ear experts, 1.

while performing a Hydro static test in a pipe line/spool at two different elevation for a continuous one line ,one pressure gauge has found one reading at one elevation and another pressure gauge has found another reading at another elevation how much can be the pressure variation in the Two pressure gauges as temperature is also a factor how much temp variation can be allowed as per code??? 2.How much percentage of increase in testing pressure can be increased in testing a pipe line for HST for a specific Testing pressure given in the Drawings??? 3.Please clarify whether Socket weld is Circumferential welding or not define types of circumferential joints??? madhan chozhan

<madhanchozhan@gmail.com>

10/31/12

to materials-weld.
Dear Dasari, 1. Yes there will be variation in pressure gauge reading when they are fitted at different heights because of the general static head difference, Generally for 10 meter static head difference the pressure difference will be 1 bar (14.5 psi). 2. Normally the first step can be 50% the test pressure and then pressure can be increased to the finaltest pressure by another 5 steps each compensating 10% totaling 100% by 6 steps. 3. I think socket weld is a circumferential weld as it makes a complete circumference.

chinna durai

<iarud87@gmail.com>

11/1/12

to materials-weld.

Images are not displayed. Display images below - Always display images from iarud87@gmail.com Dear Madhan,

Can you please specify, where in HYDRO code indicate that 10 meter static head variation pressure difference will be accept 1 bar .

Thanks & Regards, Chinnadurai.P

madhan chozhan

<madhanchozhan@gmail.com>

11/1/12

000 kg/ms^2 1 kg/ms^2 = 1 pascal = 1. There is no code specifying that.Chinnadurai.81 m/s^2 consider height = 10 m calculating the above we get P = 98.2134 psi almost equivalent to 1 bar. Mr. its a simple physics P = F/A F = mass x gravity mass = volume x density x gravity volume = height x area F = height x area x density x gravity P = height x area x density x gravity / area P = height x density x gravity density of water = 1000 kg/m^3 gravity = 9.to materials-weld. .450377 x 10^-4 psi calculating this we get P = 14.

