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CHAPTER -I

INTRODUCTION DESIGN OF THE STUDY

The average executive or supervisor normally gets a fair amount of satisfaction from his work and even more if he is successful at it. But for many workers on the shop floor, there is little possibility of getting any recognition or job satisfaction at the work place. So the only thing that makes life worthwhile for them may be the foot ball field, base ball matches, some tasks in the home, drink, cards or some other such activity entirely away from the shop floor. JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction is the positive attitude that a person has for his job. Many research studies have been done on this area all over the world. The employees attitude toward his job simply means his feelings about job, boss, peers, perks, contesters, work place, work schedule, etc. A positive feeling about these leads to job satisfaction and negative feeling leads to job dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction is defined as an individuals general attitude toward his or her job. This means that an employees assessment of how satisfied or dissatisfied he or

she is with his or her job is a complex summation of a number of discrete job elements. FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION Fitting the right man on the right job is the primary function of an organization for its success. Then only all the resources can be managed effectively. Without human efforts an organization cannot accomplish its objectives. Renis Likert rightly observes All the activities of any enterprise initiated and determined by the persons, who make up that institution, plants, offices, computers, automated equipment and all else that make a modern firm uses, are unproductive except for human effort and direction of all the tasks of management, manager the human component, is the central and the most important task, because all else depends on how well it is done.

The important factors conducive to job satisfaction are mentally challenging work, equitable rewards, supportive working conditions, etc., 1. Mentally Challenging work Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedom and feedback how well they are doing. These characteristics make work mentally challenging. This is approached by two ways. (a) Designing Jobs :

Whatever level of job you are designing, it must be of interest and give satisfaction to the worker

Variation

Multi skill

Targets

Employee s

Interest

Accountability Ownership

Prospects

The Job exist to fill roles. The jobs and their occupants both need regular modification and sometimes radical change, over course of time. (b) Defining performance : Arriving at a single measure of performance is difficult. To measure quality rather than quantity, include staff morale, customer satisfaction, inter team collaboration and specific project results as measures of performance. Hence the rule is ENSURE that jobs offer a wide range of stimulation and variation

Including the factors above mentioned will help to make any post more appealing in the long term and motivate the job holder to perform more effectively.

2. Equitable rewards Get the money right or every thing else could easily go wrong Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just, unambiguous and inline with their expectations. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual skill level and community pay standards satisfaction is likely to result. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner, therefore are likely to experience satisfaction from their jobs. A pay package is not just about salary, though that is how most people tend to think of it. Other elements come in to play, not all of them directly cash related.
Flexi time Salary Paid holidays

Shares

Incentives Pay Packages

Car

Pensions Health care

Insurance

3. Supportive working conditions Employees are concerned with their work environment for both personal comfort and facilitating doing a good job. Studies demonstrate that employees prefer physical surroundings that are not dangerous or uncomfortable. Temperature, light noise and other environment factors should not be at either extreme.

4. Supportive colleagues People get more out of work than mere money or tangible achievements. For most employees, work also fills the need for social interaction. Not surprisingly therefore, having friendly and supportive co-workers leads to increased job satisfaction.

DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION Psychological aspects of job satisfaction are first considered. Dispositional stands, situational factors and cognitive dissonance influence job satisfaction. Dispositional stands refer to certain tendencies that individuals show toward certain things. They may like something and dislike something. There may be no apparent reasons for such likes and dislikes. The situational factors of job satisfaction say that a persons attitude to job influenced not by pre-disposition they have towards the job, but by the situations like

peers, work environment etc.,. They are open with no prior dispositions. Attitude got formed from the work place encounters. cognitive dissonance is the mental anxiety a person undergoes when two sets of information or perceptions are contradictory. A new worker while contributing to his work, also has to participate in union activities. Cognitive dissonance arises here. Later the dissonance is resolved by balancing . If no such resolution is possible, satisfaction from job is affected. He becomes the troubled person and develops a dislike for job. There are different factors for job satisfaction. They are
Job itself Rewards Challenge Variety Work group Work Status Opportunity for growth Fairness of competition Healthy working conditions Company status Management style.

Social relevance of work life Flexibility in enrichment Scope for participation in management The style of Leadership Dignity of job Market standing of the company The extent of transparency in communication.

VARIABLES OF JOB SATISFACTION According to Abraham A. Korman, there are two types of variables, which determine the job satisfaction of an individual. They are: I. II. Organizational variables, and Personal variables.

ORGANISATIONAL VARIABLES 1. Occupational Level: The higher the level of the job, the greater the satisfaction of the individual will be. This is because higher level jobs carry greater prestige and self-control. This relationship between occupational level and job satisfaction stems from social reference group theory in that our society values some jobs more than the

others. Hence people in valued jobs will like them more than those who are in nonvalue jobs. The relationship may also stem from the need-fulfillment theory. People in higher level jobs find most of their needs more satisfied than when they are in lower level ones.

2. Job Content: Greater the variation in job content and the less the repetitiveness with which the tasks must be performed, the greater the satisfaction of the individuals involved will be. Since job content in terms of variety and nature of tasks called for is a function of occupational level, the theoretical arguments given above apply here also.

3. Considerate Leadership: People like to be treated with consideration. Hence considerate leadership results in higher job satisfaction than inconsiderate leadership.

4. Pay and Promotional Opportunities: All other things beings equal these two variables are positively related to job satisfaction. An explanation for this finding lies in both the theories discussed above.

5. Interaction in the Work Group: Here the question is; when is interaction in the work group a source of job satisfaction and when is it not? Interaction is most satisfying wheni. It results in the cognition that other persons attitudes are similar to ones own, since this permits the ready calculability of the others behavior and constitutes a validation of ones self; ii. iii. It results in being accepted by others and It facilitates the achievement of goals.

PERSONAL VARIABLES For some people, it appears that most jobs will be dissatisfying irrespective of the organizational conditions involved, whereas for others, most jobs will be satisfying. Personal variables like age, educational level, sex, etc., are responsible for this difference.

1. Age: Most of the evidence on the relation between age and job satisfaction, holding such factors are occupational level constant, seems to indicate that there is generally a positive relationship between the two variables up to the pre-retirement years and then there is a sharp decrease in satisfaction. An individual aspires for better and

more prestigious jobs in the later years of his life. Finding his channels for advancement blocked, his satisfaction declines.

2 . Educational Level: With occupational level held constant, there is a negative relationship between the educational level and job satisfaction. The higher the education, the higher the reference group, which the individual looks for guidance to evaluate his job rewards, will be.

3. Role Perception: Different individuals hold different perceptions about their roles, i.e., the kind of activities and behaviors they should engage themselves in to perform their jobs successfully. Job satisfaction is determined by this factor also. The more accurate the role perception of an individual the greater his satisfaction will be.

4. Sex: There is yet no consistent evidence as to whether women are more satisfied will their jobs than men, holding such factors as job and occupational level constant. One might predict this to be the case, considering the generally lower occupational aspirations of women.

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OUTCOMES OF JOB SATISFACATION To society as a whole as well as from an individual employees standpoint, job satisfaction in and out of itself is a desirable outcome. However, from a pragmatic managerial and organizational effectiveness perspective, it is important to know how, satisfaction relates to outcome variables.

