March 8-9, 2013

David Robertson, conductor James Ehnes, violin


Variations on a Theme of Joseph Haydn, op. 56a (1873)



Violin Concerto (1935)
Andante; Allegretto Allegro; Adagio James Ehnes, violin



Symphony No. 2 in D major, op. 36 (1801-02)
Adagio molto; Allegro con brio Larghetto Scherzo: Allegro Allegro molto

David Robertson is the Beofor Music Director and Conductor. James Ehnes is the Graybar Electric Company, Inc. Guest Artist. The concert of Friday, March 8, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Mr. H. Chandler Taylor. The concert of Saturday, March 9, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Mr. and Ms. George Paz. These concerts are presented by The Thomas A. Kooyumjian Family Foundation. Pre-Concert Conversations are presented by Washington University Physicians. These concerts are part of the Wells Fargo Advisors Series. Large print program notes are available through the generosity of Mosby Building Arts and are located at the Customer Service table in the foyer.


TIMELINKS 1801-02 BEETHOVEN Symphony No. 2 in D major, op. 36 Napoleon sells Louisiana Territory to the United States to help finance his European conquests 1873 BRAHMS Variations on a Theme of Joseph Haydn, op. 56a City of Budapest formed from two rival cities 1935 BERG Violin Concerto Hitler announces German rearmament in violation of Versailles Treaty

For the current concert season, the St. Louis Symphony has programmed a series of concerts devoted to music by composers who lived and worked in Vienna. Most of these concerts have juxtaposed two distinct yet complimentary traditions that comprise the musical life of that very musical city: on one hand, masterworks written by some of the great composers who resided in Vienna; on the other, examples of the lighter style of composition that flourished in the Austrian capital for more than a century. This weekend’s concert, however, is devoted solely to the former, more substantial, type of music—in this case written by three of the outstanding composers who called the city on the Danube home. Actually, four composers fashioned the works we hear, considering the provenance of the first piece we hear. As its title indicates, Johannes Brahms’s Variations on a Theme of Joseph Haydn presents a succession of ingenious transformations of a modest melody originally written by another musician who spent most of his life in Vienna, Franz Joseph Haydn. Theme and variation is a venerable compositional format, and Brahms used it superbly in a number of his compositions. His “Haydn Variations” is the most famous of them. The two other works we hear represent very different responses to personal tragedy. Alban Berg wrote his Violin Concerto as a memorial to a young woman of his acquaintance who died well before her time. It is not a dark, brooding piece but, rather, one that conveys deep poignancy and affection. Ludwig van Beethoven composed his Symphony No. 2 during a period of deep despair over his growing deafness. Was it to achieve some kind of emotional equilibrium that he wrote one of his most sunny creations?


JOHANNES BRAHMS Variations on a Theme of Joseph Haydn, op. 56a REVERENCE FOR THE PAST Johannes Brahms might have become an outstanding music historian. He collected a large library of manuscripts and printed scores from all periods and was a serious student of compositional practice from the Renaissance until his own time. Among his friends were a number of musicologists, and he was keenly attentive to their work. But Brahms was a composer first and foremost, and his interest in the music of earlier eras had its most significant results in his own work. It particularly affected his choice of forms. He was one of the few musicians of his day with a practical knowledge of such venerable procedures as passacaglia and variation set, and he never questioned that these could still be vehicles for original and contemporary musical invention. Nowhere did Brahms demonstrate that conviction more convincingly than in the Variations on a Theme of Joseph Haydn, written in 1873. Brahms initially composed this work for two pianos, but he must have sensed immediately its potential for larger instrumental forces, for the two-piano score was scarcely finished when he commenced an orchestration of it.

Born May 7, 1833, Hamburg Died April 3, 1897, Vienna First Performance November 2, 1873, in Vienna, Brahms conducted the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra STL Symphony Premiere February 18, 1909, Max Zach conducting Most Recent STL Symphony Performance February 22, 2009, Ward Stare conducting in Columbia, Missouri Scoring

