Respiratory System  Site of gas exchange  Avenue for heat and moisture loss  Sound / voice production Others

:  Immunogenic exposure site  Enzyme conversion Divisions of Respiratory Tract 1. Conducting portion  Transit of air to and from the lungs  No gas exchange  Air filtration and humidification  Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles 2. Respiratory portion  Site of gas exchange  Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli  *WHERE GAS EXCHANGE TAKES PLACE BETWEEN THE BLOOD AND INSPIRED AIR. ***CONDUCTING PORTION 1. NOSE 2. PHARYNX 3. LARYNX 4. TRACHEA 5. BRONCHI enters the lungs and undergo several orders of branching. *RESPIRATORY PORTION 1. RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES – the terminal branches of bronchi 2. ALVEOLAR DUCT and myriad alveoli – thin walled, air filled sacs that make up the greater part of parenchyma of the lungs. 3. ALVEOLI – thin walled air filled sacs that make up the greater part of the parenchyma of the lungs. NOSE.  bony cartilage covered by the skin and the subcutaneous CT.  NASAL SEPTUM. thin, cartilaginous. o divides the nose interiorly o hyaline cartilage 1. NASAL CAVITY. o OPENINGS:  ANTERIORLY: nares  POSTERIORLY: NASOPHARYNX. NASAL CAVITIES ARE LINED BY 4 TYPES OF EPITHLIUM: 1. Stratified squamous of the skin with large, stiff hairs that filter out the large foreign particles. 2. Transitional band of non-ciliated cuboidal/columnar epithelium 3. Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium containing GOBLET CELLS that increases in number from anterior to posterior. NASAL CAVITY



Lined by str. NEURO SENSORY NEURONS of the epithlium. a PALE YELLOWISH-BROWN COLOR. OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM. mitochondria and few pigment granules that gives olfactory epi. sweat and sebaceous glands present 2) Olfactory Region = contains olfactory mucosa.where olfactory chemoreceptors are located. 2. SUSTENTACULAR CELLS – o TALL COLUMNAR CELLS WITH STRIATED BORDER AND A CONSPICIOUS TERMINAL WEB. ventrally situated  LAMINA PROPRIA on lower and middle conchae is: o richly vascularized o arterial blood warms the inspired air o has an extensive venous plexus o thin walled vein become engorged which occludes the airway. o APICAL CYTOPLASM –with SER. o apical: narrowed to thin cylindrical process extending above the surface o terminates in a small. Sensory olfactory epithelium (thich pseudostratified epithelium) root of the nasal cavity and the small area of septum and superior cocha  NASAL COCHAE. o OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM COMPOSED OF 3 KINDS OF CELLS: 1. o common site for nose bleed. supranuclear golgi complex. squamous with filtering hairs. o between sustentacular cells o bipolar neurons o nuclei: at level of the supporting cells.Consist of 3 regions. anterior to posterior: 1) Vestibule = slight dilation inside the nares. surface area of each nasal cavity is increased by 3 BONY SHELF like projections from lateral wall  Walls of nasal cavities of hyaline cartilage and bone to keep them open . OLFACTORY CELLS. 2. rounded expansion – OLFACTORY BULB or KNOB o OLFACTORY BULB: 2 .4. o CYLINDRICAL APEXES AND NARROWER BASES. dorsally situated 3) Respiratory Region = contains respiratory mucosa.

produce sound (VOICE BOX) 2. named accordingly: frontal. triangular o Small deeply basophilic o Between olfactory and sustentacular cells o Divide and differentiate into either susentacular or olfactory cells  gland of bowman. BASAL CELLS – o basal location. vocalis muscle o covered with STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM TRACHEA o Tubular air-conducting structure o Reinforced by 16-20 C-shaped hyaline cartilage rings o Surrounded by dense connective tissue o Smooth muscle fills gap between cartilaginous ends 3 . ethmoidal. sphenoidal and maxillary o Lined with ciliated epithelium that move mucus blanket toward nasal cavity o Thin lamina propria indistinct and tightly adherent to the periosteum o Sinusitis LARYNX o location: between the oropharynx and trachea o hollow organ FUNCTIONS: 1.  ANTERIOR SURFACE OF EPIGLOTTIS – covered with STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM  LOWER LARYNGEAL TO TRACHEOBRONCHIAL TREE – CILIATED PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM  LAMINA PROPRIA – mixed mucous and serous gland can be found o Laryngeal mucosal folds o Vestibular folds (false vocal cords) o Upper pair o Duplication of mucosa o Vocal folds (vocal cords) o Lower pair o No glands o Vocal ligament.  VEMORONASAL ORGAN – second of smaller olfactory ephithelium on the nasal septum. very long and atypical 3. o lack sensory cilia but have small microvilli. large tubuloalveolar serous gland in lamina propria of olfactory epithelium.  PARANASAL SINUSES o Cavities within bones.  projects somewhat above the apices of the surrounding sustentacular cell OLFACTORY CILIA –6 to 8 nonmotile basal bodies that is parallel to the surface epithelium. extends into the pharynx and has a lingual and laryngeal surfaces. close airway during swallowing o Bounded by o Thyroid and cricoid hyaline cartilages o EPIGLOTTIS – projects from the upper rim of the larynx.

