with this basic objective. the Institute has concentrated on utilizing solar and wind energy as well as simple systems.25 Ll .How to Build a Solar Water Heater L5 . Anne de Bellevue QuGbec.25 $1.French Translation of L2 T17.25 $0.Arabic Translation of L6 L8 . Further inquiries should be directed to the Brace Research Institute.
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