SATISFACTION AND PRODUCTIVITY Satisfied workers are more productive than the less satisfied counterparts. This satisfaction-performance controversy has raged over the years. Although most people assume a positive relationship, the preponderance of research evidence indicates that there is no strong linkage between satisfaction and productivity. For example, a comprehensive meta-analysis of the research literature found only a 0.17 average of correlation between job satisfaction and productivity. Satisfied workers will not necessarily be the highest producers. There are many possible mediating variables, the most important of which seem to be rewards. If people receive rewards they feel are equitable, they will be satisfied and this is likely to result in greater performance effect. Also, recent research evidence indicates that satisfaction may not necessarily lead to individual performance improvement, but does lead to organizational-level improvement. Finally, there is still considerable debate whether satisfaction leads to performance or performance leads to satisfaction.

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SATISFACTION AND TURNOVER High employee job satisfaction result in low turnover. Unlike that between satisfaction and productivity, research has uncovered a moderate relationship between satisfaction and turnover. High job satisfactions will not, in and out of itself, keep turnover low, but it does seem to help. On the other hand, if there is considerable job dissatisfaction, there is likely to be high turnover. One group researchers found that for women of eighteen to twenty-five, satisfaction was an excellent predictor of whether or not they changed jobs. On the other hand, as job tenure (Length of time on the job) increased, there was less likelihood of their leaving. Tenure has also been found to listen the effects of dissatisfaction among male employees.

There are other factors, such as commitment to the organization, that play a role in this relationship between satisfaction and turnover. Some people cannot see themselves working anywhere else, so they remain regardless of how dissatisfied they feel. Another factor is the general economy. When things in the economy are going well and there is little unemployment, typically there will be an increase in turnover because will begin looking for better opportunities will other organizations. Even if they are satisfied, many people are willing to leave if the opportunities

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elsewhere promise to be better. On the other hand if jobs are tough to get, dissatisfied employees will stay where they are. On an overall basis, however, it is accurate to say that job satisfaction is important in employee turnover. Although absolutely no turnover is not necessarily beneficial to the organization, a low turnover rate is usually desirable because of training costs and the drawbacks of inexperience.

SATISFACTION AND ABSENTEEISM Research has pretty well demonstrated an inverse relationship between and absenteeism. When satisfaction is high, absenteeism tends to be low; when However, as with the other

satisfaction is low, absenteeism tends to be high.

relationships with satisfaction, there are moderating variables such as the degree to which people feel that their jobs are moderating variables such as the degree to which people feel that their jobs are important. For example, research among state

government employees has found that those who believed that their work was important had lower absenteeism than did those who did not feel this way. Additionally, it is important to remember that while high job satisfaction will not necessarily result in low absenteeism, low job satisfaction is likely to bring about high absenteeism

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OTHER EFFECTS OF JOB SATISFACTION In addition to those noted above, there are a number of other effects brought about by high job satisfaction. Research reports that highly satisfied employees tend to have better mental and physical health, learn new job-related tasks more quickly, have fewer on-the-job accidents, and file fewer grievances. On the positive side it has also recently been found that satisfied employees are more likely to exhibit prosocial citizenship behaviors and activities such as helping coworkers, helping customers and being more cooperative.

From an overall standpoint, then, most organizational behavior researchers as well as practicing managers would argue that job satisfaction is important to an organization. Some critics have argued, however, that this is pure conjecture because there is so much we do not know about the positive effects of satisfaction. On the other hand, when job satisfaction is low, there seems to be negative effects on the organization that have been documented. So if only from the stand point of viewing job satisfaction as minimum requirement or point of departure, it is of value to the organizations overall health and effectiveness and is deserving of study and application in the field of organizational behavior.

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AIMS OF JOB SATISFCTION 1. Economic aim 2. Humanistic aim 3. Theoretical aim

1. Economic aim:

The workers who are all satisfied more will be more

productive than dissatisfied workers. Because those who have fulfilled their needs in respect to their status may give full involvement and initiative -ness to work and this will definitely lead that organization towards the achievement of their goal in an effective way.

2. Humanistic aim: Humanistic aim of the job attitude research will make the

work hours as pleasurable and as meaningful as possible.

3. Theoretical aim: This aim will increase the understanding power, knowledge

and skills of employee to know the factors which are responsible for job satisfaction and will contribute to personality theory in particular and to psychological theory in general.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study aims at seeking answers to the following questions: To identify the factors which are closely associated with job

satisfaction.

To study the level of job satisfaction of employees in The Pudukkottai

District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi To know the relationship between the employees and their superiors. To study the effects of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction on

individual and organizational effectiveness. To find out the factors which dissatisfy the employees. To suggest some practical solutions which could increase job

satisfaction.

2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM lIn the present study attempts to find out the level of job satisfaction among the employees in The Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi. In addition, this study also searches to find out the factors for

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dissatisfaction and it gives suggestions for the improvement of job satisfaction among the employees in this organisation.

3. PILOT STUDY The researcher made a visit to the The Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi., and had a discussion with the Project Manager about the feasibility of conducting the study in the aspect of Job satisfaction at The Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi. It also helped the researcher in identifying the exact area(i.e.,) A study on Job satisfaction of employees.

4. PREPARATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE Several books on job satisfaction levels were referred, to enrich the researchers knowledge on the subject. Further detailed discussions were made with the internal research guide and other experts in the field. And also the researcher met

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senior faculties in the management institutions and then the questionnaire was prepared. The researcher used summates stales or (LIKERT scale) in this scale the respondents were asked to respond to each of the statement in terms of five degrees. At one extreme point there is strong agreement with the given statement and at the other end strong disagreement and between them lies intermediate points.

It can be illustrated as : Statements Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Values 5 4 3 2 1

The LIKERT scale technique assigns a scale value to each of the five responses. The same thing is done in respect of each and every statement in the instrument. This way the instrument yields a total score for each statement, which would then measure the respondents favorableness or otherwise towards the given statement.

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The researcher found this LIKERT scaling relatively easy to counsel and considered more reliable, because under this questionnaire respondents can answer to each statement included in the instrument.

In general, the following aspects are covered about the Job satisfaction. Including pay, promotion, interpersonal relationship, performance appraisal, training programme , welfare facilities, precautionary and safety measures, etc.,

5. PRE TESTS Model questionnaire was prepared for pre-testing before conducting the actual research study. The model questionnaires were distributed to the target group and data were collected and checked to realize the effectiveness of the questionnaire. Then the researcher found that some questions were irrelevant and vague, and some vital questions were left out. so the researcher weeded out irrelevant questions and added some important questions, to strengthen the questionnaire still better.

6. UNIVERSE AND SAMPLING

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The total number of employees are 320, in the The Pudukkottai District Cooperative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi, the researcher has taken the sample as 90. The researcher attempted for 100 respondents , and the questionnaire administered to 100 persons but responses got from 90 persons only.

7. RESEARCH DESIGN Every research project has a specified framework for collecting the data and its description. This study aims at bringing out the satisfaction of job in which they employed. Undergone by the supervisory promotes in The Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi and especially probes to the

attitudinal change of the employees. Reactions denotes impressions, views, and opinion of the employees about the various facilities enjoyed by the employees.. So this is the complete descriptive type of study. This study spells out brief accounts of job satisfaction, out comes of job satisfaction need for job satisfaction and other effects of job satisfaction and their findings with quantitative results suggestions and conclusion.