Any defect in the pipe wall that is near failure in a pipeline result in a release of water. Cleaning is considered sufficient when no extraneous material is found at the end of four-cup pig. After air cleaning is done to acceptable levels. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Hydrotesting of a pipeline involves many activities that are carefully executed and monitored to achieve successful completion of the test…………………. chipping. After completion of the cleaning a gauging pig made up of a gauging plate 10mm thick and of 95% of the pipe diameter generally made of aluminum is driven between the test heads. Hydrotesting is most often used for new pipelines (or those returned to service) to ensure that construction defects are found.At the end of gauging run the condition of gauging plate is analyzed for damages like bends. CLEANING AND GAUGING Cleaning operations are performed by propelling air driven pigs provided with spring loaded brushes Or pig fitted with full dimensional circular brush having OD slightly more than I. These types of flaws may occur due to the lobes on the inside of the welding joint or some other obstruction such as protrusion or dents on the surface. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. it is generally done by having a pig detector which can locate the pig.Hydrotesting………………………………………….. debris. There are many advantages and disadvantage to hydrotesting. FILLING OF THE TEST SECTION……………………………………………. mud. These activities include Cleaning Gauging Filling of Test Section Thermal Stabilization Pressurization Holding Period De-watering Swabbing and Drying Inertisation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Instruments Required……………………… Pigs for Cleaning.. the test section is flushed using water equivalent to 10% of total volume of test section driven by a cleaning pig to remove dust. and pressurized to a value greater than the operating pressure. rust from inner surface of the pipe. A Tracking / locating arrangement is being provided so that the pigs can be traced and retrieved in case they are stuck during operation inside the pipeline section. . What is Hydrotesting? Hydrotesting is a method where a pipeline is filled with water. However. After the completion of gauging the air pigging headers are cut and test heads pre-tested at a pressure resulting in a hoop stress corresponding to 95% of SMYS are welded. dirt. Gauging . hydrotesting is not practical for many pipelines because the service interruption is not acceptable (e.. a single pipeline feeding gas to a city or power plant). nicking. Filling and Batching Pump to fill water and Positive displacement Pump which can exceed maximum test pressure Meters to measure volumes of water pumped in the line Portable water tank Bourdon pressure gauges and Dead weight tester Thermocouples and thermometers Measuring cylinder to check quantity of water during air volume calculation Injection facilities Test headers Piping and valve arrangements for launching and receiving of pigs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Sequence of Activities…………………………. A column of clean water is pumped in front of the gauging plate to provide lubrication and remove any debris if left. The filling end of the test header is pre-loaded with batching pigs.D of pipe to remove all scale.g.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… DEWATERING…………………………… After successful completion of the hydro-test the section is de-watered by propelling the third pig into the section. Once the test section has been filled and the minimum test pressure achieved at the highest point. the thermal stabilization is started. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… HOLD PERIOD……………………... perform air volume test and raise the test pressure again. Probe for measuring pipe temperature is installed by cutting a small portion of the coating and placing the tip of probe there with the help of quick setting epoxy. whereas the soil probe is inserted into the earth adjacent to pipe. Hydrostatic test is considered as positive if pressure has kept a constant value throughout the test duration. Pressurize to test pressure. At the same time it is to be ensured that highest point in the test section is subjected to minimum test pressure. Pumping in the actual line water then launches the second pig. perform air volume test and drop pressure to static head. and it is done keeping proper control over the pigs during the process. pipe & soil temperature. Arrangements are made to ensure safe disposal of water. Readings are taken at a predefined interval and the stability is achieved when the difference in average temperatures of last two readings is not more than 1 degre Temperature probes are generally installed at a distance of around 1000mts however they can be installed upto any other distance depending upon the terrain and the specifications. hold pressure for one hour. The filling of water continues till the pig reaches the other end of the section and the pressure at the test end rises. The pressure at the lowest point in the section is maintained so as the Hoop stress should not exceed 95% of SMYS of the material. perform air volume test and drop pressure to static head. After attaining stability in pressure the pressure pump connections are removed and test section is isolated and the 24 hours hold period is started. Sequence of pressurization is as follows. If any leakage is observed then the line pressure is reduced and work then carried out to get it repaired.Filling operation starts with pumping of water equivalent to 10% of the section volume in front of the first pig with a suitable flow rate. A four-cup pig is generally pushed through the line to eliminate water and then a foam pig is used to make sure that the line is free of water . During this hold period the following recordings are taken : Every 1hour pressure measurement from dead weight tester Every 2 hour ambient temperature. The first pig is launched by pumping a pre-defined length of line with inhibited water behind the pig. pressurization is done. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… PRESSURIZATION…………………. hold pressure for one hour. Pressurize to 50% of test pressure. some corrosion inhibitor is also added to water to prevent corrosion due to presence of water. except for changes due to change in temperature. pressure is raised at a moderate rate of about 2 bar per minute. During the filling operation the first two sections of water is drained out from the receiving end. The objective is to achieve uniform temperature across the section to be tested and the surroundings. Again pressurize to 75% of test pressure. accordingly test sections are selected ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… THERMAL STABILIZATION…………….On achievement of thermal stability.

5% by volume .After the de-watering process is complete the provisions for test including the instruments and other temporary arrangements made for facilitating the test are removed. Subsequently the individually tested sections are joined in accordance with the specification. Regular check is maintained on the e pressure during the process of removing water. Before proceeding to the swabbing it is ensured that bulk of the water has been removed from pipeline. When it is established that there is no free water left in the pipeline and then the pipeline is considered ready for inertisation INERTISATION ……………………………………. temperature and pressure of the pipeline is recorded. The entire length of the pipeline is inertised by running batch pigs with nitrogen when the commissioning of the pipeline is to be carried out immediately after. During the inertisation operation.) or better. The maximum allowable oxygen content inside the pipeline is less than 0.. In case the entire pipeline or part of the pipeline are to be kept in an inertised condition for a considerable amount of time prior to commissioning .0 bar The inertisation operation starts as soon as possible after the swabbing operation has been completed. During entire operation. the air left in the pipeline is replaced by dry nitrogen before admitting the product that the pipeline will ultimately carry.Nitrogen needed for inertisation of the pipeline is provided with a purity of 99. There are two type of foam pigs generally being used one is low density pig and other is high density pigs. then the pipeline are to be kept in a boxed up condition with a nitrogen pressure of 2. which is left behind after the completion of the de-watering operations. This state is achieved by running a sufficient no of foam pigs driven by oil free compressed air till 10% weight increase is observed in foam pig after travel through the pipeline section. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… SWABBING AND DRYING …………………………… Swabbing means removing the remaining free water from the main pipeline system .5% (Vol.

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