between bases of columnar cells o Reserve stem cells Bronchial Kulchitsky cells o Also basally situated with vesicles o Presumed to have neuroendocrine function Migratory cells o Lymphocytes.Tracheal Epithelium o Ciliated. cartilage rings replaced by plates of hyaline cartilage Smooth muscles become prominent 4 o o o . pseudostratified columnar epithelium with thick basal lamina o Numerous goblet cells o Various cell types Ciliated Epithelium        Ciliated cells o Microvillous border through which cilia project o Responsible for the movement of the mucus blanket Goblet cells o Expanded apical region occupied by mucinoen granules o Main contributor to the viscous luminal fluid Brush cells o Slender columnar cells with luminal border of microvilli o No secretory granules. pyramidal. unknown function Serous cells o Apical granules. produce secretion of low viscosity Basal cells o Small. globule leukocytes LUNGS 1. BRONCHI o PRIMARY BRONCHI – tracheal branches (left and right) o HILUM – opening in the surface of the lungs where primary bronchi enters  2 LOBAR BROCHI  LEFT: 2 LOBES  RIGHT: 3 LOBES o (TERTIARY) SEGMENTAL BRONCHI  BRONCHOPULMONARY SEGMENT  BRONCHIOLES o TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES (5 TO 7) PRIMARY BRONCHI: Structure: similar to trachea up to hilus EXCEPT for the organization of the cartilage and smooth muscle Then.

BRONCHIOLES o 12th to 15th generation of branching o No cartilaginous plates o No glands in lamina propria o Discrete bundles of smooth muscles which influence luminal diameter o No goblet cells o Epithelium consists of ciliated and nonciliated bronchiolar cells that replace the mucous secreting cell o PNS. o Pseudostratified columnar in larger bronchi o gradually reduced in height to simple columnar epithelium o Further reduced in terminal bronchioles to cuboidal epithelium ***RESPIRATORY PORTION OF THE LUNGS 1. relax smooth muscle o CLARA CELL non ciliated bronchiolar cell  Columnar with rounded apex projecting above other cells  Covered with microvilli  Apical cytoplasm contains secretory granules  Basal cytoplasm contains long mitochondria and cisternae of RER  Protein-rich secretion  Function still obscure  3.bronchiolar dilation. TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES o Branching of bronchiole which gives to 5 to 7 smaller branches. nonciliated epithelium o Walls interrupted by alveoli 5 . occasional eosinophils 2.bronchiolar constriction o SNS. RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES o Very short tubes o Lined by cuboidal to low cuboidal.o o Bronchial Epithelium o Ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells and submucous glands o Epithelial height gradually decreases Lamina propria o Separated from epithelium by thick basal lamina o Lymphocytes. mast cells.

thin lamellae o Becomes pulmonary surfactant when secreted through exocytosis Pulmonary surfactant o Spreads over thin film of fluid coating the alveolar wall o Lowers surface tension o dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine Interstitium of the Lung  Refer to the tissue between 2 layers of epithelium on the alveolar septa  Composed of capillaries. collagen and elastic fibers.o o o o ALVEOLI saccular outpocketing of the wall lined by SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLs which are thin enough to permit gas exchange Gas exchange can take place Number of alveoli increases with each branching ALVEOLAR DUCT –    Numerous and closely spaced alveoli Distinguishable only by alignment of thickened interalveolar septal edges ATRIA/ atrium – small space where alveolar ducts terminate. 2. PULMONARY ALVEOLI o Very thin-walled saccular compartments o where most gas exchange takes place o Rounded to polygonal Septa: delineate boundary between alveoli o CT containing capillaries supported by collagenous and elastic fibers. septal cells (interstitial fibroblasts) mast cells. covered by very thin alveolar epithelium Alveolar Pores o Pores of Kohn o Openings thru the alveolar septa o Communication prevents alveolar collapse despite blockage of a small bronchus o Collateral respiration-ventilation of blocked respiratory unit from unobstructed units through the pores *2 TYPES OF ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUM Squamous (Type I) Alveolar Cells o Very thin o Occupy 95% of total alveolar space Great (Type II) Alveolar Cells o Commonly located near angles between neighboring septa o Thicker than squamous o Rounded apical surface projecting above the level of epithelium o Free surface covered by short microvilli Lamellar bodies o Dense ovoid membrane-bound granules with closely space.contractile property during hypoxic conditions 6 . few lymphocytes Septal Cells  Interstitial fibroblast  “myofibroblast”.