8. DATA COLLECTION

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The researcher used primary data collected through questionnaire from the employees. The majority (90) of the respondents were informative and satisfactory. The questionnaire was administered in the form of positive statements accepting in view of employees perceptions. The acceptances were multiple choice statements. The statements were clear, easily understandable and simple. The questionnaire was focussed mainly on four aspects namely General management, Human relations skills, Salary classification, Satisfaction towards their salary, Opinion regarding welfare measures, Interpersonal relationship with co-workers, relationship with superiors, Satisfaction towards the precautionary measures Entertainment facility, Training programmes, Performance appraisal and overall satisfaction to their work environment.

9. DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED BY THE RESEARCHER 1. Some of the respondents were very busy and were not available to answer the questionnaires and some of them are on leave. 2. Initially, the researcher planned to conduct the current study in a large scope. But due to time constraints, the questionnaire pattern was restricted to 34 questions and the scope of the study was narrowed down.

10.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

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1. Since data was collected through questionnaires there was a considerable rate of return of duly filled in questionnaire, bias due to no response is often indeterminate. 2. There was difficulty in knowledge whether willing respondents are truly representative. 3. The scaling technique uses LIKERT scale, hence it is difficult to examine how much more or how much less favorable are respondents towards the topic. In this scaling respondents may answer according to what they feel rather than have they honestly feel.

11. CHAPTERIZATION This study has been divided into Five chapters.
The First chapter deals with the introductory aspect of the study. In the

introductory part the researcher has given the term Job satisfaction, factors influencing the Job satisfaction and more about the Statement of the problem, Limitations of the study, Objectives of the study, tools applied in the study and concepts of the study.
The Second chapter deals with the Profile of the organization. The Third chapter deals with the Review of literature.

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The Fourth chapter deals with Data analysis and the interpretations.

The Fifth chapter deals with the finding along the practical suggestion and recommendations for improvement and usefulness for the organization.

CHAPTER -II
PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION

The Government of Tamilnadu have established The Pudukkottai District Cooperative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi, one among the five new Co-operative spinning Mills during the VI five year plan. The Pudukkottai District is one of the most backward districts in Tamilnadu. The main object for the establishment of The Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi, is to provide employment opportunities to the Downtrodden people of 225 Adi-dravidas, 225 Sri-Lanka Repatriates and 74 persons in other categories and supplying cotton yarn to the Primary Weavers Co-operative Societies at the rate fixed by the Director of Handlooms and Textiles.

ORGANISATION OF THE MILLS :

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The Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi, is registered on 23rd September in the year 1981, and the date of starting is 18th of march 1982. Its spindle capacity is 25,080. Its operation areas were in Tamil nadu and other states of India. It has started its commercial production on January 1 st in the year 1985. The Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi, main object is to produce cotton yearn and supply to Handloom weavers at the rate fixed by the Director of Handloom and textiles. Now the present spindle working after the down sizing is 12320. The organization is proposed to increase to 13200.

SHARE CAPITAL S. No. 1. 2. 3. Details Weavers Co-op. Societies A Class Co-op. Institutions B Class Government D Class Total No. of Members 159 2 1 162 Amount 6.50 3.00 513.12 522.62

LAND AND BUILDINGS Land measuring about 23.47 Acres was purchased. The total land value including development as on date is 3.07 lakhs. The total building gross value is Rs. 137.98 lakhs. PLANT AND MACHINERY

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The Mills has installed various types of gross value Rs.526.43 lakhs and other assets to the gross value of Rs.100.70. CASH CREDIT The Pudukkottai District Central Co-operative Bank Ltd., has provided cash credit loan accommodation to the mills from inception. Since the Mill have not worked from 14.03.1994 to 16.10.1998 due to stringent financial problem, the Banker has stopped the CCL operation with effect from 30.0601994 onwards. The mill have to pay a sum of Rs.154.97 lakhs as principal apart from interest dues. The Government of Tamilnadu has already settled the Cash credit loan amounts for the

13 non-functional co-operative Spinning mills to the concerned Co-operative Central Banks.

LABOUR STRENGTH The workers at present working in the Mills are furnished below S.No. 1. 2. 3. Category Srilanka Repatriates Adi-dravidas Staff Grand total Numbers 117 132 34 283

PURCHASE OF COTTON

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The mills is purchasing cotton from c-op. institutions and from the Private traders at the rates fixed by the Cotton Purchase Committee constituted by the Director of Handlooms and Textiles periodically according to the market fluctuations. In this connection, the State at present the prevailing cotton market trend is not favorable to the mills while comparing for the last few years. But at present the cotton season and the quality and rate may be favourable to the mills and if they purchase adequate cotton for one-month requirement, the mill can able to earn cash profit. If the mill has been sanctioned Rs.100/- lakhs as working capital assistance from ICDP, the mills can purchase good quality cotton at reasonable prices. The proposed quantum of cotton purchase.

SALE OF YARN The Mills is selling the yarn not below the rates fixed by the Yarn Price fixation committee constituted by the Director of Handlooms and Textiles periodically according to the Yarn market fluctuations. Most of the yarn production has been sold only to the Co-optex through NHDC and Govt. Schemes. The Cooptex, Chennai has been collecting the total requirement of yarn from the Weavers Coperative societies in Tamilnadu and submitting to the Director of Handlooms and textiles. According to the requirement furnished by the Co-optex, the Director of Handlooms and textiles. Chennai has given allotment order for the supply of Hank

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Yarn to the Co-operative Spinning Mills based on the stock position to f the mills and production capacity.

YARN PRODUCTION The mill has started its commercial production during the year 1984. The machineries installed in the mills is also in average condition. There are 249 workers and 28 staff and 6 watchmen were employed in the mills. Due to lack of working capital, the mill has not able to run with 95% utilization even though machineries are available. Due to unfavourable market condition at present, the Free Dhothi scheme starts only during April. They have decided to go for the conversion of 3520 spindles and the balance spindles can be used for the Government Uniform Schemes so as to minimize the loss and to run the mills smoothly without any further loss upto March 2008 and from April 2008 onwards they aim to concentrate for the Free Dhothi Schemes so as to get the maximum benefits to the mills. Mills can be able to procure cotton by utilizing the share working capital loan availed from ICDP by which the mills can run with increased spindle capacity of further 1320 spindles.

CHAPTER -III

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A plenty of researchers have been conducted in the past regarding Job satisfaction. The exhaustive studies have unrolled the determinants of Job satisfaction among workers. A few of such studies are given below. RESEARCHER 1.Stagner,Flebbe and wood(1952) NAME OF THE STUDY Working on The Rail-Road; A Study of job Satisfaction (Personnel Psychology,1952,5,293-306). This is a study of 715 male unionized rail-road workers. DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION 1. General working condition. 2. Union-management relation. 3. General quality of supervision 4. Grievance handling procedures. 2. Ross zander(1957) and Need satisfaction and Employee Turnover (Personnel Psychology,1957,10,327-328). This is a study of skilled women in large company For older group: 1. Security 2. Supervision. 3. Company prestige 4. Working hours.

