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0123456789',' ')) from dual ; Will give you a zero if it is a number or greater than zero if not numeric (actually gives the count of non numeric characters) Method 2: select instr(translate('wwww', 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ', 'XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XX'),'X') FROM dual; It returns 0 if it is a number, 1 if it is not. 2. How to Select last N records from a Table? select * from (select rownum a, CLASS_CODE,CLASS_DESC from clm) where a > ( select (max(rownum)-10) from clm) Here N = 10 The following query has a Problem of performance in the execution of the following query where the table ter.ter_master have 22231 records. So the results are obtained after hours. Cursor rem_master(brepno VARCHAR2) IS select a.* from ter.ter_master a where NOT a.repno in (select repno from ermast) and (brepno = 'ALL' or a.repno > brepno) Order by a.repno What are steps required tuning this query to improve its performance? ?ϠHave an index on TER_MASTER.REPNO and one on ERMAST.REPNO ?ϠBe sure to get familiar with EXPLAIN PLAN. This can help you determine the execution path that Oracle takes. If you are using Cost Based Optimizer mode, then be sure that your statistics on TER_MASTER are up-to-date. ?ϠAlso, you can change your SQL to: SELECT a.*
FROM ter.ter_master a WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT b.repno FROM ermast b WHERE a.repno=b.repno) AND (a.brepno = 'ALL' or a.repno > a.brepno) ORDER BY a.repno; 3. What is the difference between Truncate and Delete interms of Referential Integrity? DELETE removes one or more records in a table, checking referential Constraints (to see if there are dependent child records) and firing any DELETE triggers. In the order you are deleting (child first then parent) There will be no problems. TRUNCATE removes ALL records in a table. It does not execute any triggers. Also, it only checks for the existence (and status) of another foreign key Pointing to the table. If one exists and is enabled, then you will get The following error. This is true even if you do the child tables first. ORA-02266: unique/primary keys in table referenced by enabled foreign keys You should disable the foreign key constraints in the child tables before issuing the TRUNCATE command, then re-enable them afterwards. CLIENT/SERVER What does preemptive in preemptive multitasking mean ? Preemptive refers to the fact that each task is alloted fixed time slots and at the end of that time slot the next task is started. What does the OLTP stands for ? OLTP stands for On Line Transaction Processing What is the most important requirement for OLTP ? OLTP requires real time response. In a client server environment, what would be the major work that the client deals with ? The client deals with the user interface part of the system. Why is the most of the processing done at the sever ? To reduce the network traffic and for application sharing and implementing business rules.
What does teh term upsizing refer to ? Applications that have outgrown their environment are re-engineered to run in a larger environment. This is upsizing. What does one do when one is rightsizing ? With rightsizing, one would move applications to the most appropriate server platforms. What does the term downsizing refer to ? A host based application is re-engineered to run in smaller or LAN based environment. What is event trigger ? An event trigger, a segment of code which is associated with each event and is fired when the event occurs. Why do stored procedures reduce network traffic ? When a stored procedure is called, only the procedure call is sent to the server and not the statements that the procedure contains. What are the types of processes that a server runs ? Foreground process and Background process. What is a event handler ? An event handler is a routine that is written to respond to a particular event. What is an integrity constraint ? An integrity constraint allows the definition of certain restrictions, at the table level, on the data that is entered into a table. What are the various uses of database triggers ? Database triggers can be used to enforce business rules, to maintain derived values and perform value-based auditing. What is a transaction ? A transaction is a set of operations that begin when the first DML is issued and end when
Why is it better to use an integrity constraint to validate data in a table than to use a stored procedure ? Because an integrity constraint is automatically checked while data is inserted into a table. Ring. What are the advantages of client/server model ? Flexibility of the system. scalability. Bus. Protecting the databse and recovering it from crashes. Managing and tuning networks becomes difficult. Manage resources optimally across multiple clients. 3. What are the three components of a client server model ? A Client. A stored has to be specifically invoked. What are the responsibilities of a Server ? 1. Controlling database access and security. centralised control and implementation of business rules. 2. May not be suitable for all applications. Why are the integrity constraints preferred to database triggers ? Because it is easier to define an integrity constraint than a database trigger. . increase of developers productivity. What are the disadvantages of the client/server model ? Heterogeneity of the system results in reduced reliablity. BEGIN COMMIT/ROLLBACK are the boundries of a transaction. A Server and A Network/Communication software. cost saving. portability. What is the first work of Client process ? A client process at first establishes connection with the Server. What are the different topologies available for network ? Star. Enforcing integrity rules globally. improved network and resource utilization. 4.a commit or rollback is issued.
XOpen SQL/CLI What is the main advantage of developing an application using an API ? The application can be connected to any back end server that is supported by the API. Other Events. System Events. Why is an event driven program referred to a passive program ? Because an event driven program is always waiting for something to happen before processing. what does API (Application Programming Interface) refer to ? An API. Control Events 3. User Events 4. An ODBC manager/administrator and . What is the difference between file server and a database server ? A file server just transfers all the data requested by all its client and the client processes the data while a database server runs the query and sends only the query output.In a Client/Server context. in a Client/Server context. Give some examples of standard API??s ? Open Database Connectivity (ODBC). What are the four types of events ? 1. Integrated Database Application Programming Interface (IDAPI). What are the two components of ODBC ? 1. 2. is a specification of a set of functions for communication between the client and the server. What is inheritance ? Inheritance is a method by which properties and methods of an existing object are automatically passed to any object derived from it. What is the main disadvantage of developing an application using an API ? The application cannot use any special features of the backend server.
2. ODBC driver. What is the function of a ODBC manager ? The ODBC Manager manages all the data sources that exists in the system. What is the function of a ODBC Driver ? The ODBC Driver allows the developer to talk to the back end database. What description of a data source is required for ODBC ? The name of the DBMS, the location of the source and the database dependent information. How is a connection establised by ODBC ? ODBC uses the description of the datasource available in the ODBC.INI file to load the required drivers to access that particular back end database. RDBMS FUNDAMENTALS I. INTRODUCING DATABASES : Concept of a Database : Traditional Approach : In this approach, independent application programs access their own independent data files. This results in many problems in data storage and retrieval. Database Approach : In this approach, all application access a common database, which is a centralized data storage system. This approach has the following advantages : Redundancy of data storage is reduced, Inconsistency in data is eliminated & Data sharing between applications is possible. Interacting with a Database : Database Management System (DBMS) : DBMS is a software that interfaces between applications and a database for all data processing activities. Users of a DBMS : End Users, Application Programmers and Database Administrators use a DBMS, either directly or indirectly. How users interact with a Database : 1. End users send queries to the DBMS through applications. 2. The DBMS translates the queries. 3. The DBMS retrieves data from the database. 4. The DBMS sends data to the application, which present the data to the end users. Functions of a DBMS : Function of DBMS Description Provided by using Defining the data structure Defining structure of data to be stored in database Data Definition Language (DDL) Manipulating Data Retrieving, adding, modifying, deleting data. Data Manipulation Language (DML) Data Security Preventing unauthorized access to data. User-ids and Passwords.
Control of Data Access Allowing users to use only relevant data Data Control Language (DCL) Architecture of a Database : Need for an Architecture : The details about complexity and structure of data in a database in not required by end-users. Therefore, differentiating what the end-users see and what is actually there in a database is important. Architecture of a Database : The architecture of a database comprises a set of three levels at which a database can be viewed. External Level or View, Conceptual Level or View & Internal Level or View. II. USING RELATIONAL DATABASE : Basics of Relational Database : Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) : RDBMS is the most popular form of DBMS used in the world. It uses a relational database to organize data. A relational database comprise relations, which are represented as tables. Relation : A relation stores information about an object in the real world. A relation is represented as a table. Attribute : Each attribute of a relation stores a piece of information about an object. Attributes are represented as columns in a tables and can be arranged in any order. Each attribute in a relation is unique and contain atomic values i.e. Atomic value contain a single value of data and Non-Atomic values contain a set of values. The number of attributes in a relation is called the degree of the relation. Tuple : A row in a table is called a tuple of the relation. The number of tuples in a relation is known as the cardinality of the relation. Tuples in a table are unique and can be arranged in any order. Domain : A domain is a set of valid atomic values that an attribute can take. Within a single database, an attribute cannot have different domains associated with it. A domain can include a null value, if the value for the domain is unknown or does not exist. Identifiers for Relations : Primary Key : An attribute that uniquely identifies a row in a table is called its primary key. A relation can have only one primary key. The primary key cannot have any null values. In case no unique key is found in a relation, two or more attributes can be treated as the primary key. Such keys are called Composite Keys. Candidate Key : A relation can have more than one attribute that uniquely identifies a tuple. Any one of these keys can be selected as the primary key. All such attributes are called Candidate Keys. All candidate keys that are not primary keys are called Alternate Keys. Foreign Key : An attribute that is not a candidate key is called a Nonkey. A nonkey attribute of a relation whose value matches the primary key in some other table is called Foreign Key OR is a column in a table that uniquely identifies rows from a different table. III. INTERPRETING DATA : Entities and Relationships : Entity : An entity is an object that exists in the real world and is distinguishable from other objects. Each entity is represented as a table in a relational database. Types of Entities : Entities can be classified in two ways - based on existence and based on subsets.
Based on existence, entities can be classified as Dominant and Weak entities. Based on subsets, entities can be classifies as Supertypes and Subtypes. Relationships : A relationship is an association between two entities. Types of Relationships : Relationships are classified into three types based on the occurrence of the related entities. One-to-One(1-1), One-to-Many(1-M) & Many-to-Many(M-M). Using E/R Diagram : A E/R diagram represent entities and relationships in a database system. Reducing E/R Diagrams to Relations : Mapping Entities : A dominant entity is mapped to a new relation. A weak entity is mapped to a new relation. The primary key of the corresponding dominant entity is included as the foreign key in the weak entity relation. Supertypes and subtypes are mapped to separate relations. The primary key of the supertype becomes the primary key of the subtype. Mapping Relationships : A 1-1 relationship is mapped using a foreign key. The primary key of either of the entities is include as a foreign key in the relation of the other entity. This relationship is rare, because data elements related in this way are normally placed in the same table. A 1-M or M-1 is mapped by introducing a foreign key. A primary key is the ??one?? side of the relationship, and the foreign key is the ??many?? side of the relationship. This relationship are most common. A M-M involves the creation of a new relation. M-M are problematic and cannot be adequately expressed directly in a relational db. It is expressed using intersection tables. An intersection table contains two (or more) foreign keys, relating the primary key values of two (or more) tables to each other. The role of an intersection table is to convert the M-M into two 1-M relationships that can be easily handled by the database. IV. SIMPLIFYING DATA : Need for Simplifying Data : Normalization : Normalization is a formal process of developing data structures in a manner that eliminates redundancy and promotes integrity. You need to simplify structure of data in relations for easy storage and retrieval. The process of simplifying relations is called normalization. The new relations that are obtained after normalization are called normalized relations. Normalization has three well defined steps : The relations that you get at the end of the first step are said to be in 1NF. The relations that you get at the end of the second step are said to be in 2NF. The relations that you get at the end of the third step are said to be in 3NF. Simplifying Data to 1NF (Eliminate Repeating Groups) : A repeating group is a set of columns that store similar info that repeats in the same table. To simplify data to 1NF, you ensure that all attributes values in a relation have atomic values. If there are attributes in a relation with non-atomic values, move these attributes to a new relation and choose an appropriate primary key for it. E.g. SupItem Table Item field having atomic. Simplifying Data to 2NF (Eliminate Redundant Data) : Redundant data is data that is expressed multiple times unnecessarily, or depends only on part of a multi-valued key. Functionally Dependent Attributes : Functionally Dependent Attributes are those that
Then. you ensure that all nonkey attributes in a relation are functionally dependent on the whole key and not part of the key. To simplify data to 2NF. move all nonkey attributes that are not wholly dependent on the primary key. Transitively Dependent Attributes : Transitively Dependent Attributes in a relation are those that are dependent on a nonkey attribute and not the primary key. CREATE TABLE : This is a DDL command in SQL that creates a new table in a database. Then. move all transitively dependent attributes to a new relation. Simplifying Data to 4NF (Isolate Independent Multiple Relationships) : V. Conversion from 2NF to 3NF : To convert a relation in 2NF to 3NF. DML & DCL. To simplify data to 3NF. choose an appropriate primary key for the new relation. integer. SQL consists of three components .DDL. decimal. Syntax : ALTER TABLE table-name ADD (column-name data-type [[size]] [[NOT NULL DEFAULT]]. STORING & RETRIEVING DATA : Language Support for an RDBMS : SQL :SQL is the language that provides command to interact with the data in the database. E. Simplifying Data to 3NF (Eliminate Columns not Dependent on the Key) : Columns in each table should be a group of columns in which the data in each column contributes to the description of each row in the table. E. DCL : DCL comprises commands you can use to control the user access to the database.belong to a single entity or relationship and depend on its unique identifier. you ensure that there are no attributes in a relation that are transitively dependent on other attributes. modify. Organizing the Database : Base Tables : A database comprises base tables. choose an appropriate primary key for the new relation. Each of them has a unique name & they contain data that is crucial to an organization.g. so move those two to separate table. to a new relation. table and Item table. DDL : DDL comprises commands you can use to create and modify the database structure.g. Conversion from 1NF to 2NF : To convert a relation in 1NF to 2NF.) primary key definition / foreign key definition . Syntax : CREATE TABLE table-name (column-name data-type [[size]] NOT NULL/DEFAULT default-value]] CHECK (column-name > 0) UNIQUE (column-name) PRIMARY KEY (column-name) FOREIGN KEY (column-name) REFERENCES table-name) ALTER TABLE : This is a DDL command in SQL that modifies the structure of an existing table. date and time. DML : DML comprises commands you can use to add. which have the following features : They physically exist on the disk. Status is dependent on City in Sup. delete and query data in the database. Their attributes have data types such as character. table.. Separating Sup..
Restricting Access to a Database : GRANT : This is a DCL command in SQL that you use to grant a specific set of authorities to one or more users. SYNTAX : INSERT INTO table-name (column-names) VALUES (constant/NULL) UPDATE : This is a DML command in SQL that you use to change data on rows of a table. * This keyword selects all the columns of the table. Views have the following features: Views let you restrict the access to data so that end-users see data relevant to them. just as you do for a table. For example. INSERT : This is a DML command in SQL that you use to add data in rows of a table. An RDBMS accesses the source tables for data to be retrieved from a view. Any changes that users make to views do not reflect in the source tables if the view has been created using a Join condition. Views do not physically exist in the database and only their definition is stored by an RDBMS. the user will not be able to insert or update a row that could not be selected by the view-with check option prevents this from happening. AND This operator is used to combine two or more search conditions. End-user's View of a Database : Views : Views are relations that are derived from one or more source tables. GROUP BY This keyword groups the query result and lets you generate summary result for each group. Once you delete a table. It passes its query result to the main query. all data contained in it is lost and cannot be recovered. Syntax : DROP TABLE table-name Interacting with a Database : SELECT : This is a DML command in SQL that retrieves data from the database in the form of query results. ORDER BY This keyword sorts the query result on one or more columns. NULL values This value indicates that the data is not present. The storage space used by this table is also released. Subquery This is the query that is place inside the main query. Views created WITH CHECK OPTION allows for an added measure of security in a view. Syntax : UPDATE table-name SET column-name-value WHERE condition DELETE : This is a DML command in SQL that removes one or more rows of data from a table. Syntax : CREATE VIEW view-name (column-names) AS query. Retrieving Data from a View : Once you create a view.DROP PRIMARY KEY / DROP FOREIGN KEY) DROP TABLE : This is DDL command in SQL that deletes the an existing table. . Syntax : DELETE FROM table-name WHERE condition. The command supports the following keywords and clauses : FROM This keyword specifies the name of the table. you can retrieve data from it using the SELECT command. WHERE This keyword gives the search condition that specifies the data to be retrieved. CREATE VIEW : A view can be created using the CREATE VIEW command.
The rollback command removes the changes of all previous commands in a transaction from the buffer. uncommitted data. Lost Update Problem : Lost update problem occurs when an update made by a transaction is lost due to an update made by another transaction. Referential Integrity : Referential Integrity ensures that for each row in a table.shared locks and exclusive locks.Syntax : GRANT (SQL command) (column-names) ON table-name TO user-name. VI. Controlling Concurrent Data Access : Concurrency Control : All RDBMS must ensure that the transactions of concurrent users do not interfere with each other. Integrity Constraints : Integrity constraints allows only correct changes to be made to a database. or inconsistent data might occur. the problems of lost update. Transaction Processing ensures that when the RDBMS is making changes related to a single task. uncommitted data and inconsistent data. it gets a shared lock on that part of the database. Exclusive Locks : If a transaction is updating data in a database. Other transactions can also get a shared lock on that part of the database to read data. Grouping commands related to a task : Transaction Processing : A transaction is a sequence of one or more SQL commands that together form a logical task. Inconsistent Data Problem : Inconsistent data problem occurs when a transaction accesses data from the database and simultaneously another transaction is changing that data. Uncommitted Data Problem : Uncommitted data problem occurs when a transaction accesses data that has been updated by a previous transaction that has not yet ended. they cannot change the data. If it does not handle the transactions properly. Locking prevents the problem of lost update. the value of the primary key is unique and is not null. Client Server Computing Model . Commit : Commit is an SQL command that indicates the successful end of a transaction. Syntax : REVOKE (SQL command) ON table-name TO user-name. ENSURING INTEGRITY OF DATA : The concept of Data Integrity : Data Integrity : Data Integrity refers to the correctness and completeness of data in a database. Rollback : Rollback is an SQL command that cancels a transaction before it is complete. REVOKE : This is a DCL command in SQL that you use to take away a specific set of authorities from one or more users. Locking : Locking is a facility provided by an RDBMS to ensure that a transaction does not interfere with any other transaction. However. There are two types of integrity constraints . Entity Integrity : Entity Integrity ensures that for each row in a table. After an RDBMS executes this command all the changes are made to the database.entity integrity and referential integrity. Shared Locks : If a transaction is only reading data from a database. it gets an exclusive lock on that part of the database. An RDBMS provided two types of locks for locking a part of the database . the value of the foreign key is present in the reference table. either all changes are made as a unit or no changes are made. No other transaction can read or change this data.
Named Pipes & DECNET. Client Server Paradigm : Introduction : In the past decade. The host computed did all the work. Client/Server Approach : The client/server paradigm optimizes the use of computer resources by distributing application processing among multiple processors. was frequently overloaded.I. Hardware choices and scalability were limited by proprietary architecture's. Advantages : Client/Server makes it possible to harness the computing power available on PCs and other workstations in an organization. Also called Distributed Application Processing or Co-Operative Application Processing Host Based Processing . Oracle Network software SQL*NET support all major network communication protocols TCP/IP. It has got client server feature that developers can use to minimize network traffic between clients & servers. organizations have restructured and become global. However.e. where Clients are . Slaves were controlled by Master computer which did the main processing and stored all data. Computing power can be added in smaller units making the system easily scaleable. That the client/server model provides an architecture that harness contemporary technology to meet the computing needs of the modern business organization. Hardware and software choices can be application oriented as they do not necessarily have to run on a proprietary computer. and response times were often poor.The First Distributed Computing Paradigm : As PC's and intelligent terminals became available. User interfaces were unfriendly. Unixware. That traditional computing paradigms like host-based and master/slave processing do not adequately address the information requirements of modern business. Master/Slave .A Distributed Computing Paradigm : The client/server paradigm evolved as an attempt to address the new computing needs of business and utilize new technologies. Dumb terminals were used for data access and display. Response times are improved as processors are not overloaded. Has features that makes it easy to administer a complicated client server system. Such terminal were called Slaves. Administration & Maintenance a formidable challenge. Client/Server . Intelligent terminals often validated data and provided editing functions. ORACLE 7 is an exceptional RDBMS & also an excellent DB server because it supports all major OS for both clients & servers i. Disadvantages :The inherent heterogeneity makes System Integration. OS/2 etc. Disadvantages are : Data was centralized and often not accessible to those who needed it. Data access was inflexible and governed by available 3GL programs. Netware. The client/server model computers are classified as Clients and Servers.The Centralized Paradigm : Centralized computing treated applications as an integrated unit. The globalization and restructuring have led to a need for distributed and flexible information access. It had one distinct advantage. SPX/IPS. The same processor generated the user interface and manipulated data. Network traffic is reduced because the processing power available at the end user terminal makes it unnecessary to send detailed instructions over the network as in the case of host based & master/slave systems. the other problems associated with host-based processing remained. Applications ran on a single processor. a limited amount of processing was transferred to the terminal. It reduced the load on the main processor. MSDOS.
Easy to implement and often provide end-users with totally transparent access to data. the entire presentation part of the application resides on a different computer than the one that has the logic function. There are four attributes of single system image : Location Transparency : Users must be able to access data without knowing the location of the data. In Distributed Presentation. the OS controls the amount of CPU time allocated to a task. Goals of Client/Server Paradigm is the end-user. Client-initiated client/server interactions. the presentation function is divided between the client & the server. the logic function is placed on more than one platform thus. the data and DBMS is distributed among multiple nodes and distribution of application logic. It allows multitasking within an application. Application Program Interfaces. A Multitasking OS allocates a certain amount of CPU time to each task. Client/Server seeks to provide end-user transparent access to the computing resources of the organization. RPC is essentially a messaging system which allows stored procedures to be invoked. Used in applications where user interaction is completely static and predetermined. In Remote Data Management. Multithreading is an extension of multitasking. Users should not have to learn & use different commands for accessing data from different locations. Database Server should have preemptive multitasking & multithreading capability. In Distributed Data Management.requesters of services and Servers are provider of services. Application Software. In non-preemptive multitasking. In Preemptive multitasking. Support a standard Network Operating System. Typically. Support a standard RDBMS. Several user process for a single server process. Useful in situations where PC or workstations are connected to mainframes. Programs and subroutines within a program can execute concurrently in a multithreaded environment. There are several application designs possible in the client/server model depending on how application processing is distributed. Many RPCs allows procedures to be invoked across heterogeneous platforms and also provide the required data translation services. A communication system that enables clients & servers to communicate. clients handle user interface function & server handle data management function. Used to enhance the user interface of mainframe based applications. In Remote Presentation. Servers to arbitrate between conflicting client requests. the application logic resides on different computer than the one that has the data and the DBMS. Client/Server Architecture requires Processing to be distributed over more than one computing system. Remote Procedure Call (RPC) & Application Development Tools are an important part of client/server systems. the application controls the CPU time and the CPU is released only after the task is completed. Server control over the services that can be requested by the client. Such tools improve productivity and also play a role in making client/server systems more open. . improving response time by allowing the logic to execute simultaneously on several processors. Multitasking can be defines as the capability of an OS to run multiple applications concurrently. Stored Procedures. In Distributed Logic. An API is a set of functions that translates client requests into a format that the server can understand. Tools such as RDBMS. The goal is referred to as single system image.
There are three types of data transmission methods. Referential Integrity i. should support wide variety of development tools & be an industry standard.e. The rules that govern the process of data transmission in a network are collectively referred to as Network Protocol. Disadvantage is programmers must write triggers leading to errors. Common computing tasks are represented consistently across applications. Segmentation.e.e. compiled and optimized. SQL Implementation i. Handle and manage distributed queries and Ensure that transactions are successfully completed on all relevant databases. GUIs : GUI must support mouse events. Network : Network has six basic functions.e. Multithreading i. Declarative RI establishes precise rules for use of columns that are common across tables. each db command is associated with a trigger. III. Naming. Priority & Error Control. protect transactions from . the server locks a record. able to divide database tasks among multiple CPUs. must support standard ANSI SQL since it can communicate with different SQL dialects.e. support automatic escalation. Stored Procedures i.e. Also. Flow Control. Bus. There are three types of transmission media. Compatibility i.e. resizing events. Enterprise-wide Resource Sharing is the common thread that links all of an enterprise's computing resource II. Synchronization. GUI should be portable. Concepts for Client/Server : Introduction : RDBMS's standardize data storage and access and are therefore ideal for implementing client/server systems. Centralized. must be able to use SP as they are analyzed. A page. if several pages are being modified. Consistent User Interfaces require that applications retain the same user interface across heterogeneous computing platforms. support execution of multiple tasks simultaneously. Client/Server Software : Back-end Software : It is made up of Database Servers & Network Operating Systems. activation/deactivation events and initialize/terminate events.Interoperability requires that applications and processing tasks be freely portable across heterogeneous computing resources. if several records are being modified. Coaxial Cable & Optic Fibre. A table. an RDBMS must be able to provide transparent access to data. Twisted Pair. must be able to work on different operating systems. Distributed Database Support i.e. Database server requires some special features. The database server manages data on the system & maintains data integrity. allows the server to synchronize change to columns that are part of multiple tables. Transaction Control i. Graphical User Interfaces improve productivity because they reduce learning time and are easier to use. refers to the way the cabling of a network is physically structured. the trigger sets of a series of commands that make the necessary changes. To provide distributed database support. In Procedural RI. The physical structure of a network is called Network Topology i. There are three types of network topologies. Distributed Database Support : The capability of an RDBMS to manage databases lying at more than one location. menu events. Built into db software and enforced by default. Join tables on different platforms. Distributed & Random. keyboard events. Segmenting. Concurrency Control i. When command is issued. Star & Ring. & manage SQL queries sent to different servers.e. if a single record is being modified. able to join tables located on different servers.
retrieve. To evaluate business priorities to eliminate stagnation & disruption. all workstations are notified of database changes. detailing and execution. Implementing Client/Server : The Systems Integration Life Cycle (SILC) is made up of preparation. developers. Planning must include end-users. and if system fails. all sites rollback. SQL*PLUS : SQL is an English like language consisting of commands to store. prototyping & implementation as activities. To specify system requirements for end-users. Security & Protocol Support. Additional functions are GREATEST & LEAST. BREAK command clarify reports by suppressing repeated values. Character Functions are INITCAP. NVL : Null value function converts a null value to a non-null value for the purpose of evaluating an expression. Managing SILC projects involves planning. developers and system administrators as resources. Group Functions returns results based upon groups of rows rather than one result per row. Workstation Support. Numeric Functions accept numeric I/P & return numeric values. Development Tools are made up of SQL/3GL programming tools & Front-end development tools. TRUNC & POWER. ORACLE I. developers & system administrators. MONTHS_BETWEEN & SYSDATE. NOS controls the transmission of data across the network and manages the sharing of hardware and software resource on the network.system failures. MIN & SUM. SQRT. ROUND. End User Tools are made up of Decision Support Tools and PC-based add-ons. Application requirements. Geographical requirements & Productivity Gains. ensuring serviceability and monitoring performance. They are AVG. System maintenance involves ensures reliability. training & systems maintenance. LOWER. provide help & edit facility & maintain system variables. MAX. COUNT. In two phase commit. They are MOD. SUBSTR & LENGTH. Planning for Migration : Planning is needed to reduce problems with network load. IV. skipping lines & . Four important features are Operating Environment Support. use group functions. Migrating to Client/Server : Evaluating the Client/Server Option : To evaluate the following before deciding on client/server. maintain & regulate access to your database. UPPER. The distances are site or city & both developer & enduser productivity are expected to increase. Migration plan must include analysis. COLUMN command define column headings & format data values. Client/Server is most suitable for applications are decision support or on-line transaction processing (OLTP). selection. The training must cover end-users. SQL*PLUS is an application that recognizes & executes SQL commands & specialized SQL*Plus commands that can customize reports. system managers and the business as a whole. Date Functions are ADD_MONTHS. controlling & completing. LAST_DAY. TTITLE & BTITLE are commands to control report headings & footers. NEXT_DAY.
s is scale -84 to 127. Long is 64K & Number is 38 digits. Synonyms is the alias name for table. Minus is the product of two tables listing only the non-matching rows. Used primarily with Trusted Oracle. size is 2000 & default is 1 byte. Advantages are referencing without specifying the owner and Flexibility to customize a more meaningful naming convention. Create an index if there are frequent retrieval of fewer than 10-15% of the rows in a large table and columns are referenced frequently in the WHERE clause. Cannot Query on a long column. Char size is 255. Oracle automatically update indexes. Raw Stores Binary data (Graphics Image & Digitized Sound). Sequences are used for generating sequence numbers without any overhead of locking. columns in a table is 255. Date Range from Jan 4712 BC to Dec 4712 AD. Number(p. JOIN is the form of SELECT command that combines info from two or more tables. Self Join joins a table to itself as though it were two separate tables. Max. views. is 16 columns. Types of Joins are Simple (Equijoin & Non-Equijoin).Accessible to creator only. Char. Set Operators supported by Oracle are : Union is the product of two or more tables. Private . Outer Join combines two or more tables returning those rows from one table that have no direct match in the other table. Indexes are optional structures associated with tables used to speed query execution and/or guarantee uniqueness. SPOOL command creates a print file of the report. Outer & Self join. Varchar2 Max. Data types : Max. is 255 bytes.allowing for controlled break points. Two levels are Public .s) p is precision range 1 to 38. Multiple columns can be returned from a Nested Subquery. Use CRSQ to answer multipart questions whose answer depends on the value in each row processed by parent statement. Parent statement can be Select. Non-Equijoin returns rows from two or more tables based upon a relationship other than the equality condition in the WHERE clause. Equijoin returns rows from two or more tables joined together based upon a equality condition in the WHERE clause. Drawback is that after generating a sequence number if the transaction is rolled back. COMPUTE command control computations on subsets created by the BREAK command. Update or Delete. sequences & procedures and are created for reasons of Security and Convenience.created by DBA & accessible to all the users. Correlated Subquery is a subquery that is evaluated once for each row processed by the parent statement. Implied tradeoff is query speed vs. Long Character data of variable length upto 2GB. Concatenated index max. then that sequence number is lost. SET command changes the system variables affecting the report environment. Max. update speed. Mslabel Binary format of an OS label. Intersect is the product of two tables listing only the matching rows. .
Level etc. E. Data Locks protects data i. use it in the same sequence and use Commit frequently to release locks. Integrity : Assures database data and structures reflects all changes made to them in the correct sequence. Exclusive Lock allows queries on locked table but no other activity is allowed. Internal Locks & Latches protects the internal database structures. Constraining Table is a table that a triggering statement might need to read either directly for a SQL statement or indirectly for a declarative Referential Integrity constraints. Locks are used to achieve Consistency : Assures users that the data they are changing or viewing is not changed until the are thro' with it. To load data from external files into an Oracle database. Row Exclusive same as Row Share but prohibits locking in shared mode. Table or Row lock. They are automatic. Deadlock is a unique situation in a multi user system that causes two or more users to wait indefinitely for a locked resource. SQL*Loader is a product for moving data in external files into tables in an Oracle database. avoid using exclusive table lock and if using. To avoid dead locks. Commit is an event that attempts to make data in the database identical to the data in the form. It involves writing or posting data to the database and committing data to the database. Update or Delete statement. Commit statement releases all locks. Group By clause. Rownum. First user needs a resource locked by the second user and the second user needs a resource locked by the first user.e. ensures table's structure does not change for the duration of the transaction.e. Set Transaction is to establish properties for the current transaction. Updates & Deletes in the forms to the database but not committing these transactions to the database. Transaction is defined as all changes made to the database between successive commits. Nextval. Pseudo Columns behaves like a column in a table but are not actually stored in the table. Share Update are synonymous with Row Share.g. Rowid. Savepoint is a point within a particular transaction to which you may rollback without rolling back the entire transaction. Validity check are uniqueness. Dictionary Locks protects the structure of database object i. consistency and db restrictions. Posting is an event that writes Inserts. Currval. Locking are mechanisms intended to prevent destructive interaction between users accessing data. Locks ensure data integrity and maximum concurrent access to data. Order By clause & Select. Forms check the validity of the data in fields and records during a commit. two types of input . Share Lock allows concurrent queries but prohibits updates to the locked tables. Types of locks are given below.Order of SQL statement execution : Where clause. Rollback causes work in the current transaction to be undone. Mutating Table is a table that is currently being modified by an Insert. Shared Row Exclusive locks the whole table and allows users to look at rows in the table but prohibit others from locking the table in share or updating them. Having clause. Row Share allows concurrent access to the locked table but prohibits for a exclusive table lock.
UPPER). DELETE & SELECT.. Executable Section which is mandatory. Defined only within the loop & Value can be referenced in an expression.e. Code Numeric FOR Loops repeat a sequence of statements a fixed number of times. Labels can label any statement. Arrays are not allowed & only one identifier per line is allowed. Code GOTO Statements jumps to a different place in the PL/SQL block. Label a block to allow referencing of DECLAREd objects that would otherwise not be visible because of scoping rules..ROUND. Legally use a GOTO a statement that is in the same sequence of statements as the GOTO. Label a block to allow a variable to be referenced that might be hidden by a column name. Invoking the loader sqlload username/password controlfilename <options> PL/SQL : Data types are NUMBER. use labels for blocks and loops. DATE & BOOLEAN. It describes the Names and format of the data files. Most SQL functions are available outside SQL statement except for group functions.. Used as targets for GOTO statements.<integer> LOOP <sequence of statements> END LOOP. Character (LENGTH. Attributes of PL/SQL objects are %TYPE. Declarative Section for variables. but a new value cannot be assigned to the index within the loop. Block consists of three parts.COUNT). The control file describes the data to be loaded. Syntax : GOTO label_name.e.INTO. Syntax : WHILE <condition> LOOP <sequence of statements> END LOOP. PL/SQL Block is a standard PL/SQL code segment. PL/SQL supports only DML i.MONTHS_BETWEEN) & Group (AVG. Exception Handlers which is optional. Code Simple Loops repeats a sequence of statements multiple times. Label a loop to allow an object to be reference that would otherwise not be visible because of scoping rules & Label an EXIT . SQL Functions can be referenced within a SQL statement i. Syntax : FOR <index> IN [[ REVERSE ]] <integer>. Specifications for loading data and the Data to be loaded (optional). This section is optional. In the sequence of statements that encloses the GOTO statement (outer block). constants & exceptions. %ROWTYPE.POWER). <condition> can be any legal PL/SQL condition & statements will be repeated as long as condition evaluates to TRUE.MAX. INSERT.must be provided to SQL*Loader : the data itself and the control file. <index> is implicitly of type number. Syntax : LOOP <Sequence of Statements> END LOOP. CHAR/VARCHAR2. Numeric (SQRT. UPDATE. Code While Loops repeats a sequence of statements until a specific condition is no longer TRUE. DATE (ADD_MONTHS.
Multiple row SELECT statements & Implicit i. OPEN. errors are called exceptions.. Reference the current cursor row with the WHERE CURRENT OF statement.INTO statements. Cursor FOR loops (CFL) are similar to Numeric For Loops(NFL). Fetch data from the cursor and store it in specified variables. Syntax : FOR <record_name> IN <cursor_name> LOOP --statements to be repeated go here END LOOP. Declare the cursor to associate its name with a SELECT statement. FETCH & CLOSE do not apply. NFL specify an integer range. Syntax : CLOSE <cursor_name> Explicit Cursor Attributes are %NOTFOUND. UPDATE. var2. %FOUND... Syntax : DECLARE CURSOR <cursor_name> IS <regular_select_statement>. Cursor has to be explicitly defined when a query returns multiple rows to process beyond the first row returned by the query & to keep track of which row is currently being processed. %ROWCOUNT & %ISOPEN. Syntax : FETCH <cursor_name> INTO <var1. Syntax : WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor_name> Reference Cursors FOR Loops to specify a sequence of statements to be repeated once for each row that is returned by the cursor with the Cursor FOR Loop. an implicit OPEN cursor_name is initiated. Record_name is implicitly declared as record_name cursor_name%ROWTYPE When a CFL is initiated.. DELETE & SELECT. When there are no more rows left to FETCH. When an exception is . an implicit CLOSE cursor_name is executed and the loop is exited.e.as a convenient way to specify exits from outer loops. CFL specify a set of rows from a table using the cursor's name.>. an implicit FETCH is executed into the components of record_name. CFL record takes on vales of each row. INSERT. Two types are Explicit i.e. Open the cursor to process the SELECT statement and store the returned rows in the cursor. Exception Handlers : In PL/SQL. NFL index takes on each value in the range. Close the cursor to free up resources. Syntax : OPEN <cursor_name>. Declare cursors to use parameters Syntax : DECLARE CURSOR <cursor_name> [[(param_name param_type)]] IS <regular select statement>. The cursor must be declared with a FOR UPDATE OF clause. Cursors must be closed before they can be reopened. Implicit cursor is called the SQL cursor-it stores info concerning the processing of the last SQL statement not associated with an explicit cursor. For each row that satisfies the query associated with the cursor. Cursors are associated with every SQL DML statement processed by PL/SQL. All cursor attributes apply.