2 flutes VARIATIONS AND PASSACAGLIA The subject piccolo of these remarkable Variations is a modest 2 oboes theme known as “St. Anthony’s Chorale,” which 2 clarinets Brahms found in a wind-band partita attributed 2 bassoons to Haydn. Brahms presents this melody in contrabassoon timbres that suggest its source, assigning it to the 4 horns 2 trumpets orchestral woodwinds in the opening section of timpani the piece. Each of the eight variations that follow triangle preserves the harmonic outline of the theme but strings offers entirely new elements of rhythm, melodic Performance Time contour, texture, and instrumental color. The approximately 17 minutes finale is not properly a variation of the theme, since it does not follow the phrases of the original melody. It is, rather, a passacaglia, a selfcontained set of variations over a recurring five-measure figure heard at the outset in the basses and cellos. Over and around this figure Brahms spins a succession of counter-melodies. When, at the movement’s climax, the humble chorale melody emerges from the general texture, it has been transformed to something unexpectedly glorious.

ALBAN BERG Violin Concerto CONCERTO AS REQUIEM Alban Berg was, along with Arnold Schoenberg and Anton Webern, part of a triumvirate of Viennese composers who pioneered a radically new musical language in the early decades of the 20th century. Even so, Berg was not a musician of revolutionary temperament. On the contrary, he had great reverence for musical tradition. And his Violin Concerto is not an iconoclastic piece, but one that draws substance from the musical past. We owe this composition to the American violinist Louis Krasner, who early in 1935 asked Berg to write a new work for him. In response, the composer began sketching a violin concerto, but the character of the composition soon took on a new dimension. In April, the composer learned that Manon Gropius, the 18-year-old daughter of Alma Mahler by her second husband, the architect Walter Gropius, had died. Berg had remained close to Gustav Mahler’s widow since that composer’s death, in 1911. He was particularly fond of Manon, and he now developed a conception of the Violin Concerto as a requiem for her. Working at a pace unprecedented in his career, he completed it in a matter of months. Sadly, he never heard this, his final composition. By the end of the year, Berg himself was dead from blood poisoning. IT IS ENOUGH The concerto is built from a 12-note series that is pregnant with beautiful musical ideas. As its most basic feature, the series outlines a number of major, minor, and altered chords that permeate the work with dark harmonies and fleeting tonal relationships. Most of the thematic also derives from the series, but Berg relaxes his serial procedures to allow two extraneous quotations. The first is an Austrian folk song, which appears near the end of the first movement. The second, and more significant, is the Lutheran chorale Es ist genug (“It is enough”) in its familiar harmonization by Bach. Although both melodies are tenuously related to the series, their appearance in the concerto can be attributed to poetic rather than formal considerations.

Born February 9, 1885, Vienna Died December 24, 1935, Vienna First Performance April 19, 1936, at a festival of the International Society for Contemporary Music, in Barcelona, Louis Krasner was the soloist, and Hermann Scherchen the conductor STL Symphony Premiere January 30, 1960, Isaac Stern was soloist, with Edouard Van Remoortel conducting Most Recent STL Symphony Performance February 16, 2008, Christian Tetzlaff was soloist, with David Robertson conducting at Carnegie Hall Scoring solo violin 2 flutes 2 piccolos 2 oboes English horn 3 clarinets bass clarinet alto saxophone 2 bassoons contrabassoon 4 horns 2 trumpets 2 trombones tuba timpani percussion harp strings Performance Time approximately 22 minutes

LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN Symphony No. 2 in D major, op. 36 DE PROFUNDIS... The first years of the 19th century brought a period of growing crisis to Ludwig van Beethoven’s life. For some time the composer had been noticing a progressive deterioration in his hearing, a development he found, understandably, more than a little disturbing. Early in 1802 Beethoven had placed his medical care in the hands of one Dr. Johann Schmidt, a prominent Viennese physician. Schmidt could not have cured the ailment that most concerned Beethoven. Medical investigators now generally agree that the cause of the composer’s deafness was an irreversible deterioration of the auditory nerve. But the physician treated his illustrious patient as best he could. In the summer of 1802 he urged Beethoven to take lodgings in Heiligenstadt, a village outside Vienna, where the composer could spare his hearing as much as possible and bathe at a spa in whose curative powers Schmidt placed great stock. In Heiligenstadt, where he remained all summer and into autumn, Beethoven’s hearing continued to fade, and the long hours of isolation allowed him to brood with increasing despondency on his condition. Finally, no longer able to contain his despair, the composer made out a will, an extraordinary document now known as the “Heiligenstadt Testament,” in which he gave voice to his anguish in dramatic and desperate language, and even broached the possibility of suicide. BRIGHT MUSIC The emotional abyss reflected in the “Heiligenstadt Testament” might have paralyzed another artist, or perhaps yielded bleak music full of grieving or fury. Yet the chief product of Beethoven’s season at Heiligenstadt was his Symphony No. 2, one of the composer’s sunniest works. Beethoven had made sketches for this piece during the previous winter and spring and brought them to Heiligenstadt. By the time he returned to Vienna, in the early autumn of 1802, the score was all but complete.
Program notes © 2013 by Paul Schiavo 27