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3.

Durganand Job Satisfaction in Office and Manual Workers (Indian Journal of Social Work,1958,19,39-46)

1.Recogniton 2.Autonomy 3.Doing important work 4.Fair evaluation of work done 1. Job status 2. Type of work 3. Supervisory behavior 4. Work group

Sinha(1958)

THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION

Matching men with the job is the prime function of a personnel manager. A major part of our life is spent in work. Since work is a social reality and social expectation to which man seems to confirm. This provides many facilities and

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monetary benefits which are all essential to the individual; and also the work binds him to the society. The basic concept, which plays behind all these human activity, is need. Need and Attitude have been taken from animal psychology and social psychology respectively. Need is defined as a condition marked by the feeling of lack or want of something or something requiring to perform some action. This needs the key factor, which motivates human beings in all manners to work.

HERZBERGS TWO FACTOR THEORY The term job satisfaction refers to an employees general attitude towards his job. Locke defines job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experiences. To the extent that a persons job satisfies his dominant needs and is consistent with his expectations and values, the job will be satisfying. There are three major theories of job satisfaction, viz, 1. Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory, 2. Need-Fulfillment Theory, and 3. Social Reference-Group Theory, Herzberg extended the work of Maslow and developed a specific content theory of work motivation. He conducted a widely reported motivational study on about 200 accountants and engineers employed by firms in and around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania us. He used the critical incident

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method of obtaining data for analysis. The professional subjects in the study were essentially asked two questions: (1) when did you feel particularly good about your job? What turned you on? and (2) When did you feel exceptionally bad about you job? What turned you off?

Responses obtained from this critical incident method were interesting and fairly consistent. Tabulating these reported good and bad feelings, Herzberg

concluded that job satisfiers are related to job content and that job dissatisfies are allied to job context. Herzberg labeled the satisfiers as motivators, and he called the dissatisfiers as hygiene factors. The term hygiene refers (as it does in the health field) to factors that are preventive Herzbergs theory the hygiene factors are those that prevent dissatisfaction. Taken together, the motivators and the hygiene factors have become known as Herzbergs two-factor theory of motivation.

Under the Need-fulfillment theory it is believed that a person is satisfied if he gets what he wants and the more he wants something, or the more important it is to him, the more satisfied he is when he gets it and the more dissatisfied he is when he does not get it. The social reference-group theory is similar to the need-fulfillment theory except that it takes into account not the desires, needs and interests of the individual, but rather the point of view and opinions of the group to whom the

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individual looks for guidance. Such groups are defined as the reference group for the individual, in that they define the way in which he should look at the world and evaluate various phenomena in the environment including himself. It could be

predicted, according to this theory, that if a job meets the interests, desires and requirements of a persons reference group, he will like it and if it does not, he will not like it.

In summary, the two theories tell us respectively that 1. Job satisfaction is a function of, or is positively related to, the degree to which ones personal needs are fulfilled in the job situation; and

2. Job satisfaction is a function of, or is positively related to, the degree to which the characteristics of the job meet with the approval and the desires of the group to which the individual looks for guidance in evaluating the world and defining social reality.

RELATION TO MASLOWS NEED HIERARCHY Herzbergs theory is closely related to Maslows need hierarchy. The hygiene factors are preventive and environmental in nature and they are roughly equivalent to

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Maslows lower-level needs. These hygiene factors prevent dissatisfaction, and they serve as a takeoff point for motivation. By themselves, the hygiene factors do not motivate. Only the motivators motive employees on the job. They are roughly equivalent to Maslows higher-level needs. According to Herzbergs theory an individual job with challenging content in order to be truly motivated.

DEFINITION OF THE TERM JOB SATISFACTION Locke gives a comprehensive definition of job satisfaction. According to him job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience. Job satisfaction is a result of employees perception of how well their job provides those things, which are viewed as important. It is generally recognized in the organizational behaviour field that job satisfaction is the most important and frequently studied attitude. There are three important dimensions of job satisfaction. First, job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation, as such, it cannot be seen; it can only be inferred. Secondly, job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. For example, if organizational participants feel that they are working much harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards they will probably have a negative attitude towards the work, the boss, and coworkers dissatisfied. On the other hand, if they feel they are being treated very

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well and are being paid equitably they are likely to have a positive attitude toward the job, and they will have job satisfaction. Thirdly, job satisfaction represents several related attitudes. Smith, Kendall and Hulin have suggested that there are five job dimensions that represent the most important characteristics of a job about which people have effective responses. They are:
I.

The work itself: The extent to which the job provides the individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for learning, and the chance to accept responsibility.

II.

Pay: The amount of financial remuneration that is received and the degree to which this is viewed as equitable vis--vis that of others in the organization.

III.

Promotion opportunities: hierarchy.

The chances for advancement in the

IV.

Supervision:

The abilities of the supervisor to provide technical

assistance and behavioral support.


V.

Co-workers: The degree to which fellow workers are technically proficient and socially supportive.

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CHAPTER - IV

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION TABLE : 4.1 Age-wise analysis of the respondents S. No. 1 2 3 4 Age group Below 30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years Above 50 years Total No. of Respondents 4 49 29 8 90 Percentage 4.4 54.4 32.2 9.00 100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the age-wise analysis of the respondents. It reveals that 54.4% of the employees are belongs to the age group of 31-40 years. 32.2 % of the respondents belong to the 41-50 years of age group. 9% of the respondents are above 50 years of age. Only 4% of the respondents are below 30 years. It clearly shows that younger generation are dominating the Pudukkottai District Cooperative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi and it leads to the better services and better development of the organization.

CHART -4.1

AGE-WISE ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONDENTS

35

60

54.4

50

40

Pe rce ntage

32.2
30

20

10

9 4.4
Below 30 years 31-40 years Years 41-50 years Above 50 years

TABLE : 4.2 Sex-wise analysis of the respondents S. No. Sex 1 Male 2 Female No. of Respondents 70 20 Percentage 78 22

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Total
Source: Primary data

90

100

The above table shows the sex wise analysis of the respondents. It reveals that 78% of the employees are male and 22% of them were female. It clearly shows that Males are high in number in the Pudukkottai District Cooperative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi.

CHART -4.2

SEX-WISE ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONDENTS

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22%

78%

Male

Female

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TABLE : 4.3

Marital status of the respondents

S. No. Marital status 1 Married 2 Unmarried Total


Source: Primary data

No. of Respondents 83 7 90

Percentage 92 8 100

The table no. 4.3 indicates the marital status of the respondents. Out of 90 respondents 92% of the employees were married and 8% of the employees were unmarried. It reveals that after getting the employment, majority of the respondents were get married.

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CHART - 4.3

MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

Unmarried Marital status

Married

92

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage

TABLE : 4. 4

Educational qualification of the respondents

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S. No. 1 2 3

Educational qualification Up to Higher Secondary Degree P.G. degree and above Total

No. of Respondents 15 42 33 90

Percentage 17 47 36 100

Source: Primary data

The above table indicates the educational qualification of the respondents. Out of 90 respondents 47% of them were degree holders and 36% of them were post graduate degree holders. Only 17% of them were qualified higher secondary level. The Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi is the largest and mightiest spinning mills in Pudukkottai District. Such an organization is recruiting highly qualified persons.