SQLCODE & SQLERRM provides info on the exception currently being handled & especially useful in the OTHERS handler. SQLCODE returns the ORACLE error number of the exception. View Size specifies the size of the view that appears on the screen i. arithmetic. Only one handler per block may be active at a time & If an exception is raised in a handler. name an ORACLE error so that a handler can be provided specifically for that error. or 1 if it was a userdefined exception. Syntax : PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT (<user_defined_exception_name>. Eg.invalid_cursor.e. processing of the block terminates. Two types are Predefined Internal Exceptions which corresponds to approximately 20 common ORACLE errors & Raised automatically by PL/SQL in response to an ORACLE error. SQL*FORMS : Form is a tool for developing and executing forms based interactive applications that can access info from ORACLE database. successful completion'.no_data_found. SQLERRM returns the ORACLE error message associated with the current value of SQLCODE & can also use any ORACLE error number as an argument.cursor_already_open etc. the search for a handler for the new exception begins in the enclosing block of the current block. zero_divide.raised.conversion or constraint error occurred. Pages is a collection of display info such as constant texts and graphics. An exception handler is a sequence of statements to be processed when a certain exception occurs. When an exception handler is complete. dup_val_on_index. All fields have to be displayed on some page. how much of the . processing jumps to the exception handlers. SQLCODE & SQLERRM cannot be used within a SQL statement. <ORACLE_error_number>).too_many_rows. Blocks describes each section or subsection of the form and serves as the basis of default database interaction. Fields represents columns or data entry areas and describes how data should be displayed and validated and how an operator should interact with the data while it is entered.numeric. So.e.string. Pop-Up Pages Non-Pop-Up Pages Appear in windows Overlay the entire screen Created by selecting pop-up page attribute Default type of page Can be larger or smaller than the screen Can only be the size of the screen Can appear anywhere on the screen Must be positioned at the upper left hand corner of the screen Can be a section (view) of a page Must fill the entire text region Many pages can appear on the screen at one time Only one non-pop-up page can appear on the screen Page Size specifies the size of the pop-up page. User-Defined Exceptions must be declared & must be RAISEd explicitly.value_errori. If no exception is active SQLCODE = 0 & SQLERRM = 'normal. Exception-Init : Exceptions may only be handled by name not ORACLE error number.
performs calculations. It helps forms to manage transactions and is used to update a table that is not associated with a block in the form. Zoom In : Displays the form or spread table for the objects that are owned by the current object. the X & Y coordinates of the page define the upper left corner of the view. Set up form default. Restrict access to a form. Navigational Triggers : Fires when entering or leaving a form. i. Forms uses row id to determine what rows to fetch from db or reserve in db and what rows to update or delete during posting. Key Fn : Attach key-Fn triggers to any one of ten key sequences that normally do not perform any SQL*Form operations. Navigation is performed to move the cursor from one location to another. When a block is created. forms add a nondisplayable. Row Id is a column created by ORACLE when a table is created. Keep a running total & Perform calculations. record. block or form. It contains a value for each row which uniquely identifies that row. Zoom Out : Displays the form or spread table for the object that owns the current object. non-up dateable field named row id. Types of Triggers : Most key triggers are function key triggers. Key Startup : Fires at the end of the entering the form event. amount to data to be entered before form initiates validation. block. Derive a complex default value. Send a message to the operator as soon as the form comes up on the screen & Perform an automatic query upon entering the form.pop-up is shown. record or field. the part of the pop-up page that is shown. Print messages. Validation Unit is a characteristic which determines the max. Considered as key trigger because its action is similar to an operator pressing a startup function key. the X and Y coordinates of the screen define the upper left corner of the view. they have a one-to-one relationship with specific keys. outside the form or undefined. Validation occurs when the operator has entered or changed data in an object .e. Screen Painter is used to edit screen images. run Oracle*Terminal to map the keys to the appropriate functions. Perform multiple or complex functions & Disable function keys. Before attaching key triggers to these keys. It validates data entry. control the flow of application & replace or enhance default processing. It corresponds to a unit of data which can be field. Validation triggers fire when validation is performed. Replace or supplement default function key functionality. Key Others : Associate a key-others trigger with all keys that can have key triggers associated with them but are not currently defined by a function key triggers. add constant text and graphic elements. Trigger is a piece of PL/SQL code that is executed or triggered by an event while the form is running. Validation Triggers : Validation is an internal process by which Forms determines whether the data in an object is correct. View Page specifies the initial location of the view on the page. View Location specifies where on the screen the view of the pop-up page appears. Trigger Point is a temporal space in an event with which a specific trigger type is associated. Function Key Triggers : Fires when a particular Forms function key is pressed. Cursor is an instance of field.
an error occurs and calls the Duplicate_Record packaged procedure. The current record must not correspond already to a row in the database. New_Form exits the current form and enters the indicated form. Prevent Insert/Update/Delete actions & Modify Insert/Update/Delete actions. Also use Name_In to return number and dates as character strings and then convert those strings to the appropriate data types. When called form is exited thro' the EXIT function or as a result of navigational failure. Key-Duprec trigger copies the values of each field in the record with the next lower sequence number to the corresponding fields in the current record. Pre-Query fires once before block is queried. Call_Form runs an indicated form while keeping the parent form active. Returned value is in the form of character string. Anonymous Block is a PL/SQL block without a name and this block can be executed . and when counting query hits. Query Triggers : Fires when entering & executing a query. Defined only at the block or form level. processing resumes in parent form at the point where the call occurred. Error & Message Handling Triggers : Write these triggers to replace the default SQL*Forms error or informative messages. then the specified packaged procedure executes. Calculates & Validates a field value. If no such trigger executes. user named triggers that are invoked by key triggers & On-New-Field-Instance trigger. Validation does not occur when the operator is in Enter Query mode. Call packaged procedure runs an indicated form while keeping the parent form active. To ensure that an inserted record or updated record does not duplicate an existing record. If it does. SQL form runs the called form with the same options as the parent form. Do_Key packaged procedure executes the key trigger that corresponds to the specified packaged procedure.an event that makes the data in the database identical to the data in the form. Post-Query fires once for every record fetched by the query. Replace a standard message with a custom message. Trap & recover from an error. It is used only in Key triggers. Changes. give the critical field the primary key characteristics and give the block the primary key characteristics. Fires as last part of field validation. Sets up special locking requirements.and then tries to leave the object. Name_In packaged function returns the contents of the variable to which you apply it. Transactional Triggers : Fires during commit processing . This behavior is analogous to the user pressing the corresponding function key. Open_Form opens an indicated form to create multiple form application called form is modal. Validation or Navigation triggers cannot contain Restricted Packaged Procedures. Primary Key Field Attributes indicates that the field is a unique characteristics for a record or part of unique key. On-Error & On-Message trigger fires when Forms displays an error or an informative message respectively. Restricted Packaged Procedure is any packaged procedure that affects the basic functions of SQL forms. Packaged Procedure is a predefined piece of PL/SQL procedure that executes a SQL*Forms function. Syntax : DO-KEY (package procedure name) Packaged Function is a predefined piece of PL/SQL function that evaluates some aspect of the current SQL*Forms session and returns a value. Update an audit trial.
System Variable is a SQL*Forms variable to keep track of some internal SQL*Forms state. Cannot access Oracle database & SQL*Forms variable & fields.Record_Status. support PL/SQL blocks and control real time devices such as printer or robot. User Exits is a subroutine which is written and linked into SQL forms executable files.Trigger_Field & Trigger_Record. Features of Oracle 7 : . NonOracle user exit might be entirely written using C. Stores a character string of upto 255 characters long.from the trigger in which it is defined. They can also take arguments and return values. Current_Block. Host language are ADA. PL/SQL Variable is a local variable that is active only within the anonymous block or form level procedure in which it has been declared.Cursor_Block. Leads to more efficient & consistent applications. Can be called by another procedure or trigger & Can pass parameters. just as subroutines do in 3GL. They cannot contain anonymous block. FORTRAN. It returns a integer value which indicates Success. The full PL/SQL syntax. Allow to write a subroutine using one of the following host language & embedded SQL commands. Also access SQL*Forms variables & fields.Last_Query. These procedures can use any command that a trigger can use.Cursor_Field.Current_Value. manipulate long raw data. Global Variable is a forms variable that is active in any trigger within a form and is active through out the session. Non-Oracle User Exits : Does not incorporate either precompiler interface or OCI. Before a variable is active. Cursor_Record. an Oracle Precompiler user exit can access oracle databases. Syntax : GLOBAL.Cursor_Value. It does not require BEGIN & END keywords. PASCAL & PL/1.Current_Field. Allows to write a subroutine that contains call to Oracle database but cannot access SQL*Forms variable & fields. most of user exits is Oracle Precompiler user exits. It performs complex data manipulation.Current_Form.T rigger_Block. COBOL. Types : Oracle PreCompiler User Exits : Incorporates Oracle Precompiler interface. Oracle Call Interface User Exits : Incorporates Oracle Call Interface. C. Failure or Fatal Error. Because of this feature. Form Level Procedure are callable PL/SQL blocks. Global variable declared in one form can be used in called form. Used to store data values that should not be stored inside a block or you want to share between forms during form session.Record_Status. Advantages are Reduce the amount of logic the designer needs to write for any task. They are Block_Status. pass data to forms from OS files.variable_name Oracle Naming Conventions. Able to reference the value of system variable in order to control the way an application behaves. It can be called from other procedures & triggers. It has to be included if it has Declaration section.Form_Status. Delete any variable with ERASE package procedure. it should be initialized thro' a trigger or it will be initialized first time you assign a value to it.Last_Record. including declarations and keywords BEGIN & END are required. Value of system variable corresponds to the current form. It is a link to pass data from forms to host language programs and receives the result. With embedded SQL commands.Message_Level.
by means of form-level security and the Copy/Reference facility. by means of db security. May reference db stored procedures only. Ensure that related actions are performed together. Avoid PL/SQL parsing at runtime by parsing at compile time. Stored Package provides the db administrator or appln. Executed from any db tool or appln. Stored Package is a group of related Stored Procedures. Modify one routine to eliminate duplicate testing. Executed from an Oracle Forms appln. Improve Maintenance : Modify routines online without interfering with other users. stored procedures. developer organizational benefits. Benefit from Stored Procedures & Functions : In addition to modularizing appln. This ensures consistent behavior among applications and reduce development & testing time. only. other benefits are Improve Data Security and Integrity : Control indirect access to db objects from non-privileged users with security privileges. Complex business rules that cannot be enforced using declarative integrity constraints can be enforced using triggers. Documented within the data dictionary. or not at all. Invoked independently of. by funneling activity for related tables thro?? a single path. development. Invoked independently of.Stored Procedures is commonly used procedures can be written once in PL/SQL and stored in the database for repeated use by applications. Stored within the Oracle Forms Appln. applns. Difference between Stored Procedure and Oracle Forms Procedure : Stored Procedure Oracle Forms Procedure Stored within the database. Guidelines : Use triggers to guarantee that when a specific operation is performed. Modify one routine to affect multiple applications. QEP for Stored Procedures is generated at compile time. Conserve Memory : Store a single copy of code in the db to avoid multiple copies of the same code for diff. and in addition to. Reduce the number of calls to the database and decrease network traffic by bundling commands. Functions & other package constructs stored together as a unit in the db. May reference Oracle Forms procedures in addition to db stored procedures. It is similar to procedures that are stored in the databases and implicitly fired when a table is modified. Share sql to avoid multiple cursors for different applns. and in addition to. they also offer increased functionality and db perfomance. Centralizing the application logic and can be accessed from any Oracle tools. Oracle Forms procedures. Made available to applns. Documented from the Oracle Forms Appln. Database Triggers is a stored procedure that is implicitly fired when an Insert. Update or Delete statement is issued against the associated table. Improve Performance : Avoid reparsing for multiple users by exploiting shared SQL. Made available to Oracle forms appln. related actions are .
Dynamic privilege management.performed. Database Triggers. along with info about the available indexes to select an execution plan for SQL statements. Cost Based Optimizer is available. Foreign. Declarative Referential Integrity establishes precise rules for use of columns that are common across tables. The properties are Reduced granting of privileges. the amount of l ogical I/O. Parameters provide runtime flexibility. Default values for report format.e.0 : Only not null was implemented in 6 where as in 7 all the integrity constraints are implemented i. Triggers will be compiled when it is fired. Primary. Roles : ORACLE provides for easy & controlled privilege management thro?? the use of Roles. Text processing and highlighting features.e. Default & Unique constraints. Report management facility for easy report maintenance & Integration . Reports can be viewed immediately on-line for corrections.0 & 7. Compilation of triggers smaller in size will have insignificant effect on system performance. Stored Procedures. Built into db software and enforced by default. Schemas is a collection of objects i. Functions & Packages are available in 7. simple spreadsheet-style screens. Multi threaded architecture several user process for a single server process and the user process can be configured. If we know the better execution path. Check. views etc. provide hints to it to allow it to select the proper execution path. include the code in the Stored Procedure. date & number formats. Differences between Oracle 6. Profiles is assigned to each user that specifies limitations on several system resources available to the user i. It can be solved by placing the select statement in a stored procedure and calling the stored procedure from the scope of the trigger. Selective availability of privileges & Application awareness. Not Null. SQL*REPORTWriter : Features : Application development tool for designing & executing reports. Roles are named groups of related privileges that are granted to users or other roles. the allowed amount of idle time for the user??s session & the allowed amount of connect time for the user??s session. tables. Menu-driven. This allows even inexperienced users to submit complex queries without having to worry about the performance. Complex data relationships.e. Mutating Error in DB triggers is when a select statement within the scope of the trigger selects rows corresponding to the trigger table itself. the CPU processing time. So. ANSI standard SQL used to retrieve records in the report. and schema exists for each oracle user. It uses statistics about tables. Use DB triggers for centralized global operations that should be fired for triggering statement regardless of which user or database application issued the statement. Ability to customize report format. Do not define triggers to duplicate the functionality & do not create Recursive triggers. limit the size of triggers. Table Replication is a snapshot of a table. If the trigger has to be execute many lines of code. the number of concurrent sessions the user can establish. Generate reports interactively or in a production environment. Calculations & summaries.
Components : Query . DESFORMAT-Printer format (used when sending the report to a file. File name. Customize text. COPIES-Number of copies to print (used when sending the report to the printer). Summary .calculated summary function on a field. stream. Summaries : Summaries calculate subtotals. Queries : Every report must contain atleast one query. group & summary settings.e. in which child query is executed once for each record returned by the parent. System variables (page number. i.retrieves data from the database. Sysout & Mail. User exits & DML statements. or Oracle*Mail). width & data type applying to a report may be changed on the parameter screen. Matrix queries i. Break Groups : A break is a set of groups generated from one query. Multiple summaries may be computed on any field.containers for data values. Text . DESNAME-Destination of report i. printer.e. Printer. running totals & other standard functions on field values. Master/Detail (parent/child) queries. security and history of the report. scrolls horizontally and vertically through a page. date etc. No limit to the number of queries in a report. Printer name & Oracle*Mail user id or user list. Query retrieves data for the report from database tables or views. File. grand totals.entered at run-time to control production. Parameters may be entered from the command line with the sqlrep or runrep command. Can create relationships between queries. They are DESTYPE-Device type i. The default parameter value. Fields . Parameters : Parameters contain default values that can be modified for each report or with each interactive run. System Parameters provide production control. data values. Query Parameters can be created to specify data for the report at run-time. Parameters . Each query automatically generates one group consisting of all columns in the query. Report . On-line report can be viewed either in Browse i. Field : A field is a container for values derived from columns or calculated column values in the SELECT statement.physical areas of report. Queries can be unrelated i.e Master/Master report. group & summary setting screens are reflected on all associated text objects that have not been edited. DECIMAL-Symbol to use for the period.e. .e. Two parents/One child queries. including fields derived from user exits & system variables. Page by page or Window i. Parameters may be placed in queries. Every report must contain at least one group. Computed fields created by user. CURRENCY-Symbols to use for the dollar sign. number of pages. Summaries may be referenced in queries. Text object changes are not dynamically reflected in field.used to cluster columns returned from the query.with Oracle application tools. Screen. Changes made on field.). THOUSANDS-Symbol to use for the comma. Text Objects : Text objects represent the physical layout of the report. Group . No limit to the level of relationships (nesting) in queries. Text objects are used to manipulate positions of fields & summaries.dimensions. Parameters may be selected for appearance or may be changed at runtime on the run-time parameter form. Related queries form a hierarchy.e. Summary settings provide format control. Add page numbering. Groups : A group is a set of one or more columns. Group settings provide format control.e. Can create new groups (break groups) that group records by the distinct values of a column or set of columns. user exits & text. All summaries are manually created.
translates the embedded SQL statements into standard Oracle runtime library calls & generates a modified source program that can be compiled. Why use Precompiler : It allows to pack the power & flexibility of SQL into application programs.Loads report definitions into an ORACLE database. Print direction is Down for one group. linked & executed in the normal way. Program . SQL*ReportWriter Utilities : SQLREP . RUNREP . To create a lexical parameter Create a new record on the parameter screen. communication areas & SQL variables. To create a bind parameter Include the parameter in the SELECT statement. ORDER BY.1 conversion program. Across for one group. Summaries are placed by default in the group subfoots of the print group. PRINTDEF . Host variable is a scalar or array variable declared in the host language & shared with Oracle.Runs the reports (stored as runfiles) & creates final output. Specify a default value on the parameter screen. easy to use interface lets your application access Oracle directly.Creates printer definitions. For SQL statements. LOADREP .Program used to design reports. Host Variables are key to communication between Oracle and the program. TERMDEF . Oracle Precompilers are full featured tools that support professional approach to embedded SQL programming. For PL/SQL block. Placed wherever host language declarations can be placed. precede the name with a colon. data type & width. begin with keywords EXEC SQL & end with SQL statement terminator. Enter the parameter name. May be used to replace WHERE. GROUP BY. or specify the value at run-time.Bind Parameter binds in a specific value when the query is run. and Cross tab for the third (the group of the child query). Include the parameter in the SELECT statement. to control access to data & to process transactions. Each query has only one group. HAVING. PRO*C : Oracle Precompiler is a programming tool that allows to embed SQL statements in a high level source program. Matrix Reports : A matrix report has the following characteristics : Matrix report is a grid containing three sets of data. begin with EXEC SQL EXECUTE & END EXEC.0 to V1. Placed wherever host language host language executable statements can be placed. precede the parameter name with &. DUMPREP .SQL*ReportWriter V1. Precompiler accepts the source program as input. May be loaded on systems without SQLREP to produce reports. Lexical Parameter : Insert a SQL clause when the query is run. Help to fine tune the application & saves time because the precompiler & not the user translates each embedded SQL statement into several native language Oracle calls. A convenient. Enter the default value (SQL clause) on the Parameter screen. Connect to Oracle. to define query & manipulate data. GENREP Generates a runfile for a report that has not been executed via the Action menu. MOVEREP . Use the default value.Created terminal definitions. START WITH clauses. Each group must be identified as a matrix group. Embedded SQL Statements are divided into Executable Declarative Call to runtime library SQLLIB To declare Oracle objects. Matrix Report require exactly three queries: two parents & one child. or enter the value at run-time. FIPS flagger helps to develop portable applications & to identify nonconforming SQL elements. CONNECT WITH.Creates an ASCII file containing report definitions.
Physical DB Structure : ORACLE db consists of atleast one or more data files. Check to see if a Delete was successful & how many rows were deleted. Oracle Precompiler offers two error handling mechanisms : SQLCA is a data structure copied into your host program. we use ORACA. Oracle uses o/p host variable to pass data & status info to the program. ORACA is a data structure copied into your host program to handle ORACLE specific communications. E. branching to a labeled statement. Statement Auditing is the auditing of specific SQL statements.g. Tablespaces. Combined size of the data file is the total storage capacity of . Extents dictate how physical space of a db is used. SQLCA is used to provide diagnostic checking & event handling. indexes. The files of a db provide the actual physical storage for db info. It defines program variables used by Oracle to pass run time status info to the program. views. Actions include continuing with the next statement. In SQL statements. Stored Procedures can be called from PRO*C. SQLDA is a structure copied into your host program to process dynamic SQL statements that contains unknown number of select-list items or place holders for bind variables.e. we can specify actions to be taken automatically when oracle detects an error or warning condition. After precompilation. Privilege Auditing is the auditing of the use of powerful system privileges. Object Auditing is the auditing of access to specific schema objects. PL/SQL blocks can be embedded in PRO*C. tables. the variable are prefixed with a colon. Each db is logically divided into one or more TS. expands the Varchar declaration into a structure with array & length number.uses i/p host variable to pass data to Oracle. When we need more run time info than SQLCA provides. use C pseudo type VARCHAR instead of standard C character arrays because Oracle does not null terminate strings. clusters. Use indicator variable to assign nulls to i/p host variable & to detect nulls or truncated values in o/p host variables. two or more redo log files & one or more control files. SQL*DBA : Auditing : To aid in the investigation of suspicious db use. sp). TS is used to group related logical structures together. but it lets to write very flexible applications. calling a subroutine. Segments. Indicator Variables is an integer variable that indicates the value or condition of its host variable. the db schema??s objects (i. sequences. Precompiling adds a step to the traditional development process. Whenever. Audit Trial : Results of audited operations are stored in a table in data dictionary. Tablespaces : A db is divided into logical storage units called TS. an area of memory reserved for memory management. Data Type Equivalencing is conversion from Oracle to C data type. VARCHAR implementation in C after Precompilation : For most applications. ORACA helps to monitor PRO*C programs use of ORACLE resources such as SQL statement executor & the cursor cache. Pointers can be used in PRO*C but it can't be used in SQL statements. One or more data files are explicitly created for each TS to physically store the data of all logical structures in a TS. Logical DB Structure : ORACLE db consists of one or more tablespaces.
ORACLE allocates another extent for that segment as needed. ts & vice versa. Extents is the next level of logical db space. The related columns of the tables in a cluster is called cluster key. Objects in same schema can be in diff. synonyms. One data block corresponds to a specific number of bytes of physical db space on a disk. The resulting hash key value points directly to the area on disk that stores the specified rows. the extents of a segment may or may not be contiguous on disk. Temporary Segments are created by ORACLE when a SQL statement needs a temporary work area to complete execution. Hash clusters are better than using indexed table or indexed clusters when a table is queried with equality queries. When the statement finishes execution. an ORACLE db??s data is stored in data blocks. Schema objects includes tables. used to store a specific type of info. when the existing extents of a segment are full. Index Segment : Each index has a index segment that stores all of its data. Data Files : ORACLE db should have atleast one or more physical data files. Because extents are allocated as needed. The set of redo log files for a db is collectively known as the db??s redo log. a data file cannot change in size. It contains all db data. segments extents are returned to the system for future use. Data Blocks : At the finest level of granularity. Schema Objects are the logical structures that directly refer to the db??s data.TS. sequences. All rows with the same hash key value are stored together on disk. Therefore. so disk access time improves. Combined storage capacity of the TS??s is the total storage capacity of the db. The primary function is to record all changes made to data. A db uses & allocates free db space in ORACLE data blocks. indexes. clusters & db links. Once created. Hash Clusters : Also cluster table data in a manner similar to normal cluster. No relation between ts & schema. A segment is a set of extents allocated for a certain logical structure. The data in a cluster key of an index cluster is store only once for multiple tables. One or more data files form a logical unit of db storage called a tablespace. Rollback Segment : One or more rollback segments are created by the db administrator for a db to temporarily store undo info. An extent is a specific number of contiguous data blocks. A row is stored in a hash cluster based on the result of applying a hash function to the row??s cluster key value. Database Links is a name object that describes a path from one db to another. A data block size is specified when the db is created. obtained in a single allocation. All the table??s data is stored in the extents of its data segment. Segments is the next level of logical db storage above extent. Online & Offline TS : A TS can be online (accessible) or offline (not accessible). A TS can be offline to make portion of the db unavailable while allowing normal access for the remainder of the db to make administrative tasks easier. A data file can be associated with only one db. Schema is a collection of objects. stored procedures. Different types are Data Segment : Each non clustered table has a data segment. Redo Log Files : ORACLE db should have atleast two or more redo log files. Each cluster has a data segment. the temp. views. Index Clusters are group of one or more tables physically stored together because they share common columns & are often used together. the specified cluster key is hashed. ORACLE allocates space for all types of segments in extents. Should a failure prevent modified data from being . For such queries. DB links are implicitly used when a reference is made to a global object name in a distributed db.
DB Buffers Cache of the SGA store the most recently used blocks of db data. (b) Info that can be used to undo the transaction is stored in a Rollback block in the db buffer pool. info in the redo log buffer is written to Redo Log File which are used in Recovery operations. info about integrity constraints defined for tables in the db & how much space is allocated for a schema object and how much of it is being used. names & locations of db??s data & redo log files & time stamp of db creation. changes to data are not written to the database file but these steps take place (a) Each statement executed in the transaction modifies the appropriate data segment block in the DB pool buffer. The . Because the most recently used is kept in memory. which relies on the dd to record. DD is created when a db is created. Rolling Forward is the process of applying the redo log during a recovery operation. the set of db buffers in an instance is the db buffer cache. the changes can be obtained from redo log & work is never lost. Program or Process Global Area (PGA) & Context Areas. (c) A record of each change made to Data & Rollback block is entered in a Redo Log Buffer. These areas have fixed sizes are created at the instance startup. Redo Log Buffer of the SGA stores redo entries . To protect against a failure involving the redo log itself. ORACLE allows a mirrored redo log so that two or more copies of the redo log can be maintained in diff. Data in SGA is shared among all users currently connected to the database. ORACLE has three basic memory structures to function . disks. its control file is used to identify the db & the redo log files that must be opened for db operation to proceed. Redo Log files are critical in protecting a db against failures. less disk I/O is necessary and performance is increased. When transaction is committed.System Global Area (SGA). It consists of two blocks Data Segment Block & Rollback Segment Block. the entire SGA should be as large as possible.a lot of changes made to the db.permanently written to the data files. SGA is a shared memory region allocated by ORACLE that contain data & control info for one Oracle db instance. Control Files : ORACLE db should have atleast one control file. Data Dictionary : ORACLE db should have a data dictionary. to store as much data in memory as possible & minimize disk I/O. It is written to only by RDBMS processes. It also stored the info about valid users of an ORACLE db. These buffers can contain modified data that has not been permanently written to the disk. SGA & Oracle Background processes make up an Instance. A control file records the physical structure of the db. SGA is allocated when an instance starts and deallocated when the instance is shut down. Control files can be mirrored for protection of control files. DB??s control file is also used if db recovery is necessary. During the course of transaction. Most Oracle servers support only one Instance per Server. The dd is critical to the operation of the db. verify and conduct ongoing work. It contains db name. The use of Control Files : Every time an instance of an ORACLE db is started. It stores info about physical & logical structure of db. The data dictionary of a ORACLE DB is a set of tables & views that are used as a read only reference about the db. The use of Redo Log Files : The info in redo log file is used only to recovered the db from a system or media failure that prevents db data from being written to a db??s data files. For optimal performance. SGA contains Database Buffers. Redo Log Buffers & Shared Pool.
Background Process : ORACLE creates a set of background processes for each instance. It contains info about connection & maintains info so that user can communicate with oracle. allows many user process to share a small number of server processes. leaving more shared memory for other uses. BG processes are given below.redo entries stored in the redo log buffers are written to an online redo log file. types of Oracle processes are Server Processes : ORACLE creates server processes to handle requests from connected user processes. Virtual Memory is an OS feature that offers more apparent memory than is provided by real memory. PGA includes Context Areas. DBWR is optimized to minimize disk writes. program (Pro*C) or an ORACLE tool (SQL*DBA). It size is static. . Shared Pool is a portion of the SGA that contains shared memory constructs such as Shared SQL areas. A server process is in charge of communicating with the user process and interacting with ORACLE to carry out requests of the associated user process. The least recently used data is written to the data files first. A process normally has its own memory area in which it runs. It contains info such as the parse tree and execution plan for the corresponding statement. PGA is a memory buffer that contains data & control info for a single client process. They asynchronously perform I/O & monitor other ORACLE processes to provide increased parallelism for better performance & reliability. A single shared SQL areas is used by multiple applns. PGA is a writeable. DBWR writes only when more data needs to be read into the SGA and too few db buffers free. Redo Log data is generated in the redo log buffer of the SGA. that issue the same statement. Diff. Some OS uses the terms job or tasks. Context Areas is a memory buffer of the Server that contains the current status of one SQL statement. Blocks are written in proper order to maintain database integrity. It is exclusive to the user processes & is read & written only by Oracle processes acting on behalf of the user. They consolidate functions that would otherwise handled by multiple ORACLE programs running for each user process. Can be configured to vary the number of user processes per server process In a dedicated server config. It also manages the communication with the server process thro?? program interface. Processes is a mechanism in an OS that can execute a series of steps. Database Writer (DBWR) processes writes modified blocks from the database buffer cache to the database files. Simulates memory by swapping RAM & Secondary storage. A shared SQL area is required to process every unique SQL statement submitted to a db. ORACLE Processes are called by other processes to perform functions on behalf of the invoking process. which is used if db recovery is necessary. a server process handles requests for a single user process. It has two general type of processes User (Client) Processes is created and maintained to execute the software code of an appln. non-shared memory area. PGA is allocated on the server for each client that connects to the server. Log Writer (LGWR) processes writes redo log entries to disk when transaction is committed & the log buffer fills. minimizing the number of server processes and maximizing the utilization of available system resources & the user and server processes should be separate. A multi threaded config.
loosely coupled processors allow multiple computers to share access of data. LGWR assumes the responsibilities of CKPT. Recoverer (RECO) : The recoverer is used to resolve distributed transactions that are pending due to a network or system failure in a distributed db. System Monitor (SMON) performs instance recover at instance startup. Oracle Instance : Every time a database is started on a server. SMON of one instance can also perform instance recovery for other instances that have failed. Each dispatcher process is responsible for routing requests from connected user processes to available shared server processes and returning the responses back to the appropriate user processes.e. the local RECO attempts to connect to remote dbs and automatically complete the commit or rollback of the local portion of any pending distributed transactions. Dispatcher (Dnnn) : Dispactchers are optional background processes. These transactions are eventually recovered by SMON when the tb or file is brought back online. The combination of these processes & memory buffers is an Instance. Example of how ORACLE works : The following illustrates an configuration where the user and the associated server process are on separate machines. SMON also cleans up temporary segments that are no longer in use & recovers dead transactions skipped during crash & instance recovery because of file read or offline errors. At timed intervals. . this event is called a checkpoint.Checkpoint (CKPT) : At specific times. Archive (ARCH) processes copies on-line redo log files to on-line archival storage when they are full. In appropriate applications. it starts a Shadow process that performs all further server communication with a client. SQL*Net is ORACLE??s interface to standard communications protocols that allows for the proper transmission of data between computers. ARCH is active only when a db??s redo log is used in ARCHIVELOG mode. PMON is responsible for cleaning up the cache and freeing resources that the process was using. ORACLE with the Parallel Server option can take advantage of such architecture by running multiple instances that share a single physical db.e. software or peripheral devices. At least one dispatcher process is created for every communication protocol in use. PMON also checks on dispatcher and server processes and restarts them if they have failed. When it detects. Process Monitor (PMON) processes perform recovery when a user process fails. all modified db buffers in the SGA are written to the data files by DBWR. Parallel Server. present only when a multi-threaded server configuration is used. ORACLE Parallel Server : Multiple Instance Systems : Some hardware architectures i. The checkpoint process is responsible for signaling DBWR at checkpoints and updating all data & control files of the db to indicate the most recent checkpoint. CKPT is optional. if CKPT is not present. SMON also coalesces free extents within the db. ORACLE Parallel Server allows access to a single db by the users on multiple machines with increased performance. In a multiple instance system i. to make free space contiguous and easier to allocate. Lock (LCKn) : Up to ten lock processes are used for inter-instance locking when the ORACLE parallel server is used. Network Listener (NLSN) process listens to network for connection requests made to server by client applications. an SGA is allocated & five background processes are started.
changes a name in a row of a table. The server is running proper SQL*Net driver & the server detects the connection request from the appln. 7. the other background processes run. E. It is designed to provide high level of secure data management capabilities required by organizations processing sensitive or classified info. Site Autonomy i. in a user process. Any additional db??s accessed are called remote db. the LGWR process immediately records the transaction in the online redo log file.e. if not. Distributed Data Manipulation : To query a table named emp in the remote db SALES select * from emp@sales. It enforces Mandatory Access Control (MAC) which is mean of restricting access to info based on labels. the server process send a message across the network to the appln. the server process checks the user??s access privileges to the requested data and the previously existing shared SQL is used to process the statement. The data of all db??s in the distributed db can be simultaneously accessed and modified. driver. A computer used to run an appln.e. and creates a (dedicated) server process on behalf of the user process. multilevel secure DBMS product. as though each db was a non-networked db.g. If the transaction is successful. thus improving the performance. 2. DB Server. 3. an appropriate error message is transmitted. 6. watching for conditions that require intervention.1. The DBWR process writes modified blocks permanently to disk when doing so is efficient. Trusted ORACLE : is ORACLE corp. the db server manages other users transactions and prevents contention between transaction that request the same data. each db participating in a distributed db is administered separately & independently from the other db??s. An ORACLE db system can easily take advantage of the distributed processing by using its client server architecture. i. The server process retrieves any necessary data values from the actual data file or those stored in SGA. 8. If it is not successful. The db to which a user is directly connected is known as local db. 4. Throughout this entire procedure. a new shared SQL area is allocated for the statement so that it can be parsed and processed. 5. In addition. Distributed Databases is a network of db??s managed by multiple db servers that appears to a user as a single logical db. If a shared SQL area is found. it must also provide the ability to hide the location of the data (Location Transparency) & hide the complexity of accessing it across the nw. An instance is currently running on a computer that is executing ORACLE i. The user creates a SQL statement and commits the transaction. Distributed db allows increased access to a large amount of data across a nw. Reduces the processing load on a single processor by allowing different processors to concentrate on a subset of related tasks. client ws runs the appln.e. The server process modifies data in the SGA. The server process receives the statement and checks the shared pool for any shared SQL area that contains an identical SQL statement. 9. Distributed Processing uses more than one processor to divide the processing for a set of related jobs. Because the transaction committed. The client attempts to establish a connection to the server using the proper SQL*Net. . Benefit is data of physically separate db??s can be logically combined & potentially made accessible to all users on a nw.