Born December 16, 1770, Bonn Died March 26, 1827, Vienna First Performance April 5, 1803, in Vienna, under the composer’s direction STL Symphony Premiere November 5, 1915, Max Zach conducting Most Recent STL Symphony Performance December 12, 2004, Jane Glover conducting Scoring 2 flutes 2 oboes 2 clarinets 2 bassoons 2 horns 2 trumpets timpani strings Performance Time approximately 32 minutes


David Robertson and the St. Louis Symphony tour California this month.

David Robertson has established himself as one of today’s most sought-after American conductors, and has forged close relationships with major orchestras around the world through his exhilarating music-making and stimulating ideas. In fall 2012, Robertson launched his eighth season as Music Director of the 133-yearold St. Louis Symphony. In January 2014, while continuing as St. Louis Symphony music director, Robertson also will assume the post of Chief Conductor and Artistic Director of the Sydney Symphony in Australia. In September 2012, the St. Louis Symphony and Robertson embarked on a European tour, which included appearances at London’s BBC Proms, at the Berlin and Lucerne festivals, and culminated at Paris’s Salle Pleyel. In March 2013 Robertson and his orchestra return to California for their second tour of the season, which includes an intensive three-day residency at the University of California-Davis and performance at the Mondavi Center for the Performing Arts, with violinist James Ehnes as soloist. The orchestra will also perform at venues in Costa Mesa, Palm Desert, and Santa Barbara, with St. Louis Symphony Principal Flute, Mark Sparks, as soloist. In addition to his current position with the St. Louis Symphony, Robertson is a frequent guest conductor with major orchestras and opera houses around the world. During the 2012-13 season he appears with prestigious U.S. orchestras such as the New York Philharmonic, Los Angeles Philharmonic, and San Francisco Symphony, as well as internationally with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Vienna Radio Symphony Orchestra, Israel Philharmonic, and Ensemble Intercontemporain. Born in Santa Monica, California, David Robertson was educated at London’s Royal Academy of Music, where he studied horn and composition before turning to orchestral conducting.



In the 2012-2013 season James Ehnes performs in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, France, Australia, and New Zealand. Season highlights include the Brahms Concerto with Valery Gergiev and the London Symphony Orchestra at New York’s Avery Fisher Hall, a tour to the far north of Canada with the National Arts Centre Orchestra, a solo violin recital at the Aix-en-Provence Easter Festival, and return engagements with the Philharmonia, Rotterdam Philharmonic, and London, San Francisco, Toronto, Gothenburg, and City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestras. An avid chamber musician, Ehnes will tour with his string quartet, the Ehnes Quartet, and lead the winter and summer festivals of the Seattle Chamber Music Society, where he is the Artistic Director. Ehnes has an extensive discography of more than twenty-five recordings featuring music ranging from J.S. Bach to John Adams. Recent releases include two CD’s of the music of Béla Bartók as well as a recording of Tchaikovsky’s complete works for violin. His recordings have been honored with many international awards and prizes, including a Grammy, a Gramophone, and six Juno Awards. Ehnes was born in 1976 in Brandon, Manitoba, Canada. He began violin studies at the age of four, and at age nine became a protégé of the noted Canadian violinist Francis Chaplin. He studied with Sally Thomas at the Meadowmount School of Music and from 1993 to 1997 at the Juilliard School, winning the Peter Mennin Prize for Outstanding Achievement and Leadership in Music upon his graduation. James Ehnes plays the “Marsick” Stradivarius of 1715. He currently lives in Bradenton, Florida with his wife and daughter. He most recently performed with the St. Louis Symphony in October 2011.


Benjamin ealovega

James Ehnes performs with the St. Louis Symphony at the Mondavi Center on the campus of UC-Davis on the first leg of the Symphony’s California tour.