CHART 4.4

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS

41

50 45 40 35 Percentage 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Up to H.Sc

47 36

17

Degree Educational Qualification

P.G. degree and above

TABLE : 4.5 Analysis of previous work experience of respondents

S. No. Work experience 1 Yes 2 No Total


Source: Primary data

No. of Respondents 34 56 90

Percentage 37.7 62.3 100.00

The above table shows the previous work experience of the respondents.

42

Out of 90 respondents 62% of them have no work experience. Nearly 38% of the total respondents have the previous work experience. It shows that majority of the employees entering in to Pudukkottai District Cooperative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi with out any previous work experience. It may be due to the non-technical job (or) White collar job.

CHART-4.5 ANALYSIS OF PREVIOUS WORK EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENTS

43

Yes 38%

No 62%

44

TABLE : 4.6 Analysis of job satisfaction with previous institution S. No. Satisfied with Institution 1 Previous Institution 2 Current Institution Total
Source: Primary data

No. of Respondents 6 28 34

Percentage 18 82 100

The above table shows the analysis of job satisfaction with the current and previous institution. Regarding the job satisfaction, most of the employees i.e., nearly 82% of them are satisfied with current institution. Only 18 % of them were satisfied with previous institutions. It clearly shows that the majority of the respondents were satisfied with current institutions.

45

CHART- 4.6 ANALYSIS OF JOB SATISFACTION WITH PREVIOUS INSTITUTION

90 80 70 PERCENTAGE 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

82

18

Previous Institution

Current Institution

JOB SATISFACTION

46

TABLE : 4. 7 Reasons for shifting the job S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Reasons for shifting Distance Salary Promotion Merit of the job Others Total No. of Respondents 4 12 1 15 2 34 Percentage 11.7 35.2 2.9 44.4 5.8 100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the reasons for shifting the job. Among 34 respondents, 44.4% of them were shifted due to the merit of the job, 35.2% of them due to better salary, 11.7% of them due to distance and rest of the respondents were due to other reasons. It clearly shows that the majority of the respondents were shifted due to the merit of the job.

47

CHART -4.7 REASONS FOR SHIFTING THE JOB

50 45 40 35.2 35 PERCENTAGE 30 25 20 15 10 5.8 5 0 Distance Salary Promotion REASON FOR SHIFTING Merit of the job Others 2.9 11.7 44.4

48

TABLE : 4.8 Work experience of the respondents in the current institution S. No. 1 2 3 Work Experience Below 5 years 5-10 years 11-15 years Total No. of Respondents 26 23 41 90 Percentage 29 25.5 45.5 100

Source: Primary data

The above table reveals the period of work experience of the respondents in the current institution of Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi. Nearly 46% of the respondents have 11-15 years of work experience. 29% of them have below 5 years of work experience. 25.5 % of the respondents have 5-10 years of work experience.

CHART- 4. 8

49

WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENTS IN THE CURRENT INSTITUTION

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 1 5 1 0 5 0

45.5

29 25.5

Below 5 years

5-10 years

11-15 years

WORK EXPERIENCE

50

TABLE : 4.9 Salary wise analysis of the respondents at the time of joining S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Salary slab Below 3000 3001-5000 5001-10,000 10,001-15,000 15,001-20,000 Above 20,00 Total No. of Respondents 56 18 10 6 90 Percentage 62 20 11 7 100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the salary wise classification of the respondents. The classification indicates that the majority of the respondents i.e., 62% of them come under the salary slab of below Rs.3000. similarly 20% of them come under the salary slab of Rs.3001-5000 and remaining employees of 11% and 7% come under Rs.5001-10,000 and Rs.10,001-15,000 respectively. Thus it is clearly reveals that the salary of the respondents at the time of joining is very low.

CHART- 4.9 SALARY WISE ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONDENTS AT THE TIME OF JOINING

51

70

62
60 Percentage 50 PERCENTAGE

40

30

20

20 11 7 0
Below 3000 3001-5000 5001-10,000 10,00115,000 15,00120,000

10

0
Above 20,00

SALARY SLAB

52

TABLE : 4.10 Analysis on present salary of the respondents S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Salary slab Below 3000 3001-5000 5001-10,000 10,001-15,000 15,001-20,000 Above 20,00 Total No. of Respondents 0 2 21 50 15 2 90 Percentage 0 2 23 56 17 2 100

Source: Primary data

The above table reveals the present salary of the respondents. 56% of the employees are drawing the salary between 10,001 and 5,000. 23% of the employees are drawing in between 5001-10000. 17% of the respondents draw in between Rs.15,001 and 20,000. Only 2 % of them are drawing more than Rs. 20,000 salary. It clearly shows that salary of the respondents has been increased when compared to salary drawn at the time of joining.

CHART- 4.10 ANALYSIS ON PRESENT SALARY OF THE RESPONDENTS

53

60

56

50 Percentage 40 PERCENTAGE

30

23
20

17

10

0
0 Below 3000

2
3001-5000 5001-10,000 10,001-15,000 15,001-20,000

2
Above 20,00

SLARY SLAB

TABLE : 4.11 Respondents level of satisfaction with the salary S. No. 1 2 3 Level of Satisfaction More satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total No. of Respondents 18 57 15 90 Percentage 20 63 17 100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the respondents level of satisfaction with the salary.

54

63% of the employees were satisfied with their salary, 20% of the respondents were more satisfied with their salary and only 17% of them dissatisfied with their salary. It obviously shows that most of the respondents were satisfied with their salary.

CHART- 4.11 RESPONDENTS LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH THE SALARY

70 60 50 PERCENTAGE 40 30

63

20
20 10 0

17

More satisfied

Satisfied
55
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION

Dissatisfied

TABLE : 4.12 Respondents level of satisfaction with Furniture, stationary & office automation in the organization S. No. 1 2 3 Level of Satisfaction More satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total No. of Respondents 16 61 13 90 Percentage 18 68 14 100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the respondents level of satisfaction with the furniture, stationary and office automation in the organization. Out of 90 respondents 18% of them more satisfied with the furniture, stationary and office automation, 68% of them were satisfied and 14% of them were dissatisfied with the furniture, stationary and office automation provided by the organization.

It clearly shows that the majority of the employees were satisfied with the furniture, stationary and office automation provided by the organization.

56

CHART- 4. 12

RESPONDENTS LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH FURNITURE, STATIONARY & OFFICE AUTOMATION IN THE ORGANISATION

14%

18%

68%
More satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied

57

TABLE : 4.13 Respondents level of satisfaction on Recreation & Entertainment facility S. No. 1 2 3 Level of Satisfaction More satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total No. of Respondents 17 46 27 90 Percentage 19 51 30 100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the respondents level of satisfaction on recreation & entertainment facility. It reveals that most of the employees i.e., 70% of them were satisfied and 30% of them were dissatisfied with the recreation and entertainment facility provided by the Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi.