The cost is an estimated value proportional to the expected elapsed time needed to execute the statement using the execution plan. clusters and indexes in the data dictionary. ORACLE may have to physically retrieves rows of data from the db or prepares them in some way for the user issuing the statement. db does not need to send info across a nw repeatedly. and memory are required to execute a SQL statement using a particular . The optimizer compares the cost of the execution plans and chooses one with the smaller cost.Two Phase Commit mechanism guarantees that all db servers participating in a distributed transaction either all commit or all roll back the statements in the transaction. If there is more than one way to execute an SQL statement. Table Replication : Distributed db systems often locally replicate remote tables that are frequently queried by local users.. Snapshots are read-only copies of a master table located on a remote node. This command causes the optimizer to choose the execution plan and then inserts data describing the plan into a db table. Can be queried but not updated. Execution Plan : To execute a DML statement. Statistics used for the Cost based approach : This approach uses statistics to estimate the cost of each execution plan. the distd. By having read-only copies of heavily accessed data on several nodes. even if there is a failure). Rule based approach : The optimizer chooses an execution plan based on the access paths available and the ranks of these access paths in table. CPU time and memory required to execute the statement using the plan. the coordinator asks all nodes to commit the transaction. Goal of the Cost based Approach is the best throughput or minimal elapsed time necessary to process all rows accessed by the statement. Consists of two phases Prepare Phase : The global coordinator (initiating node) asks participants to prepare (to promise to commit or rollback the transaction. Operation of lower rank executes faster than those associated with constructs with higher rank. the optimizer estimates how much I/O. the coordinator asks all nodes to roll back the transaction. if all participants cannot prepare. CPU time. Execution plans with greater costs take more time to execute than those with smaller costs. Using these statistics. columns and indexes. Explain Plan : Examine the execution plan chosen by the optimizer for a SQL statement by using this command. These statistics are generated using the ANALYZE command. this approach uses the operation with the lower rank. The optimizer calculates the cost based on the estimated computer resources including but not limited to I/O. ORACLE provides automatic method for table replication & update called Snapshots. Cost based approach : The optimizer generates a set of potential execution plan for the statement based on its available access paths and hints. Optimization is to choose the most efficient way to execute a SQL statement. The optimizer estimates the cost of each execution plan based on data distribution and storage characteristics statistics for the tables. These statistics quantify the data distribution and storage characteristics of tables. Commit Phase : If all participants respond to the coordinator that they are prepared. The combination of the steps the optimizer chooses to execute a statement is called an execution plan. thus helping to maximize the performance of the db appln.
LGWR writes log entries into a online redo log file. ORACLE Optimizes SQL statements : For any SQL statement processes by ORACLE. ALL_TABLES & DBA_TABLES. The statistics are visible through these tables in the data dictionary.This is useful for recovery from system failure d) Process Monitor(PMON) : The Process Monitor peforms process recovery when user Process fails. and then which table is joined to the result. This is one of the most frequently asked question. all modified database buffers in SGA are written to data files by DBWR at Checkpoints and Updating all data files and control files of database to indicate the most recent checkpoint . Redo Log data is generated in redo log buffer of SGA. USER_CLUSTERS & DBA_CLUSTERS. the optimizer performs these tasks. As transaction commits and log buffer fills. c) System Monitor(SMON) : The System Monitor performs instance recovery at instance startup. the optimizer chooses one or more of the available access paths to obtain the table??s data. The various background processes in oracle are a) Data Base Writer(DBWR) : Data Base Writer Writes Modified blocks from Database buffer cache to Data Files. Developer /2000(Form 4. Choice of Join Orders : For a join statement that joins more than two tables. Choice of Join Operations : For any join statement. Pmon Clears and Frees resources that process was using. the optimizer chooses an operation to use to perform the join. View Merging : For a SQL statement that access a view. the optimizer may transform the original statement into an equivalent join statement. Choice of Optimization approaches : Chooses either a rule based or cost based based to optimization. USER_INDEXES. Statement Transformation : For a complex statement.5) Oracle : 1) What are the Back ground processes in Oracle and what are they.5 and Reports 2.execution plan. USER_TAB_COLUMNS. b) LogWriter(LGWR) : LogWriter writes the redo log entries to disk.They do the house keeping activities for the Oracle and are common in any system. e) CheckPoint(CKPT) : At Specified times. ALL_ INDEXES & DBA_ INDEXES. USER_TABLES. ALL_TAB_COLUMNS & DBA_TAB_COLUMNS. the optimizer chooses which pair of tables is joined first.There are basically 9 Processes but in a general system we need to mention the first five background processes. Evaluation of expressions and conditions : The optimizer first evaluates expressions and conditions containing constants as fully as possible. Choice of Access Paths : For each table accessed by the statement. the optimizer often merges the views query into the original statement or the original statement into the view??s query and then optimizes the result. Important Questions in Oracle.This is required since the data is not written whenever a transaction is commited.
It consists of Database Buffer Cache and Redo log Buffer. Oracle uses an implicit cursor statement for Single row query and Uses Explcit cursor for a multi row query. f) System Global Area(SGA) : The SGA is a shared memory region allocated by the Oracle that contains Data and control information for one Oracle Instance. a transaction begins with first executable statment and ends when it is explicitly commited or rolled back.The set of database buffers in an instance is called Database .C.f) Archieves(ARCH) : The Archiver copies online redo log files to archival storal when they are busy. g) Program Global Area (PGA) : The PGA is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for server process. b) Rollback : A transaction that retracts any of the changes resulting from SQL statements in Transaction. e) Cursor : A cursor is a handle ( name or a pointer) for the memory associated with a specific stament. According to ANSI. A cursor is basically an area allocated by Oracle for executing the Sql Statement.Fetch. execute and close 3) What is a Transaction in Oracle A transaction is a Logical unit of work that compromises one or more SQL Statements executed by a single User.e. h) Database Buffer Cache : Databese Buffer of SGA stores the most recently used blocks of datatbase data. d) Rolling Forward : Process of applying redo log during recovery is called rolling forward. g) Recoveror(RECO) : The Recoveror is used to resolve the distributed transaction in network h) Dispatcher (Dnnn) : The Dispatcher is useful in Multi Threaded Architecture i) Lckn : We can have upto 10 lock processes for inter instance locking in parallel sql.They are a) Data Defination Language(DDL) : The DDL statments define and maintain objects and drop objects.g:: Using the Sql Statements in languages such as 'C'.DML and T. c) Transaction Control Statements : Manage change by DML d) Session Control : Used to control the properties of current session enabling and disabling roles and changing . Open.S in Programming Language.e.g:: Alter System f) Embedded Sql : Incorporate DDL. 4) Key Words Used in Oracle The Key words that are used in Oracle are a) Commiting : A transaction is said to be commited when the transaction makes permanent changes resulting from the SQL statements. c) SavePoint : For long transactions that contain many SQL statements.e. 2) How many types of Sql Statements are there in Oracle There are basically 6 types of sql statments. intermediate markers or savepoints are declared.g Alter Statements. b) Data Manipulation Language(DML) : The DML statments manipulate database data. Savepoints can be used to divide a transactino into smaller points.Set Role e) System Control Statements : Change Properties of Oracle Instance .
Thus a total of 12 combinations are there and the restriction of usage of 12 triggers has been lifted from Oracle 7.We can have the trigger as Before trigger or After Trigger and at Statement or Row level. Stored Procedures : Stored Procedures are Procedures that are stored in Compiled form in the database. k) Process : A Process is a 'thread of control' or mechansim in Operating System that executes series of steps.Buffer Cache.The advantage of using the stored procedures is that many users can use the same procedure in compiled and ready to use format. variables and other Package Contents 6) What are Database Triggers and Stored Procedures Database Triggers :: Database Triggers are Procedures that are automatically executed as a result of insert in. i) Redo log Buffer : Redo log Buffer of SGA stores all the redo log entries. 7) How many Integrity Rules are there and what are they There are Three Integrity Rules. c) Business Integrity Rules : The Third Intigrity rule is about the complex business processes which cannot be implemented by the above 2 rules. update to. They are as follows :: a) Entity Integrity Rule : The Entity Integrity Rule enforces that the Primary key cannot be Null b) Foreign Key Integrity Rule : The FKIR denotes that the relationship between the foreign key and the primary key has to be enforced. 8) What are the Various Master and Detail Relation ships. Procedures do not Return values while Functions return one One Value Packages Provide a method of encapsulating and storing related procedures. The various Master and Detail Relationship are a) NonIsolated : The Master cannot be deleted when a child is exisiting b) Isolated : The Master can be deleted when the child is exisiting c) Cascading : The child gets deleted when the Master is deleted. functions. . Database triggers have the values old and new to denote the old value in the table before it is deleted and the new indicated the new value that will be used. or delete from table. They are basically used for backup when a database crashes.delete 3 before . j) Redo Log Files : Redo log files are set of files that protect altered database data in memory that has not been written to Data Files.functions and Packages Procedures and functions consist of set of PL/SQL statements that are grouped together as a unit to solve a specific problem or perform set of related tasks.after 3*2 A total of 6 combinatons At statment level(once for the trigger) or row level( for every execution ) 6 * 2 A total of 12.When there is data in Child Tables the Master tables cannot be deleted. eg. operations insert. 5) What are Procedure. DT are useful for implementing complex business rules which cannot be enforced using the integrity rules.update .3 Onwards.
Oracle Forms assigns seperate cursor only for each query SELECT statement. The Detail records are shown when the Master Record are shown. Here the Null is the else statement where null is done .Loc.Rowid from dept where (Deptno > 25) c) Optimize_Sql : By setting the Optimize_Sql = No.'FIRST_ROWS').Dname.'Second'Null).'2'. They are a) System Exceptions e. Select /*+ First_Rows */ Deptno.This slow downs the processing because for evertime the SQL must be parsed whenver they are executed. My_exception exception When My_exception then 13) What are the inline and the precompiler directives The inline and precompiler directives detect the values directly 14) How do you use the same lov for 2 columns We can use the same lov for 2 columns by passing the return values in global values and using the global values in the code 15) How many minimum groups are required for a matrix report The minimum number of groups in matrix report are 4 .g.'First'.OPTIMIZER_HINT. Oracle Forms assigns a single cursor for all SQL statements.9) What are the Various Block Coordination Properties The various Block Coordination Properties are a) Immediate Default Setting.'1'. b) Deffered with Auto Query Oracle Forms defer fetching the detail records until the operator navigates to the detail block. When too_many_rows b) User Defined Exceptions e. f45run module = my_firstform userid = scott/tiger optimize_Tp = No 11) How do u implement the If statement in the Select Statement We can implement the if statement in the select statement by using the Decode statement. When no_data_found. All other SQL statements reuse the cursor. c) Deffered with No Auto Query The operator must navigate to the detail block and explicitly execute a query 10) What are the Different Optimisation Techniques The Various Optimisation techniques are a) Execute Plan : we can see the plan of the query and change it accordingly based on the indexes b)Optimizer_hint: set_item_property('DeptBlock'.g select DECODE (EMP_CAT.g. 12) How many types of Exceptions are there There are 2 types of exceptions. f45run module = my_firstform userid = scott/tiger optimize_sql = No d) Optimize_Tp : By setting the Optimize_Tp= No. e.
When a database is created two table spaces are created. Right to Connect. Views are built using the columns from one or more tables. eg. Right to resource Grants are given to the objects so that the object might be accessed accordingly. a) System Table space : This data file stores all the tables related to the system and dba tables b) User Table space : This data file stores all the user related tables We should have seperate table spaces for storing the tables and indexes so that the access is fast.This lock should not be applied when we do only select from the row. Right to create.To increase the size of the database to store more .The grant has to be given by the owner of the object.Every datafile is associated with only one database.Parameter File.update or delete is being done. 20) What is concurrency Cuncurrency is allowing simultaneous access of same data by different users.They store the data for the database. 22) Table Space. Unique key is also useful for identifying the distinct rows in the table. Oracle does implement the OOPS concepts. 21) Previleges and Grants Previleges are the right to execute a particulare type of SQL statements.Once the Data file is created the size cannot change. OOPS supports the concepts of objects and classes and we can consider the peroperty classes as classes and the items as objects 19) What is the difference between candidate key. Locks useful for accesing the database are a) Exclusive The exclusive lock is useful for locking the row when an insert. The Single Table View can be updated but the view with multi table cannot be updated 18) What are the OOPS concepts in Oracle. Control Files Table Space : The table space is useful for storing the data in the database. unique key and primary key Candidate keys are the columns in the table that could be the primary keys and the primary key is the key that has been selected to identify the rows.Data Files. The best example is the Property Classes. We can categorise the properties by setting the visual attributes and then attach the property classes for the objects. Data Files : Every Oracle Data Base has one or more physical data files.16) What is the difference between static and dynamic lov The static lov contains the predetermined values while the dynamic lov contains values that come at run time 17) What are snap shots and views Snapshots are mirror or replicas of tables. b) Share lock We can do the table as Share_Lock as many share_locks can be put on the same resource.
Parameter Files : Parameter file is needed to start an instance.Data for row is stored in a chain of data blocks . data files .acme lang Control Files : Control files record the physical structure of the data files and redo log files. Pctfree 20. Pctused 40 25) What is Row Chaining The data of a row in a table may not be able to fit the same data block.s. name and location of dbs.:: db_block_buffers = 500 db_name = ORA7 db_domain = u. 26) What is a 2 Phase Commit Two Phase commit is used in distributed data base systems. Similarly Pct Used is used to denote the percentage of the used space that is to be used when creating a table eg. There are three types of Segments a) Data Segment : Non Clustered Table has data segment data of every table is stored in cluster data segment b) Index Segment : Each Index has index segment that stores data c) Roll Back Segment : Temporarily store 'undo' information 24) What are the Pct Free and Pct Used Pct Free is used to denote the percentage of the free space that is to be left when creating a table.redo log files and time stamp. Data Block : One Data Block correspond to specific number of physical database space Extent : Extent is the number of specific number of contigious data blocks. Read only or abort Reply 27) What is the difference between deleting and truncating of tables Deleting a table will not remove the rows from the table but entry is there in the database dictionary and it can be retrieved But truncating a table deletes it completely and it cannot be retrieved.g. There are basically 2 phases in a 2 phase commit. They contain the Db name. It contains DML statements or Remote Procedural calls that reference a remote object. eg :: If a row has been .A parameter file contains the list of instance configuration parameters e. This is useful to maintain the integrity of the database so that all the users see the same values. 28) What are mutating tables When a table is in state of transition it is said to be mutating. a) Prepare Phase : Global coordinator asks participants to prepare b) Commit Phase : Commit all participants to coordinator to Prepared.data we have to add data file. 23) Physical Storage of the Data The finest level of granularity of the data base are the data blocks. Segments : Set of Extents allocated for Extents.
30) What is Normalisation Normalisation is the process of organising the tables to remove the redundancy. 32) Deleting the Duplicate rows in the table We can delete the duplicate rows in the table by using the Rowid 33) Can U disable database trigger? How? Yes. 37) what is clustered index? . 36) Is space acquired in blocks or extents ? In extents . You can select from pseudocolumns. No RDBMS satisfies all the 12 codd rules and Oracle Satisfies 11 of the 12 rules and is the only Rdbms to satisfy the maximum number of rules.There are mainly 5 Normalisation rules. a) 1 Normal Form : A table is said to be in 1st Normal Form when the attributes are atomic b) 2 Normal Form : A table is said to be in 2nd Normal Form when all the candidate keys are dependant on the primary key c) 3rd Normal Form : A table is said to be third Normal form when it is not dependant transitively 31) What is the Difference between a post query and a pre query A post query will fire for every row that is fetched but the pre query will fire only once. but you cannot insert. This section describes these pseudocolumns: * CURRVAL * NEXTVAL * LEVEL * ROWID * ROWNUM 35) How many columns can table have? The number of columns in a table can range from 1 to 254. but is not actually stored in the table. update.deleted then the table is said to be mutating and no operations can be done on the table except select. With respect to table ALTER TABLE TABLE [[ DISABLE all_trigger ]] 34) What is pseudo columns ? Name them? A pseudocolumn behaves like a table column. 29) What are Codd Rules Codd Rules describe the ideal nature of a RDBMS. or delete their values.
DATE_THRESHOLD SYSTEM. MLSLABEL. 4) What are referenced objects? Referencing allows you to create objects that inherit their functionality and appearance from other objects. You define an object group when you want to package related objects so you can copy or reference them in another module. except that the resulting reference object maintains a link to its source object.SUPPRESS_WORKING 3) What are object group? An object group is a container for a group of objects. A reference object automatically inherits any changes that have been made to the source object when you . rows are stored together based on their cluster key values . 39 ) What are attributes of cursor? %FOUND . %NOTFOUND .EFFECTIVE_DATE SYSTEM. 38) what are the datatypes supported By oracle (INTERNAL)? Varchar2.5 Questions 1) Which trigger are created when master -detail rela? master delete property * NON-ISOLATED (default) a) on check delete master b) on clear details c) on populate details * ISOLATED a) on clear details b) on populate details * CASCADE a) per-delete b) on clear details c) on populate details 2) which system variables can be set by users? SYSTEM. Referencing an object is similar to copying an object. %ISOPEN.In an indexed cluster.%ROWCOUNT 40) Can you use select in FROM clause of SQL select ? Yes.Char . Forms 4. Number. Can not applied for HASH.MESSAGE_LEVEL SYSTEM.
5) Can you store objects in library? Referencing allows you to create objects that inherit their functionality and appearance from other objects. Keyup.when-mouse-doubleclicked. Referencing allows you to create objects that inherit their functionality and appearance from other objects. partially.inheritance property 2) OVERLOADING : procedures and functions. 8) What is SECURE property? Hides characters that the operator types into the text item.first_item??) in the Navigational triggers . but you have to use FORMS_DDL. But can use them in the Key-next-item. Key Triggers : Key Triggers are fired as a result of Key action. 9 ) What are the types of triggers and how the sequence of firing in text item Triggers can be classified as Key Triggers. except that the resulting reference object maintains a link to its source object. When-mouse-button-presed. except that the resulting reference object maintains a link to its source object.e. The Difference between .open or regenerate the module that contains the reference object. 7) Can you issue DDL in forms? yes.g. This setting is typically used for password protection. We cannot call restricted procedures like go_to(??my_block. 1) PROPERTY CLASS .e.Key-Down Mouse Triggers : Mouse Triggers are fired as a result of the mouse navigation.Pre-text-item.g : PostText-item.etc Navigational Triggers : These Triggers are fired as a result of Navigation. 6) Is forms 4. Mouse Triggers . We also have event triggers like when -new-form-instance and when-new-block-instance. A reference object automatically inherits any changes that have been made to the source object when you open or regenerate the module that contains the reference object. E. Any string expression up to 32K: ?P a literal ?P an expression or a variable representing the text of a block of dynamically created PL/SQL code ?P a DML statement or ?P a DDL statement Restrictions: The statement you pass to FORMS_DDL may not contain bind variable references in the string. but the values of bind variables can be concatenated into the string before passing the result to FORMS_DDL. A reference object automatically inherits any changes that have been made to the source object when you open or regenerate the module that contains the reference object. Referencing an object is similar to copying an object.Navigational Triggers. Referencing an object is similar to copying an object.5 object oriented tool ? why? yes .g : Key-next-field.
All type of triggers . 13) What are record groups ? Can record groups created at run-time? A record group is an internal Oracle Forms data structure that has a column/row framework similar to a database table. in long Raw datatype. However. property level trigger won't fire.text b) when new item c) key-next d) when validate e) post text 10 ) Can you store pictures in database? How? Yes . The item level trigger fires first and then the block and then the Form level trigger. Non-query Record Group A non-query record group is a group that does not have an associated query. Static Record Group A static record group is not associated with a query. Triggers at the lowest level are always given the first preference. A record group can have an unlimited number of columns of type CHAR. LONG. The key-next is fired as a result of the key action while the post text is fired as a result of the mouse movement. but whose structure and values can be modified programmatically at runtime.Key-next and Post-Text is an very important question. By simply changing the definition of a property class. The columns in a query record group derive their default names. you can change the definition of all objects that inherit properties from that class. The records in a query record group are the rows retrieved by the query associated with that record group. or DATE provided that the total number of columns does not exceed 64K. 11) What are property classes ? Can property classes have trigger? Property class inheritance is a powerful feature that allows you to quickly define objects that conform to your own interface and functionality standards. Which will fire first? Item level trigger fires . unlike database tables. Programmatically. Property classes also allow you to make global changes to applications quickly. Yes .Record group column names cannot exceed 30 characters. The sequence of firing in a text item are as follows :: a) pre . If item level trigger fires. Key next will not fire unless there is a key event. 12) If you have property class attached to an item and you have same trigger written for the item . record groups are separate objects that belong to the form module in which they are defined. data types. and lengths from the database columns referenced in the SELECT statement. NUMBER. rather. record groups can be used whenever the functionality offered by a two-dimensional array of multiple data types is desirable. TYPES OF RECORD GROUP: Query Record Group A query record group is a record group that has an associated SELECT statement. you .
18) What are timers ? when when-timer-expired does not fire? The When-Timer-Expired trigger can not fire during trigger. You obtain a return value from a foreign function by assigning the return value to an Oracle Forms variable or item. 14) What are ALERT? An ALERT is a modal window that displays a message notifiying operator of some application condition. When Mouse Navigate is set to False. it must also be the appropriate parameter type as defined in the PL/SQL interface. 20) How many types of canvases are there. or transaction processing. 17) What is FORMS_MDI_WINDOW? Forms run inside the MDI application window. Make sure that the Oracle Forms variable or item is the same data type as the return value from the foreign function. There are 2 types of canvases called as Content and Stack Canvas. The PL/SQL variable that is passed as a parameter must be a valid PL/SQL data type. This property is useful for calling a form from another one. 2) Can you pass values to-and-fro from foreign function ? how ? Yes . Its like a plate on which we add items and stacked canvas is used for giving 3 dimensional effect. . 15) Can a button have icon and lable at the same time ? -NO 16) What is mouse navigate property of button? When Mouse Navigate is True (the default).define its structure and row values at design time. These are some other questions that may be asked 1) What are user-exits? It invokes 3GL programs. navigation. and they remain fixed at runtime. object group can have block as well as program units. pass the PL/SQL variable as a parameter value in the PL/SQL interface of the foreign function. Content canvas is the default and the one that is used mostly for giving the base effect. Oracle Forms performs standard navigation to move the focus to the item when the operator activates the item with the mouse. Oracle Forms does not perform navigation (and the resulting validation) to move to the item when an operator activates the item with the mouse. After assigning an Oracle Forms variable or item value to a PL/SQL variable. 19) Can object group have a block? Yes .
database block that oracle . or rename the DLL to F45XTB.3) What is IAPXTB structure ? The entries of Pro * C and user exits and the form which simulate the proc or user_exit are stored in IAPXTB table in d/b.) dateable n-updateable. 9) Can you connect to non . Key setting unique (default. 4) Can you call WIN-SDK thruo' user exits? YES.INI file.DLL. For applications that will run against ORACLE.DLL. 12) What is transactional trigger property? Identifies a block as transactional control block.e. Locking mode : Specifies when Oracle Forms should attempt to obtain database locks on rows that correspond to queried records in the form. 8) what is precompiler? It is similar to C precompiler directives.define cursur state across transaction Open/close. replace the existing F45XTB. 5) Does user exits supports DLL on MSWINDOWS ? YES . Cursor mode . If you rename the DLL to F45XTB. use the default setting. i. non .DLL in the ORAWINBIN directory with the new F45XTB.DLL.oracle datasource ? How? Yes . 10 ) what are key-mode and locking mode properties? level ? Key Mode : Specifies how oracle forms uniquely identifies rows in the database.This is property includes for application that will run against NON-ORACLE datasources . This property is included primarily for applications that will run against non-ORACLE data sources. 6) What is path setting for DLL? Make sure you include the name of the DLL in the FORMS45_USEREXIT variable of the ORACLE. a) immediate b) delayed 11) What are savepoint mode and cursor mode properties ? level? Specifies whether Oracle Forms should issue savepoints during a session. 7) How is mapping of name of DLL and function done? The dll can be created using the Visual C++ / Visual Basic Tools and then the dll is put in the path that is defined the registery.
OLE automation provides a way for an OLE container application to use the features of an OLE server application to manipulate an OLE object from the OLE container environment. 16 ) What is call form stack? When successive forms are loaded via the CALL_FORM procedure. when called form completes the operation . (FORMS_OLE) 14) What does invoke built-in do? This procedure invokes a method. it releases lock and control goes back to the calling form. but parent remains active. Oracle Forms rolls back uncommitted changes to this savepoint. Oracle Forms keeps the higher call active and treats it as a call to the new form. Oracle Forms runs the new form with the same Runform options as the parent form.CALL_FORM. the resulting module hierarchy is known as the call form stack. list list_type := 0). Parameters: object Is an OLE2 Automation Object. Oracle Forms runs the new form with the same options as the parent form. Oracle Forms issues a savepoint for the called form. . method Is a method (procedure) of the OLE2 object. If the parent form was a called form. If the CLEAR_FORM function causes a rollback when the called form is current. Oracle Forms issues a savepoint for the called form. 15) What are OPEN_FORM.The calling form is terminated as the parent form. list Is the name of an argument list assigned to the OLE2.forms should manage as transactional block. 13) What is OLE automation ? OLE automation allows an OLE server application to expose a set of commands and functions that can be invoked from an OLE container application. Syntax: PROCEDURE OLE2. Oracle Forms releases memory (such as database cursors) that the terminated form was using. When you call a form. method VARCHAR2. If the calling form had been called by a higher form. If the CLEAR_FORM function causes a rollback when the called form is current.NEW_FORM? diff? CALL_FORM : It calls the other form. OPEN_FORM : When you call a form.CREATE_ARGLIST function. Oracle Forms rolls back uncommitted changes to this savepoint.(NON-ORACLE datasource) default FALSE. NEW_FORM : Exits the current form and enters the indicated form.INVOKE (object obj_type.
color. .fmb scott/tiger GUI 1) What is a visual attribute? Visual attributes are the font.You can change the appearance of objects at runtime by changing the named visual attribute programmatically. and pattern properties that you set for form and menu objects that appear in your application's interface. 6) Can u set default font in forms? Yes. as the input focus changes. and any visual attribute properties in the class are ignored. 2) Diff. the named visual attribute settings take precedence. color. you can display a pre-determined item in a special color when it is part of the current record.The form would be generated in unix system by using f45gen my_form. and pattern attributes. 3 ) Which trigger related to mouse? * When-Mouse-Click * When-Mouse-DoubleClick * When-Mouse-Down * When-Mouse-Enter * When-Mouse-Leave * When-Mouse-Move * When-Mouse-Up 4) What is Current record attribute property? Specifies the named visual attribute used when an item is part of the current record. Set form45_font to the desired font. 7) Can u have OLE objects in forms? Yes.17) Can u port applictions across the platforms? how? Yes we can port applications across platforms. color. property classes can contain these and any other properties. Change windows registry(regedit).Consider the form developed in a windows system. When an object is inheriting from both a property class and a named visual attribute. property class assignment cannot be changed programmatically. Current Record Attribute is frequently used at the block level to display the current row in a multi-record If you define an item-level Current Record Attribute. but you cannot dynamically highlight the current item. between VAT and Property Class? imp Named visual attributes define only font. You can programmatically change an object's named visual attribute setting to change the font. and pattern of the object at runtime. 5) Can u change VAT at run time? Yes.
Developer /2000(Form 4. 5) What is Flex Flex is the property of moving the related fields together by setting the flex property on 6) What are the minimum number of groups required for a matrix report The minimum of groups required for a matrix report are 4 Important Questions in Oracle.There are basically 9 Processes but .5 1) How many types of columns are there and what are they Formula columns : For doing mathematical calculations and returning one value Summary Columns : For doing summary calculations such as summations etc. 5 and Reports 2. Specifies the mouse cursor style. This is useful for maintaining the fields . 10) What is OLE Activation style property? Specifies the event that will activate the OLE containing item. 3) Can u run the report with out a parameter form Yes it is possible to run the report without parameter form by setting the PARAM value to Null 4) What is the lock option in reports layout By using the lock option we cannot move the fields in the layout editor outside the frame. Use this property to dynamically change the shape of the cursor. 1) This is one of the most frequently asked question. Place holder Columns : These columns are useful for storing the value in a variable 2) Can u have more than one layout in report It is possible to have more than one layout in a report by using the additional layout option in the layout editor. Reports 2. 9) What r the types of windows (Window style)? Specifies whether the window is a Document window or a Dialog window.5) Oracle 1) What are the Back ground processes in Oracle and what are they. 11) Can u change the mouse pointer ? How? Yes.8) Can u have VBX and OCX controls in forms ? Yes.
in a general system we need to mention the first five background processes.g:: Alter System f) Embedded Sql :: Incorporate DDL. c) Transaction Control Statements :: Manage change by DML d) Session Control :: Used to control the properties of current session enabling and disabling roles and changing . LGWR writes log entries into a online redo log file.e.This is useful for recovery from system failure d)Process Monitor(PMON) :: The Process Monitor peforms process recovery when user Process fails. Redo Log data is generated in redo log buffer of SGA. b)LogWriter(LGWR) :: LogWriter writes the redo log entries to disk. execute and close 3) What is a Transaction in Oracle 3) A transaction is a Logical unit of work that compromises one or more SQL Statements executed by a single User. all modified database buffers in SGA are written to data files by DBWR at Checkpoints and Updating all data files and control files of database to indicate the most recent checkpoint f)Archieves(ARCH) :: The Archiver copies online redo log files to archival storal when they are busy.S in Programming Language.DML and T. g) Recoveror(RECO) :: The Recoveror is used to resolve the distributed transaction in network h) Dispatcher (Dnnn) :: The Dispatcher is useful in Multi Threaded Architecture i) Lckn :: We can have upto 10 lock processes for inter instance locking in parallel sql. As transaction commits and log buffer fills. The various background processes in oracle are a) Data Base Writer(DBWR) :: Data Base Writer Writes Modified blocks from Database buffer cache to Data Files. Open.They do the house keeping activities for the Oracle and are common in any system. b) Data Manipulation Language(DML) :: The DML statments manipulate database data.Set Role e) System Control Statements :: Change Properties of Oracle Instance . 2) How many types of Sql Statements are there in Oracle 2) There are basically 6 types of sql statments.e. a transaction begins with first executable statment and ends when it is explicitly commited or rolled back.This is required since the data is not written whenever a transaction is commited.g:: Using the Sql Statements in languages such as 'C'. e) CheckPoint(CKPT) :: At Specified times. According to ANSI.g :: Alter Statements.e.Fetch. 4) Key Words Used in Oracle 4) The Key words that are used in Oracle are :: a) Commiting :: A transaction is said to be commited when the transaction makes . c) System Monitor(SMON) :: The System Monitor performs instance recovery at instance startup. Pmon Clears and Frees resources that process was using.C.They are a) Data Defination Language(DDL) :: The DDL statments define and maintain objects and drop objects.
i) Redo Log Files :: Redo log files are set of files that protect altered database data in memory that has not been written to Data Files. c) SavePoint :: For long transactions that contain many SQL statements. A cursor is basically an area allocated by Oracle for executing the Sql Statement.permanent changes resulting from the SQL statements. . update to. f) System Global Area(SGA) :: The SGA is a shared memory region allocated by the Oracle that contains Data and control information for one Oracle Instance. They are basically used for backup when a database crashes. Procedures do not return values while Functions return only One Value Packages :: Packages Provide a method of encapsulating and storing related procedures. functions and Packages 5) Procedures and functions consist of set of PL/SQL statements that are grouped together as a unit to solve a specific problem or perform set of related tasks.update . Database triggers have the values old and new to denote the old value in the table before it is deleted and the new indicated the new value that will be used.The set of database buffers in an instance is called Database Buffer Cache. e) Cursor :: A cursor is a handle ( name or a pointer) for the memory associated with a specific stament. intermediate markers or savepoints are declared. Savepoints can be used to divide a transactino into smaller points.after 3*2 A total of 6 combinatons At statment level(once for the trigger) or row level( for every execution ) 6 * 2 A total of 12. 5) What are Procedure. j) Process :: A Process is a 'thread of control' or mechansim in Operating System that executes series of steps.delete 3 before .It consists of Database Buffer Cache and Redo log Buffer. functions. h) Redo log Buffer :: Redo log Buffer of SGA stores all the redo log entries. g) Database Buffer Cache :: Databese Buffer of SGA stores the most recently used blocks of datatbase data. b) Rollback :: A transaction that retracts any of the changes resulting from SQL statements in Transaction. variables and other Package Contents 6) What are Database Triggers and Stored Procedures 6) Database Triggers :: Database Triggers are Procedures that are automatically executed as a result of insert in.g:: operations insert. d) Rolling Forward :: Process of applying redo log during recovery is called rolling forward. g) Program Global Area (PGA) :: The PGA is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for server process. DT are useful for implementing complex business rules which cannot be enforced using the integrity rules.We can have the trigger as Before trigger or After Trigger and at Statement or Row level. e. Oracle uses an implicit cursor statement for Single row query and Uses Explcit cursor for a multi row query. or delete from table.
This slow downs the processing because for evertime the SQL must be parsed whenver they are executed.The advantage of using the stored procedures is that many users can use the same procedure in compiled and ready to use format.'FIRST_ROWS'). 7) How many Integrity Rules are there and what are they 7) There are Three Integrity Rules.Loc. Oracle Forms assigns a single cursor for all SQL statements. Stored Procedures :: Stored Procedures are Procedures that are stored in Compiled form in the database. f45run module = my_firstform userid = scott/tiger optimize_sql = No d) Optimize_Tp :: . Select /*+ First_Rows */ Deptno.When there is data in Child Tables the Master tables cannot be deleted. c) Deffered with No Auto Query The operator must navigate to the detail block and explicitly execute a query 10) What are the Different Optimisation Techniques 10) The Various Optimisation techniques are a) Execute Plan :: we can see the plan of the query and change it accordingly based on the indexes b) Optimizer_hint: set_item_property('DeptBlock'. 8) The various Master and Detail Relationship are a) NonIsolated :: The Master cannot be deleted when a child is exisiting b) Isolated :: The Master can be deleted when the child is exisiting c) Cascading :: The child gets deleted when the Master is deleted. They are as follows :: a) Entity Integrity Rule :: The Entity Integrity Rule enforces that the Primary key cannot be Null b) Foreign Key Integrity Rule :: The FKIR denotes that the relationship between the foreign key and the primary key has to be enforced. The Detail records are shown when the Master Record are shown.OPTIMIZER_HINT.Rowid from dept where (Deptno > 25) c) Optimize_Sql :: By setting the Optimize_Sql = No. b) Deffered with Auto Query Oracle Forms defer fetching the detail records until the operator navigates to the detail block. 8) What are the Various Master and Detail Relation ships.Dname.3 Onwards. 9) What are the Various Block Coordination Properties 9) The various Block Coordination Properties are a) Immediate Default Setting.Thus a total of 12 combinations are there and the restriction of usage of 12 triggers has been lifted from Oracle 7. c) Business Integrity Rules :: The Third Intigrity rule is about the complex business processes which cannot be implemented by the above 2 rules.
unique key and primary key 19) Candidate keys are the columns in the table that could be the primary keys and the . The Single Table View can be updated but the view with multi table cannot be updated 18) What are the OOPS concepts in Oracle. They are a) System Exceptions e. My_exception exception When My_exception then 13) What are the inline and the precompiler directives 13) The inline and precompiler directives detect the values directly 14) How do you use the same lov for 2 columns 14) We can use the same lov for 2 columns by passing the return values in global values and using the global values in the code 15) How many minimum groups are required for a matrix report 15) The minimum number of groups in matrix report are 4 16) What is the difference between static and dynamic lov 16) The static lov contains the predetermined values while the dynamic lov contains values that come at run time 17) What are snapshots and views 17) Snapshots are mirror or replicas of tables. OOPS supports the concepts of objects and classes and we can consider the peroperty classes as classes and the items as objects 19) What is the difference between candidate key.'Second'Null). The best example is the Property Classes. All other SQL statements reuse the cursor. 18) Oracle does implement the OOPS concepts. Views are built using the columns from one or more tables.g. When too_many_rows b) User Defined Exceptions e.By setting the Optimize_Tp= No.g select DECODE (EMP_CAT. We can categorise the properties by setting the visual attributes and then attach the property classes for the objects.'1'. 12)How many types of Exceptions are there 12) There are 2 types of exceptions.'2'.g. When no_data_found. e. f45run module = my_firstform userid = scott/tiger optimize_Tp = No 11) How do u implement the If statement in the Select Statement 11) We can implement the if statement in the select statement by using the Decode statement. Oracle Forms assigns seperate cursor only for each query SELECT statement. Here the Null is the else statement where null is done .'First'.