broad-based. Pleura  Thin layer of CT lining the thoracic cavity  Parietal pleura o Layer applied on the thoracic wall  Visceral pleura o Layer apposed over the lung surface 5. with narrow apex and short microvilli  Believed to be adapted to receive stimuli from the lumen with corresponding release of regulatory substances Neuroepithelial Bodies  Cluster of similar cells with associated nerves  Resemble small granule cells  Speculated to function as chemoreceptors sensitive to oxygen concentration/hypoxia 7 . Lymphatics of the Lung 2 main division  Pleura  Pulmonary parenchyma Both drain into hilar lymph nodes efferent trunks  right lymphatic duct Innervation of the Lungs  Parasympathetic (vagal) and sympathetic innervation  Form plexus around hilus. ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE o found in INTERALVEOLAR SEPTA o phagocytize dust particles and other particulates o Principal mononuclear phagocyte of the lungs o Monocyte that migrates out of the circulation and into the alveolar lumen o Directly exposed to dust or bacteria o Prominent filopodia and membrane-bound cytoplasmic inclusions 4. Blood Supply of the Lungs  Pulmonary trunk pulmonary arteries  alveolar capillaries venules  pulmonary veins  Bronchial arteries from descending aorta  Numerous anastomoses between pulmonary and bronchial systems 6. then accompany bronchial and blood vessel ramifications  Influence bronchoconstriction and relaxation Small Granule Cells  Argyrophilic  May emit serotonin-like flourescence  Tall. Production of extracellular matrix of alveolar septa 3.

mucosae Submucosa Ciliated pseudostratified w/ goblet Decrease in reticular and elastic fibers In circular configuration around bronchus Dense irregular CT w/ mucus glands. Bowman's glands (mixed serous/mucous secretion) Adventitia. propria M. propria M. mucosae . mucosae Submucosa Tunic Tertiarv Bronchus Mucosal lining L.RESPIRATORY TRACT CROSS-SECTIONS review LAYER Mucosal lining L. tracheal is muscle instead Adipose CT. propria M. mucosae Submucosa Bronchiole Mucosal lining L. propria M. cartilage plates no longer overlap = "cartilage islands" Adventitia (shared w/ other parts of lung) PSC cells lower (almost simple cuboidal). jugular vein. shared w/ esophagus . cartilage plates smaller Simple cuboidal. nerves * Cell Types: Ciliated columnar cells Goblet cells Basal cells Brush cells = columnar cells with microvilli. propria M.carries carotid artery. no goblet cells Decrease Decrease Decrease. mucosae Submucosa Tunic Secondarv Bronchus Mucosal lining L. no glands. hyaline cartilage present as overlapping plates Tunica serosa = CT + mesothelium Ciliated pseudostratified with fewer goblet cells Decrease Decrease Thinner. rnucosae Submucosa Respiratorv Bronchiole Mucosal lining L. no cartilage Simple cuboidal becoming perforated simple squamous Decrease Decrease Decrease to become continuous with adventitia Alveolar Duct Simple squamous Very thin Sphincters present as duct opens into atrium 8 Mucosal lining L. propria M. may have sensory function Small Granule cells = similar to enteroendocrine cells Primarv Bronchus Mucosal lining L. longitudinal elastic fibers at border Absent. no goblet cells Decrease Decrease Decrease. propria M. rnucosae Submucosa Tunics Trachea Ciliated pseudostratified with goblet cells* Reticular CT.

RESPIRATORY review o Trachea o PAS positive c-shaped cartilage ring o Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium o goblet cells and a thick basement membrane o Seromucous glands. cartilage rings o Bronchi o Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium o Cartilage plates o Mucous glands and ducts o Bronchiole o No cartilage o Continuous smooth muscle coat o Ciliated cuboidal epithelium o clara cells o No goblet cells o Lung o Very thin alveolar walls o Bronchi with arteries 9 .

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