58

CHART- 4.13 LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RESPONDENTS ON RECREATION & ENTERTAINMENT FACILITY

LEVEL OF SATISFACTION

Dissatisfied

30

Percentage

Satisfied

51

More satisfied

19

10

20

30 P ERC ENTAGE

40

50

60

59

TABLE : 4.14 Employees opinion on beautification/ modernization of office in the present scenario S. No. 1 2 3 4 Choice of indicators Not important Moderately important Very important Extremely important Total 1 2 3 4 No. of Respondents 10 21 34 25 90 Rating value 10 42 102 100 254

Source: Primary data

Average rating =

Total rating value = 254 Total No. of respondents 90

= 2.82 = 3

In this table, the average rating of the respondents is 2.82. By rounding off the value it will be 3, which denotes as per the rating scale, the respondents have agreed that the beautification of the office in the present scenario is very important.

60

CHART- 4.14 EMPLOYEES OPINION ON BEAUTIFICATION/ MODERNIZATION OF OFFICE IN THE PRESENT SCENARIO

120

100

Rating value

80 RATING VALUE

60

102
40

100

20

42 10 Moderately important 2 Very important 3 Extremely important 4

Not important 1

CHOICE OF INDICATORS

61

TABLE :4. 15 Adequate safety and precautionary measures provided in the organization S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Choice of indicators Strongly agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly disagree 1 Total No. of Respondents 15 33 22 16 4 90 Rating value 75 132 66 32 4 309

Source: Primary data

Average rating =

Total rating value = 309 Total No. of respondents 90

= 3.43 = 3

In this table, the average rating of the respondents is 3.43. By rounding off the value it will be 3, which denotes as per the rating scale, the respondents have neutral opinion i.e., neither they have agreed nor disagreed about the adequate safety and precautionary measures provided in the organization.

CHART- 4.15

62

ADEQUATE SAFETY AND PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES PROVIDED IN THE ORGANISATION

140

132
120

Rating value

100

80

75

60

66

40

32
20

4
Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree

C HOIC E OF INDIC ATORS

63

TABLE : 4.16 Better welfare facilities leads to work even after working hours S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Choice of indicators Strongly agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly disagree 1 Total No. of Respondents 9 24 25 20 12 90 Rating value 45 96 75 40 12 268

Source: Primary data

Average rating =

Total rating value = 268 Total No. of respondents 90

= 2.97 = 3

In this table, the average rating of the respondents is 2.97. By rounding off the value it will be 3, which denotes as per the rating scale, the respondents have neutral opinion i.e., neither they have agreed nor disagreed to work even after working hours since the welfare facilities are good.

64

CHART- 4.16 BETTER WELFARE FACILITIES LEADS TO WORK EVEN AFTER THE WORKING HOURS

Strongly disagree

12 Rating value 40

CHOICE OF INDICATORS

Disagree

Neutral

75

Strongly agree

Agree

96

45

20

40

60 PERCENTAGE

80

100

120

65

TABLE : 4.17 Analysis of Employees participation on training programmes S. No. Particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total
Source: Primary data

No. of Respondents 66 24 90

Percentage 73.3 26.7 100

The above table shows the employees participation on training programme. Out of 90 respondents 73% of them were attended the training programmes actively and remaining 27% of them were not attended any of the training programmes.

CHART- 4.17 ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYEES PARTICIPATION ON TRAINING PROGRAMMES

66

27%

73%

Yes

No

67

TABLE : 4.18 Respondents level of satisfaction on Training programmes attended. S. No. 1 2 3 Level of Satisfaction More satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total No. of Respondents 22 33 11 90 Percentage 33.3 50.0 16.7 100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the respondents level of satisfaction on training programmes they attended. Among 90 respondents 33.3 % of them were more satisfied with the training programmes. 50% of them were satisfied and remaining 16.7 % of them were dissatisfied with the training programmes provided by the organization.

68

CHART-4. 18 LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF RESPONDENTS ON TRAINING PROGRAMMES ATTENDED

60 50 50

Percentage

40 PERCENTAGE 33.3 30

20

16.7

10

0 More satisfied Satisfied LEVEL OF SATISFACTION Dissatisfied

TABLE : 4.19 Respondents opinion regarding promotional possibilities S. No. 1 2 3 Chances of promotion More chances Normal chances Rare chances No. of Respondents 16 54 20 Percentage 17.7 60 22.3

69

Total
Source: Primary data

90

100

The above table shows the respondents opinion regarding promotional possibilities. Out of 90 respondents 60% of them said that they have normal chances for promotional possibilities. 22.3% of them said that they have rare chances for promotion. Only 17.7% of them agreed that they have more chances of promotion to the higher cadre in this organization.

CHART- 4.19 RESPONDENTS OPINION REGARDING PROMOTIONAL POSSIBILITIES

70

60 60

Percentage

50

40 PERCENTAGE

30 22.3 17.7 20

10

0 More chances Normal chances CHANCES FOR PROMOTION Rare chances

71

TABLE : 4.20 Performance and hard work are appraised by the management S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Choice of indicators Strongly agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly disagree 1 Total No. of Respondents 10 43 15 14 8 90 Rating value 50 172 45 28 8 303

Source: Primary data

Average rating =

Total rating value = 303 Total No. of respondents 90

= 3.36 = 3

In this table, the average rating of the respondents is 3.36. By rounding off the value it will be 3, which denotes as per the rating scale, the respondents have neutral opinion i.e., neither they have agreed nor disagreed about the employees performance and hard working are appraised by the management.

72

CHART- 4.20 PERFORMANCE AND HARD WORK ARE APPRAISED BY THE MANAGEMENT

180 160 140

172

Rating value

PERCENTAGE

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

50

45 28 8

Strongly Agree agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

CHOICE OF INDICATORS

73

TABLE : 4.21 Employees opinion on opportunity for personal growth and development S. No. Particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total
Source: Primary data

No. of Respondents 71 19 90

Percentage 79 21 100

The above table shows the employees opinion on opportunity for personal growth and development. Among 90 respondents 79% of them have accepted that they have an opportunity for personal growth and development. 21% of them said that they are not having such opportunity for personal growth and development.

CHART- 4.21

74

EMPLOYEES OPINION ON OPPORTUNITY FOR PERSONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

OPPORTUNITY FOR PERSONAL GROWTH

No

21

Percentage

Yes

79

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

PERCENTAGE

TABLE : 4.22 Respondents inter personal relationship with co-workers S. No. Relation ship 1 Friendly 2 Neural No. of Respondents 79 11 Percentage 88 12

75

Unfriendly Total

90

100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the respondents interpersonal relationship with coworkers. Among the 90 respondents 88% of them inter personal relationship with co-workers were friendly in nature. Only 12% of them agreed that they have a neutral opinion with the above statement. One significant point noticed that none of the employees were unfriendly with their co-workers.

CHART-4.22 RESPONDENTS INTER PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH CO-WORKERS

76

100

90

88
Percentage

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

12 0
Friendly Neural INTER PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP Unfriendly

10

77

TABLE : 4.23 Employees opinion on immediate supervisors attitude S. No. 1 2 3 4 Supervisors attitude Friendly Unfriendly Supportive Awkward Total No. of Respondents 61 3 23 3 90 Percentage 68 3 26 3 100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the employees opinion on immediate supervisors attitude. 68% of the total respondents agreed that their immediate supervisors attitude were friendly, 26% of them said their supervisors are supportive and 3% of them said that the supervisors attitude were awkward and unfriendly, Thus we may conclude that majority of the employees felt that their supervisors were friendly and supportive.