Right to resource Grants are given to the objects so that the object might be accessed accordingly.When a database is created two table spaces are created. 20)What is concurrency 20) Cuncurrency is allowing simultaneous access of same data by different users.g. 23) Physical Storage of the Data 23) The finest level of granularity of the data base are the data blocks.primary key is the key that has been selected to identify the rows.acme lang Control Files :: Control files record the physical structure of the data files and redo log files They contain the Db name. Unique key is also useful for identifying the distinct rows in the table. Parameter Files :: Parameter file is needed to start an instance.A parameter file contains the list of instance configuration parameters e. b) Share lock We can do the table as Share_Lock as many share_locks can be put on the same resource.They store the data for the database. Data Block :: One Data Block correspond to specific number of physical database space Extent :: Extent is the number of specific number of contigious data blocks. data files . Data Files :: Every Oracle Data Base has one or more physical data files.This lock should not be applied when we do only select from the row.:: db_block_buffers = 500 db_name = ORA7 db_domain = u.Every datafile is associated with only one database. 22)Table Space. a) System Table space :: This data file stores all the tables related to the system and dba tables b) User Table space :: This data file stores all the user related tables We should have seperate table spaces for storing the tables and indexes so that the access is fast. 21) Previleges and Grants 21) Previleges are the right to execute a particulare type of SQL statements. Right to create.g :: Right to Connect.s. Locks useful for accesing the database are a) Exclusive The exclusive lock is useful for locking the row when an insert.To increase the size of the database to store more data we have to add data file.redo log files and time stamp. e. .The grant has to be given by the owner of the object.Parameter File.Data Files.Once the Data file is created the size cannot change.update or delete is being done. name and location of dbs. Control Files 22)Table Space :: The table space is useful for storing the data in the database.
No RDBMS satisfies all the 12 codd rules and Oracle Satisfies 11 of the 12 rules and is the only Rdbms to satisfy the maximum number of rules. 30) What is Normalisation 30) Normalization is the process of organizing the tables to remove the redundancy. a) 1 Normal Form :: A table is said to be in 1st Normal Form when the attributes are atomic b) 2 Normal Form :: A table is said to be in 2nd Normal Form when all the candidate . Read only or abort Reply 27) What is the difference between deleting and truncating of tables 27) Deleting a table will not remove the rows from the table but entry is there in the database dictionary and it can be retrieved But truncating a table deletes it completely and it cannot be retrieved. This is useful to maintain the integrity of the database so that all the users see the same values.Segments :: Set of Extents allocated for Extents. There are three types of Segments a) Data Segment :: Non Clustered Table has data segment data of every table is stored in cluster data segment b) Index Segment :: Each Index has index segment that stores data c) Roll Back Segment :: Temporarily store 'undo' information 24) What are the Pct Free and Pct Used 24) Pct Free is used to denote the percentage of the free space that is to be left when creating a table. Pctused 40 25) What is Row Chaining 25) The data of a row in a table may not be able to fit the same data block.:: Pctfree 20. 26) What is a 2 Phase Commit 26) Two Phase commit is used in distributed data base systems. It contains DML statements or Remote Procedural calls that reference a remote object. 29) What are Codd Rules 29) Codd Rules describe the ideal nature of a RDBMS.Data for row is stored in a chain of data blocks . There are basically 2 phases in a 2 phase commit. eg :: If a row has been deleted then the table is said to be mutating and no operations can be done on the table except select. Similarly Pct Used is used to denote the percentage of the used space that is to be used when creating a table eg. a) Prepare Phase :: Global coordinator asks participants to prepare b) Commit Phase :: Commit all participants to coordinator to Prepared. There are mainly 5 Normalization rules. 28) What are mutating tables 28) When a table is in state of transition it is said to be mutating.
MLSLABEL. . 36) Is space acquired in blocks or extents ? In extents . You can select from pseudocolumns. 38) what are the datatypes supported By oracle (INTERNAL)? Varchar2. This section describes these pseudocolumns: * CURRVAL * NEXTVAL * LEVEL * ROWID * ROWNUM 35) How many columns can table have? The number of columns in a table can range from 1 to 254. or delete their values. Number.%ROWCOUNT 40) Can you use select in FROM clause of SQL select ? Yes. but you cannot insert. 39 ) What are attributes of cursor? %FOUND . Can not applied for HASH. %ISOPEN. 37) what is clustered index? In an indexed cluster. rows are stored together based on their cluster key values . update. but is not actually stored in the table. %NOTFOUND .keys are dependant on the primary key c) 3rd Normal Form :: A table is said to be third Normal form when it is not dependant transitively 31) What is the Difference between a post query and a pre query 31) A post query will fire for every row that is fetched but the pre query will fire only once.Char . With respect to table ALTER TABLE TABLE [[ DISABLE all_trigger ]] 34) What is pseudo columns ? Name them? 34) A pseudocolumn behaves like a table column. 32) Deleting the Duplicate rows in the table 32) We can delete the duplicate rows in the table by using the Rowid 33) Can U disable database trigger? How? 33) Yes.
. except that the resulting reference object maintains a link to its source object.Forms 4. You define an object group when you want to package related objects so you can copy or reference them in another module.SUPPRESS_WORKING 3) What are object group? 3) An object group is a container for a group of objects.MESSAGE_LEVEL SYSTEM.DATE_THRESHOLD SYSTEM.5 Questions 1) Which trigger are created when master -detail rela? 1) master delete property * NON-ISOLATED (default) a) on check delete master b) on clear details c) on populate details * ISOLATED a) on clear details b) on populate details * CASCADE a) per-delete b) on clear details c) on populate details 2) which system variables can be set by users? 2) SYSTEM. Referencing an object is similar to copying an object.EFFECTIVE_DATE SYSTEM. 4) What are referenced objects? 4) Referencing allows you to create objects that inherit their functionality and appearance from other objects. A reference object automatically inherits any changes that have been made to the source object when you open or regenerate the module that contains the reference object.
except that the resulting reference object maintains a link to its source object. but the values of bind variables can be concatenated into the string before passing the result to FORMS_DDL.inheritance property 2) OVERLOADING : procedures and functions. A reference object automatically inherits any changes that have been made to the source object when you open or regenerate the module that contains the reference object. except that the resulting reference object maintains a link to its source object. Referencing an object is similar to copying an object. This setting is typically used for password protection. but you have to use FORMS_DDL.Hides characters that the operator types into the text item. 6) Is forms 4.5 object oriented tool ? why? 6) yes . 8) What is SECURE property? 8). 1) PROPERTY CLASS .5) Can you store objects in library? 5) Referencing allows you to create objects that inherit their functionality and appearance from other objects. Referencing allows you to create objects that inherit their functionality and appearance from other objects. . Any string expression up to 32K: ?Pa literal ?P an expression or a variable representing the text of a block of dynamically created PL/SQL code ?P a DML statement or ?P a DDL statement Restrictions: The statement you pass to FORMS_DDL may not contain bind variable references in the string. Referencing an object is similar to copying an object. partially. 7) Can you issue DDL in forms? 7) yes. A reference object automatically inherits any changes that have been made to the source object when you open or regenerate the module that contains the reference object.
By simply changing the definition of a property class. The Difference between Key-next and Post-Text is an very important question.first_item??) in the Navigational triggers But can use them in the Key-next-item.Pre-text-item. in long Raw datatype.e.etc Navigational Triggers :: These Triggers are fired as a result of Navigation. The item level trigger fires first and then the block and then the Form level trigger.g : PostText-item. Triggers at the lowest level are always given the first preference.text b) when new item c) key-next d) when validate e) post text 10 ) Can you store pictures in database? How? 10)Yes . * 12 a) If you have property class attached to an item and you have same trigger written for the item . The sequence of firing in a text item are as follows :: a) pre . All type of triggers .when-mouse-doubleclicked. Yes . Key-up. 11) What are property classes ? Can property classes have trigger? 11) Property class inheritance is a powerful feature that allows you to quickly define objects that conform to your own interface and functionality standards. Key Triggers :: Key Triggers are fired as a result of Key action. When-mouse-button-presed. Key next will not fire unless there is a key event. Which will fire first? 12)Item level trigger fires . 13) What are record groups ? * Can record groups created at run-time? 13)A record group is an internal Oracle Forms data structure that has a column/row .e. If item level trigger fires. The keynext is fired as a result of the key action while the post text is fired as a result of the mouse movement. E. We cannot call restricted procedures like go_to(??my_block. Property classes also allow you to make global changes to applications quickly. property level trigger won't fire.g :: Key-next-field.g.Key-Down Mouse Triggers :: Mouse Triggers are fired as a result of the mouse navigation.9 ) What are the types of triggers and how the sequence of firing in text item 9) Triggers can be classified as Key Triggers. Mouse Triggers . We also have event triggers like when ?Vnew-form-instance and when-new-blockinstance. you can change the definition of all objects that inherit properties from that class.Navigational Triggers.
rather. 15) Can a button have icon and label at the same time ? 15) -NO 16) What is mouse navigate property of button? 16) When Mouse Navigate is True (the default).framework similar to a database table. LONG. you define its Structure and row values at design time. unlike database tables. Static Record Group A static record group is not associated with a query. but whose structure and values can be modified programmatically at runtime. Oracle Forms does not perform navigation (and the resulting validation) to move to the item when an operator activates the item with the mouse. 17) What is FORMS_MDI_WINDOW? 17) forms run inside the MDI application window. 14) What are ALERT? 14)An ALERT is a modal window that displays a message notifying operator of some application Condition. This property is useful for calling a form from another one. However. TYPES OF RECORD GROUP: Query Record Group A query record group is a record group that has an associated SELECT statement. A record group can have an unlimited number of columns of type CHAR. data types. record groups are separate objects that belong to the form module in which they are defined. record groups can be used whenever the functionality offered by a two-dimensional array of multiple data types is desirable. Programmatically. or DATE provided that the total number of columns does not exceed 64K. Non-query Record Group A non-query record group is a group that does not have an associated query. and they remain fixed at runtime. Record group column names cannot exceed 30 characters. The columns in a query record group derive their default names. Oracle Forms performs standard navigation to move the focus to the item when the operator activates the item with the mouse. and lengths from the database columns referenced in the SELECT statement. The records in a query record group are the rows retrieved by the query associated with that record group. When Mouse Navigate is set to False. NUMBER. .
20) How many types of canvases are there. 20)There are 4 types of canvases called as Content and Stack Canvas. 1) What are user-exits? 1) It invokes 3GL programs. Content canvas is the default and the one that is used mostly for giving the base effect. or transaction processing. it must also be the appropriate parameter type as defined in the PL/SQL interface. 6) What is path setting for DLL? 6) Make sure you include the name of the DLL in the FORMS45_USEREXIT variable of . 2) Can you pass values to-and-fro from foreign function ? how ? 2) Yes .18) What are timers ? when when-timer-expired does not fire? 18) The When-Timer-Expired trigger can not fire during trigger. 19 ) Can object group have a block? 19)Yes . 5) Does user exits supports DLL on MSWINDOWS ? 5) YES .. You obtain a return value from a foreign function by assigning the return value to an Oracle Forms variable or item. Its like a plate on which we add items and stacked canvas is used for giving 3 dimensional effect. The PL/SQL variable that is passed as a parameter must be a valid PL/SQL data type. After assigning an Oracle Forms variable or item value to a PL/SQL variable. Make sure that the Oracle Forms variable or item is the same data type as the return value from the foreign function. navigation. object group can have block as well as program units. The following questions might not be asked in an Average Interview and could be asked when the Interviewer wants to trouble u and go deeppppppppppppp?K?KHe cannot go further?K. 4) Can you call WIN-SDK thruo' user exits? 4) YES. pass the PL/SQL variable as a parameter value in the PL/SQL interface of the foreign function. 3) What is IAPXTB structure ? 3) The entries of Pro * C and user exits and the form which simulate the proc or user_exit are stored in IAPXTB table in d/b.
Cursor mode . 7) How is mapping of name of DLL and function done? 7) The dll can be created using the Visual C++ / Visual Basic Tools and then the dll is put in the path that is defined the registery.(NON-ORACLE datasource) default FALSE. Locking mode : Specifies when Oracle Forms should attempt to obtain database locks on rows that correspond to queried records in the form.This is property includes for application that will run against NON-ORACLE datasources . For applications that will run against ORACLE.oracle datasource ? How? 9) Yes . 9) Can you connect to non . 8) what is precompiler? 8) It is similar to C precompiler directives. 12) Can you replace default form processing ? How ? 13) What is transactional trigger property? 13) Identifies a block as transactional control block.DLL.define cursur state across transaction Open/close. replace the existing F45XTB. 10 ) what are key-mode and locking mode properties? level ? 10) Key Mode : Specifies how oracle forms uniquely identifies rows in the database.database block that oracle forms should manage as transactional block.DLL in the ORAWINBIN directory with the new F45XTB. or rename the DLL to F45XTB. Key setting unique (default. a) immediate b) delayed 11) What are savepoint mode and cursor mode properties ? level? 11) Specifies whether Oracle Forms should issue savepoints during a session. non .) dateable n-updateable.DLL. use the default setting. 14) What is OLE automation ? 14) OLE automation allows an OLE server application to expose a set of commands and functions that can be invoked from an OLE container application.e. i. This property is included primarily for applications that will run against non-ORACLE data sources. OLE automation provides a way for an OLE .DLL.the ORACLE. If you rename the DLL to F45XTB.INI file.
Syntax: PROCEDURE OLE2.The form would be generated in unix system by using f45gen . If the CLEAR_FORM function causes a rollback when the called form is current. method VARCHAR2. Oracle Forms releases memory (such as database cursors) that the terminated form was using. Oracle Forms runs the new form with the same options as the parent form.CALL_FORM. If the calling form had been called by a higher form. If the parent form was a called form. Oracle Forms rolls back uncommitted changes to this savepoint. it releases lock and control goes back to the calling form. If the CLEAR_FORM function causes a rollback when the called form is current. list Is the name of an argument list assigned to the OLE2. Oracle Forms keeps the higher call active and treats it as a call to the new form. Oracle Forms runs the new form with the same Runform options as the parent form. The calling form is terminated as the parent form. Oracle Forms issues a savepoint for the called form. method Is a method (procedure) of the OLE2 object. the resulting module hierarchy is known as the call form stack.CREATE_ARGLIST function. Oracle Forms issues a savepoint for the called form. Parameters: object Is an OLE2 Automation Object.INVOKE (object obj_type. 16) What are OPEN_FORM. but parent remains active.container application to use the features of an OLE server application to manipulate an OLE object from the OLE container environment. OPEN_FORM : When you call a form. 17 ) What is call form stack? 17) When successive forms are loaded via the CALL_FORM procedure. list list_type := 0). NEW_FORM : Exits the current form and enters the indicated form. Oracle Forms rolls back uncommitted changes to this savepoint. When you call a form. 18) Can u port applictions across the platforms? how? 18) Yes we can port applications across platforms.Consider the form developed in a windows system. (FORMS_OLE) 15) What does invoke built-in do? 15) This procedure invokes a method. when called form completes the operation .NEW_FORM? diff? 16) CALL_FORM : It calls the other form.
7) Can u have OLE objects in forms? . you can display a pre-determined item in a special color when it is part of the current record. and pattern properties that you set for form and menu objects that appear in your application's interface. You can programmatically change an object's named visual attribute setting to change the font. 6) Can u set default font in forms? 6) Yes. 5) Can u change VAT at run time? 5) Yes. as the input focus changes. and any visual attribute properties in the class are ignored. the named visual attribute settings take precedence. between VAT and Property Class? imp 2)Named visual attributes define only font. 3 ) Which trigger related to mouse? 3) When-Mouse-Click When-Mouse-DoubleClick When-Mouse-Down When-Mouse-Enter When-Mouse-Leave When-Mouse-Move When-Mouse-Up 4) What is Current record attribute property? 4) Specifies the named visual attribute used when an item is part of the current record. 2) Diff. Change windows registry(regedit). Set form45_font to the desired font. and pattern of the object at runtime. property class assignment cannot be changed programmatically. property classes can contain these and any other properties. When an object is inheriting from both a property class and a named visual attribute.fmb scott/tiger GUI 1) What is a visual attribute? 1) Visual attributes are the font.my_form. Current Record Attribute is frequently used at the block level to display the current row in a multi-record If you define an item-level Current Record Attribute. and pattern attributes. color. You can change the appearance of objects at runtime by changing the named visual attribute programmatically. color. but you cannot dynamically highlight the current item. color.
7) Yes. 8) Can u have VBX and OCX controls in forms ? 8) Yes. 9) What r the types of windows (Window style)? 9) Specifies whether the window is a Document window or a Dialog window. 10) What is OLE Activation style property? 10) Specifies the event that will activate the OLE containing item. 11) Can u change the mouse pointer ? How? 11) Yes. Specifies the mouse cursor style. Use this property to dynamically change the shape of the cursor. Reports 2.5 1) How many types of columns are there and what are they 1) Formula columns :: For doing mathematical calculations and returning one value Summary Columns :: For doing summary calculations such as summations etc. Place holder Columns :: These columns are useful for storing the value in a variable 2) Can u have more than one layout in report 2) It is possible to have more than one layout in a report by using the additional layout option in the layout editor. 3) Can u run the report with out a parameter form 3) Yes it is possible to run the report without parameter form by setting the PARAM value to Null 4) What is the lock option in reports layout 4) By using the lock option we cannot move the fields in the layout editor outside the frame. This is useful for maintaining the fields . 5) What is Flex 5) Flex is the property of moving the related fields together by setting the flex property on 6) What are the minimum number of groups required for a matrix report 6) The minimum of groups required for a matrix report are 4 3.0 Data Base Administration 3.1 Introduction to DBA 1. What is a database instance ? Explain
A database instance (server) is a set of memory structures and background processes that access a set of database files. The process can be shared by all users. The memory structures that are used to store most queried data from database. This helps us to improve database performance by decreasing the amount of I/O performed against data file. 2. What is parallel server? Multiple instances accessing the same database (Only in Multi-CPU environments). 3. What is Schema ? The set of objects owned by user account is called the schema 4. What is an Index ? How it is implemented in Oracle Database ? An index is a database structure used by the server to have direct access of a row in a table. An index is automatically created when a unique or primary key constraint clause is specified in create table command (Ver 7.0) 5. What is clustres ? Group of tables physically stored together because they share common columns and are often used together is called Clusters. 6. What is a cluster key ? The related columns of the tables are called the cluster key. The cluster key is indexed using a cluster index and its value is stores only once for multiple tables in the cluster. 7. What are the basic element of Base configuration of an oracle Database ? It consists of one or more data files one or more control files two or more redo log files The database contains Multiple users/schemas one or more rollback segments one or more tablespaces
Data dictionary tables User objects (tables,indexes,views etc) The server that access the database consists of SGA (Database buffer, Dictionary Cache Buffers, redo log buffers,Shared SQL pool) SMON PMON LGWR DBWR ARCH CKPT RECO Dispatcher User process with associated PGA 8. What is deadlock ? Explain. Two processes waiting to update the rows of a table which are locked by the other process then deadlock arises. In a database environment this will often happen because of not issuing proper row lock commands. Poor design of front-end application may cause this situation and the performance of server will reduce drastically. These locks will be released automatically when a commit/rollback operation performed or any one of this processes being killed externally. 3.2 Memory Management 9. What is SGA ? How it is different from Ver 6 and Ver 7 ? The System Global Area in a Oracle database is the area in memory to facilitates the transfer of information between users. It holds the most recently requested structural information about the database. The structure is Database buffers, Dictionary Cache, Redo Log Buffer and Shared SQL pool (Ver 7) area. 10. What is Shared SQL pool ? The data dictionary cache is stored in an area in SGA called the Shared SQL Pool. This will allow sharing of parsed SQL statements among concurrent users. 11. What is meant by Program Global Area (PGA) ?
3 Logical & Physical Architecture of Database 14. indexes and clusters.It is area in memory that is used by a Single Oracle User process. What is Database Buffers ? Database buffers are cache in the SGA used to hold the data blocks that are read from the data segments in the database such as tables. 13. What is a data segment ? Data segment are the physical areas within a database block in which the data associated with tables and clusters are stored. 12. By increasing the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter we can optimize the size of Data Dictionary Cache. . What is meant by recursive hits ? Number of times processes repeatedly query the dictionary table is called recursive hits. How will you swap objects into a different table space for an existing database ? Export the user Perform import using the command imp system/manager file=export. LOG_BUFFER parameter will decide the size.sql. This will create all definitions into newfile. 16. 3. DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS parameter in INIT. Before writing them into the redo log files.dp indexfile=newfile. What are the factors causing the reparsing of SQL statements in SGA ? Due to insufficient Shared SQL pool size Monitor the ratio of the reloads takes place while executing SQL statements. Drop necessary objects. they will first brought to redo log buffers in SGA and LGWR will write into files frequently. 18. 17. What is dictionary cache ? Dictionary cache is information about the database objects stored in a data dictionary table. It is due to the data dictionary cache is too small.ORA decides the size. What is meant by redo log buffer ? Changes made to entries are written to the on-line redo log files so that they can be used in roll forward operation during database recoveries. If the ratio is greater that 1 then increase the SHARED_POOL_SIZE.sql. 15.
22.Tool table TOOLS1 .0.Data dictionary tables DATA .Indexes for tools table RBS .sql after altering the tablespaces. What is meant by free extent ? A free extent is a collection of continuous free blocks in tablespace. 25.Temporary purpose tablespace TEMP_USER .0 Free extents are periodically coalesces with the neighboring free extent Ver 7. 19. 24. 20. 23.Indexes for Standard operational tables INDEXES1 . How free extents are managed in Ver 6 and Ver 7.Static tables used for standard operations INDEXES . how much % should leave free for managing row updations etc. When a segment is dropped its extents are reallocated and are marked as free.Indexes of static tables used for standard operations TOOLS . How will you force database to use particular rollback segment ? SET TRANSACTION USE ROLLBACK SEGMENT rbs_name 21. How does space allocation take place within a block ? . List the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) of Oracle database ? or How can we organise the tablespaces in Oracle database to have maximum performance ? SYSTEM .Temporary tablespace for users USERS . What is significance of having storage clause ? We can plan the storage for a table as how much initial extents are required.Additional/Special rollback segments TEMP .RBS2 .Run the script newfile.Standard operational tables DATA2 . Import from the backup for the necessary objects.Standard Operations Rollback Segments RBS1. ? Free extents cannot be merged together in Ver 6. Which parameter in Storage clause will reduce no of rows per block ? PCTFREE parameter Row size also reduces no of rows per block.User tablespaces. how much can be extended next.
29.ora file and Start database) Create other tablespace (RBS) for rollback segments. 30. This prevents other user using Rollback segment. How will you monitor the space allocation ? . Create a Second Rollback Segment name R0 in the SYSTEM tablespace. Once it found an extent is in use then it forced to acquire a new extent. Make new rollback segment available (After shutdown. Create additional Rollback segment in tablespace (RBS) Deactivate Rollback Segment R0 and activate the newly created rollback segments.Each block contains entries as follows : Fixed block header Variable block header Row header. How will you create multiple rollback segments in a database ? Create a database which implicitly creates a SYSTEM Rollback Segment in a SYSTEM tablespace. What is the functionality of SYSTEM tablespace ? To manage the database level of transactions such as modifications of the data dictionary table that record information about the free space usage. 28. Why query fails sometimes ? Rollback segment dynamically extent to handle larger transactions entry loads. 31. modify init. 27. How the space utilisation takes place within rollback segments ? It will try to fit the transaction in a cyclic fashion to all existing extents. 32. row date (Multiple rows may exists) PCTFREE (% of free space for row updation in future) 26. What is the role of PCTFREE parameter is Storage clause ? This is used to reserve certain amount of space in a block for expansion of rows. A single transaction may wipeout all available free space in the Rollback Segment Tablespace. What is the OPTIMAL parameter ? It is used to set the optimal length of rollback segment. (No of extents is based on the OPTIMAL size).
Transaction Begins An entry is made in the RBS header for new transactions entry Transaction acquired blocks in an extent of RBS The entry attempts to wrap into second extent. List the sequence of events when a large transaction that exceeds beyond its optimal value when an entry wraps and causes the rollback segment to expand into another extend. How will you estimate the space required by non-clustered tables ? Calculate the total block header size Calculate the available data space per block Calculate the combined column length of the average row Calculate the total average row size Calculate the average number rows that can fit in a block Calculate the number of blocks and bytes required for the table After arriving the calculation add the additional space to calculate the initial extent size for working area . 35.By querying DBA_SEGMENT table/View 33. How will you monitor rollback segment status ? Querying the DBA_ROLLBACK_SEGS view The status available as follows : IN USE .Rollback Segment available bur not on-line OFF-LINE . The RBS checks to see if it is oldest inactive segment Oldest inactive segment is eliminated RBS extends The Data dictionary table for space management are updated Transaction Completes.Rollback Segment dropped NEEDS RECOVERY .Rollback Segment us off-line INVALID .Contains data but need recovery or corrupted PARTLY AVAILABLE .Contains data from an unresolved transaction involving a distributed database 34.Rollback Segment is on-line AVAILABLE . How can we plan storage for very large tables ? Limit the number of extents in the table Separate the Table from its indexes Allocate sufficient temporary storage 36. So that the RBS must extent. None is available.
Disk Corruption will be very less. If any one group fails then database automatically switch over to next group. What is use of rollback segment in Database ? They allow the database to maintain read consistency between multiple transactions. 42. It will be used to maintain internal consistency and guide recovery operations. The advantages over file system files : I/O will be improved because Oracle is bye-passing the kernal while writing into disk. What is a control file ? Database's overall physical architecture is maintained in a file called control file. What is a Rollback segment entry ? It is the set of before image data blocks that contain rows that are modified by a transaction. 38. 41. In most Operating System if any disk failure occurs it automatically switchover to place of failed disk. Multiple copies of control files are advisable.37. so that LGWR will automatically writes them to all the members of the current on-line redo log group.ora file by adding new control file name Restart the database 40. This reduces I/O load on the main set of disks. What is meant by Redo Log file mirroring ? How it can be achieved ? Process of having a copy of redo log files is called mirroring. 43. . What is advantage of having disk shadowing/Mirroring ? Shadow set of disks save as a backup in the event of disk failure. 39. Is it possible to use raw devices as data file and what is the advantages over file system files ? Yes. Improved performance because of most OS support volume shadowing can direct file I/O request to use the shadow set of files instead of the main set of files. Each Rollback Segment entry must be completed within one rollback segment. How to implement the multiple control files for an existing database ? Shutdown the database Copy one of the existing control file to new location' Edit config. This can be achieved by creating group of log files together.
Hit Ratio = (Logical Reads . 50. and deletes of rows as well as columns larger than a single data block. What is user account in Oracle database ? An user account is not a physical structure in Database but it is having important relationship to the objects in the database and will be having certain privileges. 44. can cause fragmentation and chained row pieces. List the factors that can affect the accuracy of the estimations ? The space used transaction entries and deleted records does not become free immediately after completion due to delayed cleanout.A single rollback segment can have multiple rollback segment entries. Trailing nulls and length bytes are not stored. What a hit ratio ? It is a measure of well the data cache buffer is handling requests for data. updates to. What are the dictionary tables used to monitor a database spaces ? DBA_FREE_SPACE DBA_SEGMENTS DBA_DATA_FILES .Physical reads . When Shrink (RBS only) When truncated (TRUNCATE used with drop storage option) 46. 45.Hit Misses) / Logical reads. 47. Users cannot access tables except via the procedure. Inserts of. How will you enforce security using stores procedures ? Don't grant user access directly to tables within application Instead grant the ability to access the procedures that access the tables When procedure executed it will execute the privilege of procedures owner. instead we can use dd command which is less flexible and has limited recoveries. 49. What are disadvantages of having raw devices ? We should depend on export/import utility for backup/recovery (fully reliable) The tar command cannot be used for physical file backup. When will be a segment released ? When Segment is dropped. 3.4 Database Security & Administration 48.
Managing primary database structures(tablespaces) 4. What are requirements one should fulfill to connect to ORACLE as internal? Operating system account has the operating system privileges that allow you to connect One should be authorised to connect as internal Database has a password for internal connections. . Managing primary objects (table. 3. What are the database administrators utilities available ? SQL*DBA . What are the roles and user accounts created automatically with the database ? DBA role .Contains all database system privileges SYS user account . Controlling and monitoring user access to the database 8. Monitoring and optimising the performance of the database 9.The DBA role will be assigned to this account. Backing up and restoring the database 12.It has all the system privileges for the database and additional tables and views that display administrative information and internal tables and views used by oracle tools are created using the username. Planning for backup and recovery of database information 10. Contacting Oracle Corporation for technical support 52.views.This allows DBA to monitor and control an ORACLE database. and you know the password must use a dedicated server 53. EXPORT(exp) and IMPOER (imp) utilities allow you to move existing data in ORACLE format to and from ORACLE database. All of the base tables and views for the database's dictionary are store in this schema and are manipulated only by ORACLE. Maintain archived data on tape 11. 54.indexes) 5. SYSTEM user account . What are responsibilities of a Database Administrator ? 1. Allocating system storage and planning future storage requirements for the database system. Enrolling users and maintaining system security 6. SQL*Loader . Ensuring compliance with Oracle license agreement 7.51. Installing and upgrading the Oracle Server and application tools 2.It loads data from standard operating system files (Flat files) into ORACLE database tables.
If name is not mentioned then default name will be used. 58.List of control filenames of the database. Assign each role to group of users. it dumps information about the error to its trace. Perform any operating system specific steps (optional) 4.55. Shutdown the database instance 2.The default data block size and is operating system dependent. DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS . It cannot be changed after database creation except by re-creating the database.ora) ? DB_NAME . When an internal error is detected by a process or user process. ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS . Also optionally LICENSE_MAX_SESSIONS.Must set to a text string of not more that 8 characters and it will be stored inside the datafiles. DB_BLOCK_SIZE . The value should be 5 (background process) and additional 1 for each user. This will simplify the job of assigning privileges to individual users. Backup the database 3. What are the minimum parameters should exist in the parameter file (init. DB_DOMAIN . Creating roles and assigning privies to roles. What are the steps to switch a database's archiving mode between NOARCHIEVELOG and ARCHIVELOG mode ? 1. Start up a new instance and mount but do not open the database . What are roles ? How can we implement roles ? Roles are easiest way to grant and manage common privileges needed by different groups of database users. This can be used for tuning the database.The maximum number of operating system processes that can be connected to ORACLE concurrently.List of rollback segments an ORACLE instance acquires at database startup. redo log files and control file while database creation. What is a trace file and how it is created ? Each server and background process can write an associated trace file. 57. The global database name is identified by setting these parameters (DB_NAME & DB_DOMAIN) CONTROL_FILES .It is string that specifies the network domain where the database is created.LICENSE_SESSION_WARNING and LICENSE_MAX_USERS. 56.
59.arc (%S . Differentiative simple and complex. LOG_ARCHIEVE_DEST = path Shut the database and change these parameters in init. %T . 64. %s .ora file Start up the database 60. 65.Thread number left-zero-paded and %t .Log sequence number and is zero left-paded.Log sequence number not paded.Thread number not paded).5 Managing Distributed Databases 62. 61.arc %S is used. In ver 7.ora file LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = arch%S/s/T/t. How can we reduce the network traffic ? Replication of data in distributed environment Using snapshots to replicate data Using remote procedure calls. 3. to delete statistics about the object from the data dictionary to validate the structure of the object to identify migrated and chained rows of the table or cluster.ora files. What are the various type of snapshots ? Simple and Complex. What is the user of ANALYZE command ? To perform one of these function on an index. How can we specify the Archived log file name format and destination ? By setting the following values in init. 63. How can you enable automatic archiving ? Shut the database Backup the database Modify/Include LOG_ARCHIVE_START = TRUE in init. snapshots . or cluster : to collect statistics about object used by the optimizer and store them in the data dictionary.5. The file name created is arch0001.0 they are read only. Switch the database's archiving mode. What is a snapshot ? Snapshot is an object used to dynamically replicate data between distributed databases at specified time intervals. table.
Perform the references manually immediately after locking the master tables. What is dynamic data replication ? Updating or inserting records in remote database through database triggers. We cannot specify snapshot log name because oracle uses the name of the master table in the name of the database objects that support its snapshot log. Subquery or a set of operations. it should not be already available) After giving table previleges.The default value. How can you enforce referential integrity in snapshots ? Time the references to occur when master tables are not in use. FAST . It is stored in the same database as master table and is only available for simple snapshots. Otherwise it will perform a COMPLETE refresh. 68.A simple snapshot is based on a query that does not contains GROUP BY clauses. If possible it performs a FAST refresh. JOINs. CONNECT by clauses. 71. When will the data in the snapshot log be used ? The data in the snapshot log is used during fast references of the table's snapshots. and trigger name will be TLOG$_tablename) . We can join tables in snapshots by creating a complex snapshot that will be based on the master tables. (The table name created will be MLOG$_tablename. A complex snapshots contain at least any one of the above. It may fail if remote database is having any problem. What are the options available to refresh snapshots ? COMPLETE . 67.e. The master table name should be less than or equal to 23 characters.If simple snapshot used then a snapshot log can be used to send only the changes to the snapshot tables.Tables are completely regenerated using the snapshot's query and the master tables every time the snapshot referenced. 66. 70. What is a snapshot tag ? It is a table that maintains a record of modifications to the master table in a snapshot. It should be created before creating snapshots. What are the pre-requisites to create a snapshot log ? We must be able to create a after row trigger on table (i. 69. FORCE .
Only affected tables from last incremental date / Full backup date Cumulative backup . They are The Preparation Phase : An initiating node called the global coordinator notifies all sites involved in the transaction to be ready either commit or rollback the transaction. If a network or node failure occurs.Complete database Incremental Backup . then all sites rollback their transactions. 3. What is a logical backup ? Logical backup involves reading a set of database records and writing them into a file.Only affected table from the last cumulative date / Full backup date . then all sites commit their transactions. What are the benefits of distributed options in databases ? Database on other servers can be updated and those transactions can be grouped together with others in a logical unit. Database uses a two phase commit 73. The Commit Phase : If there is no problem with prepare phase. We need to take All Data files All Control files All on-line redo log files Then init. What are the different kind of export backups ? Full backup . 76.ora file (optional) 77.72. Export utility is used for taking backup and Import utility is used to recover from backup. What is cold backup ? What are the elements of it ? Cold backup is taking backup of all physical files after normal shutdown of database. What are the different methods of backing up oracle database ? Logical Backups Cold Backups Hot Backups (Archive log) 75. What is a two-phase commit ? Database on other servers can be updated and those transactions can be grouped together with others in a logical unit is called two-phase commit.6 Managing Backup & Recovery 74.
redo log files On control file.78. 79. If 'N' only DDL statements for the database objects will be created. 85. The following files need to be backed up : All data files All archive log. 81. What is the use of COMPRESS option in EXP command ? Flag to indicate whether export should compress fragmented segments into single extents. What is hot backup and how it can be taken ? Taking backup of archive log files when database is open. 83. What is use of ROWS option in EXP command ? Flag to indicate whether table rows should be exported. What is the use of FILE option in EXP command ? To give the export file name. 80. What is the use of TABLES option in EXP command ? List of tables should be exported. What is the use of CONSTRAINTS option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether constraints on table need to be exported. 82. What is the use of GRANT option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether grants on database objects will be exported or not. Values is 'Y' or 'N'. What is the use of INDEXES option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether indexes on tables will be exported. 86. . 84. What is the use of OWNER option in EXP command ? List of table accounts should be exported. 87. For this the ARCHIVELOG mode should be enabled. What is the use of FULL option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether full database export should be performed.
