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enterprise, esp. a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk. However, quite often the term "women-owned business" is used relative to government contracting. In this instance, the entrepreneur (a woman) owns (more than 50%), controls and runs the enterprise. It is estimated that presently women entrepreneurs comprise about 10% of the total entrepreneurs in India. It is also clear that this percentage is growing every year. Indian Women have come a long way with changing time. Interestingly issues related to women in India India has the world‟s largest number of professionally qualified women. India has more female doctors, surgeons, scientists and professors than the United States. India has more working women than any other country in the world. This includes female workers at all levels of skill – from the surgeon and the airline pilot to bus conductors and menial labourers. As per definition proposed by the Government of India in 1988. Women Entrepreneur was defined as an enterprise owned and controlled by women having a minimum financial interest of 51% of the capital and giving at least 51% of employment generated in the enterprise to women. Criteria of Employment was dispersed in the year 1991.Currently, women‟s enterprise is defined as A small scale industrial unit / industry related service or business enterprise managed by one or more women entrepreneurs in proprietary concerns in which she / they individually or jointly have a share of capital of not less than 51% as partners / shareholders / directors of private limited companies. Evolution of Women Entrepreneurship Evolution and growth of Woman Entrepreneur in India The glass ceilings are shattered and women are found indulged in every line of business. The entry of women into business in India is traced out as an extension of their kitchen activities, mainly 3P„s, Pickle, Powder and Pappad. But with the spread of education and passage of time women started shifting from 3P„s to modern 3E„s i.e., Energy, Electronics and Engineering. Skill, knowledge and adaptability in business are the main reasons for women to emerge into business ventures. ‗Women Entrepreneur„ is a person who accepts challenging role to meet her personal needs and become economically independent. A strong desire to do something positive is an inbuilt quality of entrepreneurial women, who is capable of contributing values in both family and social life. With the advent of media, women are aware of their own traits, rights and also the work situations. The challenges and opportunities provided to the women of digital era are growing rapidly that the job seekers are turning into job creators. Many women start a business due to some traumatic event, such as divorce, discrimination due to pregnancy or the corporate glass ceiling, the health of a family member, or economic reasons such as a layoff. But a new talent pool of women entrepreneurs is forming today, as more women opt to leave corporate world to chart their own destinies. They are flourishing as designers, interior decorators, exporters, publishers, garment manufacturers and still exploring new avenues of economic participation.
Indira Mahila Kendra . under which not less than 30 percent of funds/ benefits were earmarked for women related sectors. Independence of Action 4. Indira Mahila Yojana 13. Motivational Factors Facilitating Factors Motivating Factors 1. The Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-07) aims at empowering women through translating the recently adopted National Policy for Empowerment of Women (2001) into action and ensuring Survival. The rate of becoming entrepreneurs in women is more compared to men. Government and non-government bodies have paid increasing attention to women„s economic contribution through self-employment and industrial ventures. Some of these are: 1. Khadi And Village Industries Commission (KVIC) 3. The Eight Five-Year Plan (1992-97) focused on empowering women. Self Actualization 3. Working Women„s Forum 12.Growth of Women Entrepreneurs Women Entrepreneurs in India When woman moves forward. Management Development progammes 7. achievement motivation. The Fifth Five-Year Plan (1974-79) emphasized training of women. through Panchayati Raj Institutions. It was 18% in 2001. According to ILO Statistics the growth rate is 24% in Malaysia.The growth rate in women owned enterprises in some of the developing countries are higher as compared to the developed countries. especially at the Grass Roots Level. Employment generation 8. the empowerment of women was closely linked with the overall approach of intensive agricultural development programmes. research has shown that “women entrepreneurs are no different from men in terms of their personality cognition. who were in need of income and protection. dependency and other related attitudes. Assistance to Rural Women in Non-Farm Development (ARWIND) schemes 10. The growth rate was highest in the Tamil Nadu state of India. Prime Minister„s Rojgar Yojana (PMRY) 5. Financial facilities resources 2. but receive only 10% of the world income and less than 1% of the world‟s assets. Government policies and programs 3. organization of Mahila Mandals and the Community Development Programmes were a few steps in this direction. The Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997-2002) adopted a strategy of Women„s Component Plan.” Development of women has been a policy objective of the government since independence. In the second Five-Year Plan (1956-61). Marketing of Non-Farm Products of Rural Women (MAHIMA) 9. Establishment of the Central Social Welfare Board. In north America 38 percent & small businesses are owned by women.Women have set up their enterprises and the reasons can be enlisted as below. Trade Related Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development (TREAD) 11. The Third and Fourth Five-Year Plans (1961-66 and 1969-74) supported female education as a major welfare measure. At present. 30% in Thailand & 36% in Philippines & 42% in Indonesia. The Sixth Five-Year Plan (1980-85) saw a definite shift from welfare to development. Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM) 4. Protection and Development of women and children through rights based approach. The First Five-Year Plan (1951-56) envisaged a number of welfare measures for women. Experienced and skilled people at work In recent years the entrepreneurship has gained wide popularity on the whole globe. Role model to others 7. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) 2. Utilization of education and skills 6. Women„s Development Corporations (WDCs) 8. Women were given priorities in all the sectors including SSI sector. the village moves and the nation moves”. Economic Security 2. Continuation of family occupation Facilitating Factors 1. Yet. Entrepreneurial Development programme (EDPs) 6. Promotional Efforts Supporting Women Entrepreneurs in India The concern to develop more women entrepreneurs emerges from the fact that women represent 50% of world population. Support of family members 4. the Government of India has over 25 schemes for women operated by different departments and ministries. Network of contacts 5. the family moves. The Seventh Five-Year Plan (1985-90) emphasized the need for gender equality and empowerment. Self Identity and social status 5.
Absence of proper support.A programme for ‗Rural Women Empowerment and Livelihood in Mid Gangetic Plains„ Problems Faced By Women Entrepreneur The problems and constraints experienced by women entrepreneurs have resulted in restricting the expansion of women entrepreneurship. encourage. 11. International. devoting enough time to perform all their responsibilities in priority. Skill development to be done in women's polytechnics and industrial training institutes. There should be a continuous attempt to inspire. In a male dominated society. schemes etc. Lack of awareness about the financial assistance in the form of incentives. The greatest deterrent to women entrepreneurs is that they are women. The old and outdated social outlook to stop women from entering in the field of entrepreneurship is one of the reasons for their failure. Lack of self-confidence. independence. Skills are put to work in training-cumproduction workshops. Male members think it a big risk financing the ventures run by women Male chauvinism is still prevalent in many parts of the country yet. to improvise their over-all personality standards. Indian women give more emphasis to family ties and relationships. seminars and conferences should be organized to help women to facilitate interaction with other women entrepreneurs. Educational institutes should tie up with various government and non-government agencies to assist in entrepreneurship development mainly to plan business projects. 17. Women entrepreneurs have to face a stiff competition with the men entrepreneurs who easily involve in the promotion and development area and carry out easy marketing of their products with both the organized sector and their male counterparts. cooperation and back-up for women by their own family members and the outside world people force them to drop the idea of excelling in the enterprise field Many women take the training by attending the Entrepreneurial Development programme without an entrepreneurial bent of mind. alternative markets. 5. Local trade fairs. Attempts should be there to enhance the standards of education of women in general as well making effective provisions for their training. The major barriers encountered by women entrepreneurs are: 1. National Banks for Agriculture and Rural Development„s Schemes Rajiv Gandhi Mahila Vikas Pariyojana (RGMVP) Priyadarshini Project. 4. 8. etc. An Awareness programme should be conducted on a mass scale with the intention of creating awareness among women about the various areas to conduct business. Women who are imparted training by various institutes must be verified on account of aptitude through the tests. Women in India lead a protected life. Industrial exhibitions. 20. interviews. women are not treated equal to men that act as a barrier to woman„s entry into business. 3. will-power. A kind of patriarchal. 14. 7. 7.14. Women's family obligations also bar them from becoming successful entrepreneurs in both developed and developing nations. 15. The educational level and family background of husbands also influences women participation in the field of enterprise. SUGGESTIONS FOR THE GROWTH OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS Right efforts from all areas are required in the development of women entrepreneurs and their greater participation in the entrepreneurial activities. 13. 10. Vocational training to be extended to women community that enables them to understand the production process and production management. 9. 5. etc. 23. economically not stable nor self-dependent which reduce their ability to bear risks and uncertainties involved in a business unit. So the sincere efforts taken towards women entrepreneurs may not reach the entrepreneurs in rural and backward areas. 24. Married women have to make a fine balance between business and family. 18. Only few women are able to manage both home and business efficiently. 3. 22. High production cost of some business operations adversely affects the development of women entrepreneurs.male dominant social order is the building block to them in their way towards business success. 4. and mobility to come out of their paradoxes. Women„s family and personal obligations are sometimes a great barrier for succeeding in business career. 15. Women controlled business are often small and it is not always easy for women to access the information they need regarding technology. They are even less educated. 16. motivate and co-operate women entrepreneurs. National. training. . 12. by the institutions in the financial sector. 6. Entrepreneurship basically implies being in control of one„s life and activities and women entrepreneurs need to be given confidence. 19. 25. 2. 6. loans. 21. 2. 1. innovative schemes. strong mental outlook and optimistic attitude amongst women creates a fear from committing mistakes while doing their piece of work. Mahila Samiti Yojana Mahila Vikas Nidhi Micro Credit Scheme Rashtriya Mahila Kosh SIDBI„s Mahila Udyam Nidhi Mahila Vikas Nidhi SBI„s Stree Shakti Scheme NGO„s Credit Schemes Micro & Small Enterprises Cluster Development Programmes (MSE-CDP). The following measures are suggested to empower the women to seize various opportunities and face challenges in business. concessions. practical experience and personality development programmes.