March 10, 2013

Ward Stare, conductor St. Louis Symphony Youth Orchestra



L’Arlésienne Suite No. 1 (1872)
Prélude Minuetto Adagietto Carillon

(b. 1942)

Kingdom Come (1996-97)



Symphony No. 4 in E minor, op. 98 (1884-85)
Allegro non troppo Andante moderato Allegro giocoso Allegro energico e passionato



GEORGES BIZET L’Arlésienne Suite No. 1 FROM PRODIGY TO FAILURE Georges Bizet lived 36 years—almost exactly as long as Mozart—and also like Mozart was a child prodigy. But not all short-lived child prodigies end up like Mozart. Bizet is known mostly for his final work: the opera Carmen, which remains one of the most popular works in the repertory, but the composer died of heart failure just three months after its controversial premiere, convinced that his masterpiece was a dismal failure. SALVAGING SOME INCIDENTAL MUSIC Although Bizet enjoyed few real successes during his lifetime, what we know today as L’Arlésienne Suite No. 1 is a happy exception. In 1872, desperate for cash, Bizet composed the incidental music for Alphonse Daudet’s melodrama L’Arlésienne, in which a young man loves a girl he cannot have and commits suicide. The few critics who bothered to show up hated the play, complaining that there were “too many overtures,” and it was equally unpopular with the general public. After several poorly attended performances, the play closed. But Bizet did not give up. Encouraged by his peers, including the composer Jules Massenet, Bizet recycled the best parts of the score, fleshed out the orchestration, and assembled a four-movement suite. The first performance, in November 1872, was a hit. (After the composer’s death, less than three years later, his friend Ernest Guiraud selected some of the unused portions of the original score, added a minuet from Bizet’s earlier opera La Jolie fille de Perthe, and created a second suite.)

Born October 25, 1838, Paris Died June 3, 1875, Bougival, near Paris First Performance November 10, 1872, Étienne Pasdeloup conducted at Cirque d’hiver in Paris YO Premiere May 10, 1998, David Loebel conducting the only previous YO performance Scoring 2 flutes oboe English horn 2 clarinets alto saxophone 2 bassoons 4 horns 2 trumpets 2 cornets 3 trombones Timpani Percussion Harp Strings Performance Time Approximately 17 minutes


INGRAM MARSHALL Kingdom Come VARIOUS VOICES Kingdom Come was composed in 1996 and 1997 in memory of Francis Tomasic, Ingram Marshall’s brother-in-law, who was killed on May 1, 1994, while working as a journalist in Bosnia. Taped elements of the composition were collected years earlier and represent the magpie tendencies of Marshall’s singular voice. As the composer writes in the liner notes for the Nonesuch recording of the piece, “In 1985, on a Sunday morning in June, I wandered into a Croatian Catholic church in Dubrovnik and turned on the machine just as the congregation began a dirge-like hymn that seemed to share the melody of ‘Nearer My God to Thee.’ A little later in the day, I found the main Serbian Orthodox church in town and went in with the tape machine going. A service was in progress and you could hear the strange duality of the male priest intoning behind the iconostasis and the female cantor on the congregation side. Bells from outside were ringing as well. These recordings eventually found their way into Kingdom Come, along with an old ethnographic recording of a Bosnian Muslim gusle singer.” A MARTIAL ELEGY These field recordings were carefully manipulated to complement the score’s orchestral sonorities: slowed down, looped, and processed at different pitch levels. In addition to this collage-cum-commentary on the ethnic violence that devastated the region, the piece alludes to Sibelius’s tone poem The Swan of Tuonela and to Marshall’s earlier work Dark Waters. By turns ominous and elegiac, contentious and convergent, Kingdom Come embodies Marshall’s capacious and syncretic sonic ventures without sounding like a multicultural mishmash. Although undeniably tragic, the piece cannot be reduced to a simple argument and does not impose a particular political viewpoint. From its live orchestral opening to its quiet coda, in which the Croatian, Serbian, and gusle singers are heard together for the only time, Kingdom Come remains profoundly personal.