98. What is use of INCTYPE option in EXP command ? Type export should be performed. What is the use of GRANT option in IMP command ? . INCREMENTAL 90. What is use of RECORD LENGTH option in EXP command ? Record length in bytes. What is the use of SHOW option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether file content should be displayed or not. CUMULATIVE. 97. 92.88. What is use of CONSISTENT (Ver 7) option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether a read consistent version of all the exported objects should be maintained. the flag indicates whether a record will be stored in data dictionary tables recording the export. 96. What is the use of ANALYSE (Ver 7) option in EXP command ? A flag to indicate whether statistical information about the exported objects should be written to export dump file. 91. 89. What is the use of PARFILE option in EXP command ? Name of the parameter file to passed for export. 95. What is use of FILE option in IMP command ? The name of file from which import should be performed. 93. COMPLETE. What is the use of Log (Ver 7) option in EXP command ? The name of file to which log of the export will be written. What is use of RECORD option in EXP command ? For incremental exports. What is the use of IGNORE option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether import should ignore errors encounter when issuing CREATE command. 94.
What is use of RECORDLENGTH option in IMP command ? The length of the record in bytes of the export dump file. 99. I f this is set to 'N' then only DDL for the database objects will be executed ? 101. 105. 103. 107. 100. What is use of PARFILE option in IMP command ? Name of the parameter file to passed for import command. What is use of ROWS option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether rows should be imported. If 'N' then commit will take place at table level 108. What is use of TOUSER option in IMP command ? A list of database accounts into which objects in the export dump file will be imported 104. What is the use of FULL option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether full import should be done or not. What is use of INDEXFILE option in IMP command ? . What is the use of FROMUSER option in IMP command ? A list of database accounts whose objects should be read from the export dump file. What is use of INCTYPE option in the IMP command ? The type of import being performed. What is use of INDEXES option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether import should import index on tables or not. 106. What is use of TABLES option in IMP command ? A list of tables to be imported.A flag to indicate whether grants on database objects will be imported. What is use of COMMIT option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether import should commit after each array. 109. 102.
If filename is given then all the DDL will be created in the given file.Full Backup I . 111.Cumulative Backup Suppose database crash on 14th morning. What is use of LOG option in IMP command ? Name of the file to which the log of the import will be written. Consider a case below : User is taking the backup in the following fashion : Type F I I I I C I I I I C I I Date 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 F . How can we retrieve the database ? Create the database Import from the Full backup which was taken on 1st Import from Cumulative backups which was taken on 6th Import from Cumulative backups which was taken on 1th Import from the Incremental backups 12. Now the database will be available to latest status provided there is no transaction taken place after the 13th incremental backup. What are the points to be taken care when we are using SQL*Loader for importing data from flat files ? Whether table and indexes are properly sized. What is use of DESTROY (Ver 7) option in IMP command ? A flag to indicate whether the create tablespace command found in dump files from full exports will be executed. 110.13 respectively. List the steps to restore the database if data file lost. (Assume we are taking hot backups) Copy the lost file from the backup to the original location Start the instance Mount the database Recover the database using recover database command Open the database 114. Direct option being used or not (Ver 7) If one time load do not create any index until data has been loaded and table size is verified. 112. 115. 113.Incremental Backup C . What are the advantages of using direct path option in SQL*Loader ? .
DDE ?V OLE DDE . DLL . How does DDE work ? DDE uses shared memory to exchange data and a protocol to synchronize passing of data.Dynamic Link Library OLE . What does a DLL contain ? A DLL contains code.Object Linking and Embedding. data and windows resources. MAPI ?V Messaging Application Program Interface What is DDE ? DDE is method for Inter Process Communication. How does a DLL work ? . 116.Dynamic Data Exchange.It bypasses the normal processing of insert statements and instead writes directly to tables data blocks. Data should be presorted otherwise it needs the double the size in tablespace. An inter process communication is a method of passing data between processes and synchronising events. What are areas a DBA can monitor the database using SQLDBA command? DBA can monitor the following areas to do fine tuning of the database : Processes Sessions Tables(Locks etc) SQL Area Library Cache Latch Locks File I/O System I/O Rollback Segments Statistics (System. When direct option is used index become invalid and once the load complete the new key is merged with all old one and bring the status to valid. Sessions) Apart from this all DBA activities can be performed through SQLDBA command.
What is the connection between OLE and DDE ? OLE is a set of DDE executable commands to which DDE protocol is applicable. . The reference object is automatically refreshed 2. The reference object is not refreshed 3. Client/Server application and Monitor application. What is a monitor application in the context of DDE ? A monitor application can only intercept messages but cannot act on it. Server and Object handlers. wht happens the linked object in the document ? 1.A DLL allocates a global memory block to an application and uses this to exchange data with application. What is the use of a monitor application ? A monitor application can be used as a debugging tool. Answer is 2 What are the types of OLE applications ? Client. If a link object is changed independently of the document. What is the difference between an embedded object and a linked object ? An embedded object is stored in the document itself while the document just stores a reference to the linked object. What is an object handler ? An Object handler is a set of DLL that facilitate communication between client application and server application. Server application. What are the parts of a DDE application ? Client application. The user decides whether the object is to refreshed or if the older version is retained. What are the two types of DDE application ? Message based DDE applications and Dynamic Data Exchange Management Library application.
what is the use of pre text/pre record/pre form 16. library. when-new-form-instance 2. What is the difference between object libraries and object groups 9. What is the difference between a stored procedure and a database trigger ? A trigger is automatically executed when the firing event occurs while stored procedure has to be invoked. What is the order of firing the following triggers 1. What is the difference between post-query and post-select 6. show_lov 19. types of record groups and usage 17. How to see the select statement when we issue execute_query 3. what is id_null function 18. How to use single data block to query multiple tables 2. What is the difference between PL/SQL library and object library 15. Facilitate the use of specialized applications to create objects which can be embedded. pre-text-item (Both are in form-level) 12. what is the difference between call_form . open_form.key-next-item . What is the difference between pre-query and pre-select triggers 10. Oracle Forms: 1. on fetch 2. what is the return data types of id_null. show_alert. How do you trap default forms processing ( DML) 5. stored procedure) 14. new_form Which is restricted built-in and why? Which can??t issue savepoint What is session parameter of open_form? 20. What are the system variables can be changed 4. What is the number of records buffered and Query array size properties of data block 8. What is the difference between pre-text-item and when-new-item-instance triggers 11.What are the advantages of OLE ? No need to switch between applications. What is the order of checking for a program unit from form module(local program unit. What is purpose and order of firing the following triggers 1. What is the validation unit property of form module 13. on select 7. Text-item1 1. which are the triggers will fire in the following situation I have three text items 1.
Go_item (??text_item2??). How to set forms default directory 32. What is the use of transactional triggers 30. When-validate-item 3. form then item level trigger what changes I have to make. Post-change If I press tab or enter key at text-item1 what are the triggers will fire and order of firing during the entire navigation. How do you suppress the logon screen while running the form for the first time 23. Text-item3 1. When-new-item-instance 4. Go_item (??text_item3??). What is the return data type of populate_group built-in 33. Can we re-generate and save a library that has been attached with some forms but they are running currently. 2. Can we re-generate a library that has been attached with some forms . What is synchronous and asynchronous parameters for run_product built-in 22. Then what are the triggers will fire and order of firing 21. block and item level If I want to execute first block. Text-item2 1. Key-next-item 5. 28. What is primary canvas property of window and where it will be useful 24. I have when-button-pressed trigger at form . Post-text-item 6. Post-change 3. What is the difference between OLE object created at design time and runtime . Pre-text-item 2. Can we modify a sub classed object ( from object group and from object libraries) 31. : Text_item2: = ??Nagendra??. will the changes will reflect in the referenced forms 29. what is data parameter and text parameter 26. Key-next-item 5. When-validate-item 3. 25. Can we re-generate a library that is currently accessing by some other session 27. When-new-item-instance 4. Go_item (??text_item3??). If I change key-next-item trigger of text-item1 Go_item (??text_item2??). Pre-text-item 2. Post-text-item 6.
What is the coordination property of a relation 39. on-clear-details 3. What is the use of format triggers 10. What is the use of enforce primary key property of data block 42. What is flex mode and confine mode 12. How to find out the previous form id in multi form application(it??s system variable) 48. What is the anchoring and enclosing object 4. What is the first trigger fires when we run a form 41. How to change the font of an field at runtime based on the value 3. What is the place holder 8. Can we define a relation between two control blocks 37. Will the timer will expire during large query executing 35. Groups and Repeating frames) 2. What is anchor object 5. How to use single LOV for multiple items Oracle reports: 1. How to copy values from list item to record group 46. Select the departments whose sum of the salary greater than the sum of salaries of any department? 4. If we delete on-clear-details trigger in a relation what happens 40.Nth row 2. on-populate-details 2. what is the use of group filter SQL and PL/SQL 1. what is use of the index ( maximum try to cover) 3. What is implicit cursors 5. pre-select 47. what difference between the logical and physical pages and planes 13. How to navigate from one form to other form(built-in) 45. Minimum requirement to make a matrix report (Queries. If we change relation property from non-isolated to cascading what changes will occur 38. What is the built-in package available to manipulate text files( forms) 36. SRW package 11. Can we put items other than buttons in the toolbars 43. What is public synonyms and uses . Queries for Nth maximum . pre-query 4. What is the use of frame(not repeating) 9.34. How to rotate a field( data base field in the layout) 6. In a non-isolated relation what is the order of firing the following triggers 1. Which object relates content and stacked canvases(window) 44. What is the difference between lexical and bind parameters 7.
30 in a single row Output Dept10 dept20 dept30 256 13. 8.extents and segments 5. When index will be used in the query 7. 4. Ans: alter table emp modify (empno not null). what is temporary segments 7. The fallowing are the rules for . Query to display no of employees in the department 10. Query to find the employees whose salary is greater then his department average salary 11. what are the logical database components 3. Query to display employees salary as 2000 for department 20 and rest as their salaries 12. what is the relation between oracle data block . Query to display employee name and his managers name 9. Select * from emp where Comm = null. Select * from emp where Comm = ????. 2) How to make a column into not null column. What is the result of the following queries 1. ->this can be done only when all the values in empno are non null (i. 20. 2. 1) How delete duplicate records in a table delete from emp where rowid not in (select max(rowid) from emp group by empno). what is redo log 8. Query to find the no of subordinate levels for given manager 14. 3. what is row chaining 4. what is the difference between database buffers and redo log buffer of SGA 10. how many types of segments are there 6. what are the physical database components 2. Query to find the employees who is having more then one subordinate 10.6. Query to find the no of employees who is drawing less than 1500 and greater than 2000 Server concepts 1. Select * from emp where Comm is ( select null from dual). Select * from emp where Comm in (null). what is the difference between rollback segments and redo log files 9.e not empty) ?h To make a not null column into null column alter table emp modify (empno null).
c.e when new column can accept null values ) >You may add a NOT NULL column in three steps.mgr =b. select * from emp_self. EMP_NO ------101 100 . Modify the column to be NOT NULL.emp_no and a. ii) Query to get the employees who are getting salaries more than their managers select a. adding null or not null property >You may change a column??s null property to not null only when that field does contain null values(i.---------.---------. b. a.sal > b. Fill every row in that column with data.mgr from emp_self where mgr in (select emp_no from emp_self where sal > 10000). EMP_NO EMPN_NAME SAL MGR DEPTID --------. iii.emp_no from emp_self a. Add the column without NOT NULL specified. >You can increase the number of digits and the number of decimal places in a NUMBER column at any time >To CHANGE data types or to DECREASE column??s width the column should be null for every row 3)Write queries for the fallowing ex. adding a colum to a table >You may add a column at any time if NOT NULL isn??t specified (i.sal. modifying a column >You can increase a CHAR column??s width at any time.-------------------.---------400 jane 20000 110 20 102 Mary 19000 110 20 101 charles 8000 105 50 104 Linda 9000 100 10 110 john 25000 105 20 105 newton 2000 50 100 ALEN 15000 105 50 200 BORIS 3000 110 20 103 DAVID 10000 100 10 300 monica 7000 105 50 i) Query to get the employees who are working under mgr with salary > 10000 select emp_no. It can??t be empty) >At any time you may change a column??s not null property to null ii.i.emp_self b where a.
DEPTID -----20 50 4) study the fallowing pl/sql block and find the type of error ->syntax. When n=1 .SAL) ------.-------------------.000 105 200 boris 10. DEPTID MIN(A.deptid. end loop.semantic(logical) or precedence begin for i in 1. sal =10000 ->fifth highest salary .000 110 101 charles 8. 5) Difference between (MAX.empn_name.sal < b.------.000 105 SQL> select max(sal).LEAST) The functions max and min compares different rows .a.. sal =20000 ->second highest salary . iv) Query to find the second highest salary in different departments.sal group by b. n=4 . end.MIN) and (GREATEST .either actual or calculated values within a single row. select a.min(sal) from emp_self. Ex.---------100 alen 9. .deptid) group by a.sal from emp_self a where &n = (select count(*) from emp_self b where a.min(a.sal < b.5 loop update emp set sal = 1000 where empno =100 .sal). Whereas greatest and least work on a group of columns . EMP_NO EMPN_NAME SAL MGR -----. select * from emp_self.---------10 9000 20 20000 50 8000 v) Query to find departments with total salary >25000 select deptid from emp_self having sum(sal) >25000 group by deptid.deptid.110 300 iii) Query to find the nth highest salary select a. sal) from emp_self a where 1 in (select count(*) from emp_self b where a.
15)Differences between delete . between pages iv.) Any processing that will not affect the data retrieved by the report can be performed in the other triggers. GREATEST(SAL) LEAST(SAL) ------------. 7)What are the improtant differences between Procedures. after report iii. any processing that will affect the data retrieved by the report should be performed in the Before Parameter Form or After Parameter Form triggers. 8)Can we call a Procedure from a Trigger ?. Report Builder has five global report triggers.Functions and Triggers are stored ?. before report ii. 14)Difference between Commit and H(?)ost . 17) why can??t you use create/drop while declaring a trigger ?. 11)Differences between ROWNUM and ROWID .---------10000 8000 SQL> select greatest(sal). (These are the two report triggers that fire before anything is parsed or fetched.after parameter form As a general rule. rollback. You cannot create new global report triggers. 10)Can we return a OUT parameter from a procedure ?. save point 20)Difference between truncate and delete (truncate =delete + commit) 1)Name the five global report triggers i.MAX(SAL) MIN(SAL) ---------. before parameter form v.truncate and drop commands .Functions and Triggers ?. 12)How many system defined exceptions are there ?. 13)How do you write user defined message for all the system defined exceptions. 6)Where Procedures. 18)Advantages of union over joins . 16) How do you display messages in the backend procedure ?. The trigger names indicate at what point the trigger fires: . 19)Definitions of commit.least(sal) from emp_self. 9)what are packages ?. 9)What are the different kinds of parameters ?.---------9000 9000 10000 10000 8000 8000 6)Different kinds of constraints . 12)How do you handle exceptions ?.
2) Name the different types of alerts note . If the parent form was a called form. Form Builder runs the new form with the same options as the parent form. PL/SQL global variables. This trigger can also be used to change parameter values or. Consequently. this trigger only fires the first time that you go to a page. a printer. In the Previewer. or after report output is sent to a specified destination. or an Oracle Office userid.MODE indicates whether the form is in Normal. The value is always a character string. new_form ( ) call_form ( ) :-Runs an indicated form while keeping the parent form active.mode-> SYSTEM. Enter Query. you can access and change the values of parameters. Form Builder releases memory (such as database cursors) that the terminated form was using. you can use this trigger for validation of command line parameters. If the Runtime Parameter Form is suppressed. Columns from the data model are not accessible from this trigger. From this trigger. After Report Fires after you exit the Previewer. Consequently.Before Report Fires before the report is executed but after queries are parsed. New_form( ) :Exits the current form and enters the indicated form. such as a file. and report-level columns. If you subsequently return to the page. Form Builder keeps the higher call active and treats it as a call to the new form. the After Parameter Form trigger still fires. If the calling form had been called by a higher form. Note. PROCEDURE CALL_FORM (formmodule_name VARCHAR2). Between Pages Fires before each page of the report is formatted. return to the Runtime Parameter Form. that this trigger always fires. . however. Form Builder runs the called form with the same Runform preferences as the parent form. such as deleting tables. if an error occurs. This trigger can be used to clean up any initial processing that was done. this trigger still fires. If the Runtime Parameter Form is suppressed. whether or not your report completed successfully. From this trigger.caution 3)call_form ( ). Form Builder runs the new form with the same Runform options as the parent form. you can access parameters and check their values. you can use this trigger for validation of command line parameters or other data. This trigger can be used for customized page formatting. or Fetch Processing mode. Before Parameter Form Fires before the Runtime Parameter Form is displayed. PROCEDURE NEW_FORM (formmodule_name VARCHAR2). The calling form is terminated as the parent form. After Parameter Form Fires after the Runtime Parameter Form is displayed. stop . 4) system. except the very first page. the trigger does not fire again. When the called form is exited Form Builder processing resumes in the calling form at the point from which you initiated the call to CALL_FORM.
0 Forms 4. QUERY Indicates that the form is currently in fetch processing mode. 8)Can we access a row in the first block from second by referencing block name along with the rowid ?.1 Object Groups 1. because the control block is not the current block. 7)In case of a block with multiple records how to display records on the screen without using cursors ?. 10)How to take care of concurrency ?. 9.NORMAL Indicates that the form is currently in normal processing mode. What is an object group ? An object group is a container for a group of obects. 2.5 9. What are different types of canvas views ? There are four types of canvas views : Content canvas views Stacked canvas views Horizontal tool bar Vertical tool bar . meaning that a query is currently being processed. What are the different objects that you cannot copy or reference in object groups ? Objects of different modules Another Objects group Individual block depndent objects Program Units.0. 4)What are important new(Advanced) features of Forms 6. so that you can copy or reference them in another module. 5)Different types of list boxes. 6)What are record groups ?.MODE to check whether the current block is in Enter Query mode.2 Canvas Views 3. Usage Notes When using SYSTEM. You define an object group when you want to package related objects. 9. ENTER-QUERY Indicates that the form is currently in Enter Query mode. Enter Query mode will never be entered. 9)In case of a block with multiple records how do check where a user entering a duplicate record well before saving it ?. be aware that if testing from a When-Button-Pressed trigger in a control block.
What are the Different Modals of Windows ? There are Two different modals of Windows are Modeless Windows Modal Windows 10.. set_view_property. and are often shown and hidden programmatically. Horizontal toolbars are displayed at the top a window. Explain about Stacked Canvas Views ? A stacked canvas view is displayed in a window on top of.3 Windows 8. scroll. Vertical toolbars are displayed along the leftside of a window. What are Modal Windows ? Modal windows are usually used as dialogs.images.4. or iconify a modal window. and operators can navigate among them if your application allows them to do so.) that operators interact with as they run your form. Explain about Horizontal/Vertical toolbar Canvas-Views ? Toolbar canvas-views are used to create toolbar for individual windows. 5. check boxes. Explain about Content Canvas Views Most canvas views are Content-Canvas Views.) and boilerplate objects(boxes. radio groups etc. 12. What are Modeless Windows ? More than one modeless windows can be displayed at the same time. 11.for example. Stacked canvas view obscure some part of the underlying content-canvas view. etc. just under the menubar. 6. 7. On some platforms. and have restricted funtionality compared to modeless windows. set the console window form property to . modeless windows can also be layered to appear either in front of or behind other windows. and is displayed at the bottom of the window to which it is assigned. Each canvas-view is displayed in a window. How do you display console on a window ? The console includes the status line and message line.lines.. 9. 9. To specify that the console should be displayed. or ??stacked?? on the content canvas view assigned to that same window. It is the base view that occupies the entire content pane of the window in which it is displayed. On most GUI platforms. What is the relation between windows and Canvas Views ? Canvas-Views are the background objects on which you place the interface items(text items. operators cannot resize. Name the functions used to get/set the canvas properties ? get_view_property.
What is the Remove on Exit property ? For a modeless window.EVENT_WINDOW to determine the name of the window for which the trigger fired 9. and you cannot change the console assignment at runtime. What are the different Window Events activated at Runtime ? When-Window-Activated When-Window_Closed When-Window_Deactivated When_Window_Resized Within these triggers. Can you have more than one content canvas view attached with a window? Yes. What are the default extensions of the files created by Menu Module ? . 15.MMX Menu Module Executable .4 Modules 17. it determines whether Oracle Forms hides the window automatically. You can also create a window that has multiple content canvas-views. and packages that can be called from other modules in the application. you can examine the build-in system variable SYSTEM.FMB Form Module Binary .A collection of objects and code routines Menu Module . Library Module .MMB Menu Module Binary . What are the different types of Modules available in Oracle Forms ? There are three types of modules in Oralcle Forms : Form Module .the name of any window in the form. 14. To hide the console.A collection of user-named procedures. 18. set the console window to <Null> 13.functions. only one of the content canvas-views assigned to a window is displayed at a time. How many windows in a form can have Console ? Only one window in a form can display the console. when the operator navigates to an item in another window.FMX Form Module Executable 19. What are the default extensions of the files created by Forms Module ? . Each window you create must have at least one content canvas-view assigned to it. 16. At runtime.A collection of Menus( a main menu and any number of submenu objects) and menu item commands that together make up an application menu.
PLL PL/SQL Library Module Binary 9. What is Master Detail Relationship ? A Master-detail relationship is an association between two base table blocks . What are the default extensions of the files created by Library Module ? .5 Master . Oracle forms navigates internally to the detail block and flushes the obsolete detail records. What is coordination Event? Any event that makes a different record in themaster block the current record is a coordination-causing event. oracle forms issues a SELECT statement to repopulate the details block with the detail records associated with the new master record. the clear phase and the population phase. what are most common types of complex master_detail relationship? There are three most common types of complex master-detail relationships: master with dependent details master with independent details detail with two masters 25. During the clear phase. 23. 22. 24. These operations are accomblished through the execution og triggers. What are the different default triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to Non-isolated? Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers Non-Isolated (the default) On-Check-Delete-Master On-Clear-Details On-Populate-Details 27. What are the different default triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to Cascade? Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers . During the population phase.Detail 21. What arethe different types of Delete details we can establish in Master-Details? Cascade Isolate Non-Isolate 26.a master block and a detail block.20. The relationship between the blocks reflects a primary key to foreign key relationship between the tables on which the blocks are based. What are the two phases of block coordination? There are two phases of block coordination.
What is an Alert? An Alert is a modal Window that displays a message notifying the operator of some application condition. What are the different types of coordinations of the Master with the Detail block? Coordination of the detail block with its master can be Immediate Deferred with Auto-Query Deferred with the no Auto-Query 31. 32. 33 . What is the Deferred with no Auto-Query Coordination of the Master with the Detail block? Deferred with Auto-Query(Deferred True. .Auto-Query true) When a Coordinationcausing events occurs. What are the different default triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to Isolated? Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers Isolated On-Clear-Details On-Populate-Details 29. Auto-Querry False) The default settings. the detail records are fetched immediately. What is the deferred with Auto-Quey Coordination of the Master with the Detail block? Deferred with Auto-Query(Deferred True.Oracle Forms doesn??t automatically fetch the detail records the operator must navigate to the detail block and explicitly execute a query. what is the immediate coordination of the Master with the Detail block? Immediate(Deferred False. What are the Coordination properties ina master detai relationship? The coordinatio in properties are Deferred Auto-Query These properties determine when the population phase of block coordination should occur.Cascading On-Clear-Details On-Populate-Details Pre-Delete 28.Oracle Forms defers fetching the associated detail records until the operator navigates to the detail block.Auto-Query False) When a Coordinationcausing events occurs. 30. When a coordination-causing event occurs. 34.
41 . 43 . 36 .EDIT_TEXTITEM independent of any particular text item.and title. what are the different display styles of alert? Find_alert Show_alert 37 . but display a different message each time it is invoked. How do you change the alert message during runtime? You can change an alert message at run time by executing the SET_ALERT_PROPERTY built-in procedure. What is the User named Editor? A User named Editor has the same text editing functionality has the default editor. 40. whereas the edit_textitem built_in needs the .including search/replace and cut. Editors 38 . Example Set_Alert_Property(alert_id. When do you use Alert? Use alerts to advise operators of unusual situations or to warn operators who are about to perform an action that might have undesirable or unexpected consequences. What is the default editor? The default editor provides standard editing features. 39 .position. The default editor is built into every form and is automatically available from every text item. Changing an alert??s message allows you to reuse the same alert object. a system editor.ALERT_MESSAGE_TEXT.copy and paste. because it is a named object.??The product you selected is not in stock??). What is the System Editor? If there is a system editor available.35.or a user-named editor. rather than the default editor. but.you can specify editor attributes such as window display size. What are the different types of editors? There are three editors that can be used at run time the default editor. 42 . What are the built-ins to display the user-named editor? A User-named editor can be displayed programatically with built in procedure SHOW_EDITOR. you can specify that Oracle Forms should use the current system editor. What is the difference between SHOW_EDITOR and EDIT_TEXTITEM? Show_Editor is the generic built-in which accepts any editor name and takes some input string and returns modified output string.
What is the basic data structure that is required for creating an LOV? Record Group 46. Oracle Forms compares the current value of the text item to the values in the first column displayed in the LOV whenever the validation event occurs.The LOV is not displayed. However. . What are the built-ins used to display the LOV? Show_lov list_values 47.Oracle Forms displays the LOV and uses the text item value as the search criteria to automatically reduce the list. What is an LOV? An LOV is a scrollable popup window that provides the operator with either a single or multi-column selection list. What is the ??LOV for validation?? Property of an item? What is the use of it? When LOV for validation is set to true. If the value in the text item doesn??t match one of the values in the first column of the LOV. LOV(List Of Values) 44. If the value in the text item matches one of the values in the first column of the LOV. What are the built-ins that are used to attach an LOV programatically to an item? Set_item_property Get_item_property (by setting the LOV_NAMEproperty) 48.input focus to be in the textitem before the built_in is executed. unlike database tables.record groups are separate objects that bekong to the form module in which they are defined. 47. What are the built-ins that are used for setting the LOV properties at runtime? get_lov_property set_lov_property Record Groups 49. Validation succeeds . the processing continues normally. 45. What is the Record Group? A record group is an internal Oracle Forms data structure that has a column/row framework similar to a database table.
but whose structures can be modified programatically at runtime.LONG. 55.datatypes and lengths from the database columns referenced in the SELECT statement. and DATE provided that the total number of columns does not exceed 64k. What are the built-ins used for getting cell values? . What is a Query Record Group? A Query record is a record group that has an associated SELECTstatement.50. The columns in a query record group derive their default names. What is a Static Record Group? A Static record group is not associated with a query.rather. What is the maximum allowed length of a Record Group Column? Record group column names cannot exceed 30 characters. and they remain fixed at runtime. you define its structure and row values at design time. 51 . What are the built-ins used for creating and deleting groups? CREATE_GROUP(function) CREATE_GROUP_FROM_QUERY(function) DELETE_GROUP(Procedure) 57. 54 . How many number of columns a record group can have? A record group can have an ultimate number of columns of type CHAR. What is a Non Query Record Group? A non-query record group is a group that does not have an associated query. What are the different types of Record Group? Query Record Groups NonQuery Record Groups Static Record Groups 53.NUMBER. The records in a query record group are the rows retreived by the query associated with that record group. 52. 56 . What are the built-ins used for modifying a group structure? ADD_GROUP_COLUMN(function) ADD_GROUP_ROW(Procedure) DELETE_GROUP_ROW(Procedure) POPULATE_GROUP(function) POPULATE_GROUP_WITH_QUERY(function) SET_GROUP_CHAR_CELL(Procedure) SET_GROUP_DATE_CELL(Procedure) SET_GROUP_NUMBER_CELL(Procedure) 58 .
66 . What are the built-ins used for processing rows? GET_GROUP_ROW_COUNT(function) GET_GROUP_SELECTION(function) GET_GROUP_SELECTION(function) RESET_GROUP_SELECTION(Procedure) SET_GROUP_SELECTION(Procedure) UNSET_GROUP_SELECTION(Procedure) 60. Use the ADD_GROUP_COLUMN function to add a column to a record group that was created at design time (1) True (2) False. False 62. What are the Parameters? Parameters provide a simple mechanism for defining and setting the values of inputs that are required by a form at startup.(1)True (2) False False PARAMETERS 63. Use the Add_Group_row procedure to add a row to a static record group. 65 .or RUN_PRODUCT. How do you call other ORACLE products from Oracle Forms? . What are the built-ins used for finding Object ID functions? FIND_GROUP(function) FIND_COLUMN(function) 61. What are the Built-ins used for sending Parameters to forms? You can pass parameter values to a form when an application executes the CALL_FORM.OPEN_FORM. Form parameters are variables of type CHAR. which can be up to 64k.NEW_FORM.GET_GROUP_CHAR_CELL(function) GET_GROUP_DATE_CELL(function) GET_GROUP_NUMBER_CELL(function) 59 . 64 . What is the maximum number of characters the parameter can store? The maximum number of characters the parameter can store is only valid for CHAR parameters. or DATE that you define at design time. Number parameters default to 23 bytes and DATE parameters default to 7 bytes.NUMBER.
image items can be either base table items (items that relate directly to database columns) or control items. 68 . . What are the difference Parameter Types? Text Parameters Data Parameters 70 . Image ItemsImage items are special types of interfaace controls that store and display either vector or bitmaps images.parameter_name. What are the different types of images? BoilerPlate Images Image Items 73 . you can reference and set the values of form parameters using bind variable syntax.parameter_name=??VIKRAM??. Example: Name_In(??PARAMETER. 67. If the called product is unavailable at the time of calkl.my_param??) Copy(??SURESH??. How do you reference a parameter indirectly? To indirectly reference a parameter Use the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins to indirectly set and reference the parameter??s value.RUN_PRODUCT is a built-in used to invoke one of the supported Oracle tools products and specifies the name of the document or module to be run. Oracle Forms returns a message to the operator. Like other items that store values. How do you reference a Parameter? In PL/SQL. Images 72.??PARAMETER>my_param??) 69 . What is the difference between Boilerplate images and image items? Boilerplate Images BoilerPlate images are static images(either vector or bitmap) that you import from the file system or database to use as graphical elements in your form. Data paremeters are used to pass data to products invoked with the RUN_PRODUCT built-in subprogram. Example :PARAMETER. or :block.item=PARAMETER. 71 . such as company logos and maps. When do you use DATA_PARAMETER type? When the value of a data parameter being passed to a called product is always the name of a record group defined in the current form. Can you pass data parameters to forms? No.
When you invoke multiple forms with OPEN_FORM and CALL_FORM in the Same application.The definiton of an image item is storred as part of the form module.mouse click.state whether the following are TRUE or FALSE 77 .MOUSE_BUTTON_PRESSED SYSTEM.SESSION). What is the use of IMAGE_ZOOM built_in? You can use the IMAGE_ZOOM built-in subprogram to manipulate images in image items. What are the various subevents a mouse double click event invokes? Double_clicking the mouse consists of the mouse down. 81 .MOUSE_BUTTON_SHIFT_STATE SYSTEM. 74 .FMX files. but no image file is actually assciated with an image item until the item is populated at runtime. An open form cannot execute the CALL_FORM procedure if a chain of called forms has been initiated by another open form TRUE 79.FMB and . State any three mouse event System Variables? SYSTEM. does Oracle Forms issues a savepoint? TRUE/FALSE TRUE 80.mouse down and mouse up events.ACTIVE. What are the triggers associated with the image items? The Following triggers are available for responding programatically to image items events When-Image-Activated First when the operator double-clicks on a image item When-Image_Pressed Fires when an operator clicks or double-clicks on an image item 75. When a form is invoked with CALL_FORM. Any attempt to navigate programatically to a disabled form in a call form stack is allowed FALSE 78 . Working with Multiple Forms 76.MOUSE_ITEM . How do you create a new session while opening a new form? Using OPEN_FORM built-in setting the SESSION option.mouse up. . Ex: OPEN_FORM(??STOCKS??.
SYSTEM. Property class assignment cannot be changed . Can a Property class itself be based on a property class? Yes 88 . Example: Oracle Forms is an example of an OLE container 84. OLE containers provide a place to store. What are Visual attributes? Visual attributes are the font.color and pattern properties that you set for form and menu objects that appear in your application??s interface.color and pattern attributes . 87 . Creating integrated applications enables you to use the features from several MS Windows application. Examples of OLE servers are MS Word and MS Excel. 83. Once you create a property class you can base other objects on it. What are the different styles of Activation of OLE objects? In-place Activation External Activation Visual Attributes And Property Classes 85. An object based on a property class inherit the setting of any property in the class that makes sense for that object.MOUSE_CANVAS SYSTEM. 86. What is the difference between Object Embedding and Linking in Oracle Forms? An Ole server applications creates OLE objects that are embedded or linked in OLE containers.MOUSE_RECORD OLE 82. What is a Property Class? A Property class is a named object that contains a list of properties and their settings. What are the Important differences between property classes and visual attributes? The important differences betweeen property classes and visual attributes are Named Visual attributes define only font. What is an OLE? Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) provides you with the capability to integrate objectrs from many MS Windows applications into a single compound document. property classes can contain these and any other properties.display and manipulate objects that are created by OLE server applications. You can change the appearance of objects at runtime by changing the named visual attribute programmatically.
Forms Built-ins 89. What is a TEXT_IO package? The Text_IO package allows you to read and write information to a file in the file system. the trigger fires as soon as Oracle Forms Determines through validation that the record should be processed by the next post or commit as an insert or update. and after the operator attempts to navigate out of the item. the named visual attribute settings settings take precedence. What is WHEN-DATABASE-RECORDN Trigger? Fires when Oracle Forms first marks a record as an insert or an update.programmatically When an object is inheriting from both a property class and a named visual attribute.COORDINATION_OPERATION? SYSTEM. 95. 90. and any visual attribute properties in the class are ignored. That is.Cooordination_Operation= . Triggers 92. Example: System. 93. What is an USER_EXIT? Calls the user exit named in the user_exit_string invokes a 3GL program by name which has been properly linked into your current Oracle Forms executable. This generally occurs only when the operator modifies the first item in a record. What are Master_Detail Triggers? ON_CHECK_DELETE_MASTER ON_CLEAR_DETAILS ON_POPULATE_DETAILS System Variables 94. What is the difference between $$DATE$$ and $$DBDATE$$? $$$$DBDATE$$ retrieves the current database date DBDATE$$ retrieves the current operating system date. What is SYSTEM. 91. What is SYNCHRONIZE? Synchronizes the terminal screen with the internal state of the form. That is SYNCHRONIZE updates the screen display to reflect the information that Oracle Forms has in its internal representation of the screen.COORDINATION_OPERATION represents the coordination causing event that occureson the master block in master detail relationship.
