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The assumption of ideality on the behaviour of a real gas is most valid at (read chapter 3.4) a. high temperature and high pressure c. very high temperature and at ambient pressure b. very high pressure and at ambient temperature d. very low temperature and high pressure 2. The relationship PVk =constant, k=Cp/Cv , is applicable only for ( read chapter 3.3) a. adiabatic process of an ideal gas b. adiabatic process of an ideal gas with constant heat capacity c. adiabatic process of any gas, real or ideal d. adiabatic process of any gas, real or ideal gas with constant heat capacity 3.In the adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas in a piston cylinder system, the final temperature of the gas is _______ the initial temperature (see example 3.2) a. equal than b. greater than c. less than d. less than or equal to 4. The point of highest temperature in the P-V diagram for a pure liquid at which a liquid can exist is called the (Refer to figure 3.1) a. Boyle Temperature c. Reduced Temperature b. Critical Temperature d. Theta Temperature 5. The following is always true about compression of a gas, except (Read 7.3) a. specific volume of a gas decreases c. adiabatic condition b. density of the gas increases d. work is supplied to the system 6.What is the most likely condition of an exiting fluid from a compressor, if it enters as a saturated liquid? (Read 7.3) a. mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapor c. subcooled liquid b. superheated vapor d. saturated vapor 7.Which of the following is an example of an unsteady-state open system? (Read 2.12) a. Well-lagged tank, two inlet feed lines, one exit line, the sum of the mass flow rates of the feed lines is equal to that of the exit line b. Well-lagged tank with a vent, no inlet line c. Unlagged tank, with no feed line and no exit line d. Well-lagged tank, no feed line and no exit line 8. The equipment are typically assumed to be operated isobarically, except (Read chapter7.3) a. condenser b. aftercooler c. combustor d. compressor 9. Typically, the operation in a throttling valve is assumed to be (Read chapter 7.1) a. isochoric b. isenthalpic c. poltropic d. isothermal 10. If you are asked to define enthalpy , your most likely answer is (Read 2.10) a. It is the energy inside the system b. It is the energy needed to increase the temperature of the system. c. It can be computed using mCpT d. It is the sum of U and PV 11. The entropy of ammonia at 10 degC having a density of 100 kg/m3 is ______.

Use the following thermodynamic data for ammonia: Thermodynamic Data Specific Volume[m3/kg] Entropy [kJ/kg-K] a. 5.2045 kJ/kg-K Saturated Liquid 0.001600 0.8779 c. 0.105 kJ/kg-K Saturated Vapor 0.20541 5.2045 d. 0.8779 kJ/kg-K

b. 4.5408 kJ/kg-K

Solution: Entropy (S)? density =100 kg/m3 specific volume=(density) -1 =(100) -1 =0.01 m3/kg Interpolate : specific volume =0.01 Entropy =? S=1.056 kJ/kg-K 12. For Nos. 12-14 An ideal gas , with Cp=3.5 R , is compressed isothermally inside a piston-cylinder set-up at 100 deg C. If the gas is reduced to 0.5 of its original volume, the work done on the system is a. 576.3 J/gmol b. 1325 J/gmol c. 735.5 J/gmol d. 2149.5 J/gmol Solution: ideal gas Cp=3.5 R T=constant (compressed) T=100 C Vf=Vo-0.5Vo =0.5 Vo W=-RTln(Vf/Vo) ->eqn. 3.23 W=-(8.314)(373)ln(0.5) =2149.53 J/gmol 13. If the ambient temperature in Problem #12 is 25 deg C , the change in entropy in the surroundings is a. 7.21 J/gmol-K b. 85.98 J/gmol-K c. -85.98 J/gmol-K d. 32.5 J/gmol- K Solution: Ts =25 C (298 K) DS= -Qj/Tjs -> eqn.5.20 D Usys= Qsys +Wsys D Usys=0 (isothermal) Qsys=-Wsys Qsys=-2149.53 -Qsys=Qsurr Qsurr =2149.53 J/gmol DS= Qsurr /Ts=2149.53/298 =7.213 J/gmol -K 14.The change in entropy of the system in Problem #12 is a. -85.98 J/gmol-K b. -7.21 J/gmol-K c. -5.76 J/gmol-K d. -32.5 J/gmol-K Solution: DS= -Qj/Tjs -> eqn.5.20 DS= -(2149.53)/(373) =-5.76 J/gmol-K 15. For Nos. 15-16 A steady-flow adiabatic turbine accepts an ideal gas at 500 K and 6 bar , and discharges at 371K and 1.2 bar. If Cp=3.5 R and the ambient temperature and pressure is 300 K and 1 bar , the work produced in the turbine a. 2681.3 J/gmol b. 1072.5 J/gmol c. 7253 J/gmol d. 3753.8 J/gmol solution:

T1=500K P1=6 bar® ® T2=371 K P2=1.2 bar Cp=3.5 R Ts=300 K P=1 bar W(turbine)=? Q=0 Ke and Pe are negligible DH= W -W=-DH =H1-H2 -Ws=H1-H2 =mcp(T1-T2)=3.5R (500-371) =3753.8 J/gmol 16. The reversible shaft work or ideal work is a. 5163 J/gmol b. 2681 J/gmol c. 5830 J/gmol d. 3274.5 J/gmol solution: Wideal=Ws-Wlost Wlost =Ts(DSm)fs -Q DS =Cpln(T2/T1) -Rln(P2/P1) DS =3.5 R ln(371/500)-Rln(1.2/6) =4.698 J/gmol -K Q=0 Wlost = (300)(4.698) =1409.4 J/gmol Wideal=3753.8 -(-1409.4) =5163.2 J/gmol 17. For Nos. 17-20 Steam enters a nozzle at 800 kPa and 280 deg C at negligible velocity and discharges at 550 kPa. Assuming isentropic expansion of the steam in the nozzle and the mass flow rate of steam is 0.75 kg/s, the exit velocity of the steam is _______. Use the following thermodynamic data for steam: Thermodynamic Data Inlet (800 kPa , 280 C) Exit (550kPa, s=k) Enthalpy [kJ/kg] 3013.85 2943.91 Entropy [kJ/kg-K] 7.15498 7.15498 Specific Volume [m3/kg] 0.38866

a. 16725 m/s Solution: b.374 m/s c. 11.83 m/s d.264.45 m/s

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steam® ® T=550kPa , v=? m=0.75 kg/s P1=800 kPa T1=280 C assume isentropic expansion, steady state condition energy balance: Pe isnegligible,Q=0, no work DH = DEk H2-H1+0.5(U22 -U12) =0 ; U1=negligible H2-H1+[U22/2000] at 800 kPa , 280 C H1= 3013.85, S1=7.15498 S2=S1=7.15498 P2=550 kPa

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H2=2943.91 U22=2000(3013.85-2943.91) U2 =374.005 m/s 18. The volumetric flow rate of the exiting steam a.0.39 m3/s b. 0.26 m3/s c. 0.35 m3/s d. 0.29 m3/s solution: V2=0.38866 m3/kg G=(0.75 kg/s )(0.38866m3/kg) =0.2915 m3/s 19. The exit diameter of the nozzle a.3.15 cm b. 0.08 cm c. 5.25 cm d. 11.25 cm Solution: m2=u2A2r2 0.75 =374(P/4)D2(0.38866) -1 D= 0.0315 m D=3.15 cm

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UsefulNot usefulReference: Smith and Vanness -Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics

Reference: Smith and Vanness -Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics

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