78

CHART- 4.23 EMPLOYEES OPINION ON IMMEDIATE SUPERVISORS ATTITUDE

79

70

68 Percentage

60

50 PERCENTAGE

40

30

26

20

10 3 0 Friendly Unfriendly Supportive Aw kw ard 3

SUPERVISOR'S ATTITUDE

TABLE : 4.24 Role of management in solving the employees problem S. No. Solving the problem 1 Fast and infavour of employees 2 Fast and infavour of management No. of Respondents 25 18 Percentage 28 20

80

3 4 5

Confused Postponed Refused Total

18 24 5 90

20 27 5 100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the role of management in solving the employees problem. As per the research, out of 90 respondents 28% of the respondents opinion is the management is solving the employees problem fast and infavour of them. 27% of them said that management is postponing the employees problem. 20% of them said that the management is confused and another 20% of them said that employees

problem are solved fast and infavour of management itself. 5% of the respondents said that the management is refused in solving the employees problem.

81

CHART- 4.24 ROLE OF MANAGEMENT IN SOLVING THE EMPLOYEES PROBLEM

30

28

27

25

20 20

20

15

10

5 5

0 Fast and infavour of employees Fast and infavour of management Confused Postponed Refused

SOLVING THE PROBLEMS

82

TABLE : 4.25 Employees consideration while facing the problem S. No. 1 2 3 4 Consideration Co-workers Department friends Immediate supervisor Management Total No. of Respondents 36 40 10 4 90 Percentage 40 44.4 11.1 4.5 100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows employees consideration while facing a problem. Out of 90 respondents 44.4% of them are believing the department friends while facing the problem. 40% of the employees were believing their co-workers. Similarly 11.1 % of them believing their immediate supervisor and only 4.5 % of them were believing the management while facing the problems. Thus the respondents felt that the department friends and co-workers are equally important while facing the problem.

CHART- 4.25 EMPLOYEES CONSIDERATION WHILE FACING THE PROBLEM

83

50 45 40 35 30 PERCENTAGE 25 44.4 20 40 15 10 5 0 Co-w orkers 11.1 4.5 Department friends Immediate supervisor Management

Percentage

CONSIDERATION

84

TABLE : 4.26 Employees opinion Pertaining to essential of Trade union S. No. Particulars 1 Yes 2 No Total
Source: Primary data

No. of Respondents 76 14 90

Percentage 84.4 15.6 100

The above table shows the employees opinion regarding the trade union is essential or not. As per the research conducted in the organisation, 84.4% of the respondents opinion are Trade union is necessary and essential. Remaining 15.6% of them gave consent that the trade unions are not essential. Thus it clearly indicates the employees felt that the Trade unions are essential for this organization.

CHART- 4.26 EMPLOYEES OPINION PERTAINING TO ESSENTIAL OF TRADE UNION

85

16%

84%
Yes No

TABLE : 4.27

Employees opinion on Role and function of Trade union

86

S. No. 1 2 3 4

Choice of indicators Not important Moderately important Very important Extremely important Total

1 2 3 4

No. of Respondents 7 34 33 16 90

Rating value 7 68 99 64 238

Source: Primary data

Average rating =

Total rating value = 238 Total No. of respondents 90

= 2.64 = 3

In this table, the average rating of the respondents is 2.64. By rounding off the value it will be 3, which denotes as per the rating scale, the respondents have agreed that the role of trade union and its function is very important.

CHART-4. 27

EMPLOYEES OPINION ON ROLE AND FUNCTION OF TRADE UNION

87

Extremely important

64

CHOICE OF INDICATORS

Very important

99

Moderately important

68

Not important

7
0 20 40 60
PERCENTAGE

80

100

120

TABLE : 4.28 Respondents level of satisfaction on Wage revision and pay fixation

S. No. 1 2 3

Level of satisfaction More satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied

No. of Respondents 14 42 34

Percentage 15.5 46.7 37.8

88

Total
Source: Primary data

90

100

The above table shows the level of satisfaction of respondents on wage revision and pay fixation. Out of 90 respondents 46.7 % of them were satisfied with the wage revision and pay fixation and 37.8% of them were dissatisfied. Only 15.5 % of the employees were satisfied more with the wage revision and pay fixation.

CHART- 4.28 RESPONDENTS LEVEL OF SATISFACTION ON WAGE REVISION AND PAY FIXATION

89

50

45

46.7

P ercentage

40

37.8

35

PERCENTAGE

30

25

20

15

15.5

10

More satisfied

Satisfied
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION

Dissatisfied

TABLE : 4.29 Employees opinion on the CONCEPT OF BONUS FOR ALL S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Choice of indicators Strongly agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly disagree 1 Total No. of Respondents 53 29 7 1 90 Rating value 265 116 21 2 404

Source: Primary data

Average rating =

Total rating value = 404 Total No. of respondents 90

= 4.48 = 5

90

In this table, the average rating of the respondents is 4.48. By rounding off the value it will be 5, which denotes as per the rating scale, the respondents have Strongly agreed the concept of bonus for all is needed.

CHART- 4.29 EMPLOYEES OPINION ON THE CONCEPT OF BONUS FOR ALL

300 265 250

200 PERCENTAGE

150 116 100

50 21 2 0 Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree 0

CHOICE OF INDICATORS

91

TABLE : 4.30 Employment in this organization increased the social status S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Choice of indicators Strongly agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly disagree 1 Total No. of Respondents 47 33 4 4 2 90 Rating value 235 132 12 8 2 389

Source: Primary data

Average rating =

Total rating value = 389 Total No. of respondents 90

= 4.32 = 4

In this table, the average rating of the respondents is 4.32. By rounding off the value it will be 4, which denotes as per the rating scale, the respondents have Agreed that their social status has been increased only because of working in this mighty organization

CHART- 4.30

92

EMPLOYMENT IN THIS ORGANIZATION INCREASED THE SOCIAL STATUS

Strongly disagree

Dis agree
CHOICE OF INDICATORS

Neutral

12

Agree

132

Strongly agree

235

50

100

150

200

250

PERCENTAGE

CHAPTER V FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS


The age composition of the employees indicates most of the employees are younger generation and below 40 years of age. Younger may work faster it leads to better services to the customers.

93

The sex analysis shows that the male employees are more in number when compared to female employees. However 22% of the total sample belongs to female category. Most of the employees nearly 91% of the total samples were getting married. Unmarried employees are very meager. Education wise analysis clearly indicates that the lower qualified persons are more in number (i.e., Below U.G. degree) than the higher qualified persons (i.e., Above UG Degree). Present designation wise analysis shows that the middle level employees are more in number than the higher level or lower level. Analysis on previous experience reveals that there is no impact on present work since it is purely non technical work. However, the experienced people also entered into this organization significantly. The experienced people have been satisfied with the current institution when compared to previous institution. Salary wise analysis reveals that there is lower salary at the time of joining and later it was increased and the most of the employees have been satisfied with the salary at present.