What are the different display styles of List item? Poplist Text list Combo box. When The operator selects the list icon. A List item can have only one column whereas an LOV can have one or more columns. 97. What is a Combo Box? The Combo Box style list item combines the features found in list and text items. a vertical scroll bar appears. That is. 102. the operator will be prompted to save them before the new form is loaded. the first form remains displayed.Miscelleneous 96. Display items are generally used asa boilerplate or as conditional text. What are Display items? Display items are similar to text items with the exception that displays items only store and display fetched or assigned values. 100. a list of available choices appears. When one form invokes another form by executing CALL_FORM. 101. the combo box style list item will both display fixed values and accept one operator-entered values. allowing the operator to view and select undisplayed values. . If there are changes pending in the first form. 103. Unlike the poplist or the text list style list items. What is NEW_FORM built-in? When one form invokes another form by executing New_form. and operators can navigate between the forms as desires. What is a Poplist? The poplist style list item appears initially as a single field(similar to a text item field. 98 . What are the differences between LOV and List item? LOV is a Property whereas List item is an item. 99 . What is the difference between OPEN_FORM AND CALL_FORM? when one form invokes another form by executing OPEN_FORM. the called form is modal with respect to the calling form. Calling NEW_FORM completely replaces the first form with the second. Oracle Forms exists the first form and releases its memeory before loading the new form. When the text list contains values that cannot be displayed(due to the display area of the item). any windowa that belong to the calling form are disabled and operators cannot navigate to them until they first exit the called form. What is a Text list? The text list style item appears as a rectangular box which displays a fixed number of values.
but before the transaction has been . When a library attaches another library. The controls can be used to obtain user input and display program output. What is a STRIP_SOURCE generate option? Removes the source code from the library file and generates a library file that contains only pcode.program units in the first library can reference program units in the attached library. This can significantly reduce the runtime memory requirements of an application. 106. The controls can be used to obtain user input and display program output. What is the difference between POST-DATABASE-COMMIT and POST-FORM-COMMIT? POST-FORM-COMMIT fires once during the Post and Commit Transactions process.you can attach it to any other form.104. including user. you can call library units from triggers. 109. The Post-Forms-Commit trigger fires after inserts.grids and knobs. 108.module. What is a Timer? A timer is an ??internal time clock?? that you programatically create to perform an action each time the timer expires.menu or library . Example:f45gen module=old_lib. 105. what is a Library? A library is a collection of subprograms. a library??s program units are loaded into an application only when needed. What are the advantages of libraries? Libraries provide a convenient means of storing client-side program units and sharing them among multiple applications.functions and packages. menu item commands and user-named routines you write in the modules to which modules to which you have attached the library. but cannot be subsequently edited in the designer. Libraries support dynamic loading-that is. after the database commit occurs. VBX controls were originally developed as extensions for the MS Visual Basic environment and include such items as sliders. Then. Once you create a library. The resulting file can be used for final deployment. What are the built-ins associated with timers? FIND_TIMER CREATE_TIMER DELETE_TIMER 110.named procedures.pll userid=scott/tiger Strip_source=YES output_file=<new_file_name> 107. updates and deletes have been posted to the database. What are VBX controls? VBX controls provide a simple method of building and enhancing user interfaces.
Database. 112. and there can be multiple items on a single canvas-view. functions. blocks are owned by forms. canvas-views.5 NOTES Program units : User-named procedures. after the operator has defined the example record by entering query criteria in Enter Query Mode. 111. or packages. Pre-Query trigger fires before Pre-Select trigger. Items are assigned to canvas-views. but before the statement is actually issued. File/Database(Filter dialog) Default font scaling off : ignores the runtime font. and items are displayed. or library modules. etc. all form objects are visible. triggers can be owned by forms. The Post-Database-Commit Trigger fires after Oracle Forms issues the Commit to finalize the transaction. What is the use of the Transactional Triggers? Using Transactional triggers we can control or modify the default functionality of the Oracle Forms. blocks. What is the difference between PRE-SELECT and PREQUERY? Fires during Execute Query and Count Query processing. Application partitioning allows you to optimize performance and resource usage by storing and executing procedures either locally or at the server. all other form objects (windows. Module Preference : File. and the display hierarchy corresponds to the Oracle Forms object ownership hierarchy: form--block-item. record groups. or items. Only objects with PL/SQL option displays only code objects . Application Partitioning : PL/SQL engine is available on both PL/SQL is the language used for both client-side Oracle Forms applications and server-side database triggers and stored procedures. The Visual view hierarchy corresponds to the hierarchy of objects in a form window: window--canvas-view--item. and there is a PL/SQL engine in both Oracle Forms Runform and the Oracle7 Server. What is the trigger associated with the TIMER? WHEN-TIMER-EXPIRED 113. only windows. ORACLE FORMS 4. whichever makes the most sense for your particular application and configuration. Items and relations are owned by blocks. The Pre-Query trigger fires just before Oracle Forms issues the SELECT statement to the database. and scales objects according to the size of the default design time font. Each window can have multiple canvas-views.) are owned by forms. This means that you can take advantage of application partitioning to execute application code on either the client or the server. editors. after Oracle Forms constructs the SELECT statement to be issued. can be defined in forms. Navigator Views : Ownership View : In the ownership view. canvas-views are assigned to windows. on :scales objects according to the size of the default runtime font. Visual View : In the Visual view.fibalized by issuing the commit. menus.
copying a reference object results in referencing only In referencing when the source object name changes. Variant property : defined separetely in the property window. You can change the appearance of objects at runtime by changing the named visual attribute programmatically. Object groups provide a way to bundle objects into higher-level building blocks that can be used in other parts of an application and in subsequent development projects. Pre-Event Triggers : A Pre-event signals a point just prior to the occurrence of either a . Inherit property : inherits from property class. the individual attribute settings reflect the current system defaults. Object groups : An object group is a container for a group of objects. Object groups cannot contain other object groups. gives dialog options for associated objects.Default Visual attributes : specifies that that the object should be displayed with default color. Members of object groups should be defined in the same form. color. the named visual attribute settings take precedence. and pattern attributes. and font settings. When an object is inheriting from both a property class and a named visual attribute. Property class Vs. Internal processing events Overview of Trigger Categories This section provides an overview of commonly used triggers. Custom Visual attributes : design time specification Named visual attributes : specifies that the object should use the attribute settings defined for the named visual attribute Property class can contain other property classes. On-Event Triggers : An On-event signals a point at which you can replace Oracle Forms default processing. pattern. property classes can contain these and any other properties. You define an object group when you want to package related objects so you can copy or reference them in another module. it has to be updated for all referencing objects in the reference source information property. Named visual attributes : Named visual attributes define only font. and any visual attribute properties in the class are ignored. Copy object option : automatically copies objects owned by the item being copied. When Visual Attribute Name is set to Default. grouped into the following functional categories: o block-processing triggers o interface event triggers o master-detail triggers o message-handling triggers o navigational triggers o query-time triggers o transactional triggers o validation triggers When-Event Triggers : A When-event signals a point at which you can augment Oracle Forms default processing with additional tasks or operations. Events : Interface events. property class assignment cannot be changed programmatically.
The Relation Object When you create a relation. Key Triggers : Key triggers have a one-to-one relationship with specific keys. There are two phases of block coordination: the clear phase and the population phase. Oracle Forms navigates internally to the detail block and flushes the obsolete detail records. Isolated. The actual code that Oracle Forms generates depends on how the properties of the relation are set. Master-Detail Relationships : Block Coordination To maintain the master-detail relationship at runtime.When-event or an On-event. the trigger fires when the operator presses a specific key or key-sequence. The Copy Value from Item property specifies the primary key item in the master block whose value gets copied to the foreign key item in the detail block whenever a detail record is created or queried. It can be set to Non-Isolated. The properties that affect the functionality of a relation include Master Deletes. Isolated : Allows the master record to be deleted and does not affect the associated detail records in the database. When relations are nested to . Prevents the deletion of a master record if associated detail records exist in the database. Because the value of the primary key item in the master record gets copied to the foreign key item in the detail block. That is. Oracle Forms automatically does the processing necessary to coordinate the master and detail blocks. During the population phase. Deleting a record or pressing [[Up]] or [[Down]] to move to a different record are both examples of coordination-causing events. Cascading: Allows the master record to be deleted and automatically deletes any associated detail records from the base table at commit time. Coordination. and Prevent Masterless Operation. Oracle Forms coordinates the master and detail blocks to ensure that the records displayed in the detail block are associated with the current record in the master block. or Cascading. the Copy Value from Item property is set on two or more foreign key items in the detail block. it is automatically incorporated in the WHERE clause of the SELECT statement that Oracle Forms issues to populate the detail block. These operations are accomplished through the execution of triggers. Master Deletes Property: The Master Deletes property allows you to specify how the deletion of a record in the master block should affect records in the detail block. When such an event occurs. Any event that makes a different record in the master block the current record is a coordination-causing event. Post-Event Triggers : A Post-event signals a point just following the occurrence of either a When-event or an On-event. The Copy Value from Item Property The mechanism that Oracle Forms used to coordinate the population of the detail block with the current record in the master block is the Copy Value from Item property on the foreign key item in the detail block. Oracle Forms issues a SELECT statement to repopulate the detail block with the detail records associated with the new master record. Oracle Forms generates the triggers and PL/SQL procedures required to enforce coordination between the master and detail blocks. Non-Isolated : The default setting. During the clear phase. When blocks are related through a compound join.
Deferred with No Auto-query (Deferred True. Note: If your database is using the ORACLE7 Server cascading deletes feature. Auto-Query False) when the detail block is visible to the operator. but the records in the detail block are cleared immediately. Oracle Forms sets the Copy Value from Item property on the foreign key items in the detail block automatically." That is.several levels. Deferred coordination is also useful in situations where the operator may not need to view the detail records at all. The Copy Value from Item property specifies the name of the corresponding primary key item in the format master_block. deletions do not automatically cascade to multiple levels of a relation chain. Coordination of the detail block with its master can be Immediate. Setting the Properties of Foreign Key Items in the Detail Block When you create a relation. Coordination Properties : The Coordination properties Deferred and Auto-Query determine when the population phase of block coordination should occur. To fetch the detail records. When you create the relation in the New Block window. only records in the immediate detail block are deleted.item_name. the operator must navigate to the detail block and explicitly execute a query. when the operator must navigate to the detail block in a different window to be able to view detail records. to occur until it is actually required. Auto-Query True)When a coordinationcausing event occurs. Oracle Forms defers fetching the associated detail records until the operator navigates to the detail block. Auto-Query False) The default setting. and its attendant processing. When a coordinationcausing event occurs. Also. This functionality prevents a detail block from displaying records that are inconsistent with the current record in the master block. the value stored in the primary key item in the master block is copied to the foreign key item in the detail block whenever a detail record is created or queried. deferring coordination can prevent an unnecessary database query. Auto-Query False) When a coordinationcausing event occurs. the detail records are fetched immediately. Deferred with Auto-Query (Deferred True. Choosing the Appropriate Coordination Deferred coordination can more accurately be thought of as "deferred population. In this case. At runtime. when a coordination-causing event occurs in the master block. Immediate (Deferred False. Oracle Forms also alters the . As a general rule. That is. the population phase of coordination is postponed. choose immediate coordination (Deferred False. Oracle Forms does not automatically fetch the detail records. or Deferred with No Auto-query. Deferred coordination with Auto-query is preferable when the detail block is not immediately visible. and when it is assumed that the operator will always want to see the detail records associated with the current master record. Deferred coordination with No Auto-query allows operators to navigate through detail records without forcing coordination. for example. do not use the Cascading deletes option in Oracle Forms. Deferred coordination with No Auto-query is useful when you want operators to be able to go into Enter Query mode and specify additional query criteria in the detail block before population occurs. Deferred with Auto-query.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A relation. Oracle Forms does not delete the master-detail procedures. On-Clear-Details trigger and. rather than in the New Block window. the On-Populate-Details trigger. Deleting a Relation You can delete a relation by selecting it in the Object Navigator and choosing Navigator>Delete.. if the relation was created in the New Block window.properties of the foreign key item(s) in the detail block by doing the following: o setting the Canvas property to NULL to make the item a NULL-canvas item. If you do so. if present. since the same information is likely to be displayed in the primary key item(s) in the detail block. Oracle Forms deletes all of the master-detail triggers that were attached to the relation's master block and clears the Copy Value from Item property of the foreign key item(s) in the detail block. you may want to undo these settings so that foreign key item(s) are visible to the operator..the relevant detail section from the details relation. The purpose of these settings is to hide the foreign key item(s) from the operator. so that operators cannot edit the foreign key value and thus disrupt master-detail coordination. When you create a relation in the Object Navigator. These settings are most appropriate when operators can view both the master and detail blocks at the same time. The following table shows what happens when you delete a relation or an object that is part of a relation: If you delete. o setting the following properties to False: o Displayed o Enabled o Navigable o Query Allowed o Update Allowed o sequencing items in the Navigator such that the foreign key items are last in the block's navigation sequence Also. and removes master-with-independent. This is the result.. Any comments or code that you added in this section are removed also. . A detail block in a Oracle Forms deletes the relation. you might want to set these same properties yourself. Oracle Forms does not create a boilerplate text label for the foreign key items. If operators cannot see the master block when viewing detail records. The master or detail block Oracle Forms deletes the relation and all of the in a relation.. make sure that the item Update Allowed property is set to False.master-detail triggers.
that is. however. it cannot be deleted entirely. Operators can query the existence of specific detail records. (This assumes that the foreign key item(s) in the detail block are not displayed. Setting this property to True has the following effects: Oracle Forms does not allow records to be inserted in the detail block when there is no master record in the master block. (Not disrupted. It is based on the detail block warehouse and the master block region. recommended). Preventing Masterless Operations in the Detail Block It is often desirable to prevent operators from peforming masterless operations in a detail block. to prevent them from querying or inserting records in the detail block when there is no current record in the master block. It is usually appropriate to prevent masterless inserts when operators are likely to encounter an error if they attempt to commit detail records that have been created independently of a master record. disrupts master-detail block coordination. but it does not prevent them from navigating to the detail block and attempting these operations. Such an error occurs when the detail block derives the value of its foreign-key items from the primary key items in the master record (by way of the Copy Value from Item property). BEGIN . Doing so. Oracle Forms does not allow querying in the detail block when there is no master record that came from the database in the master block. it may be desirable to disallow any attempt to navigate to a detail block when there is no master record. (Not deleting a master-detail trigger or procedure.) Preventing Navigation to the Detail Block Setting the Prevent Masterless Operation property to True prevents operators from querying and inserting in a detail block for which there is no corresponding master record. In some applications. Any attempt to insert a record generates error FRM41105: Cannot create records without a parent record. you might want to prevent masterless queries in a detail block because operators cannot perform effective queries from the detail block. The following example shows one way to prevent operators from navigating to a detail block for which there is no master. You can set the Prevent Masterless Operation property to True to prevent operators from performing masterless operations in the detail block of the relation. Any master-detail trigger Oracle Forms does not prevent you from or procedure.The foreign key item in a The master-detail block coordination will be detail block. When-New-Block-Instance trigger on detail block warehouse: DECLARE alert_dummy NUMBER. Any attempt to query generates error FRM-41106: Cannot query records without a parent record. but they cannot determine which master records own them. Similarly. Although the foreign key item in recommended) the detail block can be hidden by making it a NULL-canvas item.
region_id IS NULL THEN /* ** There isn't a master record." The trigger then navigates to the master block to allow the operator to do just that.'region'. This topic describes three of the most common types of complex master-detail relationships: o master with dependent details o master with independent details o detail with two masters Complex Relations and Cascading Deletes When you set the Master Deletes property of a relation to Cascading. To create such relationships. Thus. The built-in function GET_RECORD_PROPERTY is used to determine the status of the current record in the master block. When you create complex master-detail relationships. . STATUS) = 'NEW' OR :region. Creating Complex Master-Detail Relationships Many applications require complex master-detail relationships that involve more than two blocks. simply define as many individual relations as needed. any block can be the master or detail in more than one relation. END. (The function GET_BLOCK_PROPERTY is nested as the first argument to GET_RECORD_PROPERTY to return the record number of the current record in the region block. be aware that deletes are enforced only for the immediate detail block in the relation. END IF.) If the status of the current record is NEW. /* ** Put the input focus in the master block */ GO_BLOCK('region'). Oracle Forms displays an alert window with the message "Query or enter a master record before moving to the detail block. There is no practical limit to the number of relations that can be defined in a form. Oracle Forms automatically adjusts the existing triggers to manage the relations you define. in a complex master-detail relationship involving relations between blocks A and B (A_B). Further. current_record). The When-New-Block-Instance trigger fires whenever the operator navigates to the detail block. indicating that the record is not an existing master record. display an alert that tells the ** operator to query or enter a region record before moving to ** the warehouse block */ alert_dummy := SHOW_ALERT('my_alert'). and a block that is the master in one relation can be the detail in another./* ** See if there is a master record by checking the status ** of the current record in the master block */ IF Get_Record_Property(Get_Block_Property('region'.
Detail with Two Masters A detail with two masters relationship involves a single detail block that has two master blocks. The relations can be created in any order. you might want to create a master with two details with each relationship joining on the same foreign key item in the detail block. customer and emp. For example. each of which has the same master block. if one relation in a chain of related blocks is set to deferred coordination. The operator could then see all of the warehouses and customers within the currently selected region. You might also want to create a When-New-Block-Instance trigger that checks the . This structure is useful when you want to display more than one set of detail records for a single master record. Thus. and Oracle Forms will automatically support coordination. consider the effect of the Master Deletes and Coordination properties on the detail blocks. For example. To create this type of relationship. 'detail_block.and B and C (B_C). in the sample application referred to earlier. Usually. the master block region could be displayed along with the detail blocks warehouse and customer. the Copy Value from Item property is set for each foreign key item in the detail block to point to the primary key item in the appropriate master block. Depending on the desired functionality. Oracle Forms displays the appropriate detail records for whichever master block is the current block in the form. When you create this type of relationship. To create a master with dependent details relationship.Master_Block||'. In the sample application. Master with Independent Details A master with independent details relationship involves two or more detail blocks. Copy(name_in(:System. Master with Dependent Details A master with dependent details relationship includes a master block and n levels of detail blocks.item'). however. define the individual relations A_B and B_C separately. define the individual relations A_B and A_C separately. you will be joining on different foreign key items in the detail block.primary_key_item'). A coordination-causing event in the master block results in both detail blocks being populated with the appropriate detail records. such that the first detail block is itself a master for its own detail block. the detail records in Block C are not automatically deleted unless Relation B_C is also cascading. you will need to write additional code to coordinate querying and updating for the second relation if you are joining on the same item in the detail block. when you create a detail with two masters relationship. In such cases. this might include writing a Pre-Query trigger for the detail block to ensure that the correct primary key item value is copied to the foreign key item in the detail block. or for a particular sales representative (employee). Oracle Forms does not coordinate Block C with Block B until Block B is coordinated with Block A. the ord block could be a detail block having two master blocks. In other cases. when relation A_B is deferred and relation B_C is immediate. However. because the Copy Value from Item property can only point to one master block item. The operator could then see all of the orders for a particular customer. The relations can be created in any order. To create this type of relationship. you need only define the two relations. if relation A_B is cascading. For example. all subsequent blocks will also be deferred.
and may look somewhat different. Oracle Forms generates comments in the default trigger and procedure code. refer to "Modifying the Default Master-Detail Functionality.-'). The trigger queries the database to see if detail records exist for the master record. and clears all of the detail records in the detail block. The actual code in these triggers depends on how the Coordination properties are set. and. It fires during the clear phase of coordination.Begin default relation program section -Clear_All_Master_Details. as shown in the following example trigger text: -. For more information on triggers and built-ins available for customizing master-detail functionality. Oracle Forms adds or removes triggers as needed. The example trigger text shown with each trigger description shows the basic structure of the trigger. On-Clear-Details Trigger The On-Clear-Details trigger is required for all master-detail relations. If . --. the trigger deletes the master record. If no details exist. It fires when there is an attempt to delete a master record. Comments are denoted by the standard PL/SQL double-hyphen ('. populates the detail block. if necessary. The following table shows how the Master Deletes property determines which triggers Oracle Forms creates. Oracle Forms also creates user-named procedures that are called by master-detail triggers. Oracle Forms generates different triggers depending on how the Master Deletes and Coordination properties are set. Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Non-Isolated (the default) On-Check-Delete-Master On-Clear-Details On-Populate-Details Cascading On-Clear-Details On-Populate-Details Pre-Delete Isolated On-Clear-Details On-Populate-Details Master-Detail Triggers This section describes the triggers that Oracle Forms creates when you define a masterdetail relationship.coordination status of the detail block whenever the operator navigates to a different master block." About Master-Detail Triggers and Procedures When you create a relation. The actual trigger text that you will see in your own forms will be application-specific. When you change the setting of the Master Deletes property for an existing relation. This trigger calls the CLEAR_ALL_MASTER_DETAILS procedure.End default relation program section -On-Check-Delete-Master Trigger Oracle Forms creates the On-Check-Delete-Master trigger when the Master Deletes property is set to Non-Isolated. and on whether the relation is part of a complex relation chain.
').End B detail program section -End.detail records are found. end if.End default relation program section On-Populate-Details Trigger Oracle Forms creates the On-Populate-Details trigger for every master-detail relation.End B detail declare section ---.End default relation declare section ---. --.The trigger first checks the status of the master record and the value of its primary key field.Begin default relation program section -Begin --. then navigates to the detail block to issue the appropriate query. Close B_cur. --. --." as shown in the following example trigger text: -. --.Begin B detail program section -Open B_cur. It fires during the population phase of block coordination. Fetch B_cur into Dummy_Define. the trigger displays the message "Cannot delete master record when matching detail records exist.Begin default relation declare section -Declare Dummy_Define char(1).Begin B detail declare section -cursor B_cur is select null from MASDET where PARENT = :A. if ( B_cur%found ) then Message('Cannot delete master record when matching detail records exist. raise Form_Trigger_Failure. Close B_cur.ID. This .
Begin default relation declare section -Declare recstat char(20) := :system.AB').Begin default relation program section -BEGIN --.End B detail program section ---End. 'B').End default relation declare section --. --.End detail_block detail program section -END. end if.primary_key_item. Query_Master_Details(relation_id.End default relation program section Master-Detail Procedures .record_status. as shown in the following example trigger text: -.ID is not null)) then relation_id := find_relation('A. --.Begin detail_block detail program section -DELETE FROM detail_block_base_table WHERE foreign_key_column = :master_block.Begin default relation program section -Begin if ( recstat = 'NEW' or recstat = 'INSERT' ) then return. end if.Begin B detail program section -if ((:A. --. It deletes the records in the detail block's base table that correspond to the master record that is being deleted.cursor_item. relation_id relation. --. -. --. Pre-Delete Trigger Oracle Forms creates the Pre-Delete trigger when the Master Deletes property is set to Cascading.trigger calls the QUERY_MASTER_DETAILS procedure. start_item char(61) := :system.
This section shows the text of the master-detail procedures that Oracle Forms creates automatically when you define a relation. return its name . /* ** If some block below is changed. /* Current Block */ currel CHAR(30). PROCEDURE Clear_All_Master_Details IS mastblk CHAR(30).STATUS) IN ('CHANGED'. recursively look for changed blocks below */ ELSE retblk := First_Changed_Block_Below(curblk). return its name */ IF Get_Block_Property(curblk. /* Initial Master Block Causing Coord */ coordop CHAR(30). /* Operation Causing the Coord */ trigblk CHAR(30). currel :=Get_Block_Property(curblk.DETAIL_NAME). /* Current Detail Block */ FUNCTION First_Changed_Block_Below( Master CHAR ) RETURN CHAR IS curblk CHAR(30). /* ** Otherwise. /* Cur Block On-Clear-Details Fires On*/ startitm CHAR(61). /* Current Relation */ curdtl CHAR(30). /* ** While there exists another relation for this block */ WHILE currel IS NOT NULL LOOP /* ** Get the name of the detail block */ curblk := Get_Relation_Property(currel. CLEAR_ALL_MASTER_DETAILS Procedure This procedure is called by the OnClear-Details trigger. /* Current Block */ currel CHAR(30). /* Item in which cursor started */ frmstat CHAR(15).'INSERT') THEN RETURN curblk. /* Form Status */ curblk CHAR(30).FIRST_MASTER_RELATION). It navigates to the detail block and clears the detail records. These procedures are called from the masterdetail triggers or from other procedures. /* Current Relation */ retblk CHAR(30). /* Return Block */ BEGIN /* ** Init Local Vars */ curblk := Master. /* ** If this block has changes.
/* ** If we find a changed block below. END LOOP. startitm := :System.Trigger_Block. /* ** Otherwise. find the ** first changed block below the master */ IF frmstat = 'CHANGED' THEN curblk := First_Changed_Block_Below(mastblk). no changed blocks were found */ RETURN NULL. NEXT_MASTER_RELATION). Consider the next relation */ ELSE currel := Get_Relation_Property (currel. */ IF mastblk = trigblk THEN /* ** If something in the form is changed. */ IF curblk IS NOT NULL THEN .Coordination_Operation.*/ IF retblk IS NOT NULL THEN RETURN retblk. frmstat := :System.Master_Block. go there ** and Ask to commit the changes. trigblk := :System.. END IF. then ** continue checking.. END IF. /* ** If we get here. BEGIN /* ** Init Local Vars */ mastblk := :System. */ IF coordop <> 'CLEAR_RECORD' THEN /* ** If we're processing the driving master block. /* ** If the coord op is anything but CLEAR_RECORD. coordop := :System. END First_Changed_Block_Below.Form_Status.Trigger_Item.
Cursor_Item <> startitm THEN Go_Item(startitm).DETAIL_NAME). */ currel := Get_Block_Property(trigblk. RAISE. /* ** Put cursor back where it started */ IF ( :System. END LOOP. WHILE currel IS NOT NULL LOOP curdtl := Get_Relation_Property(currel. END IF.Block_Status = 'NEW' /* No */ ) THEN RAISE Form_Trigger_Failure. QUERY_MASTER_DETAILS Procedure This procedure is called from the On- . END IF.NEXT_MASTER_RELATION). END IF. STATUS) <> 'NEW' ) THEN Go_Block(curdtl).Form_Status = 'QUERY' /* Yes */ OR :System. END IF. /* ** Clear all the detail blocks for this master without ** any further asking to commit. END IF. EXCEPTION WHEN Form_Trigger_Failure THEN IF :System. END Clear_All_Master_Details. END IF. END IF.FIRST_MASTER_RELATION). Check_Package_Failure.Go_Block(curblk). END IF.Cursor_Item <> startitm ) THEN Go_Item(startitm). END IF. Check_Package_Failure. IF ( :System. /* ** If user cancels commit dialog. IF ( Get_Block_Property(curdtl. Clear_Block(ASK_COMMIT). currel := Get_Relation_Property(currel.Block_Status <> 'NEW' ) THEN RAISE Form_Trigger_Failure. raise error */ IF NOT( :System. Clear_Block(NO_VALIDATE).
Message_Level := oldmsg.Message_Level := '5'. It checks to see if the previous statement executed successfully by looking at the status of the built-in Oracle Forms error variable FORM_SUCCESS. /* ** If NOT Deferred. oldmsg := :System. EXCEPTION WHEN Form_Trigger_Failure THEN :System. DEFERRED_COORDINATION). Mark the detail block as un-coordinated */ ELSE Set_Block_Property(detail. :System. */ IF reldef = 'FALSE' THEN Go_Block(detail). coordination_status. PROCEDURE Check_Package_Failure IS BEGIN IF (NOT Form_Success) THEN RAISE Form_Trigger_Failure. CHECK_PACKAGE_FAILURE Procedure This procedure is called by the CLEAR_ALL_MASTER_DETAILS and QUERY_MASTER_DETAILS procedures. :System.Populate-Details trigger. END. /* Old Message Level Setting */ reldef CHAR(5). NON_COORDINATED). Goto detail & execute the query. /* ** If Deferred. END Query_Master_Details. PROCEDURE Query_Master_Details(rel_id Relation. It navigates to the detail block and then executes a query to fetch the appropriate detail records. /* Relation Deferred Setting */ BEGIN /* ** Initialize Local Variable(s) */ reldef := Get_Relation_Property(rel_id. END IF.Message_Level := oldmsg. detail CHAR) IS oldmsg CHAR(2). Check_Package_Failure. Execute_Query. . END IF.Message_Level. RAISE.
End default relation program section -Example 2: Master with Dependent Details In this example. the comments in the On-PopulateDetails trigger clearly show where each detail block section begins and ends: -. To manage this relationship. with Master Deletes set to Non-Isolated and Coordination set to Immediate (default settings). Oracle Forms adds a section to each existing trigger to facilitate clearing and populating the second detail block.Begin first_detail_block program section -/* trigger text to clear the first detail block*/ --. Instead. -.End first_detail_block program section ---. . The following examples illustrate how Oracle Forms adds or edits triggers as required. the simple relation A_B is extended by adding a second relation B_C to create a master with dependent details relationship. Oracle Forms does not create any additional triggers. Oracle Forms adds or edits the existing master-detail triggers to support the relationship you have defined. Example 1: Master with Independent Details Consider a single relation A_B.Begin default relation program section BEGIN --. you have created a master-with-independent-details relationship.End second_detail_block program section -/* final trigger text */ END. The generated comments in these triggers delimit the sections that manage each detail block.Begin second_detail_block program section -/* trigger text to clear the second detail block*/ --.Triggers for Complex Master-Detail Relations When you create a complex master-detail relationship. For example. Oracle Forms creates the following triggers on the master block to manage the relation: o On-Clear-Details o On-Check-Delete-Master o On-Populate-Details If you then create a second relation A_C (having the same master block but a different detail block). that is. one master block with two detail blocks.
Oracle Forms provides a number of triggers and built-in subprograms that are useful for such tasks.To manage the second relation B_C. These comments tell Oracle Forms where to insert or delete trigger text when changes are necessary. if your application runs against non-ORACLE data sources or includes long relation chains that require non-standard functionality. you might want to implement your own block coordination mechanism. insert it before the "Begin default relation program section" comment or after the "End default relation program section" comment.) Modifying the Default Master-Detail Functionality In special situations. provided that you place your code outside the default relation program section. Consider the following points when you edit master-detail triggers: o Do not alter or delete the comments that Oracle Forms generates. Vol. Modifying the Default Relation Triggers You may at some point want to add your own comments and code to the default masterdetail triggers that Oracle Forms creates. 1. changing a relation's Master Deletes property from Cascading to Isolated causes Oracle Forms to remove the now unnecessary Pre-Delete trigger. but does not delete the trigger. some of which are listed here. (Oracle Forms removes the relation program section. o Oracle Forms does not delete a master-detail trigger that you have modified. Oracle Forms may need to delete or edit the default triggers. however. For example. the master for the second relation (B_C). For complete information on these triggers and routines. you may want to modify or extend the default master-detail functionality that Oracle Forms provides. You can edit a default trigger as you would any trigger that you had created yourself. For example. Triggers: o On-Clear-Details o On-Populate-Details o On-Check-Delete-Master o When-New-Record-Instance o When-New-Block-Instance Built-in subprograms: . refer to the Oracle Forms Reference Manual. that if you later change the properties of the relation. Remember. o If you add code to a trigger. Oracle Forms removes the form-level On-ClearDetails trigger. and creates two additional triggers that enforce coordination with the new detail block. The additional triggers are attached to Block B.
only one of them at a time is displayed in the window. You must define at least one content canvas-view for each window you create. that is. to set the Master Deletes property you could call the following procedure: Set_Relation_Property('my_relation'. Content Canvas-Views Most canvas-views are content canvas-views. you can use these built-in subprograms as follows: o Use GET_FORM_PROPERTY to get the name of the first and last block in the form (FIRST_BLOCK. Canvas-Views Canvas-views are the background objects on which you place the interface items (text items. but at runtime. the name of the first relation in which the block is a master.) and boilerplate objects (boxes. the names of the master and detail blocks (MASTER_NAME. LAST_BLOCK). MASTER_DELETES. images. END. o Use GET_BLOCK_PROPERTY to find out a block's current COORDINATION_STATUS (either COORDINATED or NON_COORDINATED) and a block's FIRST_RELATION. For example. o Use SET_RELATION_PROPERTY to set the properties of a relation dynamically. etc. Each canvas-view is displayed in a window. and the name of the next relation in the form (NEXT_MASTER_RELATION. o Use SET_BLOCK_PROPERTY to set block properties dynamically. o Use GET_RELATION_PROPERTY to get the current property settings for a relation (MASTER_DELETES. More than one content canvas-view can be assigned to the same window at design time. check boxes. radio groups. For example. BEGIN master_block := Get_Relation_Property('my_relation'. and AUTOQUERY). to assign the name of the master block in a relation to a local variable you might write the following: DECLARE master_block VARCHAR2.) that operators interact with as they run your form. A content canvasview is the "base" view that occupies the entire content pane of the window in which it is displayed.o GET_BLOCK_PROPERTY o SET_BLOCK_PROPERTY o GET_FORM_PROPERTY o GET_RELATION_PROPERTY o SET_RELATION_PROPERTY For example. . MASTER_BLOCK). lines. DEFERRED_COORDINATION. NEXT_DETAIL_RELATION). DETAIL_NAME). DEFERRED_COORDINATION). etc.