Born May 10, 1942, Mount Vernon, New York; now lives in New Haven, Connecticut First Performance November 2, 1997, New York City, by the American Composers Orchestra, Paul Lustig Dunkel conducting YO Premiere This performance Scoring 3 flutes piccolo 2 oboes English horn 2 clarinets bass clarinet E-flat clarinet 2 bassoons contrabassoon 4 horns 3 trumpets 3 trombones tuba timpani percussion piano strings recorded sounds Performance Time approximately 13 minutes

JOHANNES BRAHMS Symphony No. 4 in E minor, op. 98 AN AWKWARD SILENCE Although the Symphony No. 4 is widely considered to be the capstone of Johannes Brahms’s work as a symphonist, it was not warmly welcomed. After the composer and fellow pianist Ignaz Brüll performed a twopiano reduction of the score for a small gathering of the composer’s closest friends, an awkward silence descended. The conductor Hans Richter and the music critics Eduard Hanslick and Max Kalbeck, all loyal supporters, were unable to say a single nice thing about it. Hanslick later wrote, “I felt as though I were being thrashed by two extremely clever fellows.” Kalbeck told him that the finale, now regarded as the very heart of the work, was unsuitable for a symphony and should be replaced. FROM FLOP TO TRIUMPHANT FAREWELL Although the Fourth’s premiere, conducted by the composer himself on October 25, 1885, in Meiningen, was a great success, it flopped badly in later performances in Vienna. The Austrian composer and critic Hugo Wolf dismissed it as “the art of composing without ideas.” Even the conductor Hans von Bülow, who famously anointed Brahms the successor to Bach and Beethoven, described it as “difficult, very.” For more than a decade, audiences were unmoved, if not openly hostile. It was not until his final appearance in public, less than a month before he died, that Brahms was to witness a positive response to his final symphony. His former student-turned-biographer Florence May described the performance in Vienna of March 7, 1897, as follows: “A storm of applause broke out at the end of the first movement, not to be quieted until the composer, coming to the front of the artists’ box in which he was seated, showed himself to the audience.... The applauding, shouting house, its gaze riveted on the figure standing in the balcony, so familiar and yet in present aspect so strange, seemed unable to let him go. Tears ran down his cheeks as he stood there in shrunken form, with lined countenance, strained expression, white hair hanging lank;

Born May 7, 1833, Hamburg Died April 3, 1897, Vienna First Performance October 25, 1885, in Meiningen; Brahms conducted the renowned Meiningen Orchestra YO Premiere December 1, 1976, Gerhardt Zimmermann conducting the only previous YO performance Scoring 2 flutes piccolo 2 oboes 2 clarinets 2 bassoons contrabassoon 4 horns 2 trumpets 3 trombones timpani percussion strings Performance Time approximately 39 minutes

and through the audience there was a feeling as of a stifled sob, for each knew that they were saying farewell.” ANCIENT AND MODERN, DARK AND LIGHT Today it is hard to understand why Brahms’s contemporaries found the Fourth so perplexing. Although it is certainly cunningly made, its cerebral underpinnings never distract from its beauty. The repeating cycles of descending thirds, which appear throughout the symphony in myriad motivic patterns, unite contrasting moods. Darkness permeates light, minor shifts to major, and vice versa. The springing Allegro theme of the first movement gives rise to an overt quotation from one of Brahms’s Four Serious Songs: “Oh death, how bitter you are.” The gorgeous Andante moderato begins with a theme in the medieval-church Phrygian mode, which Brahms understood as the expression of deep need, a longing for heavenly comfort, and then gives way to the scherzo-like Allegro giocoso, a triangle-happy romp in C major. Yet it is the finale, based on the almost archaic passacaglia form (a set of variations over a repeated bass line), that renders the work truly sublime. A masterful compendium of everything Brahms had learned as a symphonist, it is loosely based on Bach’s death-drunk Cantata No. 150, “For Thee, O Lord, I Long,” and transforms an ancient device into a recognizable but astonishing take on 19th-century sonata form.
Program notes © 2013 by René Spencer Saller