An SHG should be socially viable institution. 14. Entrepreneurship is not a bed of roses to women. which are required in its effective functioning. The SHGs bring out the capacity of women in molding the community in right perspective and explore the initiative of women in taking the entrepreneurial ventures. Women participation in many kinds of economic activities to complement to their family income. 6. 3. who come together for addressing their common problems. Group itself becomes a base to convey necessities and sort out social economical problems of their group members. SHGs also organize women to cope with immediate purposes depending on the situation and need. SHGs have also been organized during last decade under various programmes of the government. is “An SHG is a small. 15. grievances.g. Characteristics of an ideal SHG: SHG should have following structural features: An ideal SHG comprises 15-20 members.District Poverty Eradication Programme. Women must be educated and trained constantly to acquire the skills and knowledge in all the functional areas of business management. e. Women entrepreneurs should utilize the various schemes provided by the Government. 2. social and cultural spheres of life.Main aim of SHG is to make group members self sufficient and self reliant [independent] by self-employment and empowerment through group dynamics. self-help group is an informal group of about 15-20 people from a homogeneous class. in order to help the women in the field of industry. The weaker section could raise funds through various schemes and incentives provided by the government to develop entrepreneurs in the state. plans and strategies on the development of women in the field of industry. 1. The procedure of decision-making in SHG should democratic in nature. 16. Aapni yojna. decision makers and beneficiaries in the democratic. trade and commerce can also play a positive role to solve this problem. etc. issues. the Prime ministers Rozgar Yojana. Krishi Vigyan Kendra. etc. Member should regularly attend meetings. environment. 5. the choice of becoming self-employed) and at the firm level (the performance of women owned and managed firms) in order to fully understand the differences between men„s and women„s entrepreneurship.e. The task of women has become more tedious and full of challenges.g. To establish all India forums to discuss the problems. their participation in no way reduces their family duties. cleanliness. trade and commerce. Attempts by various NGO„s and government organizations to spread information about policies. Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas. As the name indicates. 9.8. Women„s entrepreneurship must be examined both at the individual level (i. 4. Role of Self Help Groups The definition of SHG as approved by National Bank For Agriculture and Rural Development [NABARD] the apex banking body in India. self-made and self disciplined. The group frames rules and regulations. Self Help Group is able to overcome most of the practical problems encountered in the implementation of the various income generating programmes for the economic empowerment of women. health. etc.Self-help group is a best way to get strengthen. Let us all make efforts to help women rediscover her. All the members should belong to the same socio-economic strata of society. This can facilitate women to excel in decision making process and develop a good business network Self-help groups of women entrepreneurs to mobilize resources and pooling capital funds. . family welfare. The SHGs have inculcated great confidence in the minds of rural women to succeed in their day-to-day life. In the initial stages women entrepreneurs may face problems but they must persevere. economically homogeneous and affinity group of rural poor voluntarily formed to save and mutually agree to contribute common fund to be lent to its members as per group decision for their socio-economic development”. Transparency in account keeping and accounts should be maintained and updated regularly. 7. The Khadi and Rural village industries scheme. The financial institutions should provide more working capital assistance both for small scale venture and large scale ventures. 11. E. Making provision of micro credit system and enterprise credit system to the women entrepreneurs at local level. It also helps to bring about awareness among rural women about savings. SHGs enhance the quality of status of women as participants. economic. believe in themselves and not give up midway. save money and participate in all activities VOLUNTARILY. social forestry. Rotational leadership should be encouraged for the distribution of power and to provide leadership opportunities to all the members. Thus by adopting the following aforesaid measures in letter and spirit the problems associated with women can be solved. and filing complaints against constraints or shortcomings towards the economic progress path of women entrepreneurs and giving suitable decisions in the favor of women entrepreneurs and taking strict stand against the policies or strategies that obstruct the path of economic development of such group of women entrepreneurs. education. 12. Women should try to upgrade themselves in the changing times by adapting the latest technology benefits. 13.. Women in business should be offered soft loans & subsides for encouraging them into industrial activities. Role of Self Help Groups in empowering women: The self-help groups empower women and train them to take active part in the socio-economic progress of the nation and make them sensitized. 10.