Stacked Canvas-Views A stacked canvas-view is displayed in a window on top of, or "stacked" on the content canvas-view assigned to that same window. Stacked canvasviews obscure some part of the underlying content canvas-view, and are often shown and hidden programmatically. More than one stacked canvas-view can be displayed in a window at the same time. Horizontal/Vertical Toolbar Canvas-Views Toolbar canvas-views are used to create toolbars for individual windows. Horizontal toolbars are displayed at the top of a window, just under its menu bar. Vertical toolbars are displayed along the left side of a window. Windows MDI applications display a default parent window, called the application window. All other windows in the application are either document windows or dialog windows. Document windows are always displayed within the MDI application window frame. If the operator resizes the application window so that it is smaller than a document window, the document window is clipped. Operators can maximize a document window so that it occupies the entire content area of the application window. Dialog windows are free-floating, and the operator can move them outside the application window if they are defined as Movable. If the operator resizes the application window to make it smaller than a dialog window, the dialog window is not clipped. A window can be either modeless or modal. Modeless windows can remain displayed until they are dismissed by the operator or hidden programmatically. You can set the Remove on Exit property for a modeless window to specify whether it should remain displayed when the operator navigates to another window. Modal windows are usually used as dialogs, are often displayed with a platform-specific border unique to modal windows. On some platforms, modal windows are "always-ontop" windows that cannot be layered behind modeless windows. In addition to platform-specific restrictions, modal windows have the following characteristics: The Remove on Exit property does not apply to modal windows. By default, Oracle Forms prevents operators from navigating out of modal windows with the mouse, but does allow them to navigate to another window with keyboard commands. When such navigation occurs, Oracle Forms always closes the modal window, unless the target window is itself a modal window. Modal windows cannot have scroll bars, and setting the Scroll Bar properties for a modal window has no effect. Show_lov : the lov need not be attached to the text item. List_values : the lov should be attached to the text item. lovs are based on record groups. Changing a column in the record group does not update lov columns automatically Record Groups : The following built-in subprograms are available for creating and manipulating record groups programmatically: Creating and deleting groups: o CREATE_GROUP (function) o CREATE_GROUP_FROM_QUERY (function) o DELETE_GROUP (procedure)
Modifying a group's structure: o ADD_GROUP_COLUMN (function) o ADD_GROUP_ROW (procedure) o DELETE_GROUP_ROW (procedure) Populating groups: o POPULATE_GROUP (function) o POPULATE_GROUP_WITH_QUERY (function) o SET_GROUP_CHAR_CELL (procedure) o SET_GROUP_DATE_CELL (procedure) o SET_GROUP_NUMBER_CELL (procedure) Getting cell values: o GET_GROUP_CHAR_CELL (function) o GET_GROUP_DATE_CELL (function) o GET_GROUP_NUMBER_CELL (function) Processing rows: o GET_GROUP_ROW_COUNT (function) o GET_GROUP_SELECTION_COUNT (function) o GET_GROUP_SELECTION (function) o RESET_GROUP_SELECTION (procedure) o SET_GROUP_SELECTION (procedure) o UNSET_GROUP_SELECTION (procedure) Object ID functions: o FIND_GROUP (function) o FIND_COLUMN (function) Populate Group with query : can be used to modify record group at run time but columns cannot be altered ( created during design time). To populate a list item during run time using record group, the record group must contain two columns of char type Oracle Forms Datatypes The following table shows the FIND_ function and return type for each object: Object Function Return Type Alert FIND_ALERT ALERT Block FIND_BLOCK BLOCK Canvas FIND_CANVAS CANVAS Record Group Column FIND_COLUMN GROUPCOLUMN Editor FIND_EDITOR EDITOR Form FIND_FORM FORMMODULE Record Group FIND_GROUP RECORDGROUP Item FIND_ITEM ITEM List of Values FIND_LOV LOV Menu Item FIND_MENU_ITEM MENUITEM Parameter List GET_PARAMETER_LIST PARAMLIST Relation FIND_RELATION RELATION Timer FIND_TIMER TIMER View FIND_VIEW VIEWPORT Using object id improves performance, makes code generic and easier to maintain. Each time you reference an object by name in a PL/SQL statement, Oracle Forms does
the necessary processing to look up the object's ID internally. Default_value built in procedure assigns the value to the indicated variable only if it is null. Consider the following factors when deciding whether to use a global or NULL-canvas item as a variable: o Items can be defined as CHAR, NUMBER, or DATE data types; global variables store only character strings, and using conversion functions like TO_DATE and TO_NUMBER requires additional processing. o Items can be dimensioned by setting their Maximum Length property; global variables are always 255 bytes. o Global variables are visible across multiple modules during a runtime session; NULLcanvas items are not. o The CLEAR_FORM operation sets the value of a NULL-canvas item in the current form to NULL; the value of a global variable is not affected by CLEAR_FORM. o Both items and global variables can be referenced in the default WHERE clause for a base table block and record group SQL statements. Subprograms and functions : Defined in a form module can be called only in that module Defined in a library can be called from anywhere. PL/SQL Packages: A package is a PL/SQL construct that groups logically related types, objects, procedures, and functions. Packages usually have two parts, a specification and a body, although sometimes the body is unnecessary. The first time a package is called (by any user on the instance) the entire package is loaded into the Oracle7 SGA to make subsequent invocation of any procedures or functions it contains very fast. LIBRARIES A library is a collection of subprograms, including user-named procedures, functions, and packages. Libraries provide a convenient means of storing client-side program units and sharing them among multiple applications. A library can be attached to any form, menu, or library module. Then, you can call library program units from triggers, menu item commands, and user-named routines you write in the modules to which you have attached the library. The same library can be attached to multiple forms and menus. Conversely, a single form or menu can have more than one attached library. Libraries can also be attached to other libraries. When a library attaches another library, program units in the first library can reference program units in the attached library. Libraries support dynamic loading --that is, a library's program units are loaded into an application only when needed. This can significantly reduce the runtime memory requirements of an application. File formats : .pll - source and compiled (pcode) source can be removed using STRIP_SOURCE. .pld - only source libraries cannot refer - form variables, system variables, global variables, form parameters Instead use name_in, copy for referencing Unlike PL/SQL menu items, a user-defined trigger defined in a form module can refer directly to the values of form items. If you want to write a user-named routine or
the user-named trigger fails. Oracle Forms exits the . and sets the return values of the built-in error functions accordingly. you can place it in a user-named trigger and then call that trigger from a PL/SQLmenu item command with the EXECUTE_TRIGGER built-in Menus : Background Menu : only one per menu module. it is assigned the name BGM. * At any time. An opened form can share the same database session as the form from which it was invoked. but the exception does not propagate to the calling trigger. Similarly.5 ADVANCED TECHNIQUES MANUAL Exceptions : When a built . Features : * There is a logical key associated with the first 10 menu items on the background menu. User named triggers : When an unhandled exception is raised in a user-named trigger. o Execute the CALL_FORM procedure to call a modal form. subsequent statements are executed. o Execute the NEW_FORM procedure to replace the current form with a different form. operators who have been granted background menu privileges can display the items on the background menu in a separate "show-keys" window by pressing [[Show BGM]]. the first form remains displayed.in failes. Oracle Forms treats the failure as an error in the built-in procedure EXECUTE_TRIGGER. Operators can press a background menu key to execute the command assigned to a background menu item. the background menu can be displayed programmatically by executing the SHOW_BACKGROUND_MENU routine. So the outcome of the built-ins is to be tested.anonymous block that uses direct references. and operators can navigate between the forms as desired. Thus. that is. by evaluating the built-in error functions: Error Handling for Stored Procedures There are three primary methods for trapping ORACLE errors that are returned from the kernel during the processing of your PL/SQL code: o checking DBMS_ERROR_TEXT and DBMS_ERROR_CODE built-in subprograms within a form-level ON-ERROR trigger o creating appropriate user-defined exceptions o evaluating the SQLCODE and SQLERRM functions in a WHEN OTHERS exception handler User defined exceptions : exception_init : associate an oracle error number with an exception name of our choice. When one form invokes another form by executing OPEN_FORM. PECS : Performance event collection services FORMS 4. For most GUI applications. using OPEN_FORM is the preferred way to implement multiple-form functionality. the outcome of a usernamed trigger can be trapped in the same way as a call to any other built-in subprogram. without having to select the item on the BGM menu. or it can create a separate session of its own. When one form invokes another form by executing NEW_FORM. no exception is raised. Rather. Multiple form applications There are three ways that one form can programmatically invoke another form: o Execute the OPEN_FORM procedure to open an independent form.
first form and releases its memory before loading the new form. and operators cannot navigate to them until they first exit the called form. processing is done for those forms that share the same session. make changes and commit. Oracle Forms runs the called form in post-only mode.'stats'. When one form invokes another form by executing CALL_FORM. Commiting from child form : update records in form A. Post Vs Commit : Posting consists of writing updates. Oracle Forms does all of the default validation and commit processing. That is. and insertions in the form to the database. If form a has a root window defined and invokes form b which also has root window. Commiting from parent form : update records in form A. list.BATCH. The syntax for RUN_PRODUCT is shown here: RUN_PRODUCT(product. Commit finalizes these transactions Post only mode : When a calling form has pending updates or deletes that have not been explicitly posted. For example.explicit.ASYNCHRONOUS. NO_SESSION is implicit Open_Form('stocks'. any windows that belong to the calling form are disabled. Calling NEW_FORM completely replaces the first form with the second. post . execmode.ACTIVATE. as shown here: Open_Form('stocks'. the operator will be prompted to save them before the new form is loaded.default. the called form is modal with respect to the calling form.SESSION). but does not issue the COMMIT statement to finalize these transactions. location. commmode. Calling Other Products from Oracle Forms You can invoke other products from Oracle Forms with the RUN_PRODUCT built-in procedure. call form B.FILESYSTEM). document. but not committing these transactions to the database. -. . call OPEN_FORM with the SESSION parameter. Multiple-Form Applications and the Root Window Only one root window can be displayed even in multiple form applns. independent session. to invoke Oracle Reports. for clarity To open a form in its own.ACTIVATE. So root windows are to be avoided when more than one form is to be displayed at the same time. When COMMIT is initiated. post return to A in no-rollback mode and commit. Opening multiple instances of the same form : To navigate use form id. display). If there are changes pending in the first form. deletions. If posted the status of the records need not be maintained in the form.NO_SESSION) -. Opening forms in different database sessions : To open a form without creating a new session: Open_Form('stocks'). call form B. you could make the following call: Run_Product(REPORTS. form b is displayed on the root window of a thus hiding form a.
always set execmode to RUNTIME. When you run Oracle Forms. or BOOK. when invoking Oracle Graphics to return an Oracle Graphics display that will appear in a form chart item. Valid numeric constants for this parameter are SYNCHRONOUS and ASYNCHRONOUS. REPORTS. OLE containers store and display OLE objects. when you invoke Oracle Reports or Oracle Graphics with RUN_PRODUCT. even if the called application has not completed its display. when invoking Oracle Graphics to return an Oracle Graphics display that will appear in a form chart item. When you run Oracle Reports and Oracle Graphics. Commmode Specifies the communication mode to be used when running the called product. Linked objects . Chart item : Does not store database values. List Specifies the name or ID of a parameter list to be passed to the called product. contains objects generated by oracle graphics OLE :Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) provides you with the capability to integrate objects from many MS Windows applications into a single compound document. for example. the called product logs on to ORACLE using the current form operator's USERID. either BATCH or RUNTIME. for example.OLE . o ASYNCHRONOUS specifies that control returns to the calling application immediately. Oracle Forms is an OLE container application. Synchronous is required when passing a record group to a called product as a DATA_PARAMETER. Execmode Specifies the execution mode to be used when running the called product. In Oracle Forms. and MS Word is an example of an OLE server application.External activation An OLE server application creates objects that are embedded or linked in OLE containers. execmode can be either BATCH or RUNTIME. Embedded objects are activated by In-place/ External activations. RUN_PRODUCT takes the following parameters: Product A numeric constant that specifies the Oracle tool to be invoked: FORMS.By default. Location Specifies the location of the document or module you want the called product to execute. Do not use ASYNCHRONOUS when passing a record group to a called product as a DATA_PARAMETER. Oracle Forms uses the parameters you pass to RUN_PRODUCT to construct a valid command line invocation of the called product. o SYNCHRONOUS specifies that control returns to Oracle Forms only after the called product has been exited. GRAPHICS. embedded objects become part of the form module. Display Specifies the name of the Oracle Forms chart item that will contain the display generated by Oracle Graphics. either the file system or the database. Document Specifies the document or module to be opened by the called product. The operator cannot work in the form while the called product is running. and linked objects are references from a form module to a linked source file.
VBX Control. is created by an MS Windows OLE server application and is embedded in an Oracle Forms form module. OLE objects can be used as base table items or contol items. the object classes that an OLE server can create are installed in a registration database. VBX Controls in Oracle Forms : A VBX control in Oracle Forms is a type of custom item. such as a spreadsheet or chart.0 Document. An image of the MS Word document appears in the OLE container of the form module and the location of the MS Word file is stored as part of the form module or as an item in the database. The MS Excel spreadsheet is stored as part of the form module or as an item in the database. a registration database is created on your computer. Another example of an OLE object is a spreadsheet created in MS Excel. if it does not already exist. A linked object is stored in a separate source file created from an OLE server application. it is retained in a separate file known as the linked source file. Linked Objects A linked object. An image representation of the linked object and information about the location of the linked object's source file is stored in a form module or as item in the database.server applications can create many object classes. MS Word classes include MS Word 6. You can modify the content of an embedded object within Oracle Forms if the OLE server application that created the OLE object is accessible by your computer. OLE objects are linked or embedded into compound documents created by OLE container applications such as Oracle Forms. Embedded Objects An embedded object. The registration database contains the object classes that are valid for embedding and linking into a form module. such as a word processor document. A custom item in Oracle Forms can be an OLE Container. MS Word 6. In an OLE container. Editing an embedded object is performed with in-place activation or external activation. An embedded object is stored as part of a form module or as an item in the database. there is no separate source file containing the Excel spreadsheet. you can link or embed OLE objects. For instance. An example of object embedding is to insert an MS Excel spreadsheet in an OLE container of a form module. OLE objects are documents created from OLE server applications such as MS Word. The controls can be used to obtain user input and display program output. During the installation of an OLE server application. and MS WordArt 2.0.0 Picture. A custom item in Oracle Forms . to deactivate click outside the window External Activation : is started in a separate window. An OLE container in Oracle Forms is a type of custom item. When you install MS Windows applications that support OLE. An example of object linking is to link an MS Word document in a form module. VBX Controls : VBX controls provide a simple method of building and enhancing user interfaces. The content of the linked object is not stored as part of a form module or in the database. does not replace forms menu/toolbar to deactivate explicit quit is required. is created by an MS Windows OLE server application. or User Area. In-Place Activation : When container surrounds the object ( oracle forms surrounding the spreadsheet) Some of the forms menu is replaced by the objects menu.
The ORA_FFI package provides a public interface for calling foreign functions from PL/SQL. VBX controls can be used as base table items or control items. Types of Foreign Functions : o Oracle Precompiler foreign functions o OCI (ORACLE Call Interface) foreign functions o non-ORACLE foreign functions You can also write foreign functions that combine both the ORACLE Precompiler interface and the OCI. ORA_FFI Package : To access a foreign function through a PL/SQL interface. VBX controls serve as a way to represent and manipulate data that displays on a form. Although it is possible to access Oracle Forms variables and items. A foreign function that . A text item in Oracle Forms displays data from the database on a form. You can access Oracle Forms variables and items because you can use a set of Oracle precompiler statements that provide this capability. you cannot call Oracle Forms built-in subprograms from a foreign function.can be an OLE Container. or User Area. For example. o Tools for compiling and linking the foreign function are not necessary. you need to know the foreign function's prototype and function's location. There are many benefits for accessing foreign functions through a PL/SQL interface: o Additional code in the foreign function source code is not required. OCI (ORACLE Call Interface) Foreign Functions : An OCI foreign function incorporates the Oracle Call Interface. Both items also reflect changes in the data from the database. VBX Control. the number 5 appears in the text item on the form and the knob control redirects its position to represent the number 5. In most instances. creating user exit interface requires relinking Oracle Forms Runtime. Using a PL/SQL interface provides a much looser bind than that of a user exit interface. when the number 10 changes to the number 5. VBX Control as an Oracle Forms Item : You can interchange a VBX control with other Oracle Forms items without affecting your intended use for the item. a text item displaying the number 10 can be depicted by a VBX control that is a knob. o Relinking Oracle Forms Runform is not required. Like other Oracle Forms item types. an Oracle Precompiler foreign function can access Oracle databases as well as Oracle Forms variables and items. o Conflicts with shared libraries such as dynamic link libraries (DLLs)are reduced or eliminated. Relinking Oracle Forms and creating dynamic link libraries are unnecessary when using a PL/SQL interface to access foreign functions. For instance. This interface allows you to write a subprogram that contains calls to Oracle databases. Oracle Precompiler foreign functions : With embedded SQL commands. Creating a PL/SQL interface to foreign functions requires the use of the ORA_FFI built-in package (Oracle Foreign Function Interface). PL/SQL Interface to Foreign Functions : Foreign functions can be accessed through a user exit interface or through a PL/SQL interface. A VBX control can accomplish the same task. because accessing foreign functions through a user exit interface depends on a single dynamic link library and usually requires the relinking of Oracle Forms Runform.
a non-Oracle foreign function might be written entirely in the C language. CURSOR_RECORD D . There is no CURRENT_RECORD system variable. CURRENT_ITEM Explanation: CURSOR_RECORD This is a record-level requirement. A non-Oracle foreign function cannot access Oracle databases or Oracle Forms variables and items. OPEN_FORM B . You are modifying a Customer form so that it has the ability to place the contents of the customer's ZIP code into a separate form named Dealer.incorporates only the OCI (and not the Oracle Precompiler interface) cannot access Oracle Forms variables and items. What built-in can you use to open a second form but keep the first form in control? A*.MOUSE_FORM C . 3. 1. For example. CURRENT_RECORD C*.CURRENT_FORM D . CURSOR_ITEM B . so the ITEM variables will not help you. What built-in will you use? A . SYSTEM. 2. FIND_FORM Explanation: OPEN_FORM The OPEN_FORM built-in includes a NO_ACTIVATE option stipulating that the form being opened should not receive control. Which system variable can tell you the record on which the user has placed focus? A . ADD_PARAMETER . SYSTEM. Non-Oracle Foreign Functions : A non-Oracle foreign function does not incorporate either the Oracle Precompiler interface or the OCI. CALL_FORM E .
WHEN-LIST-ACTIVATED D . If you selected one of the WHEN.choices. POST-TEXT-ITEM E*. Trigger library C .or POST. be sure to reread the chapter before the exam. 5.. In this case. WHEN-LIST-CHANGED B . WRITE_VALUE D*. You have added an LOV to a form and now want to add code to determine whether the user has made a choice from the LOV or dismissed it. and also return a Boolean value to the calling program indicating whether or not the user selected a value from the LOV. which cannot be referenced directly across modules. NAME_IN Explanation: COPY This question requires the use of form bind variables.B . not built-ins. GET_LOV_PROPERTY C . SET_APPLICATION_PROPERTY C . SHOW_LOV Explanation: SHOW_LOV The SHOW_LOV built-in has the ability to display an object (an LOV). Which of the following allows you to collect objects and easily reuse them in other forms? A*. What built-in will help you? A .. COPY is the right choice. The built-ins NAME_IN and COPY are used to read and write values across modules with form bind variables.those are triggers. 4. PL/SQL Library . rather than read them from the field. because you wish to place values in another field. COPY E . Object group B .
and objects into an object library. Copy the canvas. Review the section "Reusing Objects from an Object Library" if you need a refresher on this topic. 7. What does this symbol indicate? A . C . code. The setting has been derived from a Visual Attributes group. Copy the form module into an object library. Property class Explanation: Object group Review the section "Grouping Related Items for Reuse" if you need a refresher on this topic. B . you notice that to the left of its Data Type property is an arrow with an "X" at its point. code. that has proven popular enough that others want to use it in their applications. Place the canvas. You have created a client-lookup canvas. C*. D . but has been overridden. Copy the canvas. D . Copy the form module into a PL/SQL library. and objects into an object group that the other developers will reference. E . 6. . The setting has been derived from a Visual Attributes group. Object package E . Explanation: Copy the canvas. code. The setting for this property is invalid. and objects into a PL/SQL library. You have inherited an application from a developer who left to pursue a career in music. The setting has been derived from a property class. While looking through the SALARY item's Property Palette. B .D . complete with code and all the necessary objects. The setting has been derived from a property class. and objects into an object library. E*. code. but has been overridden. How can you make it available to the other applications from one central source point? A .
NAME_IN is the right choice. the reverse is also true. The users notice that when they save an Employee record. because you wish to read a value in another field. E . Open the first form using the OPEN_FORM built-in with the SESSION option.Explanation: The setting has been derived from a property class. 8. Explanation: . any unsaved Product records are also committed. What built-in will you use? A . The application allows users to have the forms open simultaneously. Open the second form using the GO_FORM built-in with the ACTIVATE option. The arrow indicates that this has been done. What can you do to change it? A . A Data Type property can only be derived from a property class. SET_ITEM_PROPERTY D . In this case. NAME_IN C . C*. GET_ITEM_VALUE E*. but has been overridden. Open the second form using the GO_FORM built-in with the NO_ACTIVATE option. COPY Explanation: NAME_IN Some of the built-in names offered as choices don't exist. You create a module with two forms: Employee and Product. You want to read the value in an item on another form and use it in your current form. Open the second form using the OPEN_FORM built-in with the SESSION option. Of the ones that do. This is not the behavior they want. D . B . FIND_ITEM B . The "X" at its point indicates that the setting inherited from the property class has been manually overridden for this item. NAME_IN and COPY are used to read and write values from/to items in other form modules. 9. Open the first form using the OPEN_FORM built-in with the ACTIVATE option.
the code hides it. You want to use a single multipage tab canvas for different purposes. DEFAULT_VALUE B . so you would use the GET_ITEM_PROPERTY to determine the current status. What built-in has this ability? A*. What built-in can you use to determine which route the code will take? A*. GET_BLOCK_PROPERTY C . COPY D . SET_VAR C . CREATE_VAR Explanation: DEFAULT_VALUE Review the section "Built-In Subprograms that Assist Flexible Coding" if you need a refresher on this topic. Review the section "Calling One Form from Another" if you need a refresher on this topic. GET_WINDOW_PROPERTY E . if it is. GET_ITEM_PROPERTY B . 11. GET_RECORD_PROPERTY Explanation: GET_ITEM_PROPERTY Visibility is an item-level property. the code shows it. GET_FORM_PROPERTY D . You need a built-in that will copy a value into a global variable and create the variable if it is undefined. if it isn't. 10. You are writing versatile code that checks whether your Employee form's Salary field is visible. 12. SET_PAGE_PROPERTY . Which built-in lets you set the labels for the pages dynamically when the application is running? A .Open the second form using the OPEN_FORM built-in with the SESSION option.
Form B . GET_CANVAS_PROPERTY D . SET_CANVAS_PROPERTY Explanation: SET_WINDOW_PROPERTY 14.triggers? A*. 15. Block D . SET_VIEW_PROPERTY C .B . Canvas C . SET_TAB_PAGE_PROPERTY Explanation: SET_TAB_PAGE_PROPERTY Review the section titled "Built-In Subprograms that Assist Flexible Coding" if you need a refresher on this topic. SET_CANVAS_PROPERTY C . At what object level do you place WHEN-WINDOW. GET_WINDOW_PROPERTY E . What happens to a function key's default functionality when you define a key trigger . Which built-in enables you to change window properties dynamically while the application is running? A*. Window Explanation: Form Windows do not have the capability to hold triggers. SET_TAB_PROPERTY D*. 13. SET_WINDOW_PROPERTY B .trigger one level higher in the object hierarchy: the form level. so you need to define a WHENWINDOWS.
B . Relation property Delete Record Behavior set to Non Isolated E . KEY-OTHERS E . Master block property Delete Record Behavior set to Isolated Explanation: Relation property Delete Record Behavior set to Non Isolated 17. or no functionality. C*. What trigger can institute a default functionality. The default functionality is replaced by whatever code is contained in the key trigger. KEY-ELSE B . Forms determines each time the function key is pressed whether it should execute the default functionality or the key trigger. Master block property Delete Record Behavior set to Non Isolated C . D . for every function key that does not have an explicit trigger? A . KEY-FUNCTION C . KEY-Fn D*. The default functionality is augmented by whatever code is contained in the key trigger. Master block property Delete Record Behavior set to Cascading D*. KEY-NONE Explanation: KEY-OTHERS . Explanation: The default functionality is replaced by whatever code is contained in the key trigger.for the function key? A . Which property and setting will prohibit the user from deleting a master record if related detail records exist? A . Relation property Delete Record Behavior set to Cascading B . The default functionality overrides whatever code is contained in the key trigger. 16.
What built-in gives you the ability to change the cursor's appearance dynamically? A*. SET_FORM_PROPERTY Explanation: SET_APPLICATION_PROPERTY 19. SET_CANVAS_PROPERTY C . SET_BLOCK_PROPERTY B*. SET_CONTEXT D .The purpose of the KEY-OTHERS command is to replace the functionality of any key that can have a trigger assigned to it but does not. SET_APPLICATION_PROPERTY B . SET_RELATION_PROPERTY C . PRE-POST C*. What trigger is necessary for implementing a cascading delete in a master/detail relation? A . 18. PRE-CASCADE B . SET_ITEM_PROPERTY D . PRE-UPDATE E . SET_ITEM_PROPERTY E . PRE-DELETE D . SET_WINDOW_PROPERTY Explanation: SET_RELATION_PROPERTY 20. POST-CASCADE Explanation: . What built-in enables you to dynamically control when a detail block is populated? A .
set its Query Data Source Columns property to the desired columns and write the appropriate select command in its Query Data Source Arguments property. create a block with a view as its data source type. A PRE-CASCADE. set its Query Data Source Type to FROM clause query and write the appropriate select command in its Query Data Source Name property. Using the Data Block Wizard.PRE-DELETE The PRE-DELETE trigger is the only one that has the capability to intercept a masterrecord deletion. What built-in can you use to open a second form modally? A . 21. POPULATE_GROUP_WITH_QUERY B . SET_GROUP_QUERY Explanation: POPULATE_GROUP_WITH_QUERY 23. You need to add a display item to a form. What built-in enables you to replace the query associated with a record group? A*. After creating a data block manually. OPEN_FORM . Explanation: After creating a data block manually. POSTCASCADE. and write the appropriate select command in its Query Data Source Name property. Using the Data Block Wizard. You cannot use a stored procedure or a view because both of these require adding a new item to the database. After creating a data block manually. and delete those detail records before proceeding to delete the master record. What is the best course of action to take? A . The correct approach is using a FROM clause query. You do not want to create any new objects in the database. D*. set its Query Data Source Type to FROM clause query. The item will display a calculated total summarizing data from several different tables. C . or PRE-POST trigger do not exist. CREATE_GROUP C . ADD_GROUP_ROW D . check to determine if related detail records exist. 22. B . create a block with a stored procedure as its data source type.
What built-in enables you to change a nonquery record group into a query record group? A . 24. GET_APPLICATION_PROPERTY B . GET_BLOCK_PROPERTY C . What built-in can populate a dynamic list item on a form with values from a record group? A*. CALL_FORM C . CREATE_GROUP_FROM_QUERY . POPULATE_LIST B . What built-in can provide the name of the current form? A*. POPULATE_GROUP B . NEW_FORM D . RUN_PRODUCT Explanation: CALL_FORM CALL_FORM is the built-in that opens forms in a modal window. POPULATE_LIST_WITH_QUERY C . GET_WINDOW_PROPERTY D . SET_LIST_VALUES D . GET_FORM_PROPERTY Explanation: GET_APPLICATION_PROPERTY 25. RETRIEVE_LIST Explanation: POPULATE_LIST 26.B*.
specify a data source type of table. calculations. POPULATE_GROUP_WITH_QUERY D . Using the Data Block Wizard. Using the Data Block Wizard. and lookups without needing specific access rights to tables B . D . After creating a data block manually. A . you do not have to specify a data source type of table when you also have the option for stored procedure. Can perform server joins.C*. Name a benefit of using a FROM clause query as the basis for a data block. The options detailing the creation of a data block manually specify using the name of the stored procedure in properties not designed to hold a procedure name. and lookups without needing to create a view The essence of the FROM clause query is its capability to nest SQL select statements in . calculations. C . Can include user-defined parameters Explanation: Can perform server joins. even if the record group was originally a nonquery group. How can you base a data block on a stored procedure that uses a ref cursor? A . B*. set the Query Data Source Columns property to the appropriate stored procedure. Can utilize any PL/SQL code C*. Can perform server joins. After creating a data block manually. POPULATE_LIST_WITH_QUERY Explanation: POPULATE_GROUP_WITH_QUERY The purpose of the POPULATE_GROUP_WITH_QUERY built-in is to fill a record group with data based on a given query. specify a data source type of stored procedure. and lookups without needing to create a view D . Explanation: Using the Data Block Wizard. 28. 27. set the Query Data Source Name property to the appropriate stored procedure. specify a data source type of stored procedure. calculations. Using the Data Block Wizard.
SET_GROUP_FILTER Explanation: POPULATE_GROUP 30. the sales ticket is still open and has pending changes. ADD_GROUP_ROW D*. What built-in enables you to change the contents of a static record group at runtime? A . POPULATE_GROUP C . POPULATE_LIST C*. Explanation: You cannot change the contents of a static record group at runtime. Commit mode C . . What built-in enables you to populate a record group with data that can be filtered dynamically at runtime? A . Open-transaction mode Explanation: Post-only mode 31. What mode will the second form be opened in? A*. You cannot change the contents of a static record group at runtime. table joins. and calculations without relying on a database view. CREATE_GROUP_FROM_PARAMETER B . When the second form is called. POPULATE_GROUP D . Post-only mode B . 29. Enter-query mode D . POPULATE_GROUP_FROM_QUERY B . You have created a sales application that uses one form for the sales ticket and a second form to list the items being purchased.subqueries that perform lookups.
OPEN_REPORT_WITH_GROUP D . at design time A parameter that is to be received must be defined at design time. PASS_GROUP Explanation: RUN_PRODUCT The RUN_PRODUCT built-in is designed to open other forms of graphics in their respective runtime programs. In the called form. 34. at design time B . 33. In the calling form. What reusable component enables you to lead your users through complicated processes? A . 32. ActiveX controls C . at runtime D . In the called form. at design time C .The definition of a static group is one whose contents cannot be changed at runtime. When you need to design a pair of forms in which one passes values to the other. See the section titled "Passing Data Between Forms Using Parameter Lists" for a refresher on this topic. it must be defined in the called form. Standard Object library . What built-in enables you to pass data from a record group to a separate Oracle graph? A . when and where should you define the parameters that will accept the values? A*. PASS_GROUP_DATA B*. RUN_PRODUCT C . In the calling form. and of course. at runtime Explanation: In the called form. Navigator class B .
which can lead users through complicated processes.D . Picklist class E*. SET_TIMER D . WHEN-TIMER-EXPIRED C . 36. Wizard class Explanation: Wizard class The Wizard class enables you to create your own custom wizards. Navigator class E . What built-in enables you to find the internal ID of a timer? A*. 35. Picklist class B . What reusable component enables you to create an Object Navigator-like interface for your own applications? A . SET_TIMER_PROPERTY Explanation: FIND_TIMER The FIND_TIMER built-in returns the internal ID of whatever timer's name is provided . FIND_TIMER B . ActiveX controls C . Calendar class D*. Standard Object library Wizard class Explanation: Navigator class The Navigator class contains objects that make it easy to implement a Navigator interface in your own applications. CREATE_TIMER E .
37. FIND_TIMER D . 39. DBMS_ERROR_STRING D*. DBMS_ERROR_TEXT . What reusable component enables you to create a customized SmartClass? A . DBMS_ERROR_NUM C . DELETE_TIMER B . DBMS_ERROR B . Navigator class E*. Standard Object library Explanation: Standard Object library 38. Picklist class B . You moved a number of your application's program units over to the server and started experiencing DBMS errors. REMOVE_TIMER C . What built-in can you use to capture these errors and the information they return? A .as an argument. What built-in enables you to eliminate a timer? A*. Calendar class D . SET_TIMER_PROPERTY Explanation: DELETE_TIMER The DELETE_TIMER built-in's sole purpose is to deactivate and eliminate timers. A REMOVE_TIMER built-in does not exist. ActiveX controls C . SET_TIMER E .
identify the chart file. ON-TIMER-BEGIN at the block level E*. What trigger should you use to activate a calendar when the user presses the List of Values function key while in a date field? A . ON-LISTVAL E*. What trigger is used to respond to timers. What are the steps for embedding an existing chart on a form that is open in the Layout Editor? A . WHEN-TIMER-EXPIRED at the form level Explanation: WHEN-TIMER-EXPIRED at the form level 41. KEY-LIST-OPEN D .Explanation: DBMS_ERROR_TEXT The DBMS_ERROR_TEXT built-in is designed specifically to return the text of error messages sent back by the database server. 40. Execute the File | Import menu command. WHEN-TIMER-BEGINS at the block level B . and at what level is it most commonly defined? A . KEY-LISTVAL Explanation: KEY-LISTVAL The KEY-LISTVAL trigger fires whenever the user presses the LOV function key. ON-TIMER at the window level C . ON-LIST-OPEN C . ON-TIMER-EXPIRE at the form level D . 42. WHEN-LOV-OPEN B . and move the resulting chart to the correct position on the canvas. .
The command File | Import does not exist in Form Builder. create a new chart item manually. All other potential answers to this question were made up (FORMS_RUNTIME is a program. Create a chart item manually using the Chart Item button. GET_TIMER_PROPERTY C . and alter the new item's properties to use the existing chart file. so it is not a correct answer because the question specifies that you are dealing with an existing chart. identify the chart file. RUNTIME_DDL D . not a built-in). you bypass the Chart Wizard. GET_APPLICATION_PROPERTY B . C*. What built-in enables you to determine which timer fired a WHEN-TIMEREXPIRED trigger? A*. SYSTEM. FIND_TIMER . identify the chart file in the item's Property Palette. FORMS_DDL C . What built-in enables you to manipulate table structures at runtime? A .TIMER D . Invoke the Chart Wizard. The Chart Wizard is only useful for creating new charts. DDL_FORMS E . and move the resulting chart to the correct position on the canvas. 43. Explanation: Create a chart item manually using the Chart Item button. DDL_RUNTIME B*. When dealing with an existing chart file. and move the resulting chart to the correct position on the canvas. identify the chart file in the item's Property Palette. and move the resulting chart to the correct position on the canvas. FORMS_RUNTIME Explanation: FORMS_DDL The FORMS_DDL built-in gives you the ability to execute SQL commands during runtime.B . 44.
*Pre-Text . PL/SQL8 B*. DLL C . show_lov A. C++ D . When-new-form-instance. pre-text-item C. when-new-form-instance B. Returns a char value C. * Returns a Boolean value D. What is the return data types of id_null. when-new-form-instance 2. when-new-form-instance . B. Returns a Integer value. pre-text-item A. Structured Query Language Explanation: DLL An external procedure can be written in a variety of third-party languages. None of the above Explanation: Pre-Text . None of the above Explanation: Returns a Boolean value 47.Explanation: GET_APPLICATION_PROPERTY 45. What is the order of firing the following triggers((Both are in form-level)) 1. 46. but it must be stored in the . What file format must a third-party external procedure be in for Forms 6i to use it? A .dll format in order for Forms 6i to use it.
Pre Query returns more than one row. 50. pre-block. Block_Scope. pre-block. pre-block. pre-block. You open a single property sheet to display properties for your DEPARTMENT data block and DEPARTMENT canvas simultaneously. Pre Query fires for each return row. When-new-form-instance. Default_Scope and Form_Scope 1. pre-text-item. when-new-form-instance B. pre-record. None of the above Explanation: Record_Scope. pre-record. Dynamic_Scope D. *Record_Scope. pre-text-item. post-form. Default_Scope Validation unit property of form module is Record_Scope. A. post-form. Item_Scope. pre-record. Item_Scope. when-new-form-instance. 49. pre-text-item. pre-text-item. pre-block. Item_Scope. C. Pre-form. pre-block. Default_Scope B. What is the validation unit property of form module? A. Trigger_Scope C. D. What is the sequence of triggers firing? Pre-form. Which Property Palette display mode is likely to show more properties? . Explanation: Pre-form. Post Query fires only once. When-new-form-instance. Block_Scope. post-form. Pre-form.48. Block_Scope. *Post Query fires once for each record fetched from the query Pre Query fires only once. post-form D. post-form. Difference between Post Query and Pre Query. When-new-form-instance. when-new-form-instance C. pre-record. None of the above Explanation: Post Query fires once for each record fetched from the query Pre Query fires only once. pre-record . A. pre-text-item. B. Static_Scope. post-form. Data_Scope. pre-record . *Pre-form. When Post Query fires. pre-text-item. Pre-form.
The value "*****" will be inserted into the field automatically. 3.A . D . You cannot change a property for multiple objects at one time. while the Union display mode shows all properties for all selected objects. Intersection B*. Union Explanation: Union The Intersection display mode shows only the properties that multiple selected objects have in common. and change a property's value? A . Explanation: Two or more objects are selected. The changed value displays as *****. Explanation: The change is applied to all selected objects 4. open the Property Palette. and their values for that property are not the same Because the Property Palette cannot display more than one value per property. The Property Palette shows each object's old and new values for that property. The change is applied to all selected objects. What does it mean when the Property Palette displays ***** as a property's value? A*. You cannot update that property for the object you have selected. C*. What happens if you select multiple objects. C . the only way it can deal with multiple objects is to display something special when those objects' values are different. B . Two or more objects are selected. The special display is *****. D . B . whether the objects share the properties in common or not. The property is not applicable for the object you have selected. 2. and their values for that property are not the same. Which data block property would you consider changing if your records include LONG items that are not likely to be edited? .