94

Majority of the employees were either satisfied or more satisfied with the provision of furniture, stationery and office automation provided by the management. Most of the employees were either satisfied or more satisfied with the recreation & entertainment facilities provided by management. Survey reveals that the beautification of the office at present scenario is very important. Regarding the statement on precautionary and safety measures taken by the management is adequate. The analysis shows that the most of the employees were neither agreed nor disagreed. But they are neutral. Majority of the employees were neither agreed nor disagreed but they are neutral to work even after working hours when they have provided better welfare facilities provided by the management. Most of the employees were participated the training program and they were satisfied with the training programs. Sixty percent of the employees considering the possibilities of promotion to the higher cadre is normal chances only. The reward and recognition given by the management is normal. As per the opinion of the employees, they were neither agreed nor disagreed but they are neutral.

95

Nearly 80% of the employees were well developed personally after getting the employment in this organization. Nearly 88% of the employees were friendly in nature regarding the interpersonal relationship with co-employees. Significant findings noticed that the none of the employee is unfriendly. Analysis on immediate supervisors attitude with employees reveals that majority of the supervisors attitude is either friendly or supportive to their subordinates. Role of management in solving the employees problem is not significant. The Department friends and co-workers were played equally important to solve the crisis when they are facing a problem. 84.4% of the employees were concerned about the trade union is essential. As per the research, the role of trade unions in the organizations is very important. 63% of the total employees were satisfied with wage revision and pay fixation. 85 % of the total employees were agreed the concept of bonus for all. 84% of the total employees were agreed the social status was increased after the employment in this organization.

96

SUGGESTIONS

While recruiting the employees higher qualified persons should be given more importance than others. It helps to improve the better services to the Customers. Recruitment of high number of staff is necessary, since the daily wage labour may not at credit worthiness (or) faithfulness.

97

Provision of precautionary and safety measures should be improved and adequately provided, and then only the employees may work freely without any fear. Reward and award by way of promotion, cash award should be given to the employees those who are working more and even after working hours. It will induce and creates to work hard among the employees. Induction and motivational training should be provided to all the employees and training center should be established at well surrounded place with good atmosphere. Possibilities of promotion to the higher cadre should be liberalized and skill oriented. It will reduce the dissatisfaction and frustration among the employees. Industrial relations should be improved and properly maintained, congenial environment should be created. Whenever the problem arises the management should solve the problem and should not postpone. It will create the good atmosphere and harmonious industrial relations; it leads to growth and development of the spinning mills.

98

Management should create the good atmosphere and the awareness among the employees to face the problem cordially and maintaining the smooth functions of the spinning mills.

CONCLUSION

99

The study entitled Job satisfaction among the employees in The Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi objectives: was conducted with the following major

1.

To study the level of satisfaction among the

employees in Pudukkottai District Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd., Aranthangi. 2. employees. To find out the factors of which dissatisfy the

With the help of Diagnostic Research Design and Stratified Random Sampling method. The researcher comes out with the following major findings;

1.

Many of the employees are having job satisfaction in

this organization. 2. Considering the welfare measures, many of the

employees were satisfied, Although the corporation should concentrate more in the Employees grievance handling

100

procedure in the budding stage which is directly proportionate with the entire Job satisfaction.

A. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Methods in Social Research by Goode & Hatt. Published by MC.Graw Hill- Publishers New Delhi. Organisational Behaviour by Fred Luthans, Seventh Edition- 1995. Published MC.Graw Hill Publishers New Delhi. Organisational Behaviour by L.M.Prasad . Published by Sultan Chand & sons 1997. Personnel Management by C.B. Mamoria, Twelth Edition-1997. Published by Himalayam Publishing House- Mumbai. Personnel Management and Industrial relations by Prof.P.C.tripathi, Eleventh Edition-1996. Published by Sulthan chand & sons PublishersNew Delhi. Personnel Management and Industrial relations by Davar Personnel Management by C.B.Memoria Personnel Management and Industrial relations by Dale Yoder.

101

Dynamic Personnel Administration by M.N.Rudrabhasavaraj

A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE PUDUKKOTTAI DISTRICT CO-OPERATIVE SPINNING MILLS LTD., ARANTHANGI QUESTIONNAIRE PERSONAL DATA 1. Age 2. Sex Male : 31- 41 Years 41-51 Years Above 50 years : Female

Below 30 Years

3. Marital Status : Married Unmarried 4. Educational Qualification: School dropouts 6. Previous work (or) job if any: Yes No 7. Are you satisfied with the conditions of job in Previous institution Current Institution 8. Please state the reason for shifting Distance Salary Promotion Merit of the job 9.Years of Experience Below 5 Years : 5 10 Years ITI/Diploma Graduates : Post graduates 5. Present designation and department

102

11 15 Years 10. Salary Details (Gross) Below Rs.5000 Above Rs.15000 11. Present Salary (Gross) Below Rs.5000 Above 15,000

Above 15 years : Rs. 5001-10000 Rs.10001-15,000

( At the time of joining in the organization)

: Rs. 5001-10000 Rs.10001-15,000

12. How far you satisfied with your salary More Satisfied Work environment Satisfied

: Dissatisfied

13. Furniture, stationary and office automation provided by our Organization is More Satisfied More Satisfied Scenario? Not important Very important WELFARE MEASURES 16. Precautionary and safety measures taken by the management is adequate. Strongly agree (5) Disagree (2) after working hours. Strongly agree Agree Neutral Agree (4) Neutral (3) Moderately important Extremely important Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied 14. Recreation and Entertainment facility provided is 15. Do you think that beautification of our office is important in the present

Strongly Disagree (1)

17. Welfare facilities are extremely taken care of and therefore, I work even

103

Disagree Yes No

Strongly Disagree

18. Did you attend any Induction/ Motivation training? If yes, how far you satisfied with the training programmes ? More Satisfied More Chances Satisfied Dissatisfied Rare chances 19. Are there any possibilities of promotion to higher cadre? Normal Chances 20. Performance appraisal imparted in our organisation is well equipped. My performance is immediately recognised and recorded. Strongly agree Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Neutral

21. Do you have any opportunity of personal growth and development? Yes GENERAL 22 . What do you feel about your interpersonal relationship with co- employees? Friendly Friendly Unfriendly Unfriendly Neutral Supportive Awkward 23. What is the attitude of your immediate supervisor ? 24. What is the attitude of management in solving the employees problem : Fast and infavour of workers Fast and infavour of Management Confused Co-workers Immediate supervisor Yes No Postponed Refused No

25. When you are facing a problem, whom you believe more and first ? Trade union Management

26. Do you think that the trade union is essential ? 27. What is your opinion about Trade unions role on the functions of the

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organisation? Not important Very important More Satisfied social status Strongly agree Disagree Highly satisfied Highly Dissatisfied Agree Strongly Disagree Satisfied Dissatisfied Neutral Moderately important Extremely important Satisfied Dissatisfied

28. What is your opinion about wage revision and pay fixation? 29. I really think that my employment in this organisation is to increase the

30. Level of Job satisfaction in this organization is

Thanks for your kind co-operation

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