6. enhanced social dignity and better status of women.The SHGs are a viable alternative to achieve the objectives of rural development and to get community participation in all rural development programes. Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India. The women confined themselves to three KS-Kitchen. SUGGESTION Right efforts on from all areas are required in the development of women entrepreneurs. The possible outcomes of women‟s entrepreneur through SHGs at household level are self employment. Training Programme on management skill should be provided to women community.=Some of the challenges faced by rural entrepreneurs are as follows:1. managerial experts & technical personnel should be provided. especially the marketing and sales side of business. A women entrepreneur‟s guidance cell set up to handle the various problems of women entrepreneurs all over the state. Challenges Faced by Rural Women Entrepreneurs The main challenges faced by rural women in business are educational & work background. 3. 6. TRYSEM (Training Rural Youth for Self Employment) ii. 5. Growth of Mall culture The greatest deterrent to rural women entrepreneurs is that they are women. . 2. Some of the major employment & anti-poverty programme are a)IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme):. Making provisions of micro credit system & enterprise credit system to the women entrepreneurs at local level. Male members think it is a big risk financing the ventures run by women. kids & knitting. The following efforts can be taken into account for effective development of women entrepreneurship 1. Illiteracy The literacy rate of women in India is found at low level compared to male population. 1. They have to depend on office staffs and intermediaries to get the things done.and its allied programmes i. 5. Psychologists. SHG would lead to benefits not only to the individual women and women‟s groups but also for the family and community as a whole through collective action for development. Therefore. Lack of Infrastructure and Rampant Corruption These are also the other problems for the rural women entrepreneurs. loan from their relatives and family friends. Block & District level. India is a kind of patriarchal male dominant society. Technology for Bank. Rural Women Entrepreneurship The most appropriate definition of entrepreneurship that would fit into the rural development context is the one which defines entrepreneurship as: "a force that mobilizes other resources to meet unmet market demand". Lack of Finance The financial institutions discourage women entrepreneurs on the belief that they can at any time leave their business. Empowerment is not just for meeting their economic needs but also for more holistic social development. DWCRA (Development of women and Children in Rural Areas. They are often unable to do research & gain the necessary training.It is wage Employment programme. The carrier of women is limited in four walls of kitchen. "the process of creating value by pulling together a unique package of resources to exploit an opportunity".The main objectives of Integrated rural development Programme is to increase the income generating power of family who are below the poverty line to alleviate the poverty. 4. Social Rural entrepreneurship 6. they are forced to rely on their own savings. "the ability to create and build something from practically nothing". Counselling through the aid of committed NGOS. 3. Implemented by Panchayats at Village. Regional Rural Development Centres. 4. The rural women are ignorant of new technology or unskilled. Economically they are not self dependent. 4. 2.) b) JRY (Jawahar Rozgar Yojna):. She is taught to depend on male members from birth. 5. They impart technical & entrepreneurial skills & raise the income level of the poor. 2. Here is the more probability for business fallacies like the intermediaries take major part of the surplus or profit. Fund for Rural Innovation. Training entrepreneurial attitudes should be given at the High School level through well designed course. Role of rural women entrepreneurs in economic development is inevitable. part. Making provisions of marketing & sales assistance from Govt.Rural women is Indian Society have got restricted mobility. There is hardly any opportunities to cross this boundary Opportunities for rural Entrepreneurs. She is not allowed to take any type of risk even if she is willing to take and has ability to bear. Low Ability to Bear Risk Women in India lives protected life. Integrated rural development programme:.. 3. sustainable livelihoods. They have to balance their time between work & family.
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