C*. The data blocks and components are irreversibly deleted. If the group containing the matching property is closed. Forces the Palette to place its focus on the first property matching the characters you type Explanation: Forces the Palette to place its focus on the first property matching the characters you type The Property Palette toolbar field labeled Find makes the Property Palette quickly jump to specific properties. but the data block's . and all components from the data block are removed from any canvas that contained them. including the data block's frame and boilerplate title text. Locates Form Builder files on your hard disk D*. The data blocks and components are deleted but can be retrieved using the Edit | Undo command. 6. Query Allowed D . What does the Property Palette toolbar field labeled Find do? A . Update Changed Columns Only B .A*. 5. Update Allowed C . DML Array Size Explanation: Update Changed Columns Only If your records include LONG items that are not likely to be edited. the Find field will even open it up for you. this data block property can improve application performance by keeping the application from sending the voluminous LONG data back to the server during an update command. Allows you to search-and-replace a given property value with a different value C . Locates other objects containing the same property as the one you currently have selected B . The data blocks and components are irreversibly deleted. and all components from the data block are removed from any canvas that contained them. What would be the result of completely deleting a data block from the Object Navigator? A . B .
7. E . and only the properties that are relevant to the object receiving the pasted properties. 8. What does the Property Palette context bar do? A . Explanation: No Answer is Correct The Property Palette can copy and paste individual or multiple properties. Identifies which object's properties are currently being displayed by the Property Palette C . all components from the data block are removed from any canvas that contained them. but the data block's frame and boilerplate title text will stay on the canvas. D . If the destination is a different type of object than the source. Identifies which program you are in when you open the Property Palette D . Properties with blank properties will be pasted. the destination object will be changed to the same type of object as the source. and all components from the data block stay on the canvas and must be deleted manually. C . Which of the following occur if you copy multiple properties from one object and paste them into another? A*. It is not possible to copy multiple properties at one time. . Nothing B*.frame and boilerplate title text will stay on the canvas. Explanation: The data blocks and components are irreversibly deleted. When copying multiple properties. D . The data blocks and components are irreversibly deleted. No Answer is Correct B . Provides help instructions based on your location in the Property Palette Explanation: Identifies which object's properties are currently being displayed by the Property Palette. Properties not relevant to the destination object will be added to that object. the Palette pastes only the properties for which an actual value is shown.
you must use $ $DATETIME$$. Enable the LOV's Automatic Select property. 11. B . Programmatically requery all tables in the application when the user opens that canvas. How can you accomplish this? A . C . Enables you to change a property in multiple objects at one time B . The is no Item property called Default Value. When multiple objects are selected. Set the Initial Value property to $$DATETIME$$. What does freezing the Property Palette do? A . it will not work in the Initial Value property. Enable the LOV's Automatic Refresh property. You now want to modify the Transaction_Date_Time item in the form so it is automatically populated with the current date and time each time a new record is created. and while SYSDATE is a valid parameter in a SQL query. Explanation: Enable the LOV's Automatic Refresh property The Automatic Refresh property determines whether the LOV's underlying query executes every time the LOV is invoked. D . Setting the property to Yes configures it to requery every time. Set the Default Value property to $$DATETIME$$. You have created a SALES_TICKET form for a point-of-sale application. There is no way to ensure this. B . D*. C*. You created an LOV for stock items and included a Quantity Currently In Stock column in the LOV. 10.9. Explanation: Set the Initial Value property to $$DATETIME$$. or only the first time it is invoked. Set the Default Value property to SYSDATE. shows only those properties that all selected . How can you ensure that the user sees accurate "in stock" numbers each time the LOV is invoked? A . Set the Initial Value property to SYSDATE.
objects share in common C*. regardless of what object(s) you select from that point on D . Explanation: Set the item's Query Allowed property to No There are no properties named Disable Query or Queryable. B . Set the item's Queryable property to No. assuming they are the only items in the list and the LOV's properties are set to automatically display the LOV and automatically enter the value once a row is selected? A . C*. How many characters would you need to type in an LOV to select the WHEN-KEY-UP item from a list containing WHEN-BUTTON-PRESSED. Set the item's Query Allowed property to No. Set the item's Disable Query property to Yes. Opens a second Palette for comparing multiple objects' properties Explanation: Forces the Palette to continue displaying properties for the currently selected object(s). 2 characters D . Set the item's Query Length property to 0. 1 character C*. Setting the Query Length property to 0 simply tells Oracle Forms 6i to use the item's length as the maximum query length. 3 characters B . 13. regardless of what object(s) you select from that point on 12. D . and WHEN-KEY-UP. Forces the Palette to continue displaying properties for the currently selected object(s). WHENKEY-DOWN. 10 characters Explanation: 2 characters . What is the best way to ensure that an item cannot accept query criteria? A .
The next character needed is the "D" to select DOWN. Any control on your form that allows the user to view and edit text." the LOV only cares about the first differentiating character. C . D . Set the Automatic Refresh property in the text item Property Palette to Yes. Set the Automatic Select property in the LOV Property Palette to Yes. B*. dates. E .Because all three choices begin with "WHEN-. No text item property would effect this change. or long data Explanation: Any control on your form that allows the user to view and edit text. and you would like the LOV to appear automatically each time the user enters that text item. 14. dates. Set the Automatic Display property in the LOV Property Palette to Yes. numbers. or long data 15. You have created an LOV for a text item on your canvas. Which of the following actions can a user do with a display item? . numbers. Any control on your form that allows the user to view and edit text C . or dates B . 16. What is the definition of the term "text item"? A . Explanation: Set the Automatic Display property in the LOV Property Palette to Yes. Any control on your form that allows the user to view and edit text. Set the Automatic Display property in the text item Property Palette to Yes. numbers. What is required to make that happen? A . The label preceding a field on a form E*. and Automatic Select specifies whether the selected LOV row is placed into the specified text item without the user having to double-click on the row or click the OK button. Set the Automatic Refresh property in the LOV Property Palette to Yes. after which the row's key value will automatically be entered into the text item. Any control on your form that allows the user to view and edit text or numbers D . Of the LOV properties listed. Automatic Refresh determines whether the LOV's contents are requeried each time it is opened. which is the "K" that identifies the KEY group.
. C*. or a group of items with single values (such as calculated subtotals). Database C*. You must manually create any items that will go into a control block. To which of the following items does a control block directly correspond? A . E . Instead. C*. Table E . Insert new database values. Delete existing database values. you cannot put items in a control block. No answer is correct D .A . Text items for all columns in the related database table. In essence. Update existing database values. what items does it contain? A . Explanation: None. it contains either controls (such as buttons). None. 18. All Answers are Correct B . it is a read-only field. You must manually create any items that will go into a control block. D . None. Column Explanation: No answer is correct A control block is not associated with a database object. All Answers are Correct Explanation: View existing database values A display item shows data but does not allow the user to change it. B . View existing database values. B . When a control block is created. 17. because.
A form object through which the user can view data B . A form object through which the program can enter and change data Explanation: A form object through which the user can enter and change data Input items are the basis of forms-they enable a user to add or edit data. Explanation: Change the canvas's Window property A canvas's Window property determines which window the canvas is visible in. And you can put items into a control block-that is what it's for. and a window's Primary Canvas property specifies the primary canvas for a window that displays multiple canvases. But you must do it manually after the block is created. 19. How can you make the CUSTOMER canvas use the second window? A . Change the canvas's Visual Attributes group. The Visual Attributes Group has no window selection properties. not an input item. A dialog box may contain input items. B . What is the definition of an input item? A . 21. You add a second window to the application.By definition. Label . A form object through which the user can enter and change data E . Which check box property controls the text that displays next to the check box? A*. C*. 20. Users of your application have requested that they be able to see STOCK and CUSTOMER canvases on the screen simultaneously. but the dialog itself is a window. Change the canvas's Window property. A dialog box C . a control block is not related to a database table. D . A graphics element affecting how a chart will look D*. It is not possible to change a canvas's display window. Change the window's Primary Canvas property.
Presenting a dialog box giving you the chance to select a radio group for the new radio button. Offering to create a check box instead. so a simple stacked canvas will fulfill the requirement. or create a new radio group for it . Tab B . Toolbar E . and then returning you to the Layout Editor B . or create a new radio group for it Explanation: Presenting a dialog box giving you the chance to select a radio group for the new radio button. Explanation: Label Remember that both Prompt and Label can place text next to a radio button. Content Explanation: Stacked The requirement that the tutorial text be visible on the same form limits the choices to either stacked or tab. Name D . Viewport C*. but the requirements did not state the need for multiple pages. Displaying a warning message. Which type of canvas is best suited for displaying tutorial text on the same canvas as the form about which the user is being taught? A . A tab canvas might be useful for a multipage tutorial. 23. Stacked D . You are working with an existing radio group in the Layout Editor and try to add a radio button to the group. A check box's text is fixed and cannot be changed. 22.B . The Layout Editor responds by: A . since a radio button group already exists C*. Text C .
24.The Layout Editor is willing to add buttons to an existing radio group. The buttons can replace every menu action your users would need to take. B*. The best way to do this is: A . B . create a display item and set its Insert Allowed property to No. and its Update Allowed property to No. Therefore. move the BUDGET column into the Available Items area. . its Update Allowed property to No. In the Layout Editor. The DEPARTMENT table in your database has been augmented with a BUDGET column. and its Update Allowed property to No Changing an item's Enabled property to No causes its contents to display with light gray characters instead of black. Tab D . What type of canvas can easily eliminate the need for a menu in your application? A*. Set the item's Enabled property to No. but the item should be a read-only text box so users cannot change it. In the Data Block Wizard. 25. C . this is the only valid choice. Your Employee form includes a SALARY text item. Set the item's Enabled property to No. It is not possible for an unchangeable item to look like a changeable item. Toolbar B . D . It just needs to know which group will get the new button. What is the best way to do this? A . and its Database Item property to No. or if a completely new group is what you desire. and its Update Allowed property to No. You want to add BUDGET as an item on your Department form. 26. but you want the value to look exactly like a regular field. Content C . Set the item's Insert Allowed property to No. Stacked Explanation: Toolbar A toolbar canvas's sole purpose is holding buttons that initiate actions. You want to ensure that standard users cannot input or change a salary value. Explanation: Set the item's Insert Allowed property to No.
In the Data Block Wizard. create a display item and set its Column Name property to BUDGET. C . Proceed to the Layout Editor and add BUDGET as a text item. You have created a form that contains two canvases. D*. 27. The third incorrect answer creates an application in which the field's data cannot be changed. all items are selected with it. What happens when you click one of the buttons in the Layout Editor? A*. it isn't until the user tries to save their work that the data block's Insert Allowed and Update Allowed properties halt the action.Change the new data block item's Insert Allowed and Update Allowed properties to No. move the BUDGET column into the Available Items are C: Proceed to the Layout Editor and add BUDGET as a text item. but it creates a normal-looking text box that actually allows the user to type in data. B . The group of buttons is selected. C . Which canvas type is most dissimilar to the others? A . 28. Nothing is selected. eliminates two answers. Setting an item's Database Item property to No keeps it from retrieving database data. In the Layout Editor. but the user can still place focus on the field. ten database items. Explanation: In the Layout Editor. This is not optimal design. The items have all been placed into a group. The button is selected. E . All items on the button's canvas are selected Explanation: The group of buttons is selected. and four buttons. and the buttons have been placed into a separate group. Content . create a display item and set its Column Name property to BUDGET. and change the item's Insert Allowed and Update Allowed properties to No. The primary reason for groups is to ensure that when any item in the group is selected. which is also not optimal. All groups are selected D .
A stacked canvas obscures what is beneath it. WHEN-CHECKBOX-CLICKED D . Toolbar Explanation: Toolbar Content. B . each page overlaying the others when it is selected by the user or developer. 30. and tab canvases are all intended to display database data. What trigger would you use to execute code each time a user modifies the value of a check box? A . It is not possible to get this functionality from a single stacked canvas. 29. D . The essence of a tab canvas is the fact that it consists of multiple pages of data. WHEN-CHECKBOX-CHECKED E*. stacked. WHEN-CHECKBOX-CHANGED Explanation: WHEN-CHECKBOX-CHANGED .B . A tab canvas looks much cooler. Stacked C . C*. WHEN-CHECKBOX-UNCHECKED C . Tab D*. ON-NEW-CHECKBOX-INSTANCE B . The toolbar canvas type is not. it is intended to display buttons that work in concert with the items on the other three canvas types. What is the primary difference between tab and stacked canvases? A . A stacked canvas can contain push buttons. Explanation: A tab canvas can contain multiple pages. A tab canvas can contain multiple pages.
32. Run the form. Window level C . WHEN-VALIDATE-RECORD D . Choices WHEN-VALIDATE-RECORD and WHEN-DATABASE-RECORD fire at other times. Form level Explanation: Form level Windows do not have triggers. Review the section "Supplementing the Functionality of Input Items" if you need a reminder on this topic. and in the Forms Runtime program execute the Help | Debug menu command. What do you need to do to within Form Builder to run a form module in debug mode? A . The Debugger will appear automatically. Enable the Debug Mode button. Placing the WHEN-WINDOW-CLOSED trigger at the Form level allows it to fire when any window in the module is closed. . run the form. You would like to create a trigger that fires each time a window is closed by the user. Enable Debug Messages and then run your form. C . What trigger would fire each time a new record is created? A . and the Debugger displays automatically. B*. WHEN-NEW-RECORD-INSTANCE C .31. Item level E*. You will most likely place the trigger at which of the following levels: A . Canvas level B . ON-NEW-RECORD B*. Data block level D . WHEN-DATABASE-RECORD Explanation: WHEN-NEW-RECORD-INSTANCE ON-NEW-RECORD is not a valid trigger name. 33.
D . Enable the Debug Mode button, run your form, and in the Forms Runtime program execute the Help | Debug menu command. Explanation: Enable the Debug Mode button, run the form, and the Debugger displays automatically. See the section "Running a Form Module in Debug Mode" for a refresher on this topic. 34. When does the PRE-QUERY trigger fire? A*. After the user enters query criteria, but before the query executes B . Before the form enters Enter-Query mode C . After the form enters Enter-Query mode, but before the user enters query criteria D . After the query executes, but before records are shown to the user Explanation: After the user enters query criteria, but before the query executes The PRE-QUERY trigger fires after Enter-Query mode but before a query's select statement has been finalized, and therefore before the query is executed. 35. Which built-in causes an editor to display for a text item? A . WHEN-NEW-ITEM-INSTANCE B . SHOW-EDITOR C*. SHOW_EDITOR Explanation: SHOW_EDITOR SHOW-EDITOR is formatted as a trigger, not a built-in, and doesn't exist. WHEN-NEWITEM-INSTANCE exists but is also a trigger, not a built-in. 36. You want to write a trigger that screens a query condition. At what level will you place the trigger? A . Block B*. Form
C . Item D . Record Explanation: Form 37. You wish to have certain values in a form initialized when the form is first opened. What trigger will you use? A . WHEN-NEW-CANVAS-INSTANCE B*. WHEN-NEW-FORM-INSTANCE C . WHEN-NEW-FORM D . WHEN-FORM-OPENED E . WHEN-NEW-CANVAS Explanation: WHEN-NEW-FORM-INSTANCE None of the other choices are valid triggers. 38. What part of a trigger specifies the trigger's actions? A . Type B . Name C*. Code D . Scope Explanation: Code A trigger's actions are defined entirely by its code. 39. Which built-in causes an LOV to display for a text item that has one defined? A . WHEN-NEW-ITEM-INSTANCE B . WHEN-NEW-LOV
C . GO_ITEM D*. SHOW_LOV Explanation: SHOW_LOV WHEN-NEW-ITEM-INSTANCE and WHEN-NEW-LOV are triggers, not built-ins. GO_ITEM navigates to an item but does not open an LOV. 40. What trigger can you use to ensure that a query entered by the user includes at least one item that is indexed, and keep the query from occurring if not? A*. PRE-QUERY B . WHEN-CLEAR-BLOCK C . ON-SELECT D . POST-SELECT E . ON-FETCH Explanation: PRE-QUERY While the other triggers listed are query triggers, only the PRE-QUERY trigger fires before the select statement is executed. 41. What is the purpose of the KEY-OTHERS trigger? A . Provides code to execute if a key's own trigger fails B*. Provides code to execute if user presses a key that has no trigger attached C . Provides code to execute if user presses wrong key D . Provides code that accesses another key's trigger and executes the code it contains Explanation: Provides code to execute if user presses a key that has no trigger attached. See the section "Form Trigger Categories" for a refresher on this topic. 42. Your data analysis application is slowing the network to a crawl. You analyze the
43. BUTTON2 B . ALERT_BUTTON2 D . Form C . It depends on the choice being offered by the button. What value will be returned if the user selects the second button? A . You have created an alert with three buttons. PRE-UPDATE D*. ON-NEW-QUERY-INSTANCE C . What type of trigger can you use to enforce that requirement? A . DIALOG_BUTTON2 C*. returning many more records than necessary. Record .queries users are performing and discover that the majority of their queries are too broad. POST-QUERY B . PRE-QUERY E . You decide to require that any query have at least three fields containing criteria. Block D . What is the default level at which validation occurs in the Forms Runtime program? A*. POST-UPDATE Explanation: PRE-QUERY The PRE-QUERY trigger fires before a query's select statement has been finalized. Explanation: ALERT_BUTTON2 44. and is therefore ideal for screening query criteria before the query is executed. Item B .
D .Explanation: Item By default. which would have been the right answer if the question had referred to an item instead of . See the section "Introduction to Form Builder Validation Properties" for a refresher on this topic. on the other hand. Validate From List is a Data Block property.sequence-name. Give yourself half a point if you answered: Set the Initial Value property to :sequence. This action is not possible. 45. The Forms Runtime program opens the LOV and shows only items that match what the user has typed so far. How can you cause a block to use a database sequence to get unique IDs? A . The Forms Runtime program populates the item automatically with the first value in the LOV that matches the user's entry. can.nextval. Set the Initial Value property to :sequence. Data blocks cannot read sequences. not an Item property. C*. the Forms Runtime program validates an item immediately when the user tries to leave the item. Items.sequence-name.nextval. Explanation: This action is not possible. D*. and in fact cannot store values at all. Set the Validate From List property to :sequence. Set the DML Array Size property to :sequence. B . Explanation: The Forms Runtime program opens the LOV and shows only items that match what the user has typed so far. C .nextval.sequence-name. How does the Forms Runtime program respond when a user enters text into a text item that has an LOV attached and the VALIDATE_FROM_LIST property set to Yes? A . The Forms Runtime program ignores the LOV if the user types a value directly into the field. B . 46.sequence-name.nextval.
so it is too late for a validity check.a block. You have written a contact-tracking application that includes a field for the last date a client was contacted. and remember to pay closer attention to the wording of questions. POST-UPDATE Explanation: PRE-COMMIT PRE-COMMIT is a form-level trigger that fires only once at the beginning of a transaction. PRE-COMMIT E . You want to use a trigger to guarantee that whenever the date in that field is changed. At what point will the trigger fire? A*. 48. ON-UPDATE and ON-COMMIT only occur if you have replaced the default Forms Runtime transaction processing. The remaining trigger. 49. In some Oracle exam questions. After the form is validated Explanation: Never The trigger will not fire because the object level defined in the trigger name item is smaller than the module's validation unit. so it cannot perform validation on a row-by-row basis. You can do so by . What is the best trigger to use? A . PRE-UPDATE B . When data is committed C . The module includes a data block that has a PRE-TEXT-ITEM trigger. PRE-COMMIT. ON-UPDATE D*. ON-COMMIT C . POST-UPDATE occurs after the update has occurred. is perfect. You want to add a delete-confirmation dialog to your application. a single word defines why one choice is right and another choice wrong. Never B . Your form module's Validation Unit property is set to Form. the date entered is later than the date that was there before. Before the form is validated D . 47.
You would like to keep the user from seeing the Forms Runtime program's "nn records applied and saved" messages. update. INSERT B . POST Explanation: INSERT The post command does not perform a commit.suppress_working := 'FALSE'. :system. What is the last DML statement processed during a commit transaction? A*.message_level := 5. Alert B . D*. Message box Explanation: Alert 50. What would you put in the form's WHEN-NEWFORM-INSTANCE trigger? A . and then insert. :system. B .message_level := 5.message_level := 0. C . their processing order is delete. :system. Editor D . Explanation: :system. . UPDATE C .creating which type of object? A*. Of the three remaining choices. 51. DELETE D . :system.suppress_working := 'TRUE'. See the section "Controlling System Messages" for a refresher on this topic. Message C .
D . NEXT_BLOCK B . Each built-in listed is a navigational built-in. Explanation: DOWN 54. The described action is not possible from a single built-in. NEXT_ITEM C*. DOWN D . Which navigational built-in will move the focus to a subsequent record and place it on the same item it was on in the original record? A . Array processing is limited to 25 records per batch. DOWN B . No Answer is Correct. Set the window's DML Array Size property to 50. All Answers are Correct. You would like to modify your form so it uses array processing to send DML statements to the server in batches of 50. COMMIT_FORM C*. 53. D .52. . How would you do this? A . Set the canvas's DML Array Size property to 50. Explanation: Set the data block's DML Array Size property to 50. which cannot be used within the navigational trigger PRE-UPDATE. E . GO_ITEM Explanation: No Answer is Correct. C . B*. Set the data block's DML Array Size property to 50. Which of these built-ins can you use in a PRE-UPDATE trigger? A .
32 d. None of the above 8. It gives a negative value c.D c. which of the following is true about add_months a.9999 d. we can pass a negative value in second parameter c. The order of the base column list in the select statement should be same in the Group by clause. None of the above. Regarding the Summary query which of the following is true a. b. none of the above 3. The no. All the base table columns selected in the select list should be specified in the Group by clause. Regarding the Summary query which of the following is true a.0 ? a. 2000 b. What happens when the first date is greater than the second date that is passed to the months_between function in oracle 8. a space (?? ??) b. 31st Dec 4012 A. The default value is not optional d. b. 8 b. What is the size of Varchar in Oracle 7. All the base table columns selected in the select list need not be specified in the Group . It gives an error b. What is the size of Varchar in Oracle 8. a. of columns that may be used as composite primary key in oracle 8 a. none of the above 5. The latest date that can be stored in oracle 8 a. 4000 c.1. The default value the lpad function takes is a. 254 d. 2000 b. Both a & b d. 254 d. we can pass a numerical value in first parameter b. None of the above 9. 16 c. Dec 31st . 31st Dec 4011 A. None of the above 4. none of the above 2. The order of the base column list in the select statement need not be same in the Group by clause. 4000 c. c.0 ? a.D b. None of the above 6. an asterisk c. 7.
None of the above 18. All the DML statements gets committed even when u get an error after writing DDL statement. Which of the following is true about the packages ? a. need not be negative b. NULL is same as blank date. Index d. 14. Both a & b d. Both a & b d. If you want to restrict the user. View c. If the first parameter is negative. None of the above 13. b.by clause. 15. None of the above 17. there is no such word in oracle 8 d. What does the length function returns when applied to column of char datatype ? 12. Which of the following is true about NULL? a. used to mention referential integrity b. then second parameter a. c. 19. How do u mask the user from entering irrelevant data ? a. None of the above. None of the above. Referential Integrity c. Which of the following is true for update clause? . there is no such restrictions c. 10. when an arithmetic operation is performed on NULL. For a DDL statement. Which of the following is true about procedures a. b. used for creating views c. should be positive d. ??REFERENCING?? in oracle 8 a. u will get the result as NULL b. sequence 11. The size of the parameter should not be mentioned in a procedure c. to enter the same values that has been stored in other table then what constraint do u use? a. which of the following is true a. c. d. none of the above 16. Synonym b. Package specification need not contain return type of a function c. None of the above. Both a & b d. None of the above. Package specification should contain return type of a function b. Both a & b d. The size of the parameter should be mentioned in a procedure. Entity integrity b. c. NULL is same as 0. A DDL statement is preceded and followed by commit.
25. In oracle 8 which of the following is true about manipulating the view a. A function has to return a value and a procedure don??t have to c. U can use a subquery in SET clause of the UPDATE statement. Which of the following is true about outer joins a. We can delete two tables simultaneously c. Delete statement can be given without writing where clause. None of the above 21. Optimal Flexible Architecture . We can write a procedure in package body which has not been specified in package specification. View having a column which contain operation can be manipulated c. View having a column which contain operation can be manipulated c. b. Oracle Flexible Architecture b. Using alter command b. What does OFA stands for ? a. 22. None of the above 23. The outer join symbol may be present on both the sides of the join c. Which of the following is true about packages a. Dropping the table and creating once again d. Both a & b d. The outer join symbol should be present on any one side of the join. View based on two base tables can be manipulated b. None of the above 24. 27. We can update two base tables simultaneously b. How do u rename a table ? a. We cannot write a procedure in package body which has not been specified in package specification. Which of the following is true for delete? a. Both a & b d. The outer join return the rows from the two tables that donot have matching records in other table. Both a & b d. None of the above. Which of the following is true about procedure and a function a. Oracle Financials Applications c. None of the above 26. c. b. b. Both a & b d. None of the above. None of the above 20. Both a & b d. None of the above. Both a & b d. c. d. In oracle 7 which of the following is true about manipulating the view a. View based on two base tables can be manipulated b.a. Procedure should return a value and a function may not return a value b. Using RENAME c.
SQL*Plus commands are used to set options for SQL*Plus. SQL*Plus is frequently used by DBAs and Developers to interact with the Oracle database. None of the above Oracle Questions ?h What is SQL*Plus and where does it come from? ?h How does one use the SQL*Plus utility? ?h What commands can be executed from SQL*Plus? ?h What are the basic SQL*Plus commands? ?h What is AFIEDT. its interface was extremely primitive and anything but user friendly.BUF? ?h How does one restore session state in SQL*Plus? ?h What is the difference between @ and @@? ?h What is the difference between & and &&? ?h What is the difference between ! and HOST? ?h What is the difference between ? and HELP? ?h How does one enable the SQL*Plus HELP facility? ?h How can one disable SQL*Plus prompting? ?h How can one trap errors in SQL*Plus? ?h How does one trace SQL statement execution? ?h How can one prevent SQL*Plus connection warning messages? ?h How can uses be prevented from executing devious commands? ?h How can one disable SQL*Plus formatting? ?h Can one send operating system parameters to SQL*Plus? ?h Can one copy tables with LONG columns from one database to another? ?h Where can one get more info about SQL*Plus? What is SQL*Plus and where does it come from? SQL*Plus is a command line SQL and PL/SQL language interface and reporting tool that ships with the Oracle Database Client and Server.start sqlplus in silent mode.Do not login to Oracle. Not recommended for beginners! @myscript -. UFI was included in the first releases of Oracle. . It can be used interactively or driven from scripts. Valid options are: userid/password@db -. -s or -silent -. SQL> disconnect SQL> exit What commands can be executed from SQL*Plus? One can enter three kinds of commands from the SQL*Plus command prompt: 1.Connection details /nolog -. You will need to do it yourself.Start executing script called "myscript" Look at this simple example: sqlplus /nolog SQL> connect scott/tiger SQL> select * from tab. How does one use the SQL*Plus utility? Start using SQL*Plus by executing the "sqlplus" command-line utility.d. SQL*Plus's predecessor was called UFI (User Friendly Interface). SQL*Plus commands .
buf" and then to "afiedt. as is the case with SQL commands. SET PAGESIZE 23 SHOW Show environment settings (short: SHO).BUF and opened in the default editor. edit the command buffer. Eg "spool x" will save STDOUT to a file called x. edit files.PUT_LINE('Hello World!'). When you issue the command "ed" or "edit" without arguments.buf". SHO PAGESIZE etc.format reports.BUF is the SQL*Plus default edit save file. short for UFI editing buffer. END.for more information see the Oracle PLSQL FAQ.lst START Run a SQL script file (short: @) How does one restore session state in SQL*Plus? Look at the following example (Oracle8): SQL> STORE SET filename REPLACE SQL> (do whatever you like) SQL> @filename What is AFIEDT. The rest of this page is dedicated to SQL*Plus commands. the file name was "ufiedt. SQL*Plus commands do not interact with the database.for more information see the Oracle SQL FAQ. Eg: BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.sql SET Modify the SQL*Plus environment eg. They presumably needed to keep the name short for compatibility with some of the odd operating systems that Oracle supported in those days. 3. / What are the basic SQL*Plus commands? The following SQL*Plus commands are available: ACCEPT Get input from the user DEFINE Declare a variable (short: DEF) DESCRIBE Lists the attributes of tables and other objects (short: DESC) EDIT Places you in an editor so you can edit a SQL command (short: ED) EXIT or QUIT Disconnect from the database and terminate SQL*Plus GET Retrieves a SQL file and places it into the SQL buffer HOST Issue an operating system command (short: !) LIST Displays the last command executed/ command in the SQL buffer (short: L) PROMPT Display a text string on the screen. The name "Advanced UFI" was never used officially. and so on. SHOW USER 2. Eg "save x" will create a script file called x. PL/SQL blocks .buf". In the prehistoric days when SQL*Plus was called UFI. it was the initially named Advanced UFI and the filename was changed to "aufiedt.). SPOOL Send output to a file. eg. Eg SHOW ALL. Eg: SELECT * FROM TAB. SQL commands . as the name was changed to . the last SQL or PL/SQL command will be saved to a file called AFIEDT. Eg prompt Hello World!!! RUN List and Run the command stored in the SQL buffer (short: /) SAVE Saves command in the SQL buffer to a file.BUF? AFIEDT. When new features were added to UFI. These commands do not have to be terminated with a semicolon (.
help where upper(topic)=upper('&1') . Eg: SQL> SELECT * FROM TAB WHERE TNAME LIKE '%&TABLE_NAME. What is the difference between ! and HOST? Both "!" and "HOST" will execute operating system commands as child processes of SQL*Plus. to get help on the SELECT statement.SQL: select info from system.buf" What is the difference between @ and @@? The @ (at symbol) is equivalent to the START command and is used to run SQL*Plus command scripts. Both "?" and HELP will read the SYSTEM. run the supplied SQL and Loader scritps to create the Help table and to populate it. or one that is found in you SQLPATH or ORACLE_PATH. Once you have entered a value it will use that value every time the variable is referenced. type: HELP SELECT How does one enable the SQL*Plus HELP facility? To enable HELP for SQl*Plus. The difference is that "HOST" will perform variable substitution (& and && symbols). or one specified with a full or relative path. A single @ symbol runs the script in your current directory. whereas "!" will not. This is normally used for nested command files.%'. not "!") What is the difference between ? and HELP? There is no difference.ctl sqlldr system/manager control=sqlhelp. You can overwrite the default edit save file name like this: SET EDITFILE "afiedt. type HELP followed by the command you need to learn more about. @@ will start a sqlplus script that is in the same directory as the script that called it (relative to the directory of the current script). "&&" is used to create a permanent substitution variable as with the DEFINE command and the OLD_VALUE or NEW_VALUE clauses of a COLUMN statement.HELP table (if available) and shows help text on the screen. and Windows environments.SQL*Plus before this version was released.ctl If the HELP command is not supported on your operating system. (Note: use "$" under MVS. For example. Look at this Unix example: cd $ORACLE_HOME/sqlplus/admin/help sqlplus system/manager @helptbl sqlplus system/manager @helpindx sqlldr system/manager control=plushelp. What is the difference between & and &&? "&" is used to create a temporary substitution variable and will prompt you for a value every time it is referenced. VMS.ctl sqlldr system/manager control=plshelp. To use the help facility. you can access the help table with a simple script like this: HELP.
2. To turn this off: SET ESCAPE ON SET ESCAPE "" SELECT 'You & me' FROM DUAL. Eg: SQL> WHENEVER OSERROR EXIT 9 SQL> WHENEVER SQLERROR EXIT SQL. Run the PLUSTRCE. This script is in $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin. Use the "SET AUTOTRACE ON" command to trace SQL execution.SQL script from the SYS database user./ How can one disable SQL*Plus prompting? If you run a script that contains "&" symbols SQL*Plus thinks that you want to prompt the user for a value. Create a PLAN_TABLE using the UTLXPLAN. or SET DEFINE ? SELECT 'You & me' FROM DUAL.. How can one trap errors in SQL*Plus? Use the "WHENEVER OSERROR . Look at this example: SQL> set autotrace on SQL> select * from dual.SQL script. an explain plan and high level trace information." to trap operating system errors and the "WHENEVER SQLERROR . This script is located the in $ORACLE_HOME/sqlplus/admin. 3...SQLCODE How does one trace SQL statement execution? 1. D X Execution Plan ---------------------------------------------------------0 SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE 1 0 TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF 'DUAL' Statistics ---------------------------------------------------------0 recursive calls 2 db block gets 1 consistent gets 0 physical reads 0 redo size 181 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client .. Note: You can disable substitution variable prompting altogether by issuing the SET DEFINE OFF commmand. This will print the result of your query." command to trap SQL and PL/SQL errors.
sql var1 var2 var3 Parameter var1 will be mapped to SQL*Plus variable &1. I get the following errors: Error accessing PRODUCT_USER_PROFILE Warning: Product user profile information not loaded! You may need to run PUPBLD. NULL. Eg. This is performed by the PUPBLD. connect as SYSTEM and run @PUPBLD from the sqlprompt. How can users be prevented from executing devious commands? Yes. command authorization is verified against the SYSTEM.256 bytes received via SQL*Net from client 3 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client 0 sorts (memory) 0 sorts (disk) 1 rows processed How can one prevent SQL*Plus connection warning messages? When I go to SQl*Plus.sql '"test parameter"' dual Where x. Look at this example: sqlplus scott/tiger @x. This table is created by the PUPBLD.SQL script.sql consists of: .: SET ECHO OFF NEWPAGE 0 SPACE 0 PAGESIZE 0 FEED OFF HEAD OFF TRIMSPOOL ON Can one send operating system parameters to SQL*Plus? One can pass operating system variables to sqlplus using this syntax: sqlplus username/password @cmdfile.PRODUCT_USER_PROFILE VALUES ('SQL*Plus'. eg. var2 to &2.SQL as SYSTEM This messages will stop appearing when you create the PRODUCT_USER_PROFILE table in the SYSTEM schema.PRODUCT_USER_PROFILE table. NULL.SQL script. 'OPS$%'. Note that this table is not used when someone signs on as user SYSTEM. How can one disable SQL*Plus formatting? Issue the following SET commands to disable all SQL*Plus formatting: SET ECHO OFF SET NEWPAGE 0 SET SPACE 0 SET PAGESIZE 0 SET FEEDBACK OFF SET HEADING OFF SET TRIMSPOOL ON These settings can also be entered on one line. NULL. 'DISABLED'. to disable all users whose names starts with OPS$ from executing the CONNECT command: SQL> INSERT INTO SYSTEM. 'CONNECT'. NULL). Go to the $ORACLE_HOME/sqlplus/admin directory. etc.
IMAGE FROM IMAGES.report triggers 7.order of triggering of when new item instance. 2. Can one copy tables with LONG columns from one database to another? About the fastest way of copying data between databases and schemas are by using the SQL*Plus COPY statement. exit 5.format triggers in report. Interview questions: 1.report parameters.post query trigger 4.pre query trigger 5. 10. 8. 9. Look at this example: COPY FROM SCOTT/TIGER@LOCAL_DB TO SCOTT/TIGER@REMOTE_DB CREATE IMAGE_TABLE USING SELECT IMAGE_NO. .select '&1' from &2.deletion of duplicate rows.mastere ?Vdetail relation 6. 3.query for self join.
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