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Stages Of Reading Development Stage 1: The pre-reader

Stage 2: The emergent reader

Holds books and turns pages correctly Recognises the beginning and end of book Listens and responds to stories Interpret pictures Pretends to read Knows some letters and shows interest developing reader Stage 4: Thein print uses pictures to make meaning uses knowledge of sentence structure uses phonics combining words into phrases retells beginning, middle and ending of the story has basic sight word vocabulary begins to apply punctuation, read silently corrects self after making error

uses pictures to tell stories know some sounds (phonemes) knows that the print for English language runs from left to right Joins in with the teacher or reader when reading familiar books recognises some words, read familiar books with word patterns

Stage 3: The early reader


knows most letter sounds and names recognises some common words can retell an age-appropriate story uses pictures to make meaning read aloud when reading to self still reads word by word can read 70% of words correctly in a familiar text at their level

Stage 5: The early fluent reader


uses cueing systems and general knowledge to make meaning recognises most familiar words on sight uses punctuation to enhance comprehension begins to understand implied meaning demonstrates a developing knowledge of story read books with chapters that have smaller print read texts with longer, more complex sentences uses reference materials, with guidance

Stage 6: The independent reader

uses cueing system unconsciously, having integrated them into his or her general approach to new texts understands books with unfamiliar settings reads and understand implied meanings uses reference books independently

Outlines Of Reading Skills i) Word Identification Skills Stages Reading Skills Sight Word Vocabulary Beginning Reading Skills ability to recognise and read high frequency words ability to recognise and read words previously decoded Intermediate Reading Skills ability to read high frequency words rapidly ability to recognise and read power nouns common to social studies ability to recognize and read terms common to primary school science, mathematics ability to use all previously learned skills Advanced Reading Skills ability to use all previously learned skills automatically

Phonics

Structural Analysis

knowledge of letter names knowledge of common sounds which letters record (eg. b in boy) knowledge of plurals knowledge of common word parts (eg. inflectional endings) knowledge of compound words knowldge of contractions knowledge of rules of dividing syllables

ability to use all previously learned skills automatically

knowledge of hypernation ability to identify roots of words ability to modify roots by means of suffixes and prefixes ability to separate polysllabic words into syllables

ability to define new words by analysis and synthesis of roots and affixes ability to apply rules concerning syllabication and stress

Use Of Context

ability to use pictures or other graphics to guess pronounciation and meaning of words ability to use surrounding words to guess new words presented in phrases or sentences ability to respond correctly to cloze passages knowledge of alphabetical order (1-3 letters) ability to locate words using guide words ability to use dictionary entries for pronunciation and meaning

ability to define words from their use in passages ability to discover word meanings from pronunciation and syntactical clues knowledge of the principle of word connotation ability to use homonyms and homophones appropriately

Use Of Dictionary

ability to define words from their use in passages by using roots and affixes, word origins, defining definitions and explanations, using restatement and examples, means of categorisations, negative contrasts, figurative languages ability to alphabetise (by 4 or more letters, eg. grand, grandeur, grandiose, grandmother) ability to use a textbook glossary ability to locate information in an unabridged dictionary to identify word origins and history ability to use a variety of diacritical marking systems

ii)

Comprehension Skills Intermediate Reading Skills ability to identify main ideas or topic ability to locate significant details which support or explain main idea ability to identify sequence, locate information, solve problems through reading, make Advanced Reading Skills ability to identify the main idea or topic by verbalising or writing the topic of long passages like chapters, and literary symbols or themes from poetry, short novels ability to locate details and use them by taking notes and

Beginning Reading Skills ability to interpret pictures knowledge of word meanings knowledge of phrase, sentence and paragraph meanings ability to relate story facts to own experience ability to locate

answers to questions in text ability to identify simple cause/effect relationships ability to retell information in own words ability to summarize

inferences, draw conclusions use context to predict outcomes ability to categorise or classify words, concepts or events able to critically evaluate written material able to use reading tool for pleasure

organising them into outlines, highlighting with colour ability to sequence in chronological historical material and literary passages ability to locate information by skimming and scanning rapidly ability to solve problems through reding, eg. using literature ability to make inferences by using figurative languages ability to make summmary by discriminating relevant from irrelevant facts ability to categorise or classify words by translating information ability to critically evaluate written material

READING PROCESS Stage 1 : Pre-Reading As children prepare to read, they activate background knowledge, set purposes and plan for reading. Background knowledge means their prior personal or literary experiences. They also connect to thematic units, make predictions, do a picture walk or text walk to preview the text. At this stage, they read the title of a book, look at the contents page and index pages, read the sub-headings and chapter titles, read the short description of the contents and also look at the illustrations.

Stage 2 : Reading As they read, they use their knowledge of decoding and word identification, sight words, strategies, skills and vocabulary. They also apply knowledge of structure of text as they create meaning, and continue reading as long as what they are reading fits the meaning they are constructing. They read independently, with a partner, or using shared reading or guided reading, or listen to the text aloud. Apart from that, they read the illustrations, charts and diagrams, and then taking notes. Children usually read the entire text from beginning to end in one sitting, unless they are reading a longer chapter book. Stage 3 : Responding At this stage, readers respond to their reading and continue to negotiate meaning. 2 ways that children make tentative and exploratory comments immediately after reading; Writing in reading logs as children write and draw their thoughts and feelings about what they have read, they unravel their thinking, and elaborate on and clarify their responses Participating in Discussions children talk about stories with classmates in grand conversations, and share their personal responses and tell what they liked about the text. They also make connections between the text and other literature they have read. Teacher asks questions to determine childrens understanding of what they read.

Stage 4 : Exploring

Children go back into the text to examine it more analytically. The procedures for this stage are as the following; Rereading the Selection They think again about what they have read. They also deepen their comprehension and make further connections between the selection and their own lives or between the selection and other books they have read. Examining the authors craft Teachers plan exploring activities to focus childrens attention on the structure of text and the literary language that authors use. Children notice opposites in the story, use boards to sequence the events in the story and make story maps to highlight the plot, characters and other elements. Focusing on words and sentences Teachers and children add important words to word walls after reading and post these word walls in the classroom. Children make word posters and word clusters to highlight particular words, make word chains, word sorts, create semantic feature analysis charts to analyse related words and play word games. Teaching mini lessons Teachers introduce the topic and make connections between the topic and examples in the featured selections students have read.

Stage 5 : Applying

Readers extend their comprehension, reflect on their understanding, value the reading experience and connect with related books. Building on the initial and exploratory responses they made immediately after reading, children create projects, such as writing, role plays and drama.