WARD STARE A native of Rochester, New York, Ward Stare made a successful Lyric Opera of Chicago debut in Humperdinck’s Hänsel und Gretel in January 2013. Stare recently completed his tenure as Resident Conductor of the St. Louis Symphony. In April 2009, he made his highly successful Carnegie Hall debut with the orchestra, stepping in at the last minute for Music Director David Robertson, who performed the role of chansonnier in H. K. Gruber’s Frankenstein!!. The 2010-11 season included Stare’s debut with the Norwegian National Opera in a new production of Britten’s The Rape of Lucretia. Future opera engagements include appearances at Opera Theater of St. Louis and Stare’s return engagement with Lyric Opera of Chicago in 2014-15. Highlights of the 2011-12 season included being named Musician of the Month by Musical America in November 2011, and an invitation to participate in the prestigious Allianz Cultural Foundation’s 2012 International Conductors’ Academy. Over the course of four months, Stare worked intensively with both the London Philharmonic Orchestra and the Philharmonia culminating in Stare’s debut with the LPO in Royal Festival Hall in April 2012. Recent and upcoming engagements include the Atlanta Symphony, Houston Symphony, Québec Symphony, Dallas Symphony, Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, and the St. Louis Symphony, with which he conducts a program featuring Strauss’s Der Rosenkavalier Suite on April 19-20, 2013. Following in the path of many great orchestral conductors whose careers began as instrumentalists, Stare was trained as a trombonist at the Juilliard School in Manhattan. At the age of 18, he was appointed principal trombonist of the Lyric Opera of Chicago and has performed as an orchestral musician with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the New York Philharmonic, among others.

Ward Stare returns to conduct the St. Louis Symphony, April 19-20, 2013.


First Violins Virginia Doyle Concertmaster Hava Polinsky Co-Assistant Concertmaster Christopher Goessling Co-Assistant Concertmaster Maggie An Hannah Hart Julia (Geeo) Son John Li Rachelle Ferguson Caroline Cordell Will Crock Amanda Cao Thomas Johnson Sam Lord Aisling O’Brien Alan Rasheed Second Violins Matthew Sprague Principal Anthony Su Assistant Principal Gajan Kumar Aidan Ip Emily Xu Jonathan Karp Katelyn Hamre Haohang Xu Elizabeth Cordell Rebecca Liu Cherry Tomatsu Alan Lu Sarah Kovich Violas Sean Byrne Principal Daniel Larson Assistant Principal Andrew Stock Marisa McKeegan Anne Bewig Brett Shocker Meredith McMahon Eunnuri Yi Sharanya Kumar Cellos Sean Hamre Principal Alex Groesch Margaret Madsen Grant Riew Eric Cho Joanne Lee Joshua Hart Julie Holzen Dylan Lee Ann Ryu Double Basses Toni Saputo Principal Bria Robinson Assistant Principal Ryan Wahidi Phillip Sansone Annamarie Phillips John Paul Byrne Andie Barnett Justus Schriedel Harp Katie Hill Flutes Shiori Tomatsu Principal Kaitlyn Postula Rachel Petzoldt Piccolo Kaitlyn Postula Oboes Ethan Leong Principal Mackenzie Brazier Lauren Claire White English Horn Lauren Claire White Clarinets Earl Kovacs Principal Emily Spaugh Aleksis Martin Stephanie Uhls E-flat Clarinet Aleksis Martin

Bass Clarinet Stephanie Uhls

STL Symphony Coaches Ellen dePasquale Violin I Bassoons Eva Kozma David Carter Violin II Principal Eva Stern Alex Davies Viola Joseph Hendricks Bjorn Ranheim Craig Butler Cello Sarah Hogan Contrabassoon Double Bass Alex Davies Mark Sparks Flute Alto Saxophone Philip Ross Zachary Nenaber Oboe Tina Ward Horns Clarinet Rachael Hutson Scott Andrews Matthew Bloch Clarinet Irene Henry Andrew Cuneo Allison Gacioch Bassoon Kaia Cosgriff Tod Bowermaster French Horn Trumpets Michael Walk Charles Prager Trumpet Principal Jonathan Reycraft Dustin Shrum Trombone/Tuba Julia Tsuchiya-Mayhew William James Garrett L. Thomas Percussion/Timpani Trombones Michael McBride Principal Evan Petzoldt Assistant Principal Brett Lindsay Bass Trombone Carter Stephens Tuba James J. Fritz Keyboard Instruments Joshua Street Percussion/Timpani Ryan Firth Brandon Lee Joshua Luthy Tim Padgett Music Library Elsbeth Brugger Henry Skolnick Roberta Gardner Stage Staff Bruce Mourning Stage Manager Joseph Clapper Assistant Stage Manager Joshua Riggs Stage Technician Jeffrey Stone Manager Jessica